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Revolutions That

Influenced The World

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Freedom
By Armed Rebellion

By Peaceful Means

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Enlightenment

Rational Thinking

Renaissance
Progress in Science

Enlightenment

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Freedom

Democracy

Enlightenment Ideas

Equality
Nationalism

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The American War of Independence

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James Ottis
Feb 5, 1725 May 23,
1783
Lawyer in Colonial
Massachusetts
"Taxation without
representation is
tyranny"

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No Taxation Without Representation

People Demanded

Need Representation in Govt.


It is Anti-People if no
Representation
No Taxation without
Representation

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Activity 1

List the 13 English


Colonies in N.
America

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13 English Colonies in N. America

Georgia
South Carolina
North Carolina
Virginia
Maryland
Delaware
Pennsylvania

New Jersey
Connecticut
Rhode Island
New York
Massachusetts
New Hampshire

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Mercantilism

Policy of British Merchants

Collecting Raw Materials


Selling their Products

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Mercantilist Law

British Ships for Carrying Goods


Products only be Exported to England
British Stamps for all Legal Papers
Meet the Expense of British Troops
Import Tax for Tea, Glass, Paper..

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Boston Tea Party

High Tax on Tea


16 December 1773
Threw 342 chests
of Tea into Sea
Boston Harbour

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Activity 2

How did the Laws Implemented by British


affected the People of the Colonies?

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Laws Implemented by British

Domestic Trade in
Colonies
Denial of Rights

Exploitation

Autocracy

Inflation

Restrictions & Taxes in Trade Spoiled Domestic Trade in


Colonies

Restrictions in Export
Meeting the Expense of British Troops
British Stamps for all Legal Papers
Restrictions in Export , Increase in Tax , Stamp Duty ,
Meeting the Expense of British Troops

Mercantilist Law was against the Rights & Liberty of the


People
Increase in Tax , Stamp Duty

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John Adams
Oct 30, 1735 July 4, 1826
2nd President of USA

Member of Continental Congress

The Revolution had been


effected even before the war
commenced. It was in the
minds &hearts of the People

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John Locke

29 Aug 1632 28 Oct 1704


Enlightenment Thinker
Father of Liberalism
Everyone has some
Fundamental Rights. No
Govt. has the right to
suspend them.

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Thomas Paine
Jan 29, 1737 June 8, 1809
Pamphlets Common Sense
& The American Crisis
There is something
absurd, in supposing a
continent be perpetually
governed by a foreign
power.
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Formation of United States of America


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st
1

Continental Congress
Delegates of the
Colonies met at
Philadelphia in 1774
against England

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nd
2

Continental Congress
At Philadelphia in
1775
George Washington
as the Commanderin-chief of the Army

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Thomas Jefferson
April 13 1743 July 4, 1826
3rd President of the US
Author of the Declaration of
Independence
Proponent of Democracy,
Republicanism, and Individual
Rights
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Benjamin Franklin
Jan 17,1706 Apr 17,1790
6th Governor of Pennsylvania
Major figure in the
American Enlightenment

One of the Founding


Fathers of the United
States.
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James Madison
March 16, 1751 June 28,
1836
4th President of the US
"Father of the Constitution"
in USA
Member of the Continental
Congress

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George Washington
Feb 22, 1732 -Dec 14,
1799
1st President of USA
Commander-in-Chief of
the Continental Army

One of the Founding


Fathers of the
United States.
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Declaration of American Independence

All are Equal


Everyone has Certain Rights
Rights Should be Secured
Govt. with the consent of
Governed
Right of the People to Abolish
Govt.

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Activity 3

Various Events that led to the Formation


of United States of America

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1776

Declaration of Independence by Continental


Congress

1781

End of War with England

1783

Treaty of Paris - Freedom to 13 Colonies


American Constitution
Formations of U.S.A.
George Washington as the 1st President of USA

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1775

2nd Continental Congress


George Washington as the Chief of Army
Thomas Paine Break the ties with Britain

Formation of U.S.A

1774

1st Continental Congress


Petition to the King of England
War with England

American Revolution influenced..

