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HIPOLITO B. STA. MARIA


COIVTENTS
Preface vii
Chapter
1 Basic Principles, Concepts and Defrnitions I
Mass, Werght, Specilc Volume and Density; Spe-
- Weight, Pressule,
cific Conservation of Mass.
2 Conservation of Energy Zg
Potential E_1ergy, Kiletic Energy, Internal Energy,
$eat, Work, Flow Work, Enthalpy, General EnergT
Equation.

3 , The Ideal Gas 87

Constant, Specific Heats of an tddal Gas.

4 Processes of Ideal Gas 5f


Isometric Process, Isobaric process, Isothermal
Process, Isentropic Process, polytropic do""sr.
5 Gas Cycles 81
Camot Cycle, Three-process Cycle.

6 Internal Combustion Engines gg


Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, Dual Combustion Cycle.
7 Gas Compressors ll5
Single-Stage Con pression, Twestage Compression,
Three-Stage Compression.

8 Brayton Cycle 16l


PREEACE
The purpose of this text is to present a simple yet rigorous
approach to the fundamentals of thermodynamics. The author
expects to help the engineering students in such a way that
learning would be easy and effective, and praetical enough for
workshop practice and understanding.

Chapters 1 and 2 present the development of the first la'ar


of thermodynamics, and energy analysis of ope:r systems
Jhapters 3 and 4 give a presentatign of equation of state and
;he processinvolvingideal gases. The second law of thermody-
namics andits applications to different thermodynamic cycles
are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6. Chapter ? deals with gas
compressors andits operation. Chapter 8 develops the Brayton
eycle which can be omitted if sufficient time is not available.

The author is grateful for the comments and suggestions


received from his colleagues at the University of Santo Tomas,
Faculty of Engineering.

The Author

vll
1 Basic Ppq"iples, Concepts
I and Definitions

Thermodynamics is that branch of the physical sciences


that treats of various phenomena of energ-Jr and the related
properties ofmatter, especially of the laws of transformation of
heat into other forrns of energy and vice versa.

Systems of Units
Newton's law states that 'the aceeleration of a particular
body is directly proportional to the resultantforce acting on it
and inversely proportional to its mass.o

hE, F= D8, k =+F


"- m k
k is a proportionality constant

Systenns of units where k is unity but not dimensionless:


cgs system: I dyne forcre accelerates 1 g mass at
1 cm,/s2
mks system: 1 newton force accelerates I kg mass at
I m./sz
fps system: 1 lb force accelerates 1 slug mass at l Nsz

l--t;]*ldyne I t -* i*l newton [T,,'*-l-'r,0"


/777r/7mrV /7furm,h n77v77v?rrvr
1 cm./s2 _+ 1m/s2 1&,/sz

t=r,4'cm-
-cyne.s" o=t#;p k=rw
Systems of units where k is not unity:
47

If the same word is used for both mass and force in a given
system, k is neither unity nor dimensionless.
r=f,a
1 Ib force acceierates a I lb mass at 32.L74 fVs2
1 g force accelerates a I g mass at 980.66 cm/s2 1 poundal = (1 lb_) (1 fVs2)
L kg force accelerates a 1 kg mass at 9.8066 m/s2 F is force in poundals
tr mass in pounds
,0, l- t ,. l-. u #
f-.,.-f* , t [-t u*. f-, nr'
a is acceleration in ftls2
d7mzm'V /72zv7m77 /7V7v77v77v7
32.L74 fVsz----+ 980.66 cm"/s2 -------> 9.8066 mlsz --'-+
[T**
l*
/7V7V7mV ',0,
k= rz.tllthP k = e80.66-*F k = e.80668#
L fVs2 --------+

Relation between kilogram force (kgr) and Newton (N) m


.U =r-8.
l(
ks .m
k=1k# k = e.8066
Ets" 1 pound = (1 slug) (1 fvsz); 1 slug = 1 lb"
-lr-
s2

F is force in pounds
Therefore, t
k# = e.8066
H# S
K
is -ass in slugs
1kg"= 9.8066 N a is acceleration in fl;/s2

Relation between pound psss (lb-) and slug Mass and lVeight

k=1# k= 32.r74ffi
The mass of a body is the absolute quantity of matter in it.
The weight o,f a body means the force of gravity F, on the
lrody.

Therefore, t*5& = 82.r74ffi


mFF"
L slug = 32.L74Lb
k =t=g-
where g = acceleration produced by force F*
Acceleration a = acceleration produced by another force F

A unit of force is one that produces unit acceleration in a AL or near the surface of the earth, k and g are numerically
body of unit mass. ,.r1rr:rl, so are m and F-
I poundal
I
I

:.._l
I
fvs2 --)
E
1(
Problcms:
l.Whatistheweightofa66-kg-manatstandardcondi- lb .ft
--'l- J
K s
S'= I,l ls-P- tu.ll+se.o#-l
tion?

Solution
=l 0.4e
Bo.b+ 'L ^"J
= 222.26 g,,,

m=66k9- I = 9.8066 m/s2


F"ok Fto.lF' t*tfufl
mo=-?-= = 1435.49 g-
Bosg_.- F "f*J
? = (o ro,r"er rtrJ = 1459.41 g,"
fz.rt- U|nu-r
2. The weight of an object is 50 lb. What is its mass at Total mass = mr + m2 + na + m4 + m5
standard condition? = 500 + 843.91 +222.26 + 1435.49 + 1459.41
= 446t.07 g^
Solution
(b) Total mass = 446L.0J g^
F, = 5o lbr g= 32.L74ftlsz = g.EB lb-
453.6
ils
r rb!rf- lb.rrl
Fo fztz+14s'j 9'83 ]!-o'
FK (t') Total mass - = 0.306 slug
* =d-= So lb_
32.174;ifis
32.L74 ft
P
4. Note that the gravity acceleration at equatorial sea level
3.Fivemassesinaregionwheretheaceelerationdueto rr s = 32.088 fpsz and that its variation is - 0.003 fps2 per 1000
grr"itv i. 30. 5 fVs2 are as follo**t m, is- 500 g of masq rq, y^eighs l't, :rscent. Find the height in miles above this point for which
(a)
[oo eim, weighs 15 poundals; mo weight-g.lli mu is 0'10 slug llr:, gravity acceleration becomes 30.504 fps2, (b) the weight of
;i *]',r. trnuf iu theiotal mass expressed (a) in grams, 16) in ,r lsivcn man is decreased by \Vo. (c) What is the weight of a 180
pounds, and (c) in slugs. I I r,,, rn an atop the 29,131-ft, Mt. Everest in Tibet, relative to this

por rr L'?
Solu,tion

in/ft) (2.54 cm/in) = 929'64 cmls2 ,\til tr tion


g = (30.5 fVsz) (12
(;r ) change in acceleration = 30.504 - 32.088 = * 1.584 fps2

F't [roo4frro.uuM g; p:; = 528,000 ft or


llcight, h = - I lP* fps' 100 miles
(a) mz = = = 843.91
- -T0008
0.003
e2e.64 +
4
+T
(b) F = 0.9b Fg Let Fg = weight of the man at sea level Specifrc Volume, Density and Specifrc Weight
-t .a
FF- The density p of any substance is its mass (not weight) per
-ag
____q
= unit volume.
I

h 0.95 F" F"


I
a =g rv
rl=D

a = 0.959 = (0.95) (32.088) = 30.484 fps2


The specific volume v is the volume of a unit mass.
-L 'Fg V1
g = 32.088 fps2 lt
----
mp
(30.484 - 32'088) fps'z= b34,6z0 ft or tOt.B miles
" --
t.,
_ o.oosTS;r The specificweightTof any substance is the force of gravity
-Tmorr on unit volume.

(c)
a
F
,vF
g= 8

Since the specific weight is to the local acceleration of


gravity as the density is to the standard acceleration,Tlg= pk,
29.1.31 ft
conversion is easily made;

Tk orY ='fr
P='g os
r_.6 F8
g = 32.088 fps2
At or near the surface of the earth, k and g are numerically
m = 1801b- r-
Ito
-1
1"1 {}l cqual, so are p and y
a = 32.088 fps' fpsz] = 32'001 fpsz
-
fTdriil [0'003 Problems

ma
tlso lb-l pz.oor&l r _^ ^^ lbr
,,
1. What is the specific weight of,water at standard condi.
o =T-= #=179.03 tion?
32.174F"1T"
Stilution
kg_
g = 9.8066 m/sz P = 1000 n5.

*_pg
I- E-- [*,SE**d = looo mo
kgF
e.8066ffi#
ry
2. Two Iiquids of different densities (p, = 1500 kg/m3,Pzi^ Pressure
500 kg/m3) are poured together into a 100-L tank, frlling it' If
the resulting density of the mixture is 800 kg/mt, frnd the The standard reference atmospheric pressure is 760 mm
respective quantities of liquids used. Also, find the weight of Hg or 29.92 in. Hg at 32"F, or 1"4.696 psia, or 1 atm.
the mixture; Iocal g = 9.675 mps2.
Measuring Pressure
Solution
1. By using manometers
mass of mixture, mm = pmvm = (800 kg/m3) (0'100 m3) = 80 kg I

(a) Absolute pressure is greater than atmospheric pres-


mt+m2=mm sure.
po
PrVt+PrV,=D- p = absolute pressure
I

1500 Vr + 500 q = 80 (r)


D Po = atmospheric pressure
'lt p" = gage pressure, the pres-
V, + V, = 0'100 Q) I ' sure due to the liquid
column h
solving equations (1) and (2) simultaneously p = Po+Pg
Vt = 0'03 mg
(b) Absolute pressure is less than atmospheric pressure
Ve = 0'07 m3

m, = P,Vr = (1500 kg/m3) (0.03 m3) = 45kg P=Po-P,


mr= prY2= (500 kglm3) (0.07 m3) = 35 kg The gage reading is called
vacuum pressum or the vacuum.
weight of mixture,

re-=x"=@ =?8.esksr I ll"y using pressure gages


e.8066*#
A Jrrt:ssure gage is a device for
rilr,,1||llr rt ng gage pressure,
'l'lrin picture shows the
rrr,vr.rn(.1)t, in one type ofpres-
!, I r r . l::ll{(', k nown as the single-
I rr lrr. p1i r13.. 'l'hc f'luid enters the
lnlrr, llrrrrrrglr t,lrc thrcnded
,
',,rur.r'lrorr. A$ t.hc prOssur:e Fig. 1 Pressure Gage

I
ry_
increases, the tube with an elliptical section tends to straighten, Solution
the end that is nearest the linkage toward the right. The link-
age causes the sector to rotate. The sector engages a small
pinion gear. The index hand moves with the pinion gear. The
whole mechanism is of course enclosed in a case, and a gpadu- pr=*#= FuuS
', kg-'4
["*S (30 m)
ated dial, from which the pressure is read, and is placed under ' N.sz
the index hand.
= b48,680 N/mz or b43.6g pps(gage)
(p=po+p")
+Pt Atmospheric Pressure

A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure.


,=O,P=Po)
-P, V

Absolutet Pressure (p=p"-pr)

(p=0,Pr=P")

Gage Pressure

po P=Po+Pg
I
--T---
ps
_ F" 1V yAh-
Pr=*-A-=:6l P.=Y\
Where ho = the height of column of liquid supportedby atmos-
P, = Tb, =ry'=* pheric pressure {

l)roblems
Problem
1. A vertical column of water will be supported to what
lrcight by standard atmospheric pressure.
A 30-m vertical column of fluid (density 1878 kg/ms) is
located where g = 9.65 mps2. Find the pressure at the base of the
column.

IO
Absolute Pressure
Solution
P=Th
At standard condition
yh"-* h = ho * hr, the height of column of liquid supported
-by absolute
\* = 62'4lblfts Po = 14'7 Psi pressure p.
If the liquid used in the barometer is mercury, the atmos-
T ..-rr ;-l
lu.z *l lt++'#l pheric pressure beconoes,
,t'= p,, - L----:n!-!_--!t"! = 33.9 ft
t; 62.4Y
-'- ft3 P" = THshs = (sp S)H, (T*) (h")

trg.ol
Thespecificgravity(*pg')ofasubstanceistheratioofthe Fz.+ H rL'" i',1
spccifrc weight of the substance to that of water'
1728H
^{
sps=T
po = 0.491 h" l4
is 9.5 kg/cm2. The}arometric
2, The pressure of a boiler
pressure of the atmosphere is 768mm of Hg. Find the absolute where ho = column of mercury in inches
p".*r,r"* in the boiler. (ME Board Problem - Oct' 1987)
then, ps = 0.491 n-
Solution h
Pg = 9'5 kg/cm3 ho = 768 mm Hg and, p =0.491 hP-=
ln."
At standard condition
l)roblems
T* = 1000 kdmt
l. A pressure gage regrsters 40 psig in a region where the
po = (ynr) (h") = (sp gr) nr(T*) (h") l,irrometer is 14.5 psia. Find the absolute pressure in psia, and
'rr kPa.
(13.6)
Fooo S to.?68 m)
_ 1.04 kg
Srilution
10.000
'm'
c!* cm-E

p = 14.5 + 40 = 54.5 psia

= po * p, = 1.04 + 9.5 = 10.54# t-t k-+'r newton [ , "[-ft, ,0,


/Tnvrnh /vTTvvmmiV
a= I m./sz a=1fUs2

l2
1T-
-t- Solution
E KgJ P.
lkgn = = 0.06853 slug (a)p = Po * Ps = 14.7 + 80 = 94.7 Psia

Pr=
ao Ps]L = S.A4atmospheres
1+ r,. t7 Psla
I':t. | --:-
= FS][tr'fl =8.28$ af,m

F,lbf
h = 9.92 in. Hg abs
a = 3.28 Nsz in.
lrg = 2o
P = 0.491 h
h"= Z9.tilt".
t = ff = (0.06863 slug)
[.za {l=
o.zzas tb, llth' -1f- p
=
(0.491) (9.92) = 4.87 psia
$.. J

1 newton = 0.2248Ib"
p8 = 4.7 psi vacuum
1.1b" = 4.4484 newtons
ps = (4.7 esi)
r o"_l
(1rb)
rl4
ln' =
F**H lrr.ut;] l:8e5;-s!
ln- P = 10 psia =32,407 Ps(gage)

114= osgs\
mo
(rl)
h = 29.92 + 15 = 44.92 in. Hg abs
h =15in.
= 375,780 Pa or 375.78 kPa

P, = 0'491 h,
2.Given the barometric pressure of L4.7 psia (2g.g2 in. Hg
abs), make these conversions:
(a) 80 psig to psia and to atmosphere, =[r"H F"!F*'H
(b) 20 in. Hg vacuum to in. Hg abg and to psia,
(c) 10 psia to psi vacuum and to Pa, = 50,780 Pa(gage)
(d) 15 in. Hg gage to psia, to torrs, and to pa.
(1 atmosphere = 760 torrs)

t4 15
.lF
I'empcraturc
It follows that,
1. Derive th. r.l:rtion between degrees Fahrenheit and de-
grees Centigrndo. (FlE Board euestion) 1Fo=1Po

100"c and
T212.F T lc.-1K"
tl
*uu *r". 2. Show that the specific heat ofa substance in Btu/(lb) (F")
1 ,r"" I0". is numerically equal to caV(g)(C").

Solution
t.F -32 _.= t"C-0
212 - n lbb: o

I r Btu
toF = t"C + 32 (lb) (r")
o

5( t.F Btu - cal


toC =
I - 32) -Ir-IEXD =IG'(E
, Absolute temperature is the temperature measured from
absolute zero. . Conservation of Mass
Absolute zero temperature is the temperature at which all 'l'lr. law of conservation of mass
molecular motion ceases. states rhat mass is inde-
,tr ttr.ltltl.e.
Absolute temperature will be denoted by T, thus 'l'lr,r. rluantity of fluid passing through a given section
is
,'r\ r'n t)y fne lOfmUla
TbR = t.F + 460, degtees Rankine
TK=t"C+z71,Kelvin
V=Au
Degrees Fahrenheit ("F) and degrees Centigrade ("C)
indi-
cate temperature reading (t). Fahrenheit degrees
iFJ) and -: VAu =Aup
III = i__
Centigrade degress (C") indicate tempertu"" or differ-
v v-
ence (At). "h"ogu
Wltcrc V = volume flow rate
180 Fb = 100 C"
A = cross sectional area ofthe stream
1p"-5g"
9
l) :, ilvcrage Speed
1 C. =!-1l,"
o rir ,., m:rss llow rutc
16
t7
F7--- \t
I
Applying the law of consewation of mass'
I
- - \- =-n;
=' *T-
4=ff =Erf,El a,E4zftz I
T
ArDrpr = \rtrPz 2. A 10-ft diameter by 15-ft height vertical tank is receiv- I
ing water (p = 62.1 lb/cu ft) at the rate of 300 gpm and is I
discharging through a 6-in ID line with a constant speed of 5 I
Problems

1.
as a
-
Two gaseous stre?ms enter a combining tube and leave
single mi*trrr". These data apply at the entrance section:
-fot
:j:rlil"ffJrr;,'frh'iisfilTil;1lo' I
6rr" gur, A'r= 75 in,z, o, = 590 fps,-vt] 10 ft3llb
For the other gas, A, = 59^i1''.:T, = 16'67 }b/s
P" = 0.12lb/ftg
At exit, u.. j 350 fPs, v, = 7 ftaAb'
Find (a) the speed u, at section 2, i- 'd
ft) the flow anii area at the exit section' I

Solution
rs,
f___ _ _]= t__
\
I l=:-:_-_*--l -l-,
I F'--=- -:-1J tiu'

e""" =-f, (10)2 = 78.54 ftz

tu'",=il'i,=ffi =4oorps
r\lirrur lr,,w rate enreri", =
[ffi] [rr
r
fi = z4so.\
(b)
. Aru,
-[.'9!d=2604+
--------r6Tt3- r\t,r'* tuwrateleavins=Aup=
mr = --vr =
? Bd'F.uo*J F +
ib

rh, = rh, + rh, = 26.04+ 16'6? = 42'?1+ = ru* S*


18
Mass change = (3658 - 2490.6) (15) = 17,511 lb (decreased) Review Problems
volume ch^nge = 17'51-l:-!b
= 282 ft' 1. What is the mass in grams and the weight in dynes and
62.1# in gram-force of 12 oz of salt? Local gis 9.65 m/s2 1 lb- = 16 oz.
Ans. 340.2 g-;328,300 dynes; 334.8 g,

= = 3'59 ft 2. A mass of 0"10 slug in space is subjected to an external


Decrcased in height ffi# vertical force of4 lb. Ifthe local gravity acceleration is g = 30.5
fps2 andiffriction effects are neglected, determine the accelera-
Water level after 15 min. = 7.5 - 3'59 = 3'91 ft tion of the mass if the external vertical force is acting (a)
upward and (b) downward
Ans. (a) 9.5 fps2; (b) 70.5 fps'?

