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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Background of the Study

Zero Waste is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life

cycles so that all products are reused. In industry, this process involves creating

commodities out of traditional waste product, especially making old outputs and

new inputs for similar or different industrial sectors. It can represent an economical

alternative to waste systems, where new resources are continually required to

replenish wasted row materials, (www.wikipedia.com).

Recycling has become a national habit, a daily ritual practiced by over 100

million people every day. Yet recycling alone will not end our dependency on

landfills and incinerators, nor reverse the rapid depletion of our natural resources.

As world population and consumption continue to rise, it is clear that our one-way

system of extracting virgin resources to make packaging and products that will

later be buried or burned is not sustainable. Zero Waste is a new way of looking at

our waste stream. Instead of seeing used materials as garbage in need of

disposal, discards are seen as valuable resources. A pile of "trash" represents

jobs, financial opportunity, and raw material for new products. Other countries

around the world and some U.S. communities have begun to evaluate and

redesign their current systems to encourage resource recovery and to create a

more materials-efficient economy. American companies who do business overseas

are already redesigning their products and manufacturing processes to meet the
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Zero Waste standards adopted by other countries. If they can do it there, they can

do it here, (http://www.ecocycle.org/ZeroWaste/index.cfm).

Spectrum Blue Steel Corporation announced the launch of the Blueprint for

Zero Waste Philippines. Under the Arroyo administration, the Philippines have

seen soaring energy costs. The government has committed to moving to

renewable energy under the Medium Term Development Plan for the Philippines.

Spectrum Blue Steel has an exclusive license from the Global Environment Energy

Corporation to use the biosphere process in the Philippines,

(www.matternetwork.com/2008/8/philippines-move-toward-zero-waste.cfm)

In Tagum City, after three years of implementation of the Solid Waste

Management Program, the City Government’s spending for garbage collection is

now P3 million less than its P17 million annual budget. At least seven of nine urban

barangays are now earning from recyclable waste materials. Under the R.A. 9003

or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, every barangay or cluster

of barangays is mandated to put up its own material recovery facility (MRF). MRF

is where waste segregation, recycling, composting of biodegradable waste and

storing of recyclable materials are supposed to be made. In 2006, the City Council

of Tagum passed Ordinance No.229”establishing the comprehensive Solid Waste

Management of the City of Tagum”. Under the Ordinance, a Solid Waste

Management board was created, composing the City Mayor, city councilors, non-

government organization representative, barangay federation president,

manufacturing representative and recycling industry representative, (Pantaleon A.,

2008).
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We are motivated to conduct the study about the Student’s Perception of

the Zero Waste Management to enable us to determine the students’ different

reactions towards the implementation of such policy, and as well as to evaluate the

effectiveness of Zero Waste Management among the student’s of the different

departments from elementary to college.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the relationship of Student’s Perception and

Zero-Waste Management implementation in St. Mary’s College.

Specifically, this answers the following questions:

1. What is the extent of Student’s Perception?

2. What is the extent of Zero-Waste Management implementation in St.

Mary’s College in terms of:

2.1 Information Dissemination

2.2 Processing/ Implementation of the Project

2.3 Policy and Enforcement?

3. Is there a significant difference on the extent of Student’s Perception when

analyzed according to department and gender?

4. Is there a significant difference on the extent of Zero-Waste Management

implementation in St. Mary’s College when analyzed according to

department and gender?

5. Is there a significant relationship between the extent of Zero Waste

Management implementation and the extent of student’s perception.


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Hypotheses

1. There is no significant difference on the extent of student’s perception when

analyzed according to department and gender.

2. There is no significant difference on the extent of Zero-Waste Management

implementation when analyzed according to department and gender.

3. There is no significant relationship between the extent of Zero Waste

Management implementation and the extent of student’s perception.


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Review of Related Literature

This present furthers information that is relevant to the present study. These

are facts taken from books, journals, internet, and different authorities that will

strengthen the validity of results.

