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# Lecture 2

## Basic of mechanical and electrical control system

By

Note
Revise :
• Differential equation
• Partial fraction
2.0 Objective

## • Free body and block diagram

• Block diagram
• Obtain the differential equation
• Obtain Laplace transform of the differential equations
• Solve the resulting algebraic transform
• Mathematical modeling of physical system
RECAP

## implified block diagram of closed-loop control system

Compensator Process
or controller or plant

Input Output
Gc(s) Gp(s)
U(s) Y(s)
Sensor

H(s)

• Process or plant:
– System to be controlled including actuators and power amplifiers
• Sensor:
– Instrumentation that measures output and converts it to a signal
• Compensator or controller:
– System added to enhance performance of control loop
– Output or controlled variable is y(t) is the variable we wish to control
– Input is a measure of (but not always equal to) the desired system
output u(t)
– Error is desired output minus actual output: e(t)= y(t) - u(t)
test waveform

## •Refer to control engineering

system page 19
Types of input

100 100
Force, N

Force, N
50 50

0 t1 t2 t3 t4
0 t1 t2 t3 t4
Time, second
Time, second

100 100
Force, N

Force, N
50 50

0 t1 t2 t3 t4 0 t1 t2 t3
Time, second
Time, second
Two step input response
Ramp Input Response
Time Constant

## • It is defined as time taken by a control

plant to achieve output response
equal to 63% of its desired value.
Control System Response
• Time response
• Frequency response
• Transient response
• Undershoot
• Overshoot
• Settling time
Control system stability
• Damping factor
• Damping ratio
• Routh’s stability criteria
• Nyquist stability criteria
Control System Design Process
fig_01_11

## •Control engineering system page 16 fig_01_11

2.1 Introduction : Mathematical modeling
• In order to analyze and design a control system knowledge
of its behavior through mathematical terms is essential
• The mathematical equations are derived from law of
physics i.e Newton
• Analysis can be done in two operating condition: Steady
and Transient
• Change as a result of input or disturbance
• Output will depend on the system variables and how they
interact
• Description of dynamic system is obtain from differential
equation’
• models of the physical system
• Solutions of these mathematical equations simulate the
response of the physical system which they represent
2.2 Differential equation
• Input and output relationship of a linear measurement
system - ordinary differential equation (ODE):

dny d n −1 dy
an n
+a n −1 n−1
+ +a1 +a0 y
dt dt dt

## • u = input, y = output; u and y varies with t

• n>m and a, b = constant coefficients

## • DE contain variable and rate of change of or derivative of

the variable in control system
• Ordinary differential equation (ODE) are main concern in
control system , they contain singe dependent and
independent variable which is usually time
• The order DE relate to the index of the highest derivative
Example 2.1 : Spring mass balance damper

xi
xo Fs Fm
=
k m
FD

2
dxi dxo d xo
k ( xi − xo ) + c( − )=m 2
dt dt dt

2
d xo c d xo k c d xi k
2
+ + xo = + xi
dt m dt m m dt m
2.3 Physical system modeling
• To obtain linear approximation of physical
system Time response solution is obtain:
• Obtain the differential equation
• Obtain Laplace transform of the differential
equations
• Solve the resulting algebraic transform
2.3a. Laplace transform
Definition of Laplace transformation of
f(t): ∞ ∞
L[ f (t )] = F ( s ) = ∫ e −st dt [ f (t )] = ∫ f (t )e −st dt
0 0

## where s = σ + jω = a complex variable

– Inverse Laplace transformation
– f(t) = L-1[F(s)]
– L[Af(t)] = AL[f(t)]
– L[f1(t) + f2(t)] = L[f1(t)] + L[f2(t)]
f(t)

## For step input f(t) = 0 t < 0

t
– =At>0 ∞
F ( s ) = L[ f (t ) ] = L[ A] =∫ Ae −st dt
– Laplace transform: 0
A ∞ A
=− e−
st
=
s 0 s
Example 2
• Find the time response xo(t) for this system if step input xi(t)=1
and initial condition
c
xo(0)=0
k=1 d
x
c 0
c=1 d
t
k(xi-x0)
k

xi xo

• Differential equation:
dx0
• For k =1,c = 1; k ( xi − x0 ) − c =0
dt
• Laplace transform d
x
c o
+
kx o =k
x i
• Partial fraction
d
t
d x o
+ xo =xi
d t xo(t)

## • Inverse Laplace transform: 1

sX 0 ( s ) + X 0 ( s ) = 1

s
1 1
X o (s) = +
s (s + 1) t

x0 (t ) = 1 − e −t
•Control engineering system page 33

table_02_01

table_02_01
table_02_02

•Control engineering
table_02_02 system page 34
2.3b. Transfer Functions
• Defined as the ratio of the Laplace
Transform of the output to the Laplace
Transform of the input to the system
• G(s) = Y(s)/X(s)

• X(s) G(s)
Y(s)
Transfer Function
•The boundary, represented as a
• An assembly of linked "black box", may include a complex
system which need not be analysed if
components within a G is provided.
boundary. •More complex systems have
• The motor car is a good interconnecting links to related
systems.
example; mechanical, •A system must have input, process,
electrical, control and output, and in most systems a source
suspension sub-systems of power and a means of control.
within a body-chassis
boundary.
• A system may have one
input and a related output
dependent on the effect of
that system (transfer
function G).