3.The mass of a given airplane at sea level (g = 32.1 fps2)


is 10 tons. Find its mass in lb, slugs, and kg and its (gravita-
l.ional) weight in lb when it is travelling at a 50,000-ft elevation.
'l'he acceleration of gravity g decreases by 3.33 x 10-6 fpsz for
r,rrch foot of elevation.
Ans. 20,0001b-; 627.62 slugs; 19,850lbr

4. A lunar excursion module (LEM) weights 150[r kg, on


r.rrrth where g = 9.75 mps2. What will be its weight on the
rrrrrface of the moon where B. = 1.70 mpsz. On the surface of the
,noon, what will be the force in kg, and in newtons required to
',,'ttlerate the module at 10 mps2?
Ans. 261.5 kg; 1538.5 kgr; 15,087 N

systenis 0.311 slug, its density is 30


,l-r. The mass of a fluid
and is 31.90 fpsz. Find (a) the specific volume, (b) the
ll,/l'1,:r g
(c) the total volume.
"1,,'r'ific weight, and
Ans. (a) 0.0333 ft3Ab; (b) 29.75 lb/ft3; (c) 0.3335 ft3

{;. A cylindrical drum (2-ft diameter, 3-ft height) is filled


*'rllr :r tluid whose density is 40lb/ft3. Determine (a) the total
,,,lrrrno of fluid, (b) its total mass in pounds and slugs, (c) its
,'1r'r'rlit: volume, and(d) its specific weight where g = 31.90 fps2.
Ans. (a) 9.43 ft'; (b) 377.21b; 11.72 slugs; (c) 0.025 ft3l
lb; (d) 39.661b/ft3.
'i
A wuathcrman carried an aneroid barometer from the
! "t, l llrxrr to tris ofl'icc atop the Sears Towcr in Chicago. On
r ir

20 2l
the ground level, the barometer read 30.150 in. F,Ig absolute;
topside it read 28.607 in. Hg absolute. Assume that the average
atmosphdric air density was 0.075 lb/ft3 and estimate the
height of the building.
Ans. 1455 ft Consenration of Energy
8.A vacuum gauge mounted on a condenser reads 0.66 m
Hg.What is the absolute pressure in the condenser in kPa when
the atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa?
Ans. 13.28 kPa
Gravitational Potential Energy (P)
9. Convert the following readings of pressure to kPa abso-
lute, assuming that the barometer reads 760 mm ltrg: (a) 90 cm The gravitational potential energ:y of a body is its energy
Hg gage; (b) 40 cm Hgvacuum; (c) 100 psiS; (d) 8 in. Hg vpcuum, due to its position or elevation.
and (e) 76 in. Hg gage.
Ans. (a) 221..24 kPa; (b) 48 kPa; (c) ?90.83 kPa; (d) p=Fsz=ry
74.219 kPa; (e) 358.591 kPa

A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two P, =


10.
sections in a flow line. At section 1:A, =10 fLz,Dr= 100 fpm, v,
AP
=
P, - ff@r- zr)
= 4 ft3/lb. At section 2: Ar- 2ft2, pz = 0.201b/f13. Calculate (a)
the mass flow'rate and (b) the speed at section 2. AP = change in potential energy
Ans. (a) 15,000lb/h; (b) 10.42 fps
Datum.plane
11. If a pump discharges 75 gpm of water whose specifrc
weiglit is 61.5 lb/ft3 (g = 31.95 fpsz), frnd (a) the mass flow rate
in lb/min, and (b) and total time required to fill a vertical Kinetic EnergT (K)
cylinder tank 10 ft, in diameter and 12 ft high.
Ans. (a) 621.2lblmin, (b) 93.97 min The energy or stored capacity for performing work pos'
Hrls$edby a moving body, by virtue of its momentum is called
kinetic energy.

K=#
nK=4-K,=fttoi-ui)
AK = change in kinetic energy

23
22
qT

Internal EnergY (U' u) Flow lVork (Wr)

Internal energy is energy stored within a body or substance Flow work or flow energry is work done in pushing a fluid
by virtue of the r"ti.rity an-cl configuration of its molecules and across a boundary, usually into or out of uy*L-.
ol thu vibration of the atoms within the molecules' "
nrll lr'_
u = speci{ic internal energy (unit mass) Au = tlz - ul
13orr
;1=Area of Sur.face lVr=Fi=pAL

fJ = mu = total internal energy (m mass) AU = Uz - Ur Wr=PV

Work (W) l"ig. 3 FIow Worh" AW,=Wr,-Wrr=pr%-FrV,

work is the product of the displacement of the body and the AW, = change in llow work
component of the force in the direction of the displacement.
w,r.k is energy in transition; that is, it exists only when a force
is "moving through a distance." Ideat (e)
Work of a Nonflow SYstem lleal is energ'y in transit (on the move) from one booy or
'::1"11.1'ry1 to another solely because of a temperature difference
Cylinder ---. Final Position of Piston The work done as the I'r'l wr:err the bodies or systems"
piston moves from e to f is
u{-_.
,{,.-.
t) is poslfiue when heat is added to the body or system.
Piston
At ea = .zl
dW=F,d*=(pA)dL-pdv (l is negatiue when heat is rejected by the body or system.
'"**F I which is the area under the
curve e-f on the pV plane.
Therefore, the total work Classificati.on of Systems
done as the pistonmoves from
lto2is rI t A r'lrr.se d' system is one in which mass does not cross its
l,or r ntlaries.
' ' r .\ r | ( system is one in which mass crosses its bounda-
'r,t'n
w =Jlndv
which is the area under the
Cnnservation of Energy
nV curve 1-e-f-2.
Fig. 2 woRK ot EXPANSIoN.
|1,, l.riv ol r:orrservation of energy states Lhat energy ls
:. r.ti, I r r'rtlr.tl ttttt't/t,St,nlyeCl-
The area und.er the curue of the prrcess on the pV plnne
i l,, f u:,1 l;rw ol'l.lrr:r'modynarnics states that one fornt oI
rcpresents the work d'one during a nonflow reuersible process. :::i:':. , !tttt \. ltt. (..,ttIt('t.l((1. i.n.l.O U.nOthCf.

Work done by the system is positive (outflow of energy)


Work dnne on the system is negatiue (inflow of energy)

24
SteadY Flow EnergY Equation Problems

Characteristics
- of steady flow system' t. During a steady flow process, the pressure of the work-
i. There is neither accumulation nor diminution of mass ing substance drops from 200 to 20 psia, the speed incneases
from 200 to 1000 fps, the internal energy ofthe opeh system de.
within the sYstem'
2. There is neitier accumulation nor diminution of energy creases 25 Btu/lb, and the specific volume increases ftom I to
within the sYstem 8 ftsnb. No heat is transferred. Sketch an energy diagram.
3. The state of"the working substance at any point'in the Determine the work per lb. Is it done on or by the substance?
system remains constant' Determine the work in hp for 10lb per *io. (t hp = 42.4Btu/
min).

Solution

peia p, = 20 psia
pr = 200

Kl o, = 200 fps rlr = 1000 fps


Fig. 4 Energy Diagram of a Steady Flow System W,, n vr=lfts/lb vc=8 ffnb
Energy Entering System = Energy Leaving System II, 2 Au=-25Btu/lb Q=0
P, + K, + Wr, + U, + Q = Pa* Wl"+ U" + W
t-l Energy Diagtam
d=l"P+ak+l-wr+aU+W
,F, + K, + W' + U, + A,=Pr+ 4 + W* + U, + W
(SteadY Flow Energy Equation)
llrrnis I lb-
2

EnthalPY (H, h) lr"3 ] = o.8o


ffL
Enthalpy is a composite property applicable to all
fluids
and is defined bY
fi, ,lf = Offiimi=le.e?r+b
h=u+pv and H=mh=U+PV
The steady flow energy equation becomes
W,, l',v,
E*'ii,lE-Hl = sz,o2
Bfi
+K'+H'+Q-l;..?J*ril*
(20) (r44) (8)
llr V.l -*
778 = 2e.6rff
26 27
-T'r--
Kr+Wrr=Iq+W,r+Au+W
(a) Basis f lb'?n'

0.8 + 3?.02 = 19.9? + 29.61 -25 +W K,=S= ,Cffio,, =3'20ff!


w = 13.24
ff,0t, ,q =*= (1100)2 = Z+.t7 BJu
(z',) (778)
(32.174) rb-
t-
lr s24ffi["*il Wr, = PrVr =
(200) (144) (2.65)
--'-- #E
= 98.lC lb_
w: L-
= 3,12 hp 779
42.4(mi#)hp)
wrz= PzYz=A+#@=s+'z+ff
turbine bt 200
2. Steam is supplied to afully loaded 100-hp
and u'.=^19'0 fp*' K, + Wr, + ur + Q- IL + Wo + u, + W
ftsAb
priu *itft = 116'bT nl"/lb,"t, ::'1U
Exhaust
-=
"r at r prl" *ilrt * J ozs Btunb, Y,=-29! ft3Ab and
is
rioo fps. turbin is L0
tne heat loss from the steam in the ;t.20+ 98.10 + 1163.3 + (-10) =24.L7 + 54.42 + 925 + W
"glJu. enersy change and determine
il;;ipor""tiur (a) the
Fl{
*o"t p"" tU steam and (b) the steam flnw rate in lb/h' w= 251ff
Solution
(roo
r Eru-l
hp) P544lrr)
u, = L163.3 Btunb v, = 2'65 ftsnb trro)
(b) Steam flow =
+
r

p, = 200 psia 251 Btu = 1014

p, -l Psia u" = 925 Btunb vr= 294 fts/l.b --- E;


u, = 400 fPs u, = 1100 fps Q = -10 Btu/lb :t. An air compressor (an open system ) receives 272kgper
rr r r l of air at 99.29 kPa and a specific volume of 0.026 m3/kg. The

nr r" llrws steady through the compressor and is discharged at


frrllf l-r kPa and 0.0051 mslkg"The initial internal enerry of the
,r r rrr | 594 Jlkg; at discharge, the internal energy is 6241ilkg.
'l'lrr.<'rxrling water circulated around the cylindercanffis away
W=t00hp
.l:ul:t .f/kg of air. Thc change in kinetic energ"y is 896 J&g
rr{ n.nso. Sketch an enerry diagram. Compute the work.

/r+Kr+ Wr, + Ur + Q=/r+ Iq + Wo + U, + W

2B
29
Solution Solution
P, = 99.29 kPa
v, = 0.026 m3/kg
u, = L594 J/kg fr = 2270 k'elmin

r4
Q = -4383 Jlkg dr = 0.1524 m
h = 272 kg/min Pr = 82,740Pa
Pz = 689.5 kPa
wo vz = 0.0051 m3/hg
C q == 0.1016 m
p 1000 kg/mg

u2 uz= 6241J/kg Pz r 275,800 Pa


AK = 896 J&g
1
EnergY Diagrom
Area at entrance, A, = (0.1524F = 0.01824 mz
y'r*Kr+ W., + U, + Q=/r+ 4 + Wo + U, + W t
Basis 1kB- Area at exit, Ao =ftO.rOro)2, = 0.00810? mg

W,, :p lvr =
IIP€9.29
,![I
e 'm1.l F
).026 ol
KS
b-l
'l; l== 2.583 kJ&e 2270k9^
'J

rt0.00 H1r,r,if at entrance, Dr =- Pr-l= #


U* =2.074m1s
wn =pPzv
'zYz=
t- -
I 68e.'o mz
F
t_ lI
kl\i
L
mil
005 ,0il
,Ia-
m
;1 = 3.51.6lnl/kg [oootrl P'0t824 {
\w.
vflr
t*1 -1 +G u2-+ w
+Q= AK+'wlzf2z* uz m 2270160
= 4.667 mls
q4--4. 383 = 0.896i+333.516 6.24 1+W
;16-+ 6.2,
ilgxrcd at exit, D, =
m (1ooo) (o.oo81o7)
2.582 + 1. 594 '
llnHis 1 kg-
\{ = - 10.g6H
Q.orni]' N.m
w
t- to.se6gJ
- j_- kr-l l- _
Vzztry)
ke_l K, =;ik=

(4.667Y
Fffi = 2.151q;

2954* K -DE-
'" =D? = (zxit= to.gg T.-
ks-
\[I = -

4. A centifugal pump operating under steady flow condi'


tions delive rs 2,270 t glmin of water from an initial pressure of
t21o*'
i
82,740Patoa final p"essore of 2?5,800 Pa. The diameter of the
w ,, .,
l)'vr -l.
=E =;;E- = oL''*
82.24+,.rts
kgm
E inlet pipe to the pump is .15.24 cm and the diameter of the
ilischaree prpe is 10.16 cm. What is the work?
I
II 30 3l
IL
Basis 1kg,

m)
Pr=?= fs.eooof'(B = 0.0294 4
ks
'E-E
.TT.F
Kr+Wrr=Iq+\{Io+W
2

2.L5L + 82.74 = 10.89.+ 275.8 + W fm_l


.4_ L33.3g:l P
Kl= m- = 0.55a4 K
s

q=;i =1#f ,hI


[-,'"ffiE*H = s.o00E

kI
W= -4b8.1ffn -o.zey
a-
;F- = {).6eo5H

5. Aturbine operates under steadyflow conditions, recei Pr+Kr+hr+Q=%+4+ L+W


iag steqm at the following state: pnessure 1200 kPa,
tue 188"C, enthalpy 2785kJ/kg, speed 33.3 m/s and elevati Pr+Kr+hr+Q=4+\+W
3 m. The steam leaves the turbine at the following
pressure 20 kPa, enthalpy 25L2 klkg, speed 100 m/s 0,0!fg4 + 0.5544 + 2785+ ({.690b) = b.000 + 2bt2 + W
elevation 0 m. Heat is lost to the surioundings at the rate of 0.
hVs. If, the rate of steam flow throughthe turbine is 0.42
what is the power output of the turbine in kW? W = ZG?.gg
*_
Solution
w=, l:^- ^ hrl I- k;
zr=3m zz= 0m
roT.eEl 19.42fl
W = 112.52 kW
h. = 2?85
'
E
IKg 4=2512H

ur=33'3fl u, = 100*
'

l&I
Q = -O.29 s fi = 0:4#

32 88
T
In a steady flow apparatus, L3b lc.I of work is done by
Review Problems -6..
each kgof fluid. The specific volume of the fluid, p""*s.r"*, und
speed at the inlet are 0.37 mslkg, G00 kpa, and 16 m/s. The inlet
fric' is 32 m above the floor, and the discharge pipe is at floor level.
1. Assuming that there are no heat effects and no The discharge conditions are 0.62 ms/kg,-100 kpa, and 270
tionaleffects,nnatnekineticenerg]andspeedofaS220.lb m/s. The total heat loss between the inlet and discharge ie g
starr wfth the steady flow
;;d**; iiiar, 778 ft,from rest.which are inelevant'
kJlkg of fluid. In flowing through this apparatus, does the
a;;til, deleting energy terms
fPs l specific internal energy increase or decrease, and by how
Ans. 224
. - ? ,:"?l:.. rnuch?
' 2. A reciproc"ti"e di"pressor draws in 500 cubic feet per Ans. -20.01 kJ/kg
ft and discharges it
mir'rte of air whose density is 0.0?9 lb/cu 7. Steam enters a turbine stage with an enthalpy of 862g
*iiit au"sity of 0.304lUcu ft' At the suction' p, = LS.psia; at k.l/hg at 70 m/s and leaves the same stage with an entharpy of
"
ait"ftt"g", Pz = 80 psia' The increase
in the specific-internal
the air by :ltl46 kr&g and a velocity of L2a n/s. calculate the work done
enerm/ is gAS Btudb anrl the heat transferred from l,y the steam.
;ft ri et"nU. Determine the work on lhe air in Btu/min
; Ans. 776.8 kJ&e (ME Board Problem - Oct. 1996)
u"a irittp. Neglect change in kinetic energy'
Ans. 56.25 hP

Steem enters a turbine with an,enthalpy of 1292B,h,1|b


3.
*dl;;;;;h an enrhalpy of 1098 Btu/tb. The transferred
hp for a
heat is 13 Btu/lb. what is the work in Btrlmin and in
flow of 2 lb/sec?
Ans. 512.3 hP

A thermodynamic steady flow system receives^4'56


4.
p"" Li" n"ii where n1 1JBQ0 T?.Y'= 0'0ll-8:-]1
i.-= tii "i"
J", aod ,r, = 17.16 k nte' The fluid leaves the sys
ui u t"""aary wheie Pz = 551'6 kPa, v, = 0'193 m3/kg' o, =
;;ffi %. ="sz.eo uttfite
DurFs pasiage through tbe sv
inu nnid receives 3,000 J/s of heat. Determine the work'
Ans. -486 kJ/min

5. Air flows steadily at the rate of 0'5 kg/s through qn


compressor, entering at 7 mls speed, 100 kPa pressure l

0.95 m3/kg specific volume, and leaving at 5 m/s, 700 kPa,


0.1"9 m34rg. The internal energy of the air leaving is 90
greater t[an that of the air entering. Cooling water in
io*p""rror jackets absorbs heat from the air at the rate of
kW. Compute the work in kW.
Ans. -122 kW

lfl-r
it4
3 The rdeal Gas

An ideal,gas is ideal ronly in the sense that it conforns rc


llrc simple perfect gas laws.

Boyle's Law
lf' the temperature of a given quantity of gas is held
,,rr'l,irnt, the volume of the gas varies inversely with the
rrl*rolute pressure during a change of state.

l or V=9
V* pp
pV=C or prV, =prYz

Charles'Law
r I r lf' thc pressure on a particular quantity of gas is held
,,,*irt;rrrl., t,hon, with any change of state, the volume will vary
rlirr.r tly :rrr lhc absolute temperature.

V,."1 or V=CT
v (:
'r' ' or L-IL
q=q
r,:r ll
tlrr.volurnc of a particular quantity of gas is held
, r,1 1e | r r, wi th nny change of state, the pressure
.
;1 1, l | | rr. will vary
,f i* e' | !r' 1ri lli,' lrllsll utC te mpe ratUfe.