Zero Waste Management. According to the study conducted by James Lactao

(2008), unlike the garbage of long ago, our present rubbish includes synthetic

materials that keep piling up unlike natural ones that degrade and eventually return

to earth. Thus, disposal becomes a problem. Aside from this, garbage is also a

health hazard- being a melting pot of all sorts of disease. As today’s throwaway

society consumes more and more products, we also generate more and more

waste. Much of this waste gets burned in incinerators or buried in landfills, causing

a series of environmental problems including water pollution and loss of open

space,

Sheehan (2000), According to the latest concepts, waste is a visible face of

inefficiency in terms of material utilization. Waste handling is a major concern,

especially since improper waste treatment causes increased environmental

deterioration. The last few decades have seen the emergence of new measures to

handle waste effectively, but most of them are not flawless. “Zero waste”, an

innovation of the 1990s in waste handling, emphasizes planning for the elimination

of waste rather than managing waste.

According to Carolyn Allen (2006), the Zero Waste International Alliance,

means that zero waste is the designing and managing products and processes to

reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all
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resources, and not burn or bury them. The simple technology and methods

required to achieve Zero Waste exist in every community around the world.

Zero Waste Management Group (2008), Environmental sustainability and

waste management are the most important issues of our time. An important step

towards achieving environmental sustainability and responsible waste

management involves reducing our impact on the environment. It is through the

successful implementation of our waste management and diversion programs that

we commit ourselves to continually satisfy our client's needs. The main principals

that are employed by Zero Waste Management Group involve resource

preservation and waste reduction. These are the core fundamental components of

the 'Zero Waste Philosophy'. This is done by means of recycling all potential waste

and reusing those materials in different ways, creating a circular system of use and

re-use. Implementing this philosophy, bring solutions to all segments of society.

This is demonstrated by our commitment to work with and provide efficient

solutions to individuals, groups and municipalities.

Zero Waste is a critical stepping-stone to other necessary steps in the

efforts to protect health, improve equity and reach sustainability. Zero Waste can

be linked to sustainable agriculture, architecture, energy, industrial, economic and

community development. Every single person in the world makes waste and as

such is part of a non-sustainable society. However, with good political leadership,

everyone could be engaged in the necessary shift towards a sustainable society.

Good political leadership in this matter involves treating citizens as key allies to

protect human health and the environment and in making the transition to a
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sustainable future. Governments need to “govern” rather than attempt to “manage”

this change to sustainable resource conservation practices. This includes a

significant investment in public outreach and education so that citizens can help

communities make the most informed choices.

(http://www.zwia.org/main/index.php?

option=com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=58).

Over the last few decades, the dumping and burning of garbage generated

in cities, towns and villages in wetlands and waterbodies, have resulted in serious

air, soil and water pollution. Zero Waste Management is a new system of

managing solid waste, which strives for maximum waste recovery through

recycling and reuse, aiming at ‘zero’ waste to be disposed onto dump yards and

landfills. All over the world, Zero Waste Management has been accepted (and is

being practiced) as the best solution to the problem of waste, for the following

reasons. Waste is segregated and resources are recovered through composting of

organic waste and recycling of inorganic waste. Compost generated through Zero

Waste Management is used to promote organic farming, bringing down the use of

chemicals in agriculture. Zero Waste Management helps reduce the rate of virgin

raw material extraction and resource depletion. Zero Waste Management

minimizes waste disposal at dumpsites and reduces pollution of air, ground water

and soil that result from dumping. (http://www.exnoragreencross-

vellore.org/zero.html).

Studies have shown that waste disposal directly contributes to climate

change with the discharge of GHGs such as methane from dumps and landfills and
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carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from incinerators. Waste disposal also indirectly

drives climate change by depriving the economy of reused, recycled and

composted materials.“By adopting Zero Waste, we cut greenhouse gas emissions

from waste disposal sites as well as from the energy-intensive extraction,

processing and transportation of virgin materials to replace the buried or burned

discards,” Manny Calonzo, Co-Coordinator of the Global Alliance for Incinerator

Alternatives (GAIA), another member of the EcoWaste Coalition.

