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Lecture 2

Basic of mechanical and electrical control system

By

Oladokun Sulaiman


Note
Revise :
• Differential equation
• Partial fraction
2.0 Objective

• Free body and block diagram


• Block diagram
• Obtain the differential equation
• Obtain Laplace transform of the differential equations
• Solve the resulting algebraic transform
• Mathematical modeling of physical system
RECAP

implified block diagram of closed-loop control system


Compensator Process
or controller or plant

Input Output
Gc(s) Gp(s)
U(s) Y(s)
Sensor

H(s)

• Process or plant:
– System to be controlled including actuators and power amplifiers
• Sensor:
– Instrumentation that measures output and converts it to a signal
• Compensator or controller:
– System added to enhance performance of control loop
– Output or controlled variable is y(t) is the variable we wish to control
– Input is a measure of (but not always equal to) the desired system
output u(t)
– Error is desired output minus actual output: e(t)= y(t) - u(t)
test waveform

•Refer to control engineering


system page 19
Types of input

100 100
Force, N

Force, N
50 50

0 t1 t2 t3 t4
0 t1 t2 t3 t4
Time, second
Time, second

100 100
Force, N

Force, N
50 50

0 t1 t2 t3 t4 0 t1 t2 t3
Time, second
Time, second
Two step input response
Ramp Input Response
Time Constant

• It is defined as time taken by a control


plant to achieve output response
equal to 63% of its desired value.
Control System Response
• Time response
• Frequency response
• Steady state response
• Transient response
• Undershoot
• Overshoot
• Settling time
Control system stability
• Damping factor
• Damping ratio
• Routh’s stability criteria
• Nyquist stability criteria
Control System Design Process
fig_01_11

•Control engineering system page 16 fig_01_11


2.1 Introduction : Mathematical modeling
• In order to analyze and design a control system knowledge
of its behavior through mathematical terms is essential
• The mathematical equations are derived from law of
physics i.e Newton
• Analysis can be done in two operating condition: Steady
and Transient
• Change as a result of input or disturbance
• Output will depend on the system variables and how they
interact
• Description of dynamic system is obtain from differential
equation’
• models of the physical system
• Solutions of these mathematical equations simulate the
response of the physical system which they represent
2.2 Differential equation
• Input and output relationship of a linear measurement
system - ordinary differential equation (ODE):

dny d n −1 dy
an n
+a n −1 n−1
+ +a1 +a0 y
dt dt dt

• u = input, y = output; u and y varies with t


• n>m and a, b = constant coefficients

• DE contain variable and rate of change of or derivative of


the variable in control system
• Ordinary differential equation (ODE) are main concern in
control system , they contain singe dependent and
independent variable which is usually time
• The order DE relate to the index of the highest derivative
Example 2.1 : Spring mass balance damper

xi
xo Fs Fm
=
k m
FD

2
dxi dxo d xo
k ( xi − xo ) + c( − )=m 2
dt dt dt

2
d xo c d xo k c d xi k
2
+ + xo = + xi
dt m dt m m dt m
2.3 Physical system modeling
• To obtain linear approximation of physical
system Time response solution is obtain:
• Obtain the differential equation
• Obtain Laplace transform of the differential
equations
• Solve the resulting algebraic transform
2.3a. Laplace transform
Definition of Laplace transformation of
f(t): ∞ ∞
L[ f (t )] = F ( s ) = ∫ e −st dt [ f (t )] = ∫ f (t )e −st dt
0 0

where s = σ + jω = a complex variable


– Inverse Laplace transformation
– f(t) = L-1[F(s)]
– L[Af(t)] = AL[f(t)]
– L[f1(t) + f2(t)] = L[f1(t)] + L[f2(t)]
f(t)

For step input f(t) = 0 t < 0


t
– =At>0 ∞
F ( s ) = L[ f (t ) ] = L[ A] =∫ Ae −st dt
– Laplace transform: 0
A ∞ A
=− e−
st
=
s 0 s
Example 2
• Find the time response xo(t) for this system if step input xi(t)=1
and initial condition
c
xo(0)=0
k=1 d
x
c 0
c=1 d
t
k(xi-x0)
k

xi xo

• Differential equation:
dx0
• For k =1,c = 1; k ( xi − x0 ) − c =0
dt
• Laplace transform d
x
c o
+
kx o =k
x i
• Partial fraction
d
t
d x o
+ xo =xi
d t xo(t)

• Inverse Laplace transform: 1


sX 0 ( s ) + X 0 ( s ) = 1

s
1 1
X o (s) = +
s (s + 1) t

x0 (t ) = 1 − e −t
Transient response Steady-state response
•Control engineering system page 33

table_02_01

table_02_01
table_02_02

•Control engineering
table_02_02 system page 34
2.3b. Transfer Functions
• Defined as the ratio of the Laplace
Transform of the output to the Laplace
Transform of the input to the system
• G(s) = Y(s)/X(s)

• X(s) G(s)
Y(s)
Transfer Function
•The boundary, represented as a
• An assembly of linked "black box", may include a complex
system which need not be analysed if
components within a G is provided.
boundary. •More complex systems have
• The motor car is a good interconnecting links to related
systems.
example; mechanical, •A system must have input, process,
electrical, control and output, and in most systems a source
suspension sub-systems of power and a means of control.
within a body-chassis
boundary.
• A system may have one
input and a related output
dependent on the effect of
that system (transfer
function G).