,tt
-7
used, the pressure was 200 psia and the temperature was 85oF,
P-T or P=CT (a) What proportion of the acetylene was used? (b) What

fr=c or volume would the used acetylene occufiy at L4.7 psia and fl0'F?
R for acetylene is 59.35 ft.lb/lb."R.
t=+,
Equation of State or Characteristic Equation of a Solution
Perfect Gas (a) Let frr= rlrBss of acetylene initialiy in the drum
Combining Boyle's and Charles' Iawg,
oz = ltrass of acetylene left in the drum
Be = rllass of acetylene used
Pr = 250 Psia

+=ry =c,aconstant Tr =90oF+460=550'R


Pz = 200 Psia
pV Tz =85oF+460=5451R
T =mR
dr,r* = ft
pV = mRT
volume of
ffiffi = 0.6545 cu

(25cD $44) (0.6545)


pv =RT ml= PrV, = (59.35) (550) = 0.7218Ib
(unit mass) RT,

where p = absolute pressure


o-E= (200,)=911)!9.6j45)
mz =
ifq'= (bgsb) "'""-- lb
(54b) = 0.b828 --
V = volume
v = specific volume
m = maSS
ms - ml mz= 0.72L8 - 0.5828 = 0.1390Ib
T = absolute temperature
R = specific gas constant or simply gas constant = 0'1e26 or re'26vo
Acetylene used =
#i = 3+#
V T R
tlr) p, = 14.7 psia
English units ft3 lb_ oR
'f.=80oF+460=540oR
}F
i
SI units N kg K m EltTr (b=e.Bit t5+01
m3
Vr= \roils$l
' (r4.7) = 2.'0b fr3
;t Pa
(L44\

:l 'l'lrc volume of a 6 x 12-ft tank is 339.3 cu ft. It contains


sir rrl psig and 85"F. How many l-cu ft drums can bc fillcd
'.1(X)

E Problems l' rru 1rrr1.f :rnd 80'F if it is assumed that the air temperasturtt
irr llrr' lrrrrh remains at 85"F? The drurns have been silting
1. A drum 6 in. in diameter and 40 in. long €*,iurrl rrr l.hu atmosphere which is at 14.7 psia anrl [t0"1"
acetylene at250 psia and 90"F. After some ofthe acetylene
I
3rl ;t 1)
-t
r
Solution Solution
Let Dr = IIlBss of air initially in the tank 20,000 kg
Dz = rnoss of air lelt in the tank
Ds = mas$ of air initially in the dmm
l
ha = rnsss of air in the drum after filling
I
I€t mr of air displaced by
Pr = 200 + 14.7 = 214.7 psia p, = 14.? psia I = "mass
the balloon
Tr = 85 + 460 = 545.R T, = 80 + aOO = b40R EH.
EH" = mass of Helium
Pz = 50 + 14.7 = 64.7 psia Po = 50 + 14.7 = 64.7 psia
Tr=8S+460=545oR Tn=80+460=540R v = volume of the balloon
+
For the tank
ms
(2L4.7)(r44) (33J.3)
[l= P,Vr
RT, = _*-(SmtGaSI = 360.9Ib. Itor the air
J
R = 287.08
(64;3),(l*t)=(?gie'3) E__
-z=
IDo R"S
RT, -= (53.34) (545t- = 108.? lb P, = 101,325 Pa
T,=21.t +273=294.iK
mass of air that can be used = 860.9
- 10g.? = 252.2Ib. p-V 101.32bV
For the drums
'nu=ili" = tffirl =l'2oolvkg
f','t lltt'heliUm
p.v. (t4.7) (r44) (1)
m3 = 'ff = 'GBiJAIGadf
= o'0735 lb
&r" = 2,077.67 #R
= 101,325Pa
"'o= Sf =ttf#[]l*}$i
P11"
=o'3235rb
T""=21.1 +278=Zg4.lK
mass of air put in each drum = 0.323b
- 0.0?gb = 0.25Ib
,,, _ Pn.v = _101,325 V
ffiT"" qOngZffim
rrrrl,,=
=0.1658Vkg
Numberof drums filled 2# = 1009
"p= fr,=DH,+20,000
3. It is planned to lift and move logs from almost inacces- 1.200f V =0.1658V +,20,000
sible forest qery by means of balloons. Helium at atmospheric
pressure (101-.325 kPa) and temperature 21.1oC is to be used 1
V = l9,BB7 mJ
in the balloons. What 6inims6 balloon diameter (assumo .l rf = 19,337
.l
spherical shape) will be required for a gross lifting force of 20
r = 16.6b m
metric tons?
d - 2(16.65) = 3B.B m
40
4l
G{
4. TVo vessels A and B of different sizes are connected by
solving equations L and 2 simultaneously
a pipe with a valve. Vessel A contains L42L of air at2,767.92
kPa, 93.33oC. Vessel B, of unknown volume, contains air at Vs = 110.4 liters
68.95 kPa,4.44"C. The valve is opened and, when the prcper-
ties have been determined, it is found that p- = 1378.96 kPa, Specifrc Heat
t- = 43.33'C. What is the volume of vessel B?
_ _The
specific heat of a substance is defined as the quantity
of heat required to change the temperature of unit mase
Solution through one degree.
In dimensional form,
For vessel A
c__*
Po= 2,767.92 kPa

Yn= L4?liters In differential quantities,

TA = 93'33 + 273= 366'33 K c^


e= ;ffif or dQ=mcdT
For vessel B
nrr<l for a particular masg m,
Ps = 68'95 kPa
a=* !'.ar
I
TB =4.44+273=277.44K
(The specific heat equation)
For the mixture
ll llrr: mean or instantaneous value of specific heat is used,
P- = 1378.96 kPa
K
Q= mc !'u,
l-
= mc (T, - T,)
T- = 43.33 + 273 = 316.33
(constant specific heat)
III,,,=IIIO*IIIU
I'orrnltnt Volume Specifrc Heat (c,)
p-v* p^V^ bY!
RT_ RTn* RTu

(13?8.e6)V (2767.s2) (yLD , 68.e5 VB


^ ^uI
I

Q"=aU
Volume
(1)
( lorrstant I

Qu = mcu (T2
4.36 V- = 1072.9 + 0.25 Vu
I
- Tr)
V-=142+Vn (2)
, ---l
a,
42 4:l
-y'r
Relation Between cn and c,
Constant Pressure Specifrc Heat (co)
Fromh =u+pvandpv=RT
mco (T, dh = d11+ RdT
Qn -Tr)
al codT = c"dT+RdT
Qn AU+W=AU+ -l\
pdv

Qn = AU+p(%-Vr) co -c,+R
= Ur-ur+pz%-prV, c" =Eh
g
Q, = I{-H'=AH
-B
^ -k-l
'p
Ratio of Specific lleats lfroblems

c 1. For a certain ideal gas R = 2b.8 {t.lb b..R and k - f.09


k=d:>r (r) What are the values of co and c,? (b) What
mass of this gag
worrld occupy a volume of l5 cu ft dt ZS psia and gO"F? (c) lfgO
Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas lll.rr are transferred to this gas at constant volume in (b), what
nrr. the resulting temperatur,e and pressure?
Joule's law states that "the change of internal energy of an
ideal gas is a function of only the temperature change." There.
fore, AU is given by the formula,
Htilution
AIJ = rtrc" (T2 _ Tr)

whether the volume remains constant or not.


""',, =
* = #ig = su.4z**" oro.aotffi

,. -% = T3# = 0.868#"
Enthalpy of an Ideal Gas

The change of enthalpy of an ideal gas is given by


ll,r V lScuft, p=75psia T=80+460=b40o3
formula,
-= ffi= -6ffi
pV _ (75) (1114) (rb)
=11'631b
AH = ECo (Tz - T1)
a

., t r r I tf n,c" (T, _ Tr)


Eiil whether the pressure remains constant or not.
'ilr I t.63 (0.3685) (T, _ 540)

tIt 44 4{t
E T
Tz = 547"R where:dQ = heat transferred at the temperature T
AS = total change ofentropy
Pz = Pr (Tuftr) = 75 (5471540) = ?6 Psia
as--fu
2. For a certain gas R =320 Jll<g. K and c, = 0.84 kJlkg. K"
(a) Find and k. (b) If 5 kg of this gas u4dergo a reversible non
co
flow oonstant pressure process from V, = 1.133 m3 and Pr = 690
kPa to a etate where tc = 555"C, find AU and AH.
as = -lftl ; mc hr _&
T1

Solutlon (constant specific heat)

kI 'l'emperature-Entropy Coordinates
(a) cp = c" + R = 0.84 + 0.32 = 1.16 IFF
dQ = TdS
k= &+1= cY f# + t ='t.3st
a2
Q = jTds
I
(b)r- pr[. (6901909[!.133)
'r -= mR - (5) (320)
= = 488.6 K 'The area under the curve
ofthe process on the TS plane
AU = rnc, (T, - T1) = 5 (0.84) (828 - 488.6) represents the quantity of
heat transfered during the
= 1425.51r.I process."

AH = trrcn (Ts - T1) = 5(1.16) (828 - 488.6)

= 1968.5 k I I lt lrr.r Enerry Relations


Entnopy (S, s)
12
Entropy is that property of a substance which -)VdP=W+AK
constant if no heat enters or leaves the substance, while it I
work or alters its volume, but which increases or dimini (Reversiblesteadyflow,AP= 0)
should a small amount of heat enter or leave.
"The area behind the
The change of entropy of a substance receiving (or deli curve ofthe process on the pV
ing) heatis defined by planes represents the work
-2 ofa steady flow process when
AK * 0, or it represents AK
dS= F or As =JF
I when W' = 0."

46 47
-{
Any process that can be made to go in the reverse direction
by aninfinitesimal change in the conditions is called a nrersible
Review Problems
process.
Any process that is not reversible is irreversible. 1. An automobile tire is inflated to g2 psig pressurs at
60"F. Alter being driven the temperature rise to
zb"F. Deter-
mine the final gage pressure assuming the volume remaina
constant.
Ans. 84.29 psig (EE Board problem)
2. If 100 fts ofatJnospheric air at zero Fahrenheit tenpera-
lrlrj"" compressed to a volume of 1 fts at a temperaiuoe or
?00oF, what will be the pressure of the air in psi? -
Ans. 2109 psia (EE Board problem)
3. A 10-ft3 tank co-ntains gas at a pressure of b00 psia,
l.rnperature of 8b"F and a weight of 2b pounds. A part
oithe gas
w^s discharged and the temperature ind p""**"
.t to
70"F and 300 psia, respectively. Heat was applied "og"d
and the
I.rnperature was back to 8b"F. Find the nnd weight.
volume,
nrrrl pressure of the gas.
Ans. 1b.48 lb; 10 fts;808.b psia (EE Board problem)
4. Four hundred cubic centimeters of a gas at ?40 mm Hg
alr"lut'e and 18oc undergoes a proc€ss uotit ttre pr?ssune
lp.rmes 760 mm Hg absolute andihe temperature 0"c.
what
tr l,hc final volume of the gas?
Ans. 36b cc (EE Board problem)
fi. A motorist equips his automobile tireswith a relief-tlpe
that_the pressure inside the tire never will exceed 240
uo
::]u,:(sage).
ll'^ He starts
1tlp wilh a pressru€ of 200 kpa (gage)
e.rrrl rr uemperature of 2B"c in the tires. During
the long drive,
lf*r l.mperature of the air in the tires reaches-g8"c. nich
xrrrlrrins 0.11 kg of air. Determine (a) the mass
tire
of air escaping
eer lr l.ire, (b)
lhe pressure of the tire when tfre tempe""t"""
relrrr.rrH to 28"C.
ArrH (a) 0.006,1kS; ft) 192.48 kpa (gage)

{i A 6-m3 tank contains helium at 400 K and is


F,nr rrl,mospheric pressure to a pressure of 240evacuated
mm Hg
te, urrrn. I)etermine (a) mass of helium remaining
in the tank;
fkf rrrrrHs of helium pumped out, (c) tfre tempei*ui"
of tfr"
l€*r'rrrr^g helium falls to 10"C. What is the pi*u*rr"" in kpa?
48
49
Ans. (a) 0.01925 ke; ft) 0.7L23 ks; (c) 1.886 kPa

.
An automobile tire contains 3730 cu in. of air at 32 psig
7
and 80"F. (a) What mass of air is in the tire? ft) In operation,
Processes of Ideal Gases
the air temperature increases to 145''c .If the tire is inflexible,
what is the resulting percentage increase in gage pressure? 4
(c) What mass of the 145"F air must be bled off to reduce the
pressure back to its original value?
- Ans. (a) 0.5041 Ib; (b) 17'53Vo; (c) 0'0542lb

8.
A spherical balloon is 40 f,t in diameter and surrou
Constant Volume process
by zrir at 60"F and29.92in Hg abs. (a) If the balloon is filled
hydrogen at a temperature of 70"F and atmospheric pressure' An isometric process is a reversible constant volume proc-
what iotal load can it lift? (b) If it contains helium instead of .gs- A constant volume process may be reversible or irreiers-
hydrogen, other conditions remaining the same, what load can rlrle.
itlift? (c) Helium is nearly twice as heavy as hydrogen. Does it
have half the lifting force? R for hydrogen is 766.54 and for
helium is 386.04 ft.lb/lb."R.
Ans. (a) 2381 lb; (b) 2209 lb 2T
I
A reservoir contains 2.83 cu m of carbon monoxide
9.
T_
I

6895 kPa and 23.6"C. An evacuated tank is filled from I I


reservoir to a pressure of 3497 kPa and a temperature Pz
Lz.4}C,while tfe pressure in the reservoir decreases to 62
I

kPa and the temperature to 18.3"C. What is the volume of 'l


tank? R for CO is 296'.92 J/kg.K".
Ans. 0.451 m3

initially at 15 psia and 2 cu ft undergoes a


10. A gas
Hl
F-_sz
to 90 psia and 0.60 cu ft, during which the enthalpy in Fig. 5. Isometric Process
by 15.5 Btu; c" =2.44Btunb. R". Determine (a) AU, (b) cn,
(c) R.
Ans. (a) 11.06 Btu; (b) 3.42 Btunb.R'; (c) 762.4ft.lVlb.
(;r) Relation between p and T.
11. For a certain gas, R = 0.277 kJ/kg.Kandk= 1'
(a) What are the value of co and c,? ft) What mass of Tt Pz
;fr- =-
gas would occupy a volurire 6t O.+ZS cu m at517.l'l kPa It Pr
26.7'C? (c) If 31.65 kJ are transferred to this gas at
volume in (b), what are the resulting temperature and (b) Nonflow work.
sure? ,'2
Ans. (a) A.7214 and 0.994 kJ/kg.R"; (b> 2'M7 W.=JpdV=0
(c) 43.27"C, 545.75 kPa

50 5l
For reversible nonflow, Wn = 0'
(c) The change of internal energy' For irreversible nonflow, Wo + 0'
W = nonflow work
6{J = rtr'c" (T2 - Tr) !d = steadY flow work
(d) The heat transfened'
(Tz - Tr)
l': oblemg
Q = Itrc'
l.TencuftofairatS00psiaand400.Fiscooledtol40"F (b) the
(e) The change of enthalPY' *t <.onstant rroto*". Wnat are (a) the( final pressure, heat'
d) the' tralsferred
wo rh, (c) the change of internal energy'
6tl = mco (T2 - T1)
i,,, ,.r," .frurrg" of ana (0 ihe change of entropy?
"oittatpy,
Hululion
(0 The change of entroPY'
ll
I i0 cu ft
lS = mc"h
ft V

V
I Pr 300 psia
volume' Tr 400+ 460= 860'R
(g) Reversible steady flow constant T2 140+460=600"R
ta) ( =16+AK+AWr+W"+AP 2
v
W"=-(AWr+AK+AP)
W"=-AWr=V(Pr-Pr)
t z-- += Ag#q = 2oe psia
(AP=0'AK-0)
/2 llr) W=0
&)- -llVdP=W"+lK
Ir l##li6?#) =g'4?tb
"' = S'=
I

-V(Pz-Pr)=W"+AK
v(Pr-Pr)=W"+AK ,\lI= mC"(Tr-Tr)
v(Pr-P')=w" . (s.4L7) (0.1?14) (600 - 860)

166 = 0) -420 Btu


volume process'
(h) Ireversible nonflow constant r,tr (,f mc" (T, - Tr) = -420 Btu

Q=AU+W"
53
Tr=60+273= 333K
(e) AH = mcn (T, - Tr)
(a) ,p _ T,p, gPS652
= (9.417) (0.24) (600 - 860) '2 = DOI.O = 999 K
Pr
= -588 Btu (b)"vv - R 377 =1b0g-J==
k-l =
- 7.25-1- kg.K"
(0
os = -...1o
' lr $ AU= mc, (T, Tr)
-
= (e.4tz) (0.1?14) t" 333
= (1.36) (1.508) (999 - 333)

= 1366 kJ
= -0.581H W"=Q-AU=105.5-1366

= -1260.5 kJ
2. There are 1.36 kg of gas, for which R= 377 J/kg'k a
k = 1.25, that undergo a nonflow constant volume process (")
ls l"
= mculn Tr = (1.36) (1.508)
q99
l" i=g
pr = 551.6 kPa and t, = 6OC to p, = 1655 kPa. During the proc
tlie gas is internally stirred and there are also added 105'5
of heat. Determine (a) tr, (b) the workinput and (c) the =2.2ffiY
ofentropy.

Solution :t. A group of 50 persons attended a secret meeting irr rr


,,u,rrr which is 12 meters wide by 10 meters long and a ce ilirrll
ill ,l rneters. The room is completely sealed off and insulrtl'r'rl
k = 1.25 l,lirr.lr Jrerson gives off 150 kcal per hour of heat and occultit'r, rr
vnl11111o of 0.2 cubiC meter. The room has an initial presstrrc ol'
2 lo t tt hPa and temperature of 16"c. calculate the roortt lcrrr
R= 377 Jlke.k
// 1u r ;rlrrre after l0 minutes. (ME Board Problem - April
ll)f't4 )

/ m= 1.36 kg
lit,l rr lion
Q = 105.5 kJ
z rl z
Pr = 551.6 kPa ll/Pr
ll/
= 101"3 kPa

Pz = L655 kPa ll/r,


I l','
= 16 + 27:f . ',tt{lf l(

L
Vg
lrlr
t-r4
W= (-1 hp) (h) =r(-lhp) (0.74G kWhp) (h) (8600 n/lr
= 0.1714# = 0.r7r4ffi
c, = 0.1?14
#. = -2685.6 k I
r

Q = (50 persons) (150 kcaVperson.hour) = 7500 kcal/h


a = AU+W
volume of room = (L2) (10) (3) = 360 m3 AU = Q - W = -850 (-2685.6) = 1835.6 kI
-
volume of air, V = 360 - (0.2) (50) = 350 m3 AU = mc" (AT)

-4 =(0.28708)
. = RT,
mass of air, m ,(191,31(l5ol
(289) = 427.34kg AT = -AU.
DC"=
rffi5.6 kJ
(22.7 kS) @.t87 kJ/kg.C") = 19.3 C"

a = Ll-ruooealt-l9
h llliO hl
I = rzsok.ul 5. A closed constant-vorum,e system receives r0.5 lr.I of
lrrrddle work. The system.coSt-ains o*yg"r, at B44kpa, 2?g K,
a = mc,T2-Tr) rr.d occupies 0.0G cu m. Find the t eat (gain or loss)
#e nnat f
k.mperature is 400 K. Gn Board problem _ April
1250 = (427.34> (0.1714) (T, 289) lg, l"ggg)
-
Solution
T, = 306'1 K

tz = 33.1"C 2T
I

:1 = 0.6SgS kJ(kc) (K)


I

4. A l-hp stirring motor is applied to a tank contai


t lt
22.7 kg of water. The stirring action is applied for I hour = 2b9.90 J(ks) (K)
p, = _344 kPa Tr = 278 K
the tank loses 850 kJ/h of heat. Calculate the rise in I
V-0.06ms
ture of the tank after I hour, assuming that the process 1 ,/ Tz=400X
at constant volume and that c" for water is 4.187 kJ/(kg) ( vs
Solution
p,v _ (344) (0.06) -
q =
id:t500n?s) = 0'2857 ke
_

-l
'l
c.