(http://ecowastecoalition.blogspot.com/2009/06/green-groups-urge-shift-from-

waste.html)

Zero waste is a philosophy of waste management that aims to reduce total

amount of waste to zero by redesigning resource-use systems. Rather than

maintaining a linear waste system – you throw something away, it ends up in a

landfill – zero waste initiatives work toward extending current practices of recycling

and reuse into a circular waste system. This strategy “maximizes recycling,

minimizes waste, reduces consumption and ensures that products are made to be

reused, repaired or recycled back into nature or the marketplace.”

(http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/08/footprints-waste-management-taking-

steps-toward-zero-waste.php).

Information Dissemination. As education begins in the home, zero waste

management groups will initiate programs that will raise awareness of recycling

and environmental issues that families can implement together. One such method

will be the distributions recycling guides with tips on recycling and composting to

households, schools and business in local communities. These easy-to-guides will


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increase awareness about the importance of being environmentally friendly

highlight the importance of reducing, reusing, and recycling the resources without

compromising daily routine, (http:/zerowastemg.com/communityinvolvement.ph/)

Environmental education is an essential tool for achieving effective resource

management and sustainable development. Environmental education in its

broadcast sense encompasses awareness raising, acquiring new perspectives,

values, knowledge and skills and both the formal and informal process that lead to

changed behavior in support of sustainable environment,

(http//www.crra.com/zerowaste/links/education.htm).

Environmental information has been described as central to the issues of

solid waste management and disposal. This study investigated the availability and

accessibility of environmental information to the solid waste policy formulators and

implementors with regard to the media/channels used for disseminating

environmental information to the public. A descriptive survey design was adopted

for the study. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample and

the method produced 205 respondents that consisted of 185 Policy Implementors

and 20 Policy Formulators. A total of 147 cases were finally analyzed, which

included 16 Policy Formulators (80% of total sample) and 131 Policy Implementors

(71% of total sample). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics

such as percentages and frequency counts. Findings show that the Policy

Implementors preferred the use of personal contact as the channel for

disseminating environmental information, whereas the Policy Formulators relied on

the use of posters, radio/TV talks, and professional meetings. Some barriers to
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disseminating information to the public included: lack of access to information

sources, lack of standards for acquisition of information, and lack of funds to

publish information materials.(

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/ueec/2009/00000008/00000001/a

rt00007).

This individual achievement however would remain individual had it not

been shared with the community. As soon as the use of fire was shared, the scope

for its future use and development was widened. Throughout time, other members

of the community would discover or come up with new practical application for it,

like cooking and production of tools and items. These associate innovations

reinforced the initial idea, contributed to its use and were at least as significant as

the primary innovation. But the question remaining is what could have prompted all

other communities to adopt the use of fire too? One can only speculate, but it may

be that fire with all its derivative uses gave communities that used it a competitive

advantage. Better fed, better equipped, as these communities prospered over time

and migrated they simply either spread the knowledge of fire to others or triggered

their extinction. Perhaps some neighboring villages even stole fire, in an attempt to

even the odds.(

http://www.kazakhstudents.org/all/other_topics/effects_of_environment_informatio

n_dissemination_and_competition_on_the_pace_of_innovation_and_progress/)

Information collection and storage involve the day-to-day processes of

gathering and storing data from organizational programs, partners, and

stakeholders. More sensitive information being managed is usually personal


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information subject to the various state and international privacy laws or

information that is proprietary to a corporation or other organization. The various

state and international privacy laws Information provisional impact levels are

documented in the Personal Identity and Authentication information type. Such

information will often be assigned a moderate confidentiality impact level. Where

any of the information to be managed can be expected to have a high

confidentiality, impact level, then the information management information must be

assigned a high confidentiality impact level. When the data being managed

belongs to one of the information types described in this guideline, the

confidentiality impact assigned to the system is that of the highest impact

information type processed by the system. Depending on the organization and the

mission being supported, the sensitivity of the information can range from none

(public information) to high.

(http://www.unifiedcompliance.com/it_compliance/systems_info_class/information_

technology_managem/information_management.html)

At Basingstoke and Deane we firmly believe in integrating environmental

issues and action into the culture of our borough. One of the key factors in

achieving this is education with schools and colleges and working with businesses

and the community. Another essential element is the enforcement of environmental

legislation. As part of our drive to make the borough of Basingstoke and Deane a

cleaner and greener environment we intend to target offenders who commit

environmental crime. We work closely with }cny external organizations on

enforcement ranging from the Environment Agency and tle Police to local
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landowners. Basingstoke and Deane also employs12two Dog Wárdens who are

ppovifed by a contractor.