Motivation to later Struggles


Guided Human Rights Activities
Concept of Republican Govt.
1st Written Constitution
Concept of Federal System

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French Revolution

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Versailles Palace

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I am the State.

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Louis XV
After me, the Deluge.

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Mary Antoinette

If they cant eat


bread, let them eat
cake.

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System of Rule existed in France


Autocratic Rule
Rulers were Squanders
Rulers believed the Divinity of Rule
Not considered Basic Needs of the
People
People Led a Miserable Life

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Condition of the People

Hungry
Majority in Misery
Minority in Luxury
Social & Economic Inequality
3 Estates in the Society

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French Society

1st Estate
Clergy
(Pray)

2nd Estate
Nobles
(Fight)

3rd Estate

People (Pay)
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3 Estates
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Clergy
Nobility
Commoners

Land
Ownership

Taxation

Population

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Bourgeoisie

Part of the 3rd Estate, they


were the Middle Class of
France.
They were Bankers,
Merchants, Factory
Owners (Educated People)
Led the Revolution

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Activity 4

Analyse the
Chart and find
Answers for the
Question on P.15

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Answer

The 1st & 2nd Estates enjoyed higher social


status and led a luxurious life in France.
Majority of the People belong to 3rd Estate.
The 1st & 2nd Estates Exploited the common
man and accumulated Wealth.
The 3rd Estate desired a change in the System.

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Voltaire
Against Exploitation
of Clergy
Rational Thinking
Equality &
Humanism

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Rousseau
Importance of Freedom
Man is born free, but
everywhere he is in
chains.
People are the
sovereign.
Social Contract- Book
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Montesquieu
Democracy & Republic
Division of Power of Gov.
o Legislature
o Executive
o Judiciary

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Physiocrats
Economists

Philosophes

Freedom of
everyone to own
Property

Thinkers,
Scientists, Writers
Importance to
Reasoning &
Scientific Thought

Promoted Middle
Class

Compiled
Encyclopedia

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Ideologies of
American Revolution

French Revolution

Democracy

Democracy

Human Rights

Freedom

Against
Mercantilist Law

Rise of Middle
Class
Rational Thinking

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Causes of Financial Crisis in France

Luxurious life of Kings, Clergy, Lords


Frequent Wars
Drought & Crop Failure
Financial Aid to American Revolution

Louis XVI summoned States


General to levy new Taxes
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Louis XVI
His Grandfather Louis XIV
was the absolutist king.
He was Weak
He had so little control, he
called for the French
congress to fix problems

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1st

Estate

2nd

Estate

States
General
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3rd

Estate

Oath of Tennis Court


Estate wise Vote 1st & 2nd Estates
Individual Vote - 3rd Estate (Commons)
3rd Estate declared themselves as
National Assembly of France
Assembled in the nearby Tennis Court
Not to leave until the Constitution

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Oath of Tennis Court

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Liberty

Equality

Fraternity

French Revolution Slogan


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After Tennis Court Oath


1789
Fall of Bastille Prison
Jul 14
Beginning of Revolution
1789
Declaration of the Rights of
Aug 12
Man by National Assembly
1789
March to Versailles Palace
Oct
Give us Bread.
1792
France as a Republic by
Sept
National Convention
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Fall of Bastille

Symbol of Royal Power

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Declaration of the Rights


France created
their own
Declaration of
the Rights of
Man and
Citizen

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Bread Riots

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People were hungry;


the Country was
broke.
This picture is from
an all-woman bread
riot.
Marie Antoinette said
let them eat cake

Estates General meets


The part of the French
Congress
representing the 3rd
Estate left and
declared themselves
The Congress of
France.

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Execution of Louis XVI

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Guillotine

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Revolutionaries used Guillotine

Both the King and Queen


were beheaded
French Monarchy no more
In addition to the Royal
family, 17,000 people were
executed with the Guillotine.