,\lr mc" (T, Tr)


-
Q.2857) (0.6595) (400 - 278)
I
I / 22.99 kJ
l
Vs AU+W
Irreversible Constant Volume Process
22.99 + (*r0.5)

a= (-850 kJ/h) (1 h) = -€50 kJ t2.49 kJ

56 fr7
Isobaric Process (g) Steady flow isobaric.
-
An isobaric process is an internally reversible prccess of (a)Q=AP+AK+AH+W'
substance during which the pressure remains constant.
W =-(AK+Ap)
W" = -aK
(AP = 3;

N\
\s\:i\
(b) -
.2
JVdp = W + aK
I
0=W"+AK
W" = -aK
Fig.6. Isohric Process l'roblems

A certain gas, with c, = 0.b29 Btu/lb.R" and R 96.2 ft.lV


(a) Relation between V and T. .lh."R,
l. expands =
from b cu ft and
g0"Fto 15 cu ft while the
Tz Vz trrcsgutre remains constant at lb.b psia. Compute (a) T", (b) AH,
Tr=vi (r') AU and (d) AS. (e) For an internally
reversible'nonflow
f r'ocess, what is the work?
(b) Nonflow work.
t2 Solution
W" = F(V2 - Vr)
{,ndV
(c) The change of internal energ:y. T 2
AIJ = rDC" (T2 - Tr) / p= 15.5 psia
l __>_2 / V, = 5cuft
(d) The heat transferred.
,/ %= l5cuft
Q = mcn (T, -Tr) T, = 80+460=540"R
(e) The change ofenthalpy. vc
AH = rlc, (T, - Tr)
,^)'r', =1:,= g+lP =r620R
(f) The change ofentropy. .

aS = mcohfr
'r'\,, =
ffi i##ffif) =o.2r48rb

58
51)
= mce(Tz _ Tr)
2. A perfect eas a
= (0.2148) (0.529) (1620_ r.2G. If 120 kJ *" \1s value of R = 319 .2 Jlkg.lfurrrtt lt
540) iaggJ-fi;ik;
c''r.rlrrrrl of this gas ar
= 122.7 Btu ,fiTre):f: jli.i?Ttlmrnlm{:m1t,'i,i,t?,,,,,
(c' c" co-R=
(n\ Solution
= 0.b29-W=0.40ss#S
AU= mc, (T2 _ Tr)

= (0.214s) (0.40$;(1620 _ b4o)


k = 1.26
m = 2.27 kg
= 94 Btu R = 319.2 J&g.K
a = f20 kW
Tr = 32.2 + ZZg
(d) - BO5.Z K
os = mcorn
ftI
= (0.2148) (0.52e) h
ffi (a) co
= * -(1.2gxo.a1e2)= t.b46e f{_
kg.Ku
Btu
= 0.1249 oR a = mco (T, - T,)
r20 = (2.27) (r.b469) (T, _ g05.2)
(e) \= p(% - v,) Ta = s39.4 K
(r5.5) (144) (15 - 5)
778
(b) aH= mco (T2 _ Tr) l20 kI
=
(c) cv
= 28.7 Btu =
h=ffit$ =r.22??#h
AU- mc, (T, - Tr)
(2.27) (r.2277)(33e.4 _
305.2)
= 95.3 kJ

' plg,_
(d) W = p(%- V,) = -ITl =mR(Tr*T,)
^LP, --tri]
= (2.22) (0.8192) (Js9.4 _ g0s.z)

= Z4.Zg kJ
-Fr Isothermal process G) Steady flow isothermal.
isothermal process is an internally reversible (a)Q = Ap+AK+AH+W
temperature process of a substance. constant

w"=e-Ap-AK
W"=Q
(AP-0,4K=0)
.2
ft) - JVdp = W + aK
'i!:{t From pV = C, pdV +
Vdp -_ 0, dp = -
pdv
-v-
F-o'-{
Fig. Z. Isothermal process -,!'uoo=-l;,i
I #l =
I
/2
j oou

(a) Retation between p and V. P'\1n -w


PrVr = Pz% W"=W"
ft) Nonflow work. (AK = 6;
)2
f2
w" = Jpav=l$Y= Cln5= n,v,rr * f 'r'olrlcms
r {v vr ' v,
I l)uring an isothermal process ggoF,
(c) The change of internal energy. at
rr tt, .t''ir drops fr.om g0 p.i" tol
the pressurc orr
For
*r,,r.11;i[lls process, gsic.
AU=9
i,,,i1ll1v1y process, (b)_d:,tennile fal
lfru ipaV and the work of a "rilJ"lr",,
(d) The heat transfenred. the-_ JVdp;ndllie *o"k of
a steady llow
f 'r , !,
'.,,:, rluring which AK = 0, ("i e, iai aU il;fi,;liii
oS.
Q= N + W" = p,Vrln *=r -nrrn&
(e) The change of enthalpy. Y
Pz
r Tl
AH=9 t pV,=[
,'ul
I

(f) The change of entropy. \l 1*--__r.__2


T
m
88+460=54fi,,lt
8tb
n \\.2 pl 80 psia
I

^s=+-mRrn$j Pr + 14.7 = 1.9.? 1lsi1


r.t

-L
V
62
v2
(a)
lndv = p,V,tnV' mRT r" * Q = Prvrlo
Vr= Pz q
= tltt#ftQ t" f# = 42L.2Btu V,
In vl =
"r- Uft = m#oO =-r.80
W,= jOaV=42l.2Btu' %
jvap .f, q = €-1.80 = 0.1653
-
(b) = p,V,ln = 42L.2Btu
v, = (0.1653) (0.30r) = 0.0498 m3/s
(c) a = ryt *W"= 421.28tu
(d) AU=0
P,t, - (b86) (0.
--T- o:oa#l) =3542kPa
AH=0 (b) Since AP = 6 and AK 0, W" lV"
= = = e = -B1Z kJ/s
(e) m= (t)ns=
3=W=0.2686# += # =-1.ob8kJ/r(.s

AH=0
2. During a reversible process there are abstracted 317
kJ/s from 1.134 kg/s of a certain gas while the temperature
remains constant at 26.7'C. For this gas, cD = 2.232 and c"
1.713 kJ/kg.K. The initial pressure is 586 kPa. For :l Air flows steadily through an engine at constant tem_
nonflow and steady flow (AP = 0, AK = 0) process, determine ( u'r rrl,'re,4_09 K.Find the workperkilogram ifthe exitpressure
i,',, r' l.hird the inlet pressure and the inlet pressure is zoz
Vr,% and pr, (b) the work and Q, (c) AS and AH. r r
kpa.
Arrarrrro that the kinetic and potential energy variation is
111'plrplible. (EE Board Problem
Solution - April lggS)
tlnlttlitttt

a=. -317 kJ/s tT


fi= 1.134 ks/s \ l)V=C
Pr= 586 kPa T = 400K
,n
26.7 +273=299.7 \ R = 282.08 kJ(ke) (K)

'\2 Pr = 2O7 kPa


vs Pr
p, =$
(a) R - cp c, = 2.232 - 1.713 = 0.5L9 kl/kg.K V
(1.134) (0:5_U)) (299.7) R't'I -_.(9,?87_q8) gog)
\i. = _*xTl=
pr 586 = 0.301 m3/s l), 207
= 0.5547 m,t/kg

64 (;5
(c) Relation between T and p.
W = prvrl" t=nrvr1nfl
k-1
= (20?) (0.5547) ln 3 12 [p,l r-
q =
LP-'l
= 126.1 kJ
2. Nonflow work.

Fromp\A=C,p-C1r-r
IsentroPic Process
,2 rz ,2
W" = lpdv=J CV+dV= C { V-ndV
An isentropic process is a reversible adiabatic process' t'Itl
A reversible adiabatic is one
Adiabatic simply *"t"t-"theat' Integrating and simplifing,
of constant entroPY'
w- n
l-k l-k
pvn=9
'fhe change of internal energy.
.pv=Q
tJl
\ AIJ = ncu (T2 - Tr)
I

'l'he heat transferred.

Q=0
'l'hc change of enthalpy.

Fig. 8. IsentroPic Process AI{ = mcp (Tz * Tl)

1. Relation among P, V, and T' 'l'lrr: change of entropy.

(a) Relation between P and V' ns=0


P'VI=PrVb=C I iI r.rrrly flow isentropic.
(b) Relation between T and V'
,,,r(c,.AP+AK+AH+W"
From p,VT = pr$u,td q =+' we have
wo,,_-AP_AK_AH
k'l
T,= lvt- I
W. -AH
T, LqJ r \l' O, Al( = 0)

(i(; 67
T- .2
(b)- lVdp=W"+AK (lr) _ p,V, (800) (t44)(100)
E

t'
1-L
m= ftfr=-6f6ffi =l5'eelb
LetC=pIVorV=Cpk
'.2.1 AII = ms, (f, * Tr) = (1b.99) (1.241) (211.8 _70{)= _9698 tstu
- t'lVap =!C pk dp AL.I = mc, (T, Tr) = (15.99) (0.74b) (211.S
- - 200) = _5822 Btu
Integrating and simPlifYing,
tt')6av
k (P'v'- P'v') r.
= &!;f,J' =ffi = b822 Btu
- t'fiao' - l-k
= f'nav
i rrlt *!Vdp = kjpdV = (1.606) (b822)= 9698 Btu

lr,)a=0
Problems As-- 0
1. From a state defined by 300 psia, 100 cu ft and 240" rlr a = AU+W"
helium undergoes andisentropic process to 0.3 psig. Find (a)V
and tr, (b) AU and AH, (c)JpdV, (d) -5vdp, (e) Q and AS. Wha
W"= -AU= 1-5822) =b822 Btu
is the work (f) if the process is nonflow, (g) if the process i Irir
steady flow with AK = 10 Btu? JVdp = W" + AK

1Xj9g=W"+10
Solution
W" = 9636 31rt

Pr = 300 Psia '.', An adiabatic expansion of air occurs through


a nor,zlt,
Pz= 0.3 +'l'4.7 = 15 psia
V, = 100 cu ft.
h
"rrr ll28 kPa and ?1oc to 1Bg kpa. The
initial kinetlc energy i"
For an isentropic expansion, compute the spcr:if i.
..'11lr1lible.
T, = 240+46A=700'R .r,lrnnr), temperature and speed at the exit
section.
titi rr lion
s

I
1'666 I

(a) \ = v,
H$t= 1oo[,!9f = 608.4 rtg \ pVk= 6
828 kPa
\ 7L + 273 = i|44 l(
1.666-1
l?r
k-1
-'l-k- r.-_T r.666 \z 138 kPa
T lr2
-2--T^'Lpil I = 7001__{q_l = 211.8'R
Lsool
t"= -248'7"F
68
(il)
k-r r.4_l
-k -.-1.4
T"=T,
-
tnl
ll2l
'Lpil = 344lHgl = 206 K
18281
;,,\
tz= -67oC it>\
't.h^I
= _ (0.287q8X344) = 0.1193 m'/ks ., // i,
22Q..,
", #, 'iivr2i
75yty:; 'Zzt
lI

-
ve = vr
- [g'l. = 0.1198 lHgl'n
LprJ 11381
= 0.429m'/ks Fig. 9. Polytropic Process

Ah = cp (T, * Tr) = 1.0062 (20G - 344) = -188.9 kJ/kg

A =&*aK+Ah+/" Itelation among p, V, and T

AK--Ah=136,900J/kg
(a) Relation between p and
V.
AK=4-^r=* P,vi = Prvi
(b) Relation between T and
V.
D2r= (2k)(AK) = zf r
ffil 1rg,966S ) = 277,800 m
To /-vJ "-t
= 527.1m/s
1Jz
T =1q1.

t, t li.elation between T and p.


*.1
L
r-
Polytropic Process rn
Le r--
lP. I
'r',
Ra l:-€-
-lp.
- I
I
A polytropic procebs is an internaliy reversible I t_^ t--l

during which Nonflow work

pV" = C and prVl = prVl = p,I" It, (paV = PrY, - P,V, - mR (T, - T,)
" ,'- l-n
where n is any constant.
I 'l'hc change of internal
energy

AIJ = mcu (T, - T1)

70
4. The heat transferred
(b)- Juao=W"rAK
a= AU+W- I

mR-(T,
- ,fvao = {&t:!& =
T_n-- -n
,2 .
JPdv
= mc" (T2 - T,) + - Tr)
1-n

= *Lffj
Ic -nc +Rl (r2-r,) I'rohlems

polytropic process, t0Ib of an ideal gas,


= - lffl[c - nTl
(r'?-rr) It l.^ 3X"^1u: and
40 ft.lbnb.R cop = o.-zs etju.&1;;;;;;il l#;;whose
__:_ _vwrv.r!, luau6,cs suate Irom zu
lrlr;r and 40'F to 120 psla ra and 340"F. Determine (a) n, (f;4g
urr4
= ,n." f-!- "-j (T, _ T,) ;ll,l !ilil,-(11'9:l"ljf dY, (? - il{t
(g) rf the pi"*,,i ,iuuav
Lr - I}_l
fl,'rv <luring which AK= 0, whaf is
\Vlr;rI is the work fo, u
w"i]wuut i. axirw"s J;it1
"o"n*-p."i"rrZ
a= mc. (T, - Tr) Se ilution

cn = cu -;l
l'-t
, the polytropic specific heat l', ilO psia m = 10lb
lfrl
ffn 120 psia
D. The change of enthalpy R=40**
l" ,10 + 460 = 500"R
AH = mcp (T2 - Tr)
l'" it4o + 460 = g00"R cp = o.2b
#
The c.hange of entropy
n_l

AS=mc ln It l),
=T'
"T, l), Tr
7. Steady flow polytropic n-l
liio J_ _ g00
(a)Q=AP+AK+AH+\ :ro I - b00

w"=Q_AP_AK_AH tr
tl
I
ln6=ln1.6
w = Q_AH
rr-l 0.4700
(AP=0,aK=g; rr =-1.7918
n = l.Bbo
72
'/3',
(h) W" = JpdV = -433.3 Btu
(b) c, - cp R = 0.25 - #= 0.1986
m
AIJ = DCu (T2 - Tr)

(800 - 5oo)
= (10) (0.1986)

= 595.8 Btu \,
AH = mcp (T2 - T1)
= (10) (0.25) (800 - 500)
2. Compress 4 kg/s of COrgas polytropically (pVr.z = C)
= 750 Btu {ro3 pr = 103.4
!lu,-t, = 60oC to-tr- zzT.C.Assumingideal gas
tction, frld pr,
ry, e;lS (a)g.as ionflow, (b) as a stleady flow
(c) k = 5= ^9'^4 =r.25s
q 0.1e86 l)rocesg where AP = 0, AK =

Solution

Pr = 103.4 kPa
fi=4\gs
AS ?= (10) (0'0541) r"ffi=
= -c" lt d, 0'2543+# Tr = 60 +273 = 333 K T, =227 +Z7B = b00K
trr ) Nonflow
(d)Q = mc"(Tr-Tr)
(10) (0'0541) (800
*#,
= - 500)
(10s.4)F$$]
o, = o,
L62.3 Btu
[+..|
L rl
=
Lgo'-l
= r184.e kpa

(e)Jnav- eE+*L)-ffi w = ,hR %u __,4),0,1T16):900 - 33o

KJ
= -433.3 Btu = -631.13 ;-s
(0 -JVap = nJRdV = (1'356) (-433'3) = -587'6 Btu c =c ll-d
" "Ll-ul =ro.osorffi;]
(g) W" = -fVdP = -58?.6 Btu
= -0.2887 []*
AK = -JVap = -587"6 Btu

74 IT,
TIIF'
7. If 10 kg/min of air are compressedisothermally from p,
=, 96kPa *{Vr.= 7.G5 ms/min to p, = 620 kpa, find tie worh,
:he change ofentropy and the heat for (a) nonflow process and
a steady flow proce-s-s_with or = lb m/s and u,
.b)
='60 Js.
Ans. (a) -tBZ0 kJ/min, _b. gbo kJK.min;iU)_f
min
386.9kJ
5 Gas Cycles
8. One pound of an ideal gas undergoes an isentropic
pf9c9s9^fr9m gb.B psig and a volume of 0.6 {tr
to a final volume
of 3.6 ft3. If c^ = 0.1,^2{3nd c, - 0.098 Btunb.R,
(b) pr, (c) AH'and (d) W.
----'--' what
'!-asw *rv \t'
a.eia)
Ans. (a) -2€.r"F; (b) 10.09 psia; (c) _21.96 Fleat engine or thermal engine is a closed
(d) 16.48 Btu system (no mass
.r'osses its boundaries) that exchanges
rts surrounding and
only heai
that operates in cyclls. ""a -"rr. *itr,
9. A certain ideal gas whose R = 22g.6 J/kg.K and c- = 1.01 Illements of a thermodinemic heat engine
with a fluid as
HAg.X expands isentropically from lbt? kFa, ie8"t t" gO I lrr. working substance:
kPa. For454 glsof this gas determine, (a)W",
(s) AH.
fljV'i.iAU a working substance, matter that receives
.lu,rrl,I and heat, rejects
does work;
Ans. (a) 21.9 kJ/s;(b) 0.0649b m'/s; (d) 80.18 2. a source of heat (also called a hot body, a heat reservoir,
- kJ/s
,r'.;ust source), from which the working zubstancei*.*iuuc
10. A polytropic process ofair from lbO psia, 800.F, and 1 lrlrr [;
occurs to p, = 20 psia in accordance with pVt.g - C. Determir 3. a heat sink (also called a receiver, a cold body, just
or
9) t, *d
-%,-
ft) lU, AH and AS, (c) JpaV and JVap. 1
- rrrrk), to which the working substance can
reject rr""i; *a
Compute the heat from the polytropic splcific heat and cl 4 ' an engine, wherein the
working substa'nce *""r.
by the equation Q = AU + fpdV. (e) Fina tne nonflow work lr. lurve work done on it. "rr"h"
(f) the steady flow work for AK 0.
=
Ans. (a) 17.4"F, 4.71t ft3; (b) -2b.8f Btu, -86.14 A thermodynamic cycle occurs when the
working fluid of a
0.0141Btu/"R; (c) 34.4f Btu,44.78 Btu; (d) g rv'l.t'm experiencer, u.ly.*,ber of processes that
Jventuaily
Btu; (e) 34.41Btu; (0 44.?B Btu nrlrrrn the fluid to its initial state.