(http2//www.bas)ngstoke.gov.uk/environment/envawareness/envenforcement.htm)

Whilst ráising awareness, promoting a more responsible approach to our

environment and educating youngsters are all means of reducing instances of

littering and dog fouling there will always be those who refuse to alter their

behavior. The enforcement powers of the wardens enable them to prosecute

individuals for littering and dog fouling. Fixed penalty notices can also be issued to

offenders who are caught allowing their dogs to foul and not removing the waste or

failing to dispose of their litter in a correct manner. The amounts of the fixed

penalties are set by the Welsh Assembly.(

http://www.wrexham.gov.uk/english/env_services/community_services/amenity_wa

rden.htm)

Processing/ Implementation of the Project. It typically describes the act of

taking something through an established and usually routine set of procedures to

convert it from one form to another, as a manufacturing or administrative

procedure (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process(science); Retrieved, 2010) The

barangay is responsible for the segregation of waste at source, collection of

biodegradable and recyclable components and setting up of a materials recovery

facility (MRF). There are about 976 MRFs nationwide. The municipality or city

governments are responsible for the collection and disposal of residual

nonbiodegradable and hazardous waste, except in Metro Manila where disposal is


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within the mandate of the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA).

(http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?

title=National_Solid_Waste_Management_Commission)

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, The City has committed to the goal

of closing the Albuquerque landfill by 2030 by diverting all material out of the waste

stream or into a system to convert the waste to energy. In order to achieve the

Zero Waste goal for Albuquerque, aggressive steps need to be taken now. Zero

Waste can be achieved by recycling existing waste and reducing the need for

recycling by reducing and reusing existing materials.(

http://www.cabq.gov/cap/strategies/recycling-and-zero-waste/recycling-and-zero-

waste)

There are multiple solutions that Zero Waste Management Group provides

to achieve environmental sustainability and waste management. The main

principals that are employed by Zero Waste Management Group involve resource

preservation and waste reduction. These are the core fundamental components of

the 'Zero Waste Philosophy'. Our team of experienced environmentalists

understands and lives by the Zero Waste Philosophy. Through rigorous research

and development we have created the "Zero Waste Solution". This is done by

means of recycling all potential waste and reusing those materials in different

ways, creating a circular system of use and re-use. Implementing this philosophy,

we bring solutions to all segments of society. This is demonstrated by our

commitment to work with and provide efficient solutions to individuals, groups and

municipalities.( http://www.zerowastemg.com/about.php)
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Policy and Enforcement. Enforcement as a motivating factor should not be

overlooked. Behavior studies have shown that monetary incentives, both positive

(rewards) and negative (fines) are effective motivators, especially if combined with

other motivating factors, such as education (De Young, 1985-6). Furthermore,

enforcement of requirements for adequate recycling collection and storage areas in

multi-family buildings can actually eliminate barriers to participation. Indeed it is in

the City’s interest to use all of the tools available to encourage and enable

residents to recycle, reuse and compost properly. Only by doing so can we ensure

the success of a zero waste program. However, we should not overlook the fact

that enforcement fine can be a valuable revenue enhancement tool that can help

to finance a zero waste program. (http://www.consumersunion.org/other/zero-

waste/enforcement.html)

Manchester is working hard to ensure that the city and it's wards are clean

and safe. Like any city, Manchester suffers from it's own share of environmental

crime, perpetrated by the irresponsible few. Environmental Crime blights our city,

causing eyesores, and more often than not a health or safety hazard. Our Teams

are working hard to prosecute these offenders that damage, spoil and pollute the

community we live in.

Manchester City Council takes a very strict enforcement approach against

people who commit these crimes. Working together, the Environmental

Enforcement family are responsible for investigations to secure successful

prosecutions relating to environmental crime.