θ 0 =Gθ I
Transfer Function Expression
Characteristics Equation

b1 S +b0
G (s) =
a 2 S +a1 S +a 0
2

Characteristics Equation
•Denominator of the transfer function equated to zero is the
characteristics equation of the system
•Characteristics equation of the system determines the
response of the control system

a2 S a1S + a0 = 0
2
Order of control systems
• Zero Order System
b1 s +b0
s 0 ( s 2 +a 1 s +a 2 )
b1 s +b0
• First Order System
s 1 ( s 2 +a 1 s +a 2 )
b1 s +
b0
• 2nd Order System s2 (s 2 +a1s+a2 )
(Source: Instrumentation and Control Systems by Leslie Jackson)
Poles and Zeros
• Roots of the Characteristics equation are called
poles of the system
Roots of numerator of the TF are called zeros of the
system
Example

2 s +4 s 2 +6 s + 5
1) 2)
s 2 +3s + 2 s 3 +6 s 2 +11 s + 6

Ans (1) zeros =− 2, poles = −1, − 2 ;


( 2) zeros =−1;−5 ; poles =−1, − 2 , −3 ;
2.4 System modeling
Step for drawing block diagram:
• Step 1: Free body diagram
• Step 2: Mathematical equations
• Step 3: Block diagram
2.4a Mechanical system: Spring
• Spring
• Where k = stiffness, x= displacemnet

• Fs= Fx or
Fs x Fs
x k

• Transfer function = k or 1/k


• Output variable = transfer function × input variable
• Spring with free at both ends x
1
k
x2

x1- x2
x1(t) k Fs(t)

+
• Block diagram Fs = k(x1 -– x2)
x (t) 2
4. Mechanical system: Mass
• Fm = ma Fm(t) x(t)
m

• Force F acting on mass m


d 2x
Fm = m 2
dx

• Use D-operator where: D = d/dt and D2 =d2/dt2


x(t)
Fm(t)

1
mD 2

• Fm = mD2x
Spring mass system
xo(t)
xi(t)
m


Equations:
• Fs = k(xi – x0)
• Since Fm = ma and Fs = Fm
• mD2x0(t) = Fs = k(xi – x0)kxi(t)xi(t)-xo(t)-+

xi(t) xi(t)-xo(t)
k
+
-

• Block diagram for spring-mass system


Damper
• c = damping coeff.

• x = displacement

• dx(t)/dt = velocity x(t) FD(t)


cD

• FD(t) = cdx(t)/dt

• FD(t) = cDx
Spring-damper system
xo(t)
xi(t)

• Force on spring: Fs = k(xi – xo)


• Force on damper: FD = cDxo
xi(t) Fs=FD
k 1/cD
+
-

Block diagram for spring-damper system


Spring-mass-damper system

Fm
Fs1 FD

∀ Σ F = ma
• Fs1 - FD = Fm
xi(t) Fs Fm 1 xo(t)
k 2
+
-
+
-
mD

FD cD
Spring Mass System
d2y
Accelerati ng Force =m
dt 2
dy
Damping Force = f
dt
Spring Force =ky

d2y dy
m 2
+f +ky = F ( Disturbing Force )
dt dt

( m s + fs + k ) Y ( s ) = F ( s )
2

Y ( s) 1
TF = G ( s ) = =
F ( s ) ms 2
+ f s +k
Example 2
fig_02_15
fig_02_15

•Draw free body diagram


•Determine forces and direction i.e applied force to the right and impeding
forces to the left spring, viscous damper, acceleration

•Write the differential equation


Contd
•Take la place transform
MS 2 (s ) +f sX
v (s )+ KX (s =
) F (s )

( MS 2
+f sv+K) X( s=
) F( s)
•Or

•Solve for transfer function


•G(s)=X(s)/F(s) = 1/ ( MS 2 + f vs + K )
•Control engineering system page 60
fig_02_17

•Refer to control engineering system page 63

fig_02_17
fig_02_18

fig_02_18
fig_02_20

•Refer to control engineering system page 63

fig_02_20
fig_02_21

fig_02_21
fig_02_22

fig_02_22
table_02_05

table_02_05
2.4b. Electrical system modeling
Electrical components: resistance R, capacitance C and inductance L
Variables: voltage V and current i
VR
+ -
• Resistor -> VR = iR
VL
+ -