11. The work required to compress a gas reversibly accon Cycle lVork and Thermal Effrciency
ing to p[r'ao = C is 67,790 J, if there is no flow. Detennine A
3"d Q if the gas is (a) air, (b) methane.For methane, k = 1
R = 518.45 J/kg.K, c, = 1.6lg7, co= Z.lB77 kJ/kg.K'-
Ans.(aiso.gi KI, -ro.esokl;ruiog.bo kJ, 4.zgkJ
- (1.
QA = heat added

Qn = heat rejected

W- net work

ftl
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Available energy is that part of the heat that was converted Operation of the Carnot Engine
into mechanical work.
Unavailable energy is the remainder of the heat that had A cylinder C contains m mass of a substance. The cylindor
be rejected into the receiver (sink). head, the only place where heat may enter or leave the sub-
gtance (system) is placed in contact with the sounoe of heat or
The Second Law of Thermodynamics hot body which has a constant temperature Tr. Heat flows from
the hot body into the substance in the cylinCler isothermally,
AII energy receiued as heat by a heat-engine cycle cannot l)rocess l-2, and the piston moves from tr' to 2'. Next, the
conuerted into mechanical work. t:ylinder is removed from the-hot body and the insulator I ie
placed over the head of the cylinder, so that no heat may be
Work of a Cycle l,ransfemed in or out. As a result, any further process is
ndiabatic. The isentrppic change 2-3 now occurs and the piston
(a)W=IQ moves from 2' to 3'. When the piston reaches the end of the
sl.roke 3', the insulator I is removed and the cylinder head is
W=Qo+(-Qn) (Algebraic sum) placed in contact with the receiver or sink, which remains at a
ronstant temperature T". Heat then flows from the substance
W=Qo- Q* (Arithmetic difference) t,rr the sink, and the isothermal compression B-4 occrut while
tlrc piston moves from 3'to 4'. Finally, the insulator I is again
(b) The net work of a cycle is the algebraic sum ofthe
lllnced over the head and the isentropic cor.npression 4-1 re-
done by the individual processes. t,urns the substance toits initial condition, as the piston moves
ftom 4'to 1'.
W= LW
W=Wr-r+Wr"r+W'n+..

The Carnot Cycle

The Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle concei


There are otherideal cycles as effr-
cient as the Carnot cycle; but
none more so, such a perfect cycle
forms a standard ofcomparison
for actual engines and actual cy- H' Vm
cles and also for other less effi- Fig. 12 Canrot Cycle
sient ideal cycles, permitting as
to judge how much room there m
might be for improvement. Anulysis of the Carnot Cycle
(ln = Tl (S2 - Sr), area l-2-n-m-1
Fig. 11. The Carnot Cycle n (1,, = T3 (S4 Ss), area B-4-m-n-B
-
82 83
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e = ---E- a; kL
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The thermalefficiencye is definedas the fractionoftheheat Tt-Tt
; supplied to a thermodynamic
cycle that is converted into work g= -T,
Work from the TS Plane Work from the pV plane.

= mRTrfn W = IW = Wr_, + Wr-, + Wr-n + Wr-,


Q^
f
Qn = mRTrln
V.-V3
1; = -mRTrln i
w = p,v,l"
t. &+: :J,+ p,v,rnf,.&tJ{.
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T3 l-v, l*-'
T =Lv'J Mean Effective Pressure (p_ or mep)

P-=W
From process 4-1, VD

T, Vp = displacement volume, the volume swept by the piston


-lfJ
11 -l-v,J.-' rr one stroke.
Mean effective pressure is the average constant pressure
but Tn = Ts and Tr =T2 l,ir:rt, acting through one stroke, will do on the piston the net
work of a single cycle.
- | =
therefore,l V"-k-r
Ratio of Expansion, Ratio of Compr.ession
LqI
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end of expansiql
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Point 1:

Isothermal exPansion "atio = t naRT. (2) (53.34) (960)


vr = -E- = -I4OOXI4;JI= = L.778 ft,3
,:- VL
IsentroPic exPansion ratro = 1;
Point 2:

Overall exPansion 'utio = h % = +=ti$ffit#,=8.b61 na

of
Compression ratio =
EH*#
Point 3:
v
lsothermal comPression ratio = # --*
Pg= p, [:t:^ = 11ee.7''b-d
L.aJ
l-sso-l
= 24.57 psia
rr. Y^-
Isentropic compression ratio' = 1; mRT" (2) (53.34) (530)
%= -Ti =-(24,s7) ( lll*4) = 15.72 f13
V
Overall comPression tutio = \t Point 4:

ratio rn is the compression


ratio
The isentropic compression
most commonlY used'
v4= v,
[q = (1b.?2)F-ffi = 2.84e rtg

Problems (a) \ = 7.849 ftg


on 2 lb
ri*i,
1.
# "ttffi 'ffi Ho"n b;:. n""q;l"^:l {l*j::?*ii?
A Carnot power cvcle operates
:l: *,".':t'H :f
;bd n* ilu^*
l'ffi:S J'";n#J'#*ff;;il; 11:, : 11 :'-' i;1'":ff31
(b)
^s,-,
= mRln
t=
Q.%19 h*ffi = o"oeoz{fi
?qif vorume at the end
lX"-lff ffilT.f#H; -
?xpallsrv[ rD rvu ]'"'b' - -
-.";^- rlt ' isothermal process,
nS durine , an proce
isothermal compression, G) lP $"t"q: - ^r ^-aanoinn rlrrrine (c) Qo = Tr (AS) = (960) (0.0952) = 91.43 Btu
iil'6::?.i' 6Ji";fi:ie g*: iutio or"*pansion,
h[fi;:, ft;;rr :** ffil,3
$""#"ffi:T and (h)
lll,?*,$*;1il* (d) QR - -T, (AS) = {530) (0.0952) = - 50.46 Btu
the mean effective Pressure'
(e) W = Qn - Qn = 91.4g -50.46 = 40.97 Btu
Solution

" l[=4s
m= 2lb (o o'4481 ot 44'8Lvo
=
Pr= 400 psia
a^ fl'43- =
Tr= 960'R
Pz= 199.7 Psia (8)I*oth""-al
Tr= 530'R expansion ratio =
* =ffi =,

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I1 L*[J.ah ffiggig
lt ll
de.
ll

I 1q
l@odFl?ii
+l i}=F iffiglg s
Im'
rI
cp = c, + R = 0.7442+ 0.2969 = 1.0411 KI
(m) (c") (T3 - Tr) = (0'1382) (-0'6808) (540 - 939'9) EAIF
Qe =
c_ 1.0411
ro={=yiffi,=1'3ee
= 37.63 Btu

en= mRr.rn{=,Wt"*h Point 1:

n v. -IT, - (2.5) (q396e) (e50) = 0.8522 m3


= -27.82FJttt
'' =
- & 827.4

'!{ = Qo - Q* = 37.63 -27.82 = 9'81 Btu Point 2:

o -A sz
As.ir:fl=-bao =
_o.osrdlg Qn = mco (T, - Tr)

-132.2 = (2.5) (1.0411) (T, - 9b0)


w (9.8!X179)- = B.lb psi
p-=ql172= ffi-v'LvEe' Tz = 899'2 X

2. T\vo and a half kg of an ideal gas with- R = 2963 Jfte) %= u,F,] = (0.8b22)ffi21 = 0.8066 mg
a-ryJt:y"" 't kPa and a
(K) and c" =6i++i r'"lltr'?Xrc11i kJ of heat9fat127constant pres'
temperatrfe b6Fc *J*t 132.2 C to a point Point 3:
"f
sure. The e""1;it""-"d;a*a "tto"ails
to nJis =
wil bring-tle back to its
where a constant volume p"ot"tt e:
poier in kW for 100 Hz'
original ttateS;t"rttil; er;q' *d the r, = r, = rsro.rlffi"u-' = 880.e K
H]"''
Solution

Qo = mco (T, - Tr) + mcv (Tr - T3)

Qn = (2.5X-{.4435X886.9 - S99.2) + (2.5>(a.7442)(950- 886.9)


v
Qn = 131 IGI
Pr= 827.41,Pa '![
rF
11 - 677 +273= 950K = Qo-Q*=131 -L32.2=-L.2kJ
Q*= - 132.2 kJ
w - if r#iFosgfl =-12okw
1) |
cp = c, + R = 0.7442+ 0.2969 = 1.0411 KI
(m) (c") (T3 - Tr) = (0'1382) (-0'6808) (540 - 939'9) EAIF
Qe =
c_ 1.0411
ro={=yiffi,=1'3ee
= 37.63 Btu

en= mRr.rn{=,Wt"*h Point 1:

n v. -IT, - (2.5) (q396e) (e50) = 0.8522 m3


= -27.82FJttt
'' =
- & 827.4

'!{ = Qo - Q* = 37.63 -27.82 = 9'81 Btu Point 2:

o -A sz
As.ir:fl=-bao =
_o.osrdlg Qn = mco (T, - Tr)

-132.2 = (2.5) (1.0411) (T, - 9b0)


w (9.8!X179)- = B.lb psi
p-=ql172= ffi-v'LvEe' Tz = 899'2 X

2. T\vo and a half kg of an ideal gas with- R = 2963 Jfte) %= u,F,] = (0.8b22)ffi21 = 0.8066 mg
a-ryJt:y"" 't kPa and a
(K) and c" =6i++i r'"lltr'?Xrc11i kJ of heat9fat127constant pres'
temperatrfe b6Fc *J*t 132.2 C to a point Point 3:
"f
sure. The e""1;it""-"d;a*a "tto"ails
to nJis =
wil bring-tle back to its
where a constant volume p"ot"tt e:
poier in kW for 100 Hz'
original ttateS;t"rttil; er;q' *d the r, = r, = rsro.rlffi"u-' = 880.e K
H]"''
Solution

Qo = mco (T, - Tr) + mcv (Tr - T3)

Qn = (2.5X-{.4435X886.9 - S99.2) + (2.5>(a.7442)(950- 886.9)


v
Qn = 131 IGI
Pr= 827.41,Pa '![
rF
11 - 677 +273= 950K = Qo-Q*=131 -L32.2=-L.2kJ
Q*= - 132.2 kJ
w - if r#iFosgfl =-12okw
1) |
Otto Cycle
,V
wnere
"* =vr.,
the isentrcpic compression ratio

The Otto cYcle is the ideal prototype'of spark-ignition


engines. Derivation of the form ,la for
e
Process l"-2:

5_
Tr- t-rl-l
LVol
T, = Tr"oo-t ' (2)

Process B-4:

FiS. 14. Air-standard Otto CYcle


&
T=
I-v;l*''
=F
Lr*J tI
Air.standardcyglemeansthatairaloneistheworking
L-l (3)
medium. T, = Tn"*

1-2: isentroPic comPression Substituting equations (2 ) and (3)


in equation (t)
2'3: constant volume addition of heat
3-4: isentmPic exPansion
4-1: constant volume rejection of heat
a - ,
'-E4rffi
Tn-T,

Analysis of the Otto CYcle


e = 1_n+
-t

Qe = mc" (T, - Tr) IVorh from the pVplane


Qn = mc, (T, - Tn) = -mc" (Tn- Tr)

\{ = Qn - Q* ' BC" (Ts - Tr) - BC'


(T4 - Tr) W= IW = Pr%'- 9rV, * O,? - -% O,

e=fr=ffi Clearance volume, per cent'clearance

r-#+F
e = 'rr - rz (1)
"*=f=q;r=Hg6
_l+c
e = 1-+ ".*c
rl
94
Review Problems
l.ThbworkingsubstanceforaCarnotcycleis8lbofair.
The volume at the feginning of isothermal expansion is.9 cu ft
*a tn" pressure is 360 psia. The ratio of expansion during the
6 fnternal Combustion Engines
is
uaaiuo" of heat is 2 and the temperature of the cold body
(0 (g) P-,, (h) the
;0"F, Fi;J (a) Qe, o) QR, (c) vr, (d) pr, (e) vn, pn,
ratio of u*purrsion duffng the isenlropic process' and (i) the
overall ratio of comPression. (d)
Ans. @) gia.a, Btu; (b) -209.1 Btu; (c) 63.57 99.ft; (h)
25.(/-p*iu; t"> ef.Zg cu ft; (f) 51.28 psia; (g) 13'59 psia; 3"53;
Internal combustion-engine'is a heat engine
(8) 7.06 power from the energy liberated by deriving its
the exploJion oi" *l*trr"
2. Gaseous nitrogen actuates a Carnot power -cycle
in of some hydrocarbon, in gur*o.r, or vaporized form,
atmospheric air. with
whict the respective iolumes at the four corners of the cycle,
Vri
rt"*frtg ;tlnetUegittning of the isothermal expansion' arg cvcle
ib. iit i; v, = 1 4.bI L, v zza.r+!, *1 Yr r57'7
: 3 L
Jhc
Spark.Ignition (SI) or Gasoline Engine
receives zi.r t<.1 of "Z
it"it. Determine (a) the work and (b) the
mean effective Pressure. Erh06l

Ans. (a) 14.05 kJ; (b) &'91kPa


3. show the thermal efficiency of the carnct cycle in
-of thatisentropic
terms the compression ratio rk is glven
bvg=l- . 1.
L-l
rk

4. Two and one'halfpounds of air actuate a cyclecomposed Infoh ttrcb Comprarrlcn Strol.
Ittr.u!t lkol.
urith n =
of the following pro"u*t"*t polytropic compressiol Y'
3-1' The known
1.5; constant pressure 2-3-; constant volume Fig. lB. Four-stroke Cycle Gasoline Engine
au1,a *", p, = i0 p.iu, t, = 160'F, Q* = -1682
Btu' Determine (a)
A cycla beginr wilh the intoke slroke or fhe pirlon move3
plane' in Btu;
t- iul th;;;;k'of the cvcle'using the pV
down the cylinder ond drows in o fuet.oir
i^ mixlure' Next, the pisron compresse3 rhe mitture

(J) ""a tne thermal efficiency, and (e) p-' whire rnoving up ri,. iyiiJ"r.-iiri.'i"o
comprersion ttroke. fhe spork prug ignites rhe mixrure. or n.
'-' Q^,' (ai . -: -. Br:rning gq!es puth ,he pirton down for fho
- Arrr. (a) itzo'R,4485'R; (b) 384'4'Btu; (c) 2067 Btu; i".ilTrili?ii;lte
piston rhen,o"1, ,p the cytinde-gJ", prrhrg
rhe'burneJ for", ori!"rins *,o

(d) 18.60%; (e) 106.8 Psi


1'0et
5. Athree-process cycle of anideal gas'.forwhi*.htr=
compres-
The four-stmkg cycre is one wherein four strokes
of the
*aI." = 0.804 lr,yl*e.K', tl-tTlt"FibyIiPa.
an isentropic
A cbnstant volume
piston, two revolutions, are required to complet"
u.y.l".'
sion 1-2 from rog.a"kpa, 27 "C 1060g. 1
t p"".*t Z-S and a 3:l 11ll n= L'Zcomplete the cvcle'
*-ftti*t (a) Qa, ft) W'
Circulation ir rtiuiv raL of o.go5 kg/s, compute
"
(c) e, and (d) p-.
Ans. (a) 41.4 k'ys; &) - 10 kJ/s; @\ 24'157o; (d) 19'81
kPa
92 9:i
lrr
where s = p€r cent clearance
(a) Point t:
% = clearance volume
Vn = dsplacement volume (0.1x€-.94)l_5eo)
v, =
s"- = 1.oar
$
Point 2:
Ideal standard of comparison
fV
*rt
Cold-air standard, k = 1.4 p, = prLfrJ
Hot-air standard, k < 1.4 = P, (r*)h = (13) (5.5;r.e = 119.2 psia

The thermal elficiency of the theoretical Otto cycle is


l.l
Tr=Tt
1.
2.
Increased by increase in r*
Increased by increase in k
el = \ (r*)h-r
= (590) (b.b;r.s-r = ggB.9.R

3. Independent of the heat added tz = 523.9,F

The average family car has a compression ratio of about 9:1.