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(http://www.manchester.gov.uk/info/500012/environmental_enforcement/912/envir

onmental_crimes_and_enforcement/1

A local environmental enforcement program is a program that your local

county or city government can initiate to combat illegal dumping in your

community. The Missouri Department of Natural Resources encourages local

communities to start their own enforcement program to combat illegal dumping.

The department retained the services of a consultant to produce a manual entitled

How to Establish and Operate an Environmental Enforcement Program. This is an

in depth manual that is designed to help local governments start an enforcement

program or improve an existing enforcement program to combat illegal dumping.

From 2000 through 2002, twelve workshops held throughout the state explained

how to start and implement the program outlined in the manual.

(http://www.dnr.mo.gov/env/swmp/pubs-reports/litter.htm)

Our Environmental Health Officers (EHOs) are local authority inspectors,

who want you to meet all of the necessary requirements. If your organization is

higher risk (a factory, a building site, a mine, an offshore chemical plant and/or

nuclear installation), then the Health and Safety Executive will be responsible for

monitoring you.( http://www.eea.europa.eu/pressroom/speeches/information-

dissemination-and-climate-change)
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Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

This study is anchored on the theory of Florence Nightingale Environmental

Theory on which she linked health with five environmental factors: pure or fresh air,

pure water, efficient drainage, cleanliness and light specially direct sunlight, (Kozier

and Erb’s, 2008)


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Zero Waste Implementation

• Information
Dissemination
• Processing/
Student’s Perception Implementation of the
Project
• Policy and
Enforcement

Department
Gender

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the study


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Significance of the Study

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of implementation of Zero

Waste Management to the student nurses at St. Mary’s College. Moreover the

result of this study will inspire the following:

Students. The data of this study will provide students’ awareness of their

responsibility to the said project which is zero waste management.

Teachers. The outcome will help the school teachers to promote the zero waste

management implementation towards the students, specifically the student nurses.

School Administrators. The result of the study can provide information and

feedback to the administrators for them to know if the zero waste management is

effective or been improved.

Definition of Terms

For easy understanding, the major term used in this study is defined

conceptually and operationally.

Zero Waste Management. Is literally the process of managing waste materials

(normally those produced as a result of human activities). It involves the collection,

transport, processing and/or disposal of waste materials

(www.wordiq.com/waste_management; Retreived,2010). In this study it refers to

the schools imperative method in the use of strategies to creating a garbage-free


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campus, with the participation of every individual in the school who’s responsible

for generating their own wastes. This includes proper segregation/disposal of

garbage and enforcing disciplinary actions against those who violates.

Information Dissemination. This is the process of distribution or spreading of

information to the people or to the public to educate them about a specific issues,

events, or facts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information; retrieved, 2010 ). In this

study, it refers to the massive and continuous information and education to all

department and offices, and all waste generators in which they are encouraged to

practice reduction, reuse, and recycling of waster generated at source as an

effective minimization technique. In the conduct of information education

campaign, waste generators will be educated on the proper method of composting

as an environment friendly way of disposing waste.

Processing/Implementation of the project. This is the realization of an

application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard,

algorithm, or policy.( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Implementation). In this study this

refers to the establishment of MRF for recycling and composting of garbage

materials. This also refers on establishing marketing linkages with potential buyers

for recyclables. MRF consists of; Botanical and Ecological Garden, where in

organic vegetables garden shall be planted with high value crops, it shall be

established in vacant space after Marian Hotel; Warehouse, the existing carpentry

shop can be constructed into a MRF with roof out of existing recyclable

construction materials; shedder (for garden and kitchen wastes), the shedder can
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produce humus or fertilizer which can be sold by sack or use in botanical and

ecological garden as fertilizer.

Policy and Enforcement. A policy is typically described as a deliberate plan of

action to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome(s). The term is not normally

used to denote what is actually done, this is normally referred to as either

procedure or protocol. Where as a policy will contain the 'what and the why'

procedures or protocols contain the 'what' the 'how' the 'where' and the 'when'.