• Inductance -> VL = Ldi/dt = LDi i VC



+ -

• Capacitance->i = CdV/dt = CDV


V1 V2
Circuit theory
• Series
+ V
V = V1 + V2
• Parallel
• V = V1 = V2 +
– i = i1 + i2 V1 V2 V
-
Example 3
• Vi = VL + VC + VR; VR = Vo
• + VL
VL = Ldi/dt = LDi VC

Vi Vo
• CdVC/dt = i; VC = i/CD
• Vo = iR
-

L1
C
Equations: VA

i1 = i2 + i3 + i1 +
Vi – VA = L1Di1
i2
VA = L2Di2 Vi i3
R
Vo
L2
i3 = (VA – Vo)CD
Vo = i3R - -

i3
-
Vi Vo
1 i1 i2
L2D
VA
CD R
Block diagram +
L1 D
+ + i3
- -

VA Vo

•Use D-operator where D = d/dt and D2


Example
Summing the voltage around the loop ->
assuming zero initial condition

• Subtitute i(t)=dq(t)

• Subtitute capacitor voltage charge


relationship Q(T)=CvC(t)

• Take la place transform, ( LCs2 + RCs + 1)Cv =V ( s )


rearrange terms and simplify
vCs( ) 1/ LC
• Solve TF Vc(s)/V(s) =
vCs( ) R
s2 +
S+ L
1
C
L
R-L-C Circuit
di 1
L
dt
+Ri +
C ∫idt =ei

1
C ∫idt =e0

Taking Laplace transform gives

1 1
L s I ( s ) +R I ( s ) I ( s ) =E i ( s )
C s

1 1
I ( s ) =E 0 ( s )
C s

•Combining two equations from previous slide gives


1
T
F =
G ( s)=
LC s 2
+R
C s +
1

TF of spring mass system and RLC circuit are mathematically


similar and will give identical response
•Solution for electrical can also be done through KVL, KCL,
• voltage divider, current divider

•Refer to control engineering system page 45


Steps for electrical modeling
• Replace passive element value wit their
impedance
• Replace all source and time value with their
Laplace transform
• Assume transform current and current direction
is each loop
• Write KVL around each loop
• Solve simultaneous equation for the output
• Form the transfer function
fig_02_05

fig_02_05
fig_02_11

fig_02_11
2.3 Block diagram manipulation

• Block diagram – can be simplified to


fewer blocks
• Block diagram transformation and
reduction –refer to table
• Output input relationship – transfer
function
Block diagram manipulation
Series block diagram reduction
θ θ θ
∀ θ 2 = F1(D)θ 1 ; θ 3 = F2(D)θ 2 F1(D) F (D)
1 2 2 3
∀ θ 3 = F1(D) F2(D)θ 1
θ θ
• Transfer function = θ 3 / θ 1 = F1(D) F2(D) F1(D)F2(D)
1 3

Parallel block diagram reduction

θ 4=θ 2+θ 3 θ 1 θ 2 θ 4
F1(s)
θ 4 = F1(D)θ 1 + F2(D)θ 1 +
+

θ 4 = [F1(D) + F2(D)]θ 1 F2(s)


θ 3

Transfer function = θ 4 / θ 1 = F1(D) + F2(D) θ θ


1
F1(D)+F2(D) 4
Closed loop block diagram
• The negative feedback:
Inpu E(s) Output
• E(s) = U(s) – B(s) = U(s) – H(s)Y(s) t +
G(s)

• Y(s) = G(s)E(s) = G(s)[U(s) - H(s)Y(s)] -


B(s)
• Y(s)[1 + G(s)H(s)] = G(s)U(s) H(s)

Y (s) G( s)
= U Y
U (s) 1 + G (s) H (s) ( G ( s) (
s 1 + G(s) H (s) s
) )
Close-loop transfer function = (Forward transfer function)/(1+ Open-loop
transfer function)
Example
• Derive transfer function forx spring-mass k
i
xo
+
system
2
mD
-

 k 
x0 = xi − x0 
 mD 
2

x x
xo k i
k o
=
xi mD 2 + k mD 2 + k
Multiple-loop feedback control system
To eliminate G3(s)G4(s)H(s), move H2
behind G4(s)
Rule 4:

H2 H2 /G4

G4 G4

G3G4H1 = positive feedback control system


Rule 6 – eliminate feedback loops

•Eliminate inner loop containing H2/G4 and


G2 and G3G4/(1-G3G4H1)

Reduce the loop containing H3


Revise your digital last semester digital electronics
Tutorial Exercises
• Define transfer function of a control
system.
• Define what is time constant.
• Describe the advantages of control and
automation
Home work
Chapter 2 : NISE Control ->
• Answer all short questions
• Problem 7,9,10,16,17,20,28

• Due date January 7


Summary
• Free body and block diagram
• Block diagram
• Obtain the differential equation
• Obtain Laplace transform of the differential
equations
• Solve the resulting algebraic transform
• Mathematical modeling of physical system