θ 0 =Gθ I
Transfer Function Expression
Characteristics Equation

b1 S +b0
G (s) =
a 2 S +a1 S +a 0
2

Characteristics Equation
•Denominator of the transfer function equated to zero is the
characteristics equation of the system
•Characteristics equation of the system determines the
response of the control system

a2 S a1S + a0 = 0
2
Order of control systems
• Zero Order System
b1 s +b0
s 0 ( s 2 +a 1 s +a 2 )
b1 s +b0
• First Order System
s 1 ( s 2 +a 1 s +a 2 )
b1 s +
b0
• 2nd Order System s2 (s 2 +a1s+a2 )
(Source: Instrumentation and Control Systems by Leslie Jackson)
Poles and Zeros
• Roots of the Characteristics equation are called
poles of the system
Roots of numerator of the TF are called zeros of the
system
Example

2 s +4 s 2 +6 s + 5
1) 2)
s 2 +3s + 2 s 3 +6 s 2 +11 s + 6

## Ans (1) zeros =− 2, poles = −1, − 2 ;

( 2) zeros =−1;−5 ; poles =−1, − 2 , −3 ;
2.4 System modeling
Step for drawing block diagram:
• Step 1: Free body diagram
• Step 2: Mathematical equations
• Step 3: Block diagram
2.4a Mechanical system: Spring
• Spring
• Where k = stiffness, x= displacemnet

• Fs= Fx or
Fs x Fs
x k

## • Transfer function = k or 1/k

• Output variable = transfer function × input variable
• Spring with free at both ends x
1
k
x2

x1- x2
x1(t) k Fs(t)

+
• Block diagram Fs = k(x1 -– x2)
x (t) 2
4. Mechanical system: Mass
• Fm = ma Fm(t) x(t)
m

d 2x
Fm = m 2
dx

## • Use D-operator where: D = d/dt and D2 =d2/dt2

x(t)
Fm(t)

1
mD 2

• Fm = mD2x
Spring mass system
xo(t)
xi(t)
m

Equations:
• Fs = k(xi – x0)
• Since Fm = ma and Fs = Fm
• mD2x0(t) = Fs = k(xi – x0)kxi(t)xi(t)-xo(t)-+

xi(t) xi(t)-xo(t)
k
+
-

## • Block diagram for spring-mass system

Damper
• c = damping coeff.

• x = displacement

## • dx(t)/dt = velocity x(t) FD(t)

cD

• FD(t) = cdx(t)/dt

• FD(t) = cDx
Spring-damper system
xo(t)
xi(t)

## • Force on spring: Fs = k(xi – xo)

• Force on damper: FD = cDxo
xi(t) Fs=FD
k 1/cD
+
-

## Block diagram for spring-damper system

Spring-mass-damper system

Fm
Fs1 FD

∀ Σ F = ma
• Fs1 - FD = Fm
xi(t) Fs Fm 1 xo(t)
k 2
+
-
+
-
mD

FD cD
Spring Mass System
d2y
Accelerati ng Force =m
dt 2
dy
Damping Force = f
dt
Spring Force =ky

d2y dy
m 2
+f +ky = F ( Disturbing Force )
dt dt

( m s + fs + k ) Y ( s ) = F ( s )
2

Y ( s) 1
TF = G ( s ) = =
F ( s ) ms 2
+ f s +k
Example 2
fig_02_15
fig_02_15

## •Draw free body diagram

•Determine forces and direction i.e applied force to the right and impeding
forces to the left spring, viscous damper, acceleration

## •Write the differential equation

Contd
•Take la place transform
MS 2 (s ) +f sX
v (s )+ KX (s =
) F (s )

( MS 2
+f sv+K) X( s=
) F( s)
•Or

## •Solve for transfer function

•G(s)=X(s)/F(s) = 1/ ( MS 2 + f vs + K )
•Control engineering system page 60
fig_02_17

fig_02_17
fig_02_18

fig_02_18
fig_02_20

## •Refer to control engineering system page 63

fig_02_20
fig_02_21

fig_02_21
fig_02_22

fig_02_22
table_02_05

table_02_05
2.4b. Electrical system modeling
Electrical components: resistance R, capacitance C and inductance L
Variables: voltage V and current i
VR
+ -
• Resistor -> VR = iR
VL
+ -