Enforcement is a term that refers to the process by which legislation, or part of

legislation, and treaties comes to have legal force and effect. The term is closely

related to the date of this transition (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Policy; retrieved;

2010). In this study it refers to the policies and implementation of disciplinary

actions or sanctions to facilitate obedience of all waste generators. in this study,

The DSA and Discipline Coordinators with the help of the SCEB, SEC, GAB

officers including administrators, teaching and non-teaching personnel have the

moral duty to help by listing down names of the violators, ID’s can also be

confiscated if necessary.
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Chapter 2

METHODS

Presented in this chapter are the research design, the subject and

respondents, the instrument, the data gathering procedure, and the statistical

treatment of the data.

Research design

A Descriptive-study Method of research will be employed in this study. It is a

method that tries to reveal patterns associated with specific phenomena without an

emphasis or pre-specified hypothesis. Sometimes these studies are called

hypothesis generating studies (to contrast them with hypothesis testing study),

(www.children.mercy.org./stats/definition/descriptive.htm: retrieved, 2010)

This design is adopted since the main problem of the study is to determine

the extent of student’s perception and zero waste management implementation in

St. Mary’s College.

Research Subject

The respondents of this study will be the students in the different

department of St. Mary’s College enrolled in the school year 2010-2011.

They will be chosen on the basis of stratified random sampling. This

sampling technique will be used in order to get the exact representation of

respondents of this study.


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Using the Slovin’s Formula, a sample of 223 student-respondents were

taken. The sample size of the population and the distribution of respondents by

gender and section using stratified random sampling.

Stratified random sampling will be used in this study as samples are

gathered from the different department to the used sampling technique and

Slovin’s Formula.
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Table 1

Distribution of Student-Respondents

POPULATION SAMPLE

Year Level Gender Gender


TOTAL TOTAL

Male Female Male Female

Ist 22 47 69 10 20 30

2nd 13 49 62 6 21 27

3rd 55 127 182 24 56 80

4th 53 142 195 23 63 86

TOTAL 143 365 508 63 160 223

Research Instrument
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The instrument used in this study was the researcher made a

questionnaire using a Likert scale. The questionnaire was used to assess the

effectiveness of the implementation of Zero-waste management among the nursing

students in St. Mary’s College. The statements of sentences were made simple,

brief, and concrete to provide the respondent’s basic understanding about the

purpose of the study.

The five scale scoring has the following qualitative description:

Scale Descriptive Equivalent Description

5 Very extensive This means that the Zero Waste

Management implemented in St. Mary’s

College was very much evident or always

observed.

4 Extensive This means that the Zero Waste

Management implemented in St. Mary’s

College was most often evident or

observed.

3 Moderately extensive This means that the zero waste

Management implemented in St. Mary’s

College was very much relatively evident

in most cases.

2 Less extensive This means that the Zero Waste


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Management implemented in St. Mary’s

College was acknowledged to be present

but only slightly felt.

1 Not extensive This means that the Zero Waste

Management implemented in St. Mary’s

College was almost non-evident.

Data Gathering Procedure


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The following steps will be observed in the gathering of data:

Seek Permission to conduct the Study. The researcher will send a letter to the

present school administrator, asking permission to allow the researchers to

conduct the study at St. Mary’s College, Tagum City.

Administration and Retrieval of Questionnaire. The researcher will personally

distribute and administer the questionnaire. They will be instructed no to leave any

item unanswered. The students will also be given enough time to answer all the

items. And after answering the researcher will retrieve the questionnaire

immediately.

Checking, Collating and Processing of Data. The researcher will gathered all

the questionnaires were checked thoroughly if all items were answered and

collated of score followed. It was checked, collated and processed appropriate

statistical tools.

Statistical Treatment

To answer the questions proposed in this study, the data were subjected to

statistical treatment. The following statistical operations were used:

Average Weighted Mean. It is a method used by multiplying each of the scores by

the corresponding frequency. This was used to determine the extent of the

implementation of Zero Waste Management among Nursing Student in St. Mary’s

College. This answered question 1.


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Mean. It is the average of the set of data used to determine the extent of the

implementation of Zero Waste Management among Nursing Students in St. Mary’s

College. This answered question 1.

Z- test. It is a statistical tool used in comparing the difference between two means.

This was used to test the significant difference on the extent of the implementation

of Zero Waste Management implementation in St. Mary’s College. This answered

questions 2 and 3.