-z-t
v- =
li
l'6=81
= 5.8 = o.Bob6 &i
The economical life of the average car is 8 years or 80,000 s
miles of motoring. Point B:

Problems
%=%=0.3056ts
1. An Otto cycle operates on 0.1 lb/s of air from 13 psia and
13trF at the beginning of compression. The temperasture at
the end of combustion is 5000oR; compression ratio is 5.5; hot-
air standard, k = 1..3. (a) Find V' p2, t s, ps, V3, tn, and pr. (b-)
Compute Qn, Qj,'W, e, and the corresponding hp. Point 4:

Solution
l-ti : r'r
r. = 4Li-J =(boo)m"'
m= 0.1 lb/s = 2998"R
^k o.o
k= 1.3 tr = 2538"tr'
Pr= 13 psia
Tr= 130 + 460 =
Ts= 5000"R o, = t (2ee8)H= 66.r psia
[+J=

96
(h)c= R =- 53.34 ==0.22t- Btu
v'o'c'o l6.R" c'= E*=m =o'8444*k
\u'f cv =
L11 (zzgfitm

Qo = rhc" (T, - Tr) = (0.1) (0.2285) (5000 - 983.9) -=*+ =ffi=o'o43e6lce


sr.zz ntrt
Qn =
s
Tn) = (0.1) (0.2285) (590
"*
=f= tdi%to =,,
Qp = rhcu (T, - - 2998)
(a) Point 2:
Qn = -55'03 Btu
s v, 0.0!
'' "' =T=
; # = o'003455 m3
W = Qo - Q* = 91.77 - 55.03 36.75
ry
T, = Tr"*t't = (805) {ll;t't-t
o =W =3!'75=0.4005 ot4A.O1Vo = 6g9 K

tl
Pr{ (tt; t'e
Pz = = (101.8) = 2blg lipa
BtuX60+)
'smrn
(36.?5
Point 3:
W'= =52hp
n'*t#ftnr
Q^ = mc" (T, - Tr)
2. The conditions at the beginning of compression in an 12.6 = (0.04396) (O.UU)(TB
Otto engine operating on hot-air standard with k ='1.34, are - 689)
101.3 kPa,0.038 m3 and lz'C.The clearanceisL0%oand 12.6hI Tg = 1028 X
are added per cycle. Determine (a) V' T*P* T3, Ps, Tn atd p.'
(b) W, (c) e, and (d) p-.
Ps = r,ltJ= (2518)
= BZbzkpa
Solution t8rfl
Point 4:

t =t{W"'=r&l'],r*r{*J 1.t4.1

=455K
P, = 101.3 kPa
V, = 0'038 mg
Ti=32"C +273 =306
n, =n,ffi:r,91]ruzuaftl' = 16l kPa
(0'8444) (305 - 455)
(b) Qn = mc" (T1- T1) = (0'04396)

Q* = -5'57 kJ
kJ
W = Qn * Qn = L2'6-5'5? = ?'03
,\
(c) - W - 7.99-= 0.558 or 55.87o
e=q= 12S-
(") (b)
(d) p. 12.6
= 364.7 kPa
=#" = #T,= o55s - oso3455 Fig. 16. Air-standard Diesel CYcle

1-2: isentropic comPression


2-3: constant-pressure addition of heat
Compression-Ignition
or Diesel Engine 3-4: isentropic expansion
4-1: constant-volume rejection of heat

Analysis of the Diesel CYcle

Qn = mcn (Ts - T2)

Q* I -." (T, - Tn) - -DC, Tn - Tr)

W = Qe - QR = mcn (T, -T, ) -DC" (T1 - Tr)

ln|!l. Sl.ok. ComF'trlon


ComF.trlon Sftok'

Fig. 15. Four-stroke Cycle


?ow'r Stlol'

Diesel Engine

intake stroke when the


piston moves
Crh!urt Sitol'

"=frW.1- T.-T
A cycle begins with the
iil;t;*:: j*:t:-::f".1fit:11
and draws'"t1':-:ini'".-""ussion
e= Fd:fJ (4)
downanddraws"ilffi
down stroke' the tem''
when o' is
n*J,ffi"; ll: 1l Htr :H3:j!rye?tio"'
it *iift ttt" hot air and €=1-
iniected into the -i*"t
"tU"a"1 -"
burns explosrvery'
'U'"
burnsexplosivelv'e;'";;;;'"'*:Jg1*;if
rra$tru Prvuuvv-
During the exhaust
do*o ror the Power strt,k". the burned gases
::f,1f'l
ffi;"tfit"oo where =F the comPression ratio
*t*k", the piston #"; ;;Jt; ""d
forces "*
out of the cYlinder'
the cutoffratio
""
= +,
l0l
Point 3 is called the cutoffPoint. efficiency ofthe Diesel cycle differs from that of.th* ( )r,r.r,
-The
cycle by the bracketed factor".o'1 . This factor i*iit*,,vu
Derivation of the fornula for e
trFT
greater than 1, because r" is always greater
Process 1-2: than l. Thus, lirr rr
particularcompression ratio rn, the otto cycle
is more efficiont.
However, since the Diesel eigirr" compresses
air only, thr,
'- *k-l compression ratio is higher than in an otto engine.
T"=Lv^,l
lv, Diesel engine with a compression ratio of lb is
An actual
q
I
mo"e efficierrt
than an actual otto engine with a compression ratio of
9.
T, = Tr"*
k-l (5)
Relation among rLr r.r and r" (expansion ratio)

Process 2-3: t-
e
L% -L
-%
=f"
ft={;
Ts = Trrrk'tr. (6)
rk- t =[+][q
' \=f"f"
Process 3-4:
Problems

1'
A Diesel cycie operates with a compression ratio
t=F;-'=m-'=*' and"
of l3.b
with a outoffoccuring at 6vo of the stroke. state 1 is defined
!f ta psia and 14OF. Foithe hot-air standard with t< = f .ga ana
for an initial I cu ft, comp-ute (a) tz, p2,,.Uz,tsn
%, po, ,rrl-tn, {b)
Tn=Trrnk-l Q*, (c) w, (d) g uttd p-. (e) For aratlof"ciic,riauon irrooo.r-,
H compute the horsepower.

Tr = Trr"k (7) Solution

Substituting equations (5), (6), and (7) in equation (4)'

T.t"ni.--
e=1-m\f-'r--ffii) '.,'4^ L
rn = 13.5
= 1.84
p, = 14 Psia
Tr=140+460=600'R
y, =lcuft
. 1 f-t"*-rl
e=r-,r-rlq:11l
r02 Io;l
i ..

53.34
(b) QA = DCo (T3 - Tr) = (0.063) (0.2702) (2545 - iaga)
R
c, =FIf = (078) (1.34 1)
- =OrOtUffi
Qe = 18.57 Btu

cn = kc" = (1 .34) (0'2016) = 0'2702


ffi" Qn = mc" (T, - T.) = (0.063) (0.2016) (600 -72i:l1r)

p,V, (144]jp Qn = 8.52 Btu


_ (14)
* = alf = (b&lr+,1 (buu) = o.68o rb
(c) W= QA- Qn = 18.57 -8.52= 10.05 Btu
(a) Point 2:
(d) e = W = f0.05 = 0.54L2 or 54.L2Eo
v, 1
= 0'0741 ft3
a^ 18.57
V, =#x =1fS
P- = (10.05) (778) = 58.64 psi
T, = Tr#-1 = (600) (13.5)1 31-t = 1454oR (l -.0:,0741) (144)

ft''l
tz = 994oF
(e)
w_ [""ir*f fo*
42.4 lltu
nin-l'= 287
hp
pz = prrr.k = (14) (13.5I'34 = 457.9 psia
min.hp
Point 3:
2. There are supplied 317 kJ/cycle to an ideal Diesel
(Vl -V2) engine operating on227 g air: p, = 9?.91 kPa, t, = 48.9oC. At the
% = V, + 0:06VD = % + 0.06 end ofcompression, pz = 3930 kPa. Deteruineia) ro, (b) c, (c) r",
(1 ftc (d) W, (e) e, and (f) p-.
% = 0.0741 + (0.06) - 0.0?41) = 0.1'297

- r\il = G454) i,^g?A


0.L297 Solution
r, = Trl_C = 2545"R m = 0.227 kg.
P, = 97.91 kPa
\------( Tr = 48.9 + 273 = 321.g K
t, = 2085'F \\ Pz = 3930 kPa
4
Qo= gf7 kJ/cycle
Point 4: \ I

rn = r, l_sf'' = (2545) lli2gfl '''n-' = 12?1"R


LvrI L1J
l)oint 1:
tr = 811oF
r-v-r r oo., IgJZgZl'''n = 29.7 psia v --r
mRT. * (0.227) (0.28708) (32r.e) = 0.2143 mg
o. = n,lt'J = (45't.e)
[-T.] 'l- ll
.:l 97.9r

10s
ry-

Point 2: (d) QB - &c, (T,


- Tr) = (0.227)(0.2186) (B zt.g
-tt6t )
1
1.1 Qn = -136.9 kI
u, = urffl = (0-2143)
ffi 0.0153 m3
W = Qo - QR = 317 - fg6.g = lg0.l kJ
(e) e =
P= lao.t = 0.b6g1 or 56.glvo
Tr=T, lo;l+'=(821.e) = sz4lK QA 317
IJil Hfl1f 1fl P- =g=
Point 3:
vr_%=o-zr+s:00rog
vD =.w l0o.l _= 9ob kpa

DuaI Combustion Engine


Qn = mco (Ts - T2)
In modern compression ignition
3r7 = Q.227) (1.0062) (T3 - 924.4) engines
constant during the.combristio" p"o"ess the pressure is not
manners illustrated in the ng"*.-ili;*J but varies in the
T, = 2312I( combustion can be conside*dt";il;ach il ffi* ol" *
Im| process, and the late burning, a constant-vorume
v, = vr,if ((
i= ).olb3) lW1= o.oB8B mg u *;rilunt-pressure process.
L-2) P24A

Point 4:

,,=*b{'=(rrrr) B*?H" = 1161k

(a)
"'* =vr=0.2143_14
-V--o.oi^re -'
1+c Fig. tZ. Air_Standard Dual Cycle
(b) f,=--
*c
l-2: isentropic compression
1r
I4t
1+c 2-B: constant_volume addition
of heat
=- c 3-4: constant-pressure addition
of heat
4-b: isentroplc expansion
5-1: constant-volume rejection
c = 0.0769 or 7.69Vo of heat
Analysis of Dual Combustion Cycle
(c) f-c= v^ 0.0383 t
-!iL =--:-::= - 2.50
v, 0.0153
Qo = mc, (T, - Tr) + mcp (T. _ fr)
106
Procesg B-4:
Q* = me, (T1 - T6) = -mc" (Tr - Tr)
tn \/v t
- Qn = mc" (\ - Tr) + mco (T1 - Ts) - DC" (T6 - Tr)
4a
W = Qe
il= f,=""
^g t g

mc" (T, - Tr) + mc, (T, - Tr) - mc, ('t'o - T,)


g='W=
mc, (T, - Tr) + mco (Ta - T, ) Tn = Trrr t'lr;{" , (lt)
\QA
e=l- (8).

Tu = Trr*'t-l ror.

where =S,' the pressure ratio during the consant volume


""o P, Tpor"r
poii"" of co-U"stio" Tu= (r2)
rr
v the ratio
compression
too"otuting equatirins (9), (10), (11),
=titr,
,2 and (12) in equation
or.
\r
r.' =#,
Y3
the cutoffratio
€=l- l-T
Th'b thernal,efficiency of this cycle lies between that of the *L
ideal Otto qnd the ideal Diesel. o=l-

Derivation of the formula for e


Problems
Proccss 1-2:
.bustion
L. At the *tllpg d:op-p."*rsion in an ideal dual
-lv,l-k-1 com-
T" cvcle, the n"ia-ir i ru
w.orki"ng
q=LrJ / The compre*io.l
99:F..
constant
"irri"i-iijT#"
:.ilI i il"- p"*rru* at the end of ""a
tlre
volume addrtion or n*ullrito
added 100 Btu uA* ;;i""#;;#;
th;,;il;;ilpor*,ro expansion. Find
T" = Trr*I'r
(a) ro, (b) r", (c) the percentage "*
cfearence, (d) e, and 1e) p_.
Process 2-3:

t=#="
T, = Trrrk-t rn (10)

r0g
*'
Point 5:
Solution
m = llbair t, = t l+ln.'= (rnru) = 1082"R
p., = 14.1 psia
T, = 80+460=540oR
L_'I-J E&1"
pa = 470 psia
rk= 9
(a) r^
P =g= +!y = L.54
Pz 305.6
Qr-n = 100 Btu
(b) r" =t=
v, !g!tg = L.Zr
1.576

Point 1: (c)r.-1+c
*c
u,=-3l'-=%#ffi#=la186rt3 9=1+c

Point 2: c = 0.125 or ]'Z.EVo

v. 14.186 (d) QA =
Q-, + Qr.n = (m) (e") (T,
- Tr) + 1oo
%=t=-t-= 1.576ft3

rir-'l k-l = (1) (0.1?14) (1999 - lB00) + 100 = 219.8 Btu


Tr= T, l+
L'rJ
I = (540) (9) ''n-' = 1300R
Qn = (mXc"XT, Tu) = (1X0.1714X840- 1082)
- = -92.9 Btu
l-v,l* ^ W 219.8-e2q
l, = n,l_if = (14.1) (9) = 305.6 psia " =Q;= --fts-=:: = o'5773 0r 57 '73Vo
1'4

Point 3: w
P*=V,-% = ffi (126.e) (778\ =54.3?psi
Tr=T, [pJ
LF;J 2. An ideal dual c'ombustion cycre operates on 4b4 g of air.
At the beginning ofcomp_ression, the airis at g6.b3 p",?g.g"c.
t
Point 4: Itet ro - 1.5,,r..= 1.!-0, an{ r* 11. Determine (a)
= the percentage
('lea.rance, (b) p, V, and T at each corner of the cycle, tc) e-n,
(T. Tr) (d) s, an6 (e) p-.
Qr-n = (m) (co) -
100 = (1) (0.24) (T4 - 1999) Solution
4
m = 0.454kgof air
Tn = 24J.6"R
I'
'f-\. ,-/i A' P, = 96.53 kPa
T, = 43.3 + 273 = 816.3 K
t,\: rp = l'5
= v,R] = o.b?o)
v.
f+f = 1.905 ftg
'/ -""
,2'
r" = 1'60
rr = ll
il0 ill
W = Qr - Q* = 474-L95.7 = 278'3 kJ
(a)-rk--1+c
c w 278.3
= 0.5871 or 58.7lVo
1+c "=6o= 474
11 =-;
g = 0'10 or IUVo
w
(e,p_=Vr5,= 278.3
= 716.8 kPa
o.427L - 0.03883
mRT, (0.454) (0.28?08) (316'3)
= e.427r ms
(b)Vr=-p;=re
*, vt- o.42t]- = o.oB88B m3
vr -=T;-= --11

l-v-lr'-r
T, ("n) *-'= (316'3) (11)'n-' =
8254K
,, = t,FJ*-'=

p, = n,
I-vlF = pr(roy =
(96.b3) (11) ''n =2770'81.Pa
ft'1
ps = (Pz) ("n) = (2??0'8)
(t'5) = 4156'2 kPa
K
,, = r,fog = (82b.4) ffi =
'288.1

Vn = (Vr) (r.) = (0'03883) (t'60) = 0'06213 m3'


l-ri-l K
rn = t'L+l= (1238'1) (1"6) = Le81

- I-vln', = e16.2 K
,, = r.LirJ = (1e81) Bm''n-'
l-m-l (e6.53) e1g.?
pu = p,l+l= =27s .6 kpa
'L'
d 316'3

(c) Qe - (m) (c") (T, - Tr) * (m) (cn) (T4 - T3)

825'4) + (0'454X1'0062X1981-1238' l)
=
(0.454X0.?186X1238'1 -

= 474kJ
(d) QR = (m)(c"XT, -Tu) = (0'454X0'?186X316'3 - 916'2) = 195'?
I t:l
-l

Review Problems
the hot'air standard
1. An ideal Otto engine, operating on
;;;;;;tfi ratiJof At the beginning of
5'
with k = 1.34, h^t
;;;;t;;;irt"
and
uor"-"is 6 cu ft' the pressure is 13'?5 psiaheat- 7 ""s Compressors
the temperature i. fOO"f' Ouring the (u) (b) T" (c) p" (d) e'
constant'volume
t"g, il;'Bl" uaJJp"t cvcle' ritta c'
and (e) p-.
^t"
Ans, (a) 257o; (b) 5209"R; (c) 639'4 psia; (d) 42'14Vo;
(e) 161.2 Psi Operation of Compressor
operates
2. An ideal Otto cycle engine 'lrrtlnll%o clearance The
on 0.227 kg/s of i"Lx" !tut". is 100'58 kPa' 37'7oC'
"ii
energy released d;l;;;*bustion
is 110 kJ/s' For hot-air
Discharge
Valve
Di5charge

(a) p' V' and T at each corner'


standard with k = isi,-"o-pute
(b) W, (c) e, and (d) P-' Intake
*'r., o 029?qm'hl:9:* t"1t':f: Valye
a";.*Ai;.idig kPa;
i.pili ;6. + x, zazo.t r<P a, 5s2,1K 19 1'71
(b) 52'7 kJis; (c) 47 '9LVo;(d) 301'1 kPa
is from 14'7 psia'
3. In an ideal Diesel engine compression Compressbn
Btu/cvcle are added as heat'
80"F, 1.43 cu ft to 5d0;tt* i"hi" tu
and find (a) T" V2' T3'
Make computatio,', f* cold-air standard
v3, Ta, and pn, ft) w;i;;""Jp-' and (d) the hp for 300 cvcles/
v
mrn.
Ans. (a) t4?9"R,0'1152 ft3' 2113:l' 0'1&6 ft3' 890'I l rtruenlionol Diogrom without Clearance.
Conuenttonal Diagram witn Clearance.
psi; (d) 68'
zi.ipui^;(Ujg'Z gt"; (e) 60'637o' 39'9 Fig. 18. Fig. t9
hp
overall value of k =
4. For an ideal Diesel eycle with the Figure 18 shows a conventional indicator card for
gi'g kPa' find P2 and p,"' a com-
1.33.' r,- = 15, r. =2.l,Pr= pressor without clearance. As the piston
starts the stroke 4-r,
^Anr. 35-89 kPa, 602 kPa the inlet valve opens and gas is drawn into
the cylinder arong
[he line 4.'1. A-t point 1, th; piston starts
is pJ = 1 atm ttr" ui"nr.", u,l
5. State 1 for a dual combustion engine va ves being closed, and the gas is compressed"e1,r*
along the curve
t, Joo.g;Cfrn = 18; a! th9
;t;J,"o;;J;ilp*til" "i*{*::"Y?L::t:*",?fr
t-2. Atz,the discharge valve opens und th";;pGfigas
i' zogr kPa'-r" = 1'5' tsase on l kg/ <lclivered to the receiver.
is
;ilil;i-;r standard with k = 1-31,.deiermine 1")!l-^P:1
;;;;i;;.""ce, (b) p, v, andr at each corner point on the The events of the d"iagr"m with clearance are
the same as
(c) W, (d) e, and (e) P-' l'lrosewith no clearance, except that since trre piston J* ,rot
ilJ.*-a);.EEq";&) 0.e443 m, Q'!szjo^3i *9q lirrce.all the gas from the cylirrdu" at the pr"rrrrr"-o.,
;;4.; n, i ilio.zK, 0.0?869 Ti' ?^19e;3.* rcmsifilg gas must re-expand to the intake p"urr".*, tfr*
f.p"pZO.g K; (c) 803.5 kJ; (d) 57'a3%;
(e) 900
it 4, before intake starts again. without irL*r,
clearance, th* ioi r-o

114 Il5
Preferred Compression Curves r^, p,V,, (lob) (6)
= 5.722 kg/min
"'=f;4= (ozmtGoo
The work necessary to
drive the compresor decreases (a) Isentropic compression
as the value of n decreases.
Polytropic compression and f- r-r "'-t
values of n less than k are
brought about by circulating w- E# I rp,t- -l
I

cooling water.
Llp;j T
t.67-
T_
(1.67) (105) (6) '630y1 rsz
Comparison of work for = I = - 1652 kJ/min
Isothermal and for Isentropic 1-1.67 ffi105,
Compression.
Another solution:
Heat Rejected
k-l