+ -

## • Capacitance->i = CdV/dt = CDV

V1 V2
Circuit theory
• Series
+ V
V = V1 + V2
• Parallel
• V = V1 = V2 +
– i = i1 + i2 V1 V2 V
-
Example 3
• Vi = VL + VC + VR; VR = Vo
• + VL
VL = Ldi/dt = LDi VC

Vi Vo
• CdVC/dt = i; VC = i/CD
• Vo = iR
-

L1
C
Equations: VA

i1 = i2 + i3 + i1 +
Vi – VA = L1Di1
i2
VA = L2Di2 Vi i3
R
Vo
L2
i3 = (VA – Vo)CD
Vo = i3R - -

i3
-
Vi Vo
1 i1 i2
L2D
VA
CD R
Block diagram +
L1 D
+ + i3
- -

VA Vo

## •Use D-operator where D = d/dt and D2

Example
Summing the voltage around the loop ->
assuming zero initial condition

• Subtitute i(t)=dq(t)

## • Subtitute capacitor voltage charge

relationship Q(T)=CvC(t)

## • Take la place transform, ( LCs2 + RCs + 1)Cv =V ( s )

rearrange terms and simplify
vCs( ) 1/ LC
• Solve TF Vc(s)/V(s) =
vCs( ) R
s2 +
S+ L
1
C
L
R-L-C Circuit
di 1
L
dt
+Ri +
C ∫idt =ei

1
C ∫idt =e0

## Taking Laplace transform gives

1 1
L s I ( s ) +R I ( s ) I ( s ) =E i ( s )
C s

1 1
I ( s ) =E 0 ( s )
C s

1
T
F =
G ( s)=
LC s 2
+R
C s +
1

## TF of spring mass system and RLC circuit are mathematically

similar and will give identical response
•Solution for electrical can also be done through KVL, KCL,
• voltage divider, current divider

## •Refer to control engineering system page 45

Steps for electrical modeling
• Replace passive element value wit their
impedance
• Replace all source and time value with their
Laplace transform
• Assume transform current and current direction
is each loop
• Write KVL around each loop
• Solve simultaneous equation for the output
• Form the transfer function
fig_02_05

fig_02_05
fig_02_11

fig_02_11
2.3 Block diagram manipulation

## • Block diagram – can be simplified to

fewer blocks
• Block diagram transformation and
reduction –refer to table
• Output input relationship – transfer
function
Block diagram manipulation
Series block diagram reduction
θ θ θ
∀ θ 2 = F1(D)θ 1 ; θ 3 = F2(D)θ 2 F1(D) F (D)
1 2 2 3
∀ θ 3 = F1(D) F2(D)θ 1
θ θ
• Transfer function = θ 3 / θ 1 = F1(D) F2(D) F1(D)F2(D)
1 3

## Parallel block diagram reduction

θ 4=θ 2+θ 3 θ 1 θ 2 θ 4
F1(s)
θ 4 = F1(D)θ 1 + F2(D)θ 1 +
+

θ 3

## Transfer function = θ 4 / θ 1 = F1(D) + F2(D) θ θ

1
F1(D)+F2(D) 4
Closed loop block diagram
• The negative feedback:
Inpu E(s) Output
• E(s) = U(s) – B(s) = U(s) – H(s)Y(s) t +
G(s)

## • Y(s) = G(s)E(s) = G(s)[U(s) - H(s)Y(s)] -

B(s)
• Y(s)[1 + G(s)H(s)] = G(s)U(s) H(s)

Y (s) G( s)
= U Y
U (s) 1 + G (s) H (s) ( G ( s) (
s 1 + G(s) H (s) s
) )
Close-loop transfer function = (Forward transfer function)/(1+ Open-loop
transfer function)
Example
• Derive transfer function forx spring-mass k
i
xo
+
system
2
mD
-

 k 
x0 = xi − x0 
 mD 
2

x x
xo k i
k o
=
xi mD 2 + k mD 2 + k
Multiple-loop feedback control system
To eliminate G3(s)G4(s)H(s), move H2
behind G4(s)
Rule 4:

H2 H2 /G4

G4 G4

## G3G4H1 = positive feedback control system

Rule 6 – eliminate feedback loops

## •Eliminate inner loop containing H2/G4 and

G2 and G3G4/(1-G3G4H1)

## Reduce the loop containing H3

Revise your digital last semester digital electronics
Tutorial Exercises
• Define transfer function of a control
system.
• Define what is time constant.
• Describe the advantages of control and
automation
Home work
Chapter 2 : NISE Control ->