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Activity 5

Analyse the
Chart and find
out the Impact
of French
Revolution

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Impact of French Revolution


Stimulated Later Revolutions
End of Feudalism in Europe
Nation is People, not mere Region
Concept of Sovereignty

Emergence of Nationalism
Growth of Middle Class
End od Autocratic Rule in Europe
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French Revolution & Tipu

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Declaration of Human Rights

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Reforms of Napoleon
Farmers became Owners of Land
Control over Clergy
Sinking Fund to avoid Public debt
Bank of France

Roads for Transportation


A new Code of Law
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End of Napoleon

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Activity 6

Examine the Reforms and Policies of


Napoleon and identify the ideologies of
French Revolution reflected in them by
completing the Table.

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The concepts of
French Revolution
Rise of the Middle
Class

Policies & Reforms of


Napoleon

Control over Clergy


Sinking Fund to avoid Public debt
Bank of France

Roads for Transportation


A new Code of Law

End of Feudalism

Farmers became Owners of Land


Control over Clergy
A new Code of Law

Nationalism

Bank of France

Roads for Transportation


A new Code of Law

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The Latin American


Revolution

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Pablo Neruda

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From the Poem we Conclude.

Resources were taken by the Colonies


People became Slaves
Colonial masters Exploited the Wealth &
Life of the People for their Pleasure

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Latin America & Football

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Discrimination towards Latin America


Took away Gold & Silver

Trade only with Spain


Control in Production
Insecurity in Mines
Enslaved the Natives in Plantation

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Activity 7

How the European Colonisation affected


the Latin American Countries.

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European Colonisation affected the Latin American Countries.

Destruction of the Native Culture


Introduction of European Lifestyle &
Culture
Racial Discrimination towards Colonies
Wealth of the People were Stolen
Control over Trade
People became Slaves

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Francisco Miranda

Jose De San Martin

Simon Bolivar
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Latin American Revolution was


not only for Political Liberation,
but also for the Life & Culture
of the People

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Countries Liberated from


Colonial Rule
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Mexico
Colombia
Venezuela
Ecuador
Peru
Brazil
Bolivia
Chile
Argentina

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RUSSIAN
REVOLUTION

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Maxim Gorky

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From the Novel we Conclude.

Workers are the basis of Production


Workers have no Rights
Workers were Exploited by Capitalists

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Demands of the Workers


Abolish the Private Property

Everyone has to Work


Authority to People & Workers
Production Control by People

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Activity 8

Find out the Circumstances for the Russian


Revolution

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Russian Revolution -Circumstances


Autocracy of Tsar
Tragic Life of Farmers & Workers
Low Agricultural Production
High Tax
Low Industrial Production
Foreign Involvement in Industry
Influence of Writers & Philosophers
Marxist Ideology
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Russian Revolution -Circumstances


Formation of Trade Unions
Influence of Political Leaders
Defeat of Russia in 1905 by Japan
After effects of 1st World War

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Leo Tolstoy

Anton Chekov

Ivan Turgenev
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Karl Marx

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Frederick Engles

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Marxist Ideology
Social Democratic Workers Party
Bolsheviks
(Majority)

Mensheviks
(Minority)

Lenin & Trotsky

Alexander Kerensky
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Alexander Kerensky

Trotsky

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The
Soviets

Duma

Major Events
February
Revolution

USSR

October
Revolution
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March at Petrograd by Workers


(1905 Jan 9)
Demanded Political Rights &
Economic Reform
March was Fired
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Workers
Organization
all over
Russia

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Legislative
Assembly

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Participation in 1st World


War by Nicholas II
Many were Killed
Food Shortage (1917)
Protest march in Petrograd
Soldiers joined with the Workers
Captured Petrograd
Nicholas II was thrown out
Provisional Govt. by Kerensky

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Vladimir Illych Ulyanov (Lenin)

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Demand of Bolsheviks
Withdrawal from World War
Distribute the Land to the Farmers
from Lords
Make Factories Public Property

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Lenin Opposed the Provisional Govt.