The heat rejected during compression 1-2 is, T2 -,r l&l*


- ^t lP,
-
= (300) = 615.6 K
I
I-'J
Qr-, = mrcr, (T, - Tr)
w = -AH = -fi'c e (T2 - Tr)
Problems
- (5.122) (1.03) (615.6
= - 300) = - 1665 kJ/min
1. A rotary compressor receives 6 m3/min. of a gas (R = 410
(b) Polytropic compression
J/kg.K,c- = 1.03 kJ/kg.K, k = 1.67) at 105 kPa, 27"C and delivers
it at 630 LPa. Find the work if compression is (a) isentropic' (b)
polytropic with pvt'r = C, and isothermal

Solution
w =+Fffi.,1* I
f- 1.4-l _.1

= (1.a) (rOs) (0)


1-1.4 l1f3gl
" -11 = - 1474 kJ/min

vf= 6 m3/min.
Tr= 27 +273 = 300 K
Another solution
Pr= 105 kPa
Pz= 630 kPa
l-p] #
_ l.,l-l
Tr=T, = 300
iogol'n = 500.5 K
LEJ F'ql
118 il9
c- l'oq = 0.6168 ry rh' = off = !#}.r-ffi = 2*.o'rb/min
cv =f = L.6z kg.k" =

cn= c [-t -rr-l= 0.6168 I r.oz - r.el = 4.41G8 kI n r* _r.32_r


"Lr*l [-T:T-.a J [sF r,=r,
I L*J'=(E4o) L#t= =64r.eeR
\if = -afr* 6=-th'co(Tr-Tr)+ fi'co(Tz-Tr)
I
s c"v U-qJ
co =k-l -=(o.lzr4)' fILl
= -(5.L22) (1.03) (600.5 - 3oo) Ll-tful =-o.oaze ffi
AH = drbp (Tz Tr)
+ (5.L22)(-0.4163) (500.6 - S00) -
=-1486kl/min = (22.05) (0.24)(641.9 - 540) = bB9.B Btu/min

(c) Isothermal compression a -nqTr-T,)


w = p,tf r"[*-l = (22.05) (- 0.0429) (er.g _ 540) * 96.4 Btu/min
=
LP?-i
o* =
m'* u'J
=(105)(6)rn tffi
= - 1129 kJ/min ffi
6 =#*ar(+ali+W
2. A centrifugal comprcssor handles 300 crr ft per ninute
of air at t4.7 psia and 80"F. The air is compressed to 80-psia. w = Q-aK-aH
The initial speed is 35 fps and the final speed is 1?0 fps. If the
compressionis polytropic with n = 1.32, what is the work? = - 96.4 _ tZ.Z_ bBg.B
Solution = - fl47.gBtu/min or _ lb.2g hp

f;= 300 ctu Volunetric Effidiency

Pr = 14.7 Psia Conventional volumetric effciency


=
Pz = 30 Psia ffi
Tr=80+460=540R n,=$=kX
"VDVD
u, = 35 fps
Displacement volume Vo
u, = 170 Ss is the volume swept by the
face of
l,he piston in one etroke.
l4r 1

The clearance ratio or per cent cleararrce, c =


Free Air
t, Free air is air at normal atmospheric
particular geographical location. conditions irr n

then,D"=1+c-c [+-]t
LP'J Problens
If the compression process is isentropic, let n = k. r' j twin-cylinder, double-acting compressor
ance of ,vo handles 20 ms/min. of
with a crear=
nitiogen from roo i.i", az"c
vo ={ortN Uo ggrypression.ana urp""Jio" .r" p"fyt""pil
!Z!^H*.
n = 1.30. Find (a) the work, (b) the .itf,
hialre5ected, and (c) the bore
where: and stroke for I"b0 rpm and UD f
= .gO.
D = diameter of piston Solution
L = length of stroke
N = number of cycle completed per minute
N = (n) (1) (number of cylinders), for
single'acting compressors PVt's - V; = 20 m3/min.
N= (n) (2) (number of cylinders), for " Pr = 100 kPa
double-acting compressors P2 = 725 Wa
n = compressor speed, revolution per min., rpm Tr = 37+273=Bl0K
e=\Vo
A single-acting compressor makes one complete cycle in one n = lbO rpm
revolution. IID = 1.39
A double-acting compressor makes two complete cycles in
one revolution.

(a) W =T#[A* -_l

Fie. 20. Single-acting Compressor


Connecting rod
, Pision rinRs
nk pin
7l ,''"on. ,-- Crank = -5023 Y
! Crankshaft mrn

-J/

(b)n, =1+c*c l-pJ F


Crosshead
Wrist pin' Crosshead guard l!-,J
Fig. 21. Double-acting Compressor

t
L
722
l2:l
I
p-T 3ld 381 mm, respectivery with a percentage cre'r'rrr.o
(o.ob) lzzq-l
fi 5?o, rf su'oundins air ar* it r00 kFa
zi-.c *hJio tt,,,
'f
= 1 + o.ob - "'Llo0l compression and expansion processes are pVr.s ""a _ C. Dutor,r,,,,u
(a) Freg air capacity in mtZs.
iU) power of the **pr"rro" i" f, W
(ME Board hoblem Oct. 19S6)
= 0.9205 -
n.' 20
vo=n'.,=o8Do5= = z+.ss 4 Solutian
P, = 100 kPa
T =293K
t, Vo (1 + c)
= Vo * V, = Vo + cVu =
C= f%o

= (24.38) (1 + 0'05) =
25'60 4 -T P=$SSmm
+. L = 381mm
n=150rpm
*,=*=#Hffi=27.''*t It
Pr = 97.9 kPa
Tr=300K
rn
,, r I-Cl+ : (s'o)
- t,
= \!,rvl Fz{lst =
[ool
48s.7 K
l_n, |
o, = ."ffi = $.7442)Fffi#:l = 4'4b'# (a) n" = 1 + c-. = I + 0.0b-(0.0b)
[#J* m]*=0.e0e4
6r-, = rhrc" (T, - Tr)

= (27.83) (-0.2456) (489.7 - 310)


vD =-tDpLN =f, {o.essft0.Bsl) (r50) = s.osz -'
Y
= {ZZsmrn V;= (n,) (Vo) = (0.9094) (b.6bz) = 5.r+a
#
(c) vo ={nrlN =tD',(1.3 D) (r50) (2) (2)- 612.6 O'# o. = vr = (b r44) 4.els#or 0.082$
F,]hl t+rtffi =

24.38= 612.6 D3
(b)w =T#'tre,J*:,]
D = 0.3414 m or 34.14 cm
;
L = (1.30) (34.14) = 44.38 cm t
ri
ll = (1.3) (97.9) (b.
2:. A single.acting air compressor operates at- 150 rpm with 1- 1.3
initial condilion of air at 97.9 kPa and 27"c and discharges the
;

air at 3?9 kPa to a cylindrical tank. The bore and stroke are 355
t26
I
KJ
= - 800.3
mrn
or 13.34 kW W=
"- -IF-to,/ = '?i#iffifiea- [ia,z/
_1J
'l
3. A single-acting air compressor with a clearance of 6Vo = 96hp
takes in air at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 85oF,
and discharges it at a pressure of 85 psia. The air handled is 4' A single-acting compressor has a volumetic
0.25 cu ft per cycle measured at discharge pressure. If the of 87vo and operates at effici'rt,y
500ipm. Il trk"r in air at 100 kpa nrrrl
compression is isentropic, frnd (a) piston displacement per esc\argel jr ar 600 kpa. iil
cycle, and (b) air hp of compressor if rpm is 750. l[CA!
mrn measured at discharge condition.
ai, rraodted is o .i * p,,.
(ME Board Problem - March 1978)
If the comii#io' i,
isentropic,find (a) piston
(b) mean effective pressure
d;;pi;;;;;t per stroke in cu m, and
in kpa.
Solution (ME Board p"otrem :ep"riliilal
Solution
Pr = 14.7 Psia
,Pz= 85 Psia
%= 0.25 ft,3lcYcle
T, = 85+460=545oR
Pr = 100 kPa
fz = 600kPa
V2 = 6 ms/min
Tr = 3O+273=B0BK

(a)r,=r,H* =(545)
[q* = 900"R

-' = #,, =
(%### = o.o68z4 ib/cycte
ra) vi =o,Fno = (6) looo
_J
l''' = 21.58 m3/min
Lrooj
ni RT. (0.06374X53.34X545)
v,=ff=ffi =o'87i4ftvcYcle v^ =&=?rs
" q, o.87 =
24.8 It
mrn

D"=L+c-c [r;tt -1+0.06-(0.06) l-ar lfi = 0.8499 T'


_ 24.8mrn
LP'-J h47l stlgkes =
0.M9G
stroke
,-L
UOO
mln
v" =3f;3# = 1'o3o n3lcYcre
+
tbl V; = (0.8754) (750) = 656'6 ft3lmin
(h) w= ++lZ+r+
r-k l\p,/ - I
126 t",,7
_@ffi@Kml*_! (b) Barosetric pressure at 6000
ft = 1r.?g psia or 23.gg in rlg
New intake pressure, pr* ll.Zg psia
=
Y
= -sosa.g mln
New discharge pressur€, pz* g0.B + ll.Zg
= = 102.0g psia
n
rn=_li{_= bob3.g 208.8 kpa
vD 24.9 =
New volumetric efliciency, r
DvN = 1 + o.o6 -(0.06)
6. A compressor is to be designed ntith 64o clearane tn
ffiff"o = o.77e|

handle 500 cfin of air at L4.7 pcia and 70pF,the state at the
beginning of compression stroke. The compression is isentropic
New capacity, Vi* = @.7795)(6tB) fr:
= 472.8mln
to 90.3 peig.
(a) What displaoement in cfu is neessary?
iU) tU" co*presso"is used at an altitude of 6000 ft and if
f Percentage decreased in cqpacity 5010:j[r?.8
= = 4.44Vo
the initial temperature and dischargp pressure remain the
same as given in (a), by what percentage is the capacity of the (c) pr = 14.7 psia
@mpressor reduced? R, at 6000 ft = 11.78 psia
(c) WUat snouldbe the displacement ofacumpressor at the
altitude of 6000 ft to handle the sa-e mass of air as in (a)? Vi = 500 cfu T, at 6000 ft = 530"R
Tr = 530'R
Solution
V, at 6000 ft = capacity to handle the same mass
of air
as in (a)
vD at 6000 ft = displacement volume to handle
the same
Pr 14.7 psia mass of air as in (a)
90.3 + L4.7 = 105 psia
q 500 ft3/min
Tr 70+460=530"R -,=#,=
Vl at 6000 ft = q+{H00) = ozs.g 4*
1+c-"[fl* Vo at 6000 ft = g
ffi= 800.4

*', lr0ilfr
=I+0.60-(0.0_.1;14.fl = 0.8156

y-=Yt==5=ry==
- -=orgq-
'o- o" 0.91b6 min.

l2{,
Compressor EfficiencY Adiabatic overall efficiency
is

ideal work
In general, effrciencY = actual work

adiabAtic ideal work


^{. Mechnnical EffrciencY ,,oc%
.. =

The mechanical elficiency of a compressor is


Isothermal overdll efficiency
is
- indica@
n*
If the compressor is driven by a steam or internal combus'
tion engine, the meehanical efficiency ofthe compressor system - isotherlpel ideal *"*
or%
o^,
is

indicated work of compressor Polyhbpic overall efficiency


is
"-'- indicated work of driving engine
no, = (n-) (n") = ideal worli
B. Compression. EfEciencY Sltpolvtmpic

Adiabatic compression effieiency is

adiabatic ideal work


S-
-c - indicated work of compressor Indicated workjs the work
done in the cylinder.
Brake work or sh"n *o"r.lr
Adiabatic compressio"
tn" i"*
delivered at the shaft.
Isothermal compression efficiency is r,
ciencycommonryused.c;p;;i;;;ffi ,t compression effr-
"E"i"i.r "
isothermal ideal work mean adiabatic compressi; "tr;;y;h";;;*,wo.,td
-'t -- indicated work of compressor "ffi";;;
Problems
Polytropic compression effrciency is J

1. A twocylinl":f:gl:__actils air
oolvtropic ideal work coupled to an electric motor compressor is direcily
"p = indicated work of compressor *rrrririg at 1000 rpm.
Other data are as follows:
Size of each cylinder, lbO
mm x 200 mm
c. Overall Effrciency Clearance f OZ.of Jirpfacement
"?\-9,
Exponent (n) for both comp.e5ri""
process, 1.6 *-expansion
Overall elficiency is ""J
Airconstant,k= t.{
no = (mechanical efficiency) (compression efficiency) Air molecular mass, 29

130
Calculate:
(a) The volume rate of air delivery in terms of standard 2. A 12 x 14_in., dollle-acting air compresor
clearance operates at lS0 ,p*, with 6.6*"
air for a delivery pressure of 8 times ambient pressure ari*ing air at l'.'pnin en'
under ambient conditions of 300 K and 1 bar. dischargin g.it at 62' p; i;thu .91
9,u^ _":"d n"".rion an d ex pH I r,
(b) Shaft power required if the mechanical efficiency is sron processes are polytropic
with n = l.Bi. Determini i"l tfru
81%. (ME Board Problem - April 1984)
volume of free air irirnarea pJ;i;;e, if atmospheric condi.
tions are 82'F and r+.2 psia,
indicated work of the-.o-p."rror
?tiil t";;fiffi;i"l ,r,,
Solution is 87Vo, and (d) the ideal *ort .
iitit" compression e-fficiency

Solution

pr = lbar=100kPa
Pz= g
Pr
P" = 14.7 psia
T = 82"F+460=542"R
Pr = 14.5 psia
o
Tr=85oF+460=b4b.R
(a) vo =tryLN ={to.rso)'?(0.200x2x1000) = ?.06e #
I
r
tr, = I * . -.pf = 1 + 0.10 - (0.10X8)t = 0.?332 (a)n"=1+c-c lP,-LI'
l&i = r.ob5 - o.obb
Lru
m]* = 0.8e2,4

m3
Vl= rr"Vo = (0.?332X7.069) = 5.183#ot vD =4'-D'?LN =
0.0864
S t H' frq (1b0x2) = 274.e crm
(b)w=T#R)* -l Vf = (o,) (V;) = (0.8924) (214.g)=

(v/ (P,) (r")


248.8 cfm

9'" - --In"Jnt- -= 84!€I(14.s (542)


-liz:7t6) = 240'6 cfm
(1.6) (100) (0.0864)
1-1.6 [t,*-t] = 27.ZlkW (b) \ir = Vn * % = Vo + cVo = Vo(l + c)

27.2L = (274.9) (1 + 0.0bb) = 290.02 cfm


Shaft power = = 33.59 kW
ffi . P,V, = Q!.5) O44) (2s0.02)
m, = lP
1i1; (53.34) (545) = 2o.ss
mln
3. There are compressed g.4g kg/min of oxygen by a g!,0€
\51 x E5. 5 6-cm, double -actin g, motor d"irre' co-p"essor
oporetlnf
r, = r, = 545EH
[t]" = ?88"R at L00 rpm: These data apply: Fr = 101.9b kpa, t, Z$.ZA
p,'310.27kPa. compression and expansion
= inE
polyt"opic wt&
"t"
n = 1.31. Determine (a) the con-uentional volumetricefliclency,
= (o.tz14) - o'3025ffi
co = c"
F=; ftfrfl= 9ltlt. heat rejected, (c) the work; and (d)the XW inpui by tfd
driving motor for an overall adiabatic elficiency of ittir.-

Solution
(788 -
= (20.83) (-0.03025) 545)

.,-o'' Btu
= - IDO.I ::::'
mtn OYt'a
* C
D'= L = 0.3556 m
.br fr'= 8.48 kg/min
(c) iV,"",, =
k4{&fiq* - rl 4)- Pr= 101.35 kPa
r-K L\pr/ -J F_V:
'vo ' Pz= 310.27 kPa
Tr= 26.7 + 273 = 2gg.7 K

(1.4) (14.5) (144) (245.3) t7g) * -r


=@lrr+.rt )
BtP o" -27.97 hP (a) v, =fD,tN =t0.Bbb6), (0.sbr6i (100) (z) = 2.068
= - 1185 mln #
adiabatic
,n.i@
ideal wor! vf=+=W=6.bu#
"=*-
vo W^
Indicated work =H#= 32:15 hP o" 0.9227 or gl.z7vo
2.068 =

- -*:!.
(b) 12 = r,l+4-
(d)w =ryreil{-'] - Lrrl = eee.7) t!-lq€fl+#=
L101.351
Beg.b K

." =.,p3J = (0.6beb)


(1.34)
=@l\r+si (14.5) ]44)(245.3) lTsz-t'*g - il H$H = -0.1808 kJ(ks) (K)
]
Blu or - 27 -29 hP D"=l+c-c F;r+
= - 1157 mln
l-F;l

135
work input by the driving motor
I-gro.2?l# = 20.41 hW
0.9227=1+c-cl
Ll0L5il- Multistage Compression
c = 0.0573 or 5.737o Multistagingis simply the compression
r rrt3 more cylinders in place of a singffitinaerof the gas in two or
V, = Vo (1 + c) = (?.063) (1 + 0.0573) = 7.468 -* usedin reciprocatingcompressors como"Jrro". l, iu
mrn in order to(l) save power, (2)
limit the gas discharge temperaru"q
aRR\ differential per cylinder. 4 ------r -
;;?JiilililJ;;:r"""
,- p,v, (101.35\ tn kg
'l',=ffi=idffiffi=e.717 ;ff
rvater in water out
Q,-, = rhrcn (T, - Tr) = (9.717) (-0.1808) (390.5 -ZggJ)

= _159.5 I-r
^1
mln

(c) W= nth'RT,
+
T.n l(tl -rl IIP cyUnder

= (131) (8.48) (0.25ee) (zss.7> [7 srO.ZztttJil .'l


Tl\lolsb/ -:l
-

= Y o" -14.1 kW
-846.1 mln

(d)w,"*=qPR)*-!

=(1.3eb) (8.48) (0.25ee) (2ss'7) l!0135i


[121s.2711fH
IiS ?2. Conventional Cards,
v
'rwo-Stage, _Fig.,23. Conventional Cards,.
No pressure Drop
Two-Stage, with pressure Diop
g-
= -..309.b mrn or -14.49 kw
' The figures abov-e-show the bvents
ofthe conventional cards
of a two-stage machin", *itl ifr*
adiabatic ideal work nigh pressure (Hp; srpe.-
posed on the low pressure (Lp).
'^oc - brake work suition il th; ilp.ji"a*"
begins at A and G pry"Vai; Ii"*r
in. Compression t-2
occurs and the gas is
'= 14'49 passes through the $yharc.ei The discharged gas
DraKe wofK
0J1 =
20.41 kW
water through the
interc*te" "*ir-".
cooled by circulating
interc*t." ".rd"is
i"U"r. Co"uu"tio'Jfi,"it i,

t:f7
tllrtll
entering the Pr = P' -- l'rtrHFllrlr
assumed that the
el
gas leaving the intercool:l

rrpcvrindeTiu.ir,?,u-g*g;;^iil:;tt*mi*""1i$ Heat Tlansferred in Intercoolor

Hft *u*kil*t=P**T'*'-**fr
fromtheGuuv^'--- r
ot Iearance and
c
'*
must reexpand F-E
The heat rejected in the intercooler is'
; each cylinder because - T')
pe (LP cvlinder)' Qt" = m'cn (T,
iirp tvu'ii"'i"*a
high
cylinder + W of the where m' is the mass of gas passing through
the intercoolor
!\f = W of the loLPlessure
i Jro tfr" mass clrawnin
byifrgif .ili"der and delivered bv tho
Pressure cYhnoer
HP cylinder).