Demanded Power to the Soviets
Bolsheviks & Soviets Supported Lenin
Armed Rebellion against Pro. Govt.
Kerensky Fled from Russia
Bolsheviks attained Power
Lenin as the head of the Cabinet

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Effects of October Revolution


Withdrew from World War
Distributed the Land to the Farmers
from Lords
Factories, Banks, Transport &
Foreign Trade were brought under
Public ownership

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Activity 9

Compare February Revolution and October


Revolution

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February Revolution

October Revolution

Led by Mensheviks

Led by Bolsheviks

Not Withdrew from 1st


World War

Withdrew from 1st World


War

End of the Rule of Tsar

End of Menshevik Rule

Lords continued as Land


owners

Land was distributed to


Farmers

Less Importance to Public Factories, Banks etc


Ownership
under Public Ownership
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In 1924, a new Constitution came


and Union of Soviet Socialist
Republic (USSR) was formed

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CHINESE
REVOLUTION

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China Gained Profit By Export


No Import from Europe
British Imported Opium
Chinese Mentally Imbalanced
Weakened China Morally &
Economically

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Trade in China by Europeans


Not America
John Hey American State Secretary
Introduced it
Equal Rights & Opportunities for all
Countries in China.
China was divided into different Regions

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Boxer Rebellion

Manchu Dynasty in
favour of Foreigners
Secret Organization
in China Revolted
against it in 1900
Their Emblem
was Boxers Fist
It Stimulated the
Later Revolutions
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Revolution Under Sun Yat Sen


Nationalism
Expel Manchu Dynasty &
Imperial Powers

Democracy
Establish Democratic Rule

Dr. Sun Yat Sen


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Socialism
Control Capital & Equal
Land Distribution

Koumingtang Party

Chinese Communist Party


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Activity 10

List the Reforms by Sun Yat Sen in China

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Reforms by Sun Yat Sen

End of Monarchy & Manchu Dynasty


Republican Govt. by Kuomintang Party
Leader was Sun Yat Sen
Nationalism, Democracy, Socialism were the
Ideologies
Nullified the Unjust Treaties with Foreigners
Importance for Agriculture & Industry
Received Assistance from Russia
Chinese Communist Party was Formed
Kuomintang & Communists Co-operated

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Chiang Kei Shek o


o
o
o

o
o

He became the Head after


Sun Yat Sen
Military Autocracy in
China
No Co-operation with
Communists
Foreign Powers Came
back
Communists were brutally
Suppressed
Leadership of Mao Zedong

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National
Revolutionary Army

Red Army

Long March
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Revolution Under Mao Zedong

Circumstances
Unjust Treaties
with Foreigners
Non Co-operation
with Communists
Military Autocracy

Mau Ze Dong
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Revolution Under Mao Zedong

1934 Long March


Kiangsi to Yanan
Seized Agricultural Land from Lords
and given to Farmers
Covered 12000 Kms
Mao & Communist Party became the
Symbol of Struggle against Foreigners
1949 Peoples Republic of China
under Mao
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Activity 11

Compare the
the Table

Revolutions and Complete

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Revolutions

American

French

L. American Russian

Chinese

Period

1775-1783

1789

1800-1825

1911, 1949

Leaders

George Washington,
Thomas Jefferson,
Benjamin Franklin

Aims

Democracy, Freedom,
Liberation of Colonies

Ideologies Freedom

1917

Francisco Miranda, Lenin, Trotsky,


Simon Bolivar,
Kerensky
Jose De Martin

Sun Yat-Sen, Mao


Zedong

Against the
Exploitation of
King, Clergy, Lords

Freedom of Latin
America,
Protection for their
Culture

End of
Monarchy,
Domination of
Proletariat

Freedom from
Monarchy &
Foreign
Domination

Freedom, Equality,
Fraternity,
Rise of Middle Class

Influence of
American &
French Revolution

Socialism,
Communism

Socialism,
Communism

Thinkers

John Locke, Thomas


Paine

Voltaire, Rousseau,
Montesquieu

Karl Mark,
Engels & Writers

Impact

Liberation of Colonies,
Formation of USA,
Declaration of
Independence

End of Feudalism,
Freedom of Latin
Rise of Middle Class, America
Declaration of
Human Rights

Expansion of
Communism,
Formation of
USSR

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Peoples Republic
of China,
Expansion of
Communism

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Activities

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Michael Angelo M.A. MA (Phi.,His.)


HSA(Social Science)
St. Marys H.S. Palliport
mamichaelma@gmail.com
9746953695
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