= l#,Kkl*-1.#[ft]*-tr Problems

l.Therearecompressedl'1'33m3/minofairfrom26'7"C'
of multistage are 8Vo'
adjust ll:.o*tution L03.42kPa to 821.36 kPa' All clearance
Itis common practice to works are donejn the (a) Find the isentropic power and piston displacement
compressor, *o tr'uiipii#;;*y:f ti":*imum work tbr com- required for a single stage cornpresslon'
--=ft)-u*ing
p"u"""Jiil"t "^"'otf the,"-, a""t , nnd the minimum ideal air work for
cvlinders,
"
pressine . gi*'u" q;"iG *: :liiiT:H:ftff#Til:
oru the to the
;d of P, = Pr =.P*' weltave
t*o-ri"gr.oilpr"rrion when the intercooler cools
#T- = i- ---6 temPerature.
initial
l;,,h toitrat of the HP stage' or Fi"h trr" di-splacement of each cylinder for the condi-
: of part (b).
tions
ial liow much heat is exchanged in the intercooler?
#trf,*{=+[tlt'i (e) For * *p'"ttiin efficiency of 78Vo' what
""*"ff-is required?
driving motor outPut
p,= yTF*'-
work Solution
intermediate pressure for minimum
where: P, =
sane' tlre t?la\work
I the work of eachcvlila"iillh" cvlinder' or
since the workin each
i, for the two-stage
#;;;tJtwice
vf= 11.33 m3/min
103.42 kPa
2nm'Rr,f-1P,$ ;1 ='+Pfel*
i

-1\ Pr=
l9'/ r
I

827.36 kPa
w= "iffiLft,? _J - 1-n Pz=
rT
rl - 26.7 + 273 = 299.7 K
be spread on each
in the intercooler could
A pressure drop
oi this ideal value'
"ide Pressure droP
Pr=P,*--T-- 139
r =IilFR)*
l (1.a)11s3.a2) (11.33)

- 1416 #
1-1.4 L\
ftzgz.szttft;l
-
1o&42l |

N-mtz-t-il-J
(i,l.BBi lTga.BqtY/ o" -28.6 kW
_(1.4) (108.42) mln
1-1.4 - Tqtal work - (2) (23.6) = -47.2 kW

= - 3327# ot -55.45 kw +
(c)n"=L+c--c l-&1 =1+0.08-(0.08) = 0.9119
LP'l
tr"=1+c-c
vnrp=#=## =12.42#
' lezz'361.r
=1+0.08-(0.08)h1ffi1
tr.
vo=#= 11.33 _r^*o *t
*' = n#, =,+ffiffi$?, = 18.62
#
mffi -'"'"Y min ,l-=- -,BT€ - (13.62) (0.2q2q81j299.7)
'3 Pa 292.52 = 4.006 T3
mln
(b) r/ V; 4006 4.393;fr
rn3

p
vnur =;jf = ffig=

(d) Qrc = th'cn (Ts Tr)


-
Pr 103.42 kPa
(13.62) (1.0062) (299.7403.4) _ 1427 l&I-
=
Pa 827,36 kPa min

(e) Outpur of driving motor


: =!7:? = 60.5 kW
0.79

lb/min of air from l4.B psia and gb,r to a final pressurer tf I gn


p,=y'[];=@ 292.52kPa psia'. $e lormal barometer is 29. g in. Hg and the tempern t rr ro
is 80"F. The pressure drop in the intercooler is B paiand th,
temperature of the air at the exit of the intercooler is g0,,1., tho

**=+#F)* I speed is 210 rpm and pVt.er = C during compregeion und


expansion. The clearance is E% for both cylinders. Ths tem-
perature of the cooling water increase by iA F". Find (a) the
volume offree air, (b) tlie discharge pressure ofthe low pr*rruro

t4l
cylinder for minimum work, (c) the tempprature at discharge (d) c, = *-ffi = (0.1?r4)Htf = -{.0302
from both low pressure and high pressure cylinders, (d) the
mass of cooling water to be circulated about each cylinder and
dhi
through the.intercooler, (e) the work, and (f) if, for the low Low pressure cylinder
pressure cylinder, IJD = 0.68 and if both cylinders have the
sam: stroke, what should be the cylinder dimentions?
D" = I +
r-* I + 0.0b{0.0b) Fzslt
c-clfil = = 0.9178
Solution [a s]

' =*=
ru ;€g
vn = rB98 cfm
m 90lb/min 0.9173
po (29.8) (0.491) = 14.63 Psia
To 80+460=540oR V, = VD (1 + c) = (1393) (1 + 0.0b) = L46Z cfm
Pr L4.3 psia
Tr 90+460=550oR
Pr 185 psia ;, =$1f= tra,'f*ggxpzr = 1oB rb/min

Q"z = frrc" (T, - Tr) = (10S) (-0.0302 ) (767 - b50)


l" Vi*:--l
= -675 Btu/min

Heat to water = Heat from air


6'RTr _ (90) (bB.B4) (bb0) 1Zg2 cfm
(a) Vr=
, (143t(144) -'
Pr = (rh*) (c,") (At*)
= er.z

tfffi#ffi#P 678 Btu


v" =
ffi|$) = = 12Bo crm rh*=----414--
l f Btu\ (18F") =37.5 lb
mrn
\6F/
(b) p- = ilFm, =J043) (185t= 51.4 psia
High pressure cylinder
pz= 5!.4+&= 52.9 psia
.ll"
a*
(c)
= BZ.E #
ps = 51.4 -9= +g.gpsia
Intercooler
,n
t, -
= t,b:l+ - (550)
,rr l-p, ,,trR^\ [Bzd #'
|
=
Lffi]
''"" =- , 767 oR Q," = rir,co (\ - Tr)
r, = r, = (bbo)
'#' = 7G7'u, = (90) (0.24) (bbo - 767) =+osz Blt
[*{* t#.f mln

r42 l4lj
mass ofcooling wate" =
{y 4L2.3 D2 = 400.5

lb D = 0.986 ft or 11.88 in.


= 260.4 min
L = 15.01 in.
(e) Low pressure cylinder
Three-Stage Compression

nrh'RT,
\i/. - l-n l7gt+ _ il
"LP =
L\prl ]

(1.34) (e0) (53.34) (550) 1-t52.effi


=@l\ra.si -jl '1
LP cylinder IP cylinder
B!t'
= - b2G5
mrn = -L24.2hp Fig. 24. Three-Stage Compression

Total work, fr = (2) (-124.2) = *248.4 hp


pV=C
(0 Low pressure cylinder pV"=C
y^D44
=3.D2LN =!pe (0.68 D) (210) (2) = 224.3 D3 cfm
py Condltlone fornlnlnum rork
PV"=C 1) wr,p = wrp -
%p
2-P, e)TS =T3 =Tl
224.3 D3 = 1398
-PV" = C
D = 1.84 ft or 22.08 in. I
L = (1.84) (0.68) = L.25 ft or 15.01 in. Fig. 25. conventiorrut cu"arlThree-stage, No pressure Dr'p

High pressure cylinde


,,1'T,r, il =,,p'or. f&\.'-l = --1*-L\&i
nm'Rro Zluf+-
(?50)
If+l+- l=-I-n-[\d/
l-n l\Pr/ 11

_ fi'Rr3 _
(eg)
v p, !5giq1)
(49.9) (144) = 36?.4 cfm
-l
": Pr P"
\r'D --i;n-,- gal = 400'5 cfm P, =F, = P,
Pn

Ufr*
I
P, = (PrPr) (1)
2

=ID2LN =3D2 (t.zb) (210) (z) = 4Lz.g D2 cfm


V^u44
I
P, = (P,Po)
2
(2)
ft)T3-Tr=BgbK
Solving equations (1) and (2) simultaneously,
n-l
p,=\/ir'p, and p, =t6trJ /&\ -- =,ruc /3ss'olff/ = 411 K
'z = Trrgf/
T
"no (ib3;)

1-n [gf#-il
3nm'Rr, Heat rejected in the first intercooler,
l\P'r l
Problem
Qrc= m'co (\ - Tr)
Air is compressed from 103.4 kPa and 32"C to 4136 kPa by = (1) (1.0062) (305
- 4rr) = -106.2 kI
a three-stage compresor with value of n = 1.32. Determine (a) Total heat rejectred = (Z) (_t06.7) _218.4
the work per kg of air and (b) the heat rejected in the intercool- = kJ
ers.

Solution
p

m lke
Pr 103.4 kPa
Po 4136 kPa
Tr 32"C + 273 = 305 K

(a) p, = (p,,pu)*= fioa.aX (4136j#= 353.6 kPa

-1
vY-
,.,
l-n 7&.*
_ 3nm'RT,
l\P,)"-1.J
L.IZJ
(3) (1.32) (1) (0.28708) (305) l/353.6\ r'32-11
- 1-1.31
It-

l]103.4/
| r I

_1

= - 376.2 kJ

t47
IT il

Review Problems 5. From a testjf an.air compressor driven direcily


rt"uq by a
engine, the following data and resurts
**
,t

' o-ut"i,r.,a,
i capacity, 800 cfm; suction it t+.2 psia;
1. A reciprocating compressor handles 1000 cfm of air indicated work of
disch;d;;; iio pri,,;
psia and t, = 80"F. The lhe compressor,'i5S frp; indicated work ol.
measured at intake where P, = 14 steam engine, IZ2 hp^aCal..rlute (u) tt u.";p;;i""im.i"n.y
discharge pressure is 84 psia. Cdlculate the workifthe process and (b) the overall efficiency.
*
of compression is (a) isothermal, (b) polytropic with n L.25, Ans. (a) 90,06Vo; (b) Bt.t6qo
and (c) isentropic.
Ans. (a) -109.5 hp; (b) -131.7 hp; (c) - 143 hp 6.
An air compressor with a clearance of 4Vo
compresses
14.73 ms/min of airfrom gz kpa, z7ic to 462r<pa.If the overail
2. A twin-cylinder, double-acting, compressor with a clear- adiabatic efficiency is 6rvo, d"t"r-i.r"
ance of \Vo draws in oxygen at 450 kPa, 17"C and discharges it power of the directly connected
the indicated horse-
; driving steam engine.
at 1800 kPa. The mass flow rate is 20 kg/min, compression and I Ans. 91.89 hp
expansion are polytropic with a = 1.25. Find (a) the work, (b) the I
heat transferred, and (c) the bore and stroke for 100 rpm and 7. Methane is compressed in a two-stage, double_acting
llD = 1.20. f compressor which is electricaily driven
Ans. (a) -40.23 kW;(b) -829 kJ/min/ (c) 2L.71x25'76 t pressure cylinder (3_0. E x Bb, b cm)
at rbb rpm. The row
cm of air at 96.b3 kpa,4B.B"C, *Jtfr" ;
receive, O. S6 pe r-mirrute

x
hish;;;iJ.r]ioa""
""
3. A double-acting compressor with c = 7Vo draws 40 lb per I' !20..3 35.5 cm) discharges til" -"th* e at 7t7.06 kpa. The
isothermal overall efficiencyi szq,%-.inanu
minute of air atl4.7 psia and 80"F and discharges it at 90 psia. and the kwoutput
of the raotor.
Compression and expansion are polytropic with n = 1.28. Find " Ans. 8O.02Vo,90.g6Vo
(a) the work, (b) the heat rejected, and (c) the bore and stroke +

for 90 rpm and UID = L.25. i,


i'i A tw-ostage compressor with a clearance
Ans. (a) 77.68 hp;(b) -1057 Btu/min; (c) 18.96 x23.70 ^^ ,9:
80lumin of air at
of *Voreceives
14 psia and 8E"F and dcrivers ii
in' The comp,ressions pri".
_ "i1io
cooler cools the air Td-polyt*pi;;th
1.g0, and
" the worL, (bjthe
Uact to ar"i.. ri"Jfrl li"
inter_
4. A 14 x L2-in., single'cylinder, double-acting air com- transferred in the various processes, rruut
pressor wit}'5.5Vo clearance operates atL25 rpm. The suction i.ith" ;;;il,f#;^.irer"_
gtage m achine, (d) the correspondiog percentage
pressure and temperature arc14 psia and t00oF, respectively. s avin g for the
two-stage_machine, and (f) tle
The discharge pressure is 42 psia. Compression and expansion -asiif
through the intercooler if its t"*p"i"l.rre
water to be circulated
processes are polytropic, with n - 1.30. Determine (a) the rise is 15 F".
Ans. (a)-17_1.0 hp; (b) -Soz.S Bru/min; l.l _igie stu/
volumetric effrciency, (b) the mass and volume at suction min; (d) _196 hp; (e) t2.4EVo; (ft igo lb/mi;
conditions handled each minute, (c) the work, (d) the heat
rejected, (e) the indicated air. hp developed if the polytropic
compression efficiency is 75Vo, and (f) the compression effr-
ciency.

Ans. (a)92.7Vo;(b) 247.8 cfm,L6.72lblmin; (c) -18.93


hp; (d) -175.7 Btu/min; (e) -25.24 hp; (f) 77.42Vo

l4 f]
8 The Brayton Cycle

Operation of a Simple Gas T\rrbine power plant

Combustor

To
'*'/
Generator

lr?:
Compressor Turbine
fi:-r-:i-::::i::a
1.,:".:':::Sinki.,' F------
r...: r:: i : :r't..i: ... .:l
J

Open Cycle

Q*
Closed Cycle

Fig. 26 Diagrammatic Layout of Gas Turbine Units

Air continuously enters the compressor 1. After


compres-
sion, it enters the combustors, som'e
of it going u"o,rrra tfru
outside of the comhrrstion chamber proper
and the remainder
fulnish]1* oxygen for burning the fieljwhich ir-.orrti*orrrfv
injected into the combustioniha-ber.
Because of their tem-
rise, the gases expand and enter the
ryTlure
3' After expansion through the turbine, the turbine in state
exhaust t. ilrt:
atmosphere is in some condition 4. In
an ordinary powor'r:r.t.
arrangement, the work of the turbine W,
is g"*i ,,,r,,,,gt, t,.,
drive the compressor W delive.
_and U.ut ,, *,rrL W,, i,,',t,.iu,,,
say, a generator or proptlllrlr; W, __ W,, I W,. Arr ,,*..il,,,,l H()r(.(,
of power is needed to si lrrt :r
liirH l.rrr.l'r'rrrr. rrrril..
Derivation of the formula for e

Process 1-2:

T =H"=FJT
T2 = Tr"an.t
(2)
rok-t = ro Y (3)
Fig.27. ,Air-standard Brayton (Joule) cycle

. L-2 isentroPic conPression


2-3: constant-pressure addition of heat
3-4: isentroPicexPansion
4-tr; constant-pressure rejectionofheat
L-l
Analysis of the BraYton CYcle
t=Fl*= l-p
LF
k

Qo = mco (Tr - TJ
Ta = Tn"*tt (4).
Q* - DCo (Tr - T4) = *nrco (T4 - Tr)

mco (Tn - T,) Substituttuig equations (2) and (4) in (1).


S = Q^ - Q* = mco'(Ts - TJ -
e = W = mc.(Tr-Tr)-mco(Tn-Tr)
q@ € =1-

.:=
1
1-#I
e= +,-+ 1_ rg t2
-
(1) rr-r
f

"J
e-1- -11 =1-t- Total compressor work, W"=& -AH
rL
"o* W.= -mco(T,

v the comPression ratio


Total turbine work, W, ={-AH
where rk = +, W, - -mc, (T. - \)
rppr= -P, I ttre pressure ratio W, = mco (T, - T,)
W--_
.,].
- W" Point 3:
Net work, W or W" = W,
= v2
Vg
tt.]
L
= e.7z)
f+#fl =
4.s4 rtsnb
Problems:
an air-standard Bray-
Point 4:
1. The intake of the compressor of
and 90oF' The compression
ton cycle is 40,000;;;it;sia I
turbine inletis 1440"F' t--*
ratio, rr = 5 andth-;;;;;'i""3t11" v=v l&l
.4 ,.LpJ \^rvrlLlbI
=@.94)ll+Z8lt"= -
z4.Tfttnb
is 15 psia Dgterminl ll: ""'
The exit pressure oiiftJi""tine pressure'
;;;;,;#;al efficiencv and the mean effective
f-,, -lt -l r ^
r.= r, i+l- = (leoo) l#l'o'= eesoR
L'rJ 124:Ll
v1 = 40,000 cfm Compressor work, W = -{o (Tz - Tr)
Pr = L5 Psia
T1 = 550'R = - (0.24) (L047 - 550) = - 119.8 Btu/lb
T3 = 1900'R
p4 = 15 psia Turbine work, W, - co (T, - T.)

r.K =S v2
=5 = (0.24)(1900
- 99S) = 216.b Btu/lb
Net work, WB = W, - W" = 2L6.5 - 119.8 = g7.2 Btu/lb

= W_Q945) = 6751 hp

n (15x144X40,000) _
=*,t = --T5rilx550t 2945lb/min
f
42.4

Heat added, Q = c, (T, - Tr)

Point 1:
= (0.24) (1900
v, -1047) = 2A4.7 Btu/lb
4o.ooo 13.58 fta^b
v1 --=
- =
IiI 2945
= +Qo= V2-
204.7 =
0.4748 or 47.48?o

Point 2:
p. = g = =-lu- = (97.2) (778)
vl 13.58 vD v, - % 6+7 _ zlz) tt,t,n _

rkD= --=- =
2.72fbs/,b
v2 = -=
= 23.89 psi
Pz = Prf**-t = (15X5)" = 142'8 Psia
2' There are required 2288 kwnet from r,rrr'rrrr* rrrrrl
(550X5)1:a 1= 1047"R lirr'prrmpi.g of crude oil from thc Nrrth Arrrrrkrrrr
'11:rs ,.rr,1*, .i*
T2 = Trr*k-r =
'|'irt'(!r'$ thc compressor scction at gg"n?l-r kPr, ltzH ti, rrr* lr*ee

I ll4 IFE