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PHYSICAL AND NON

PHYSICAL
DETREMINANTS OF CITY
FORM PATTERN
Submitted by : himanshu phogat 2k6/arch/611
vijay khanna 2k6/arch/630
vipin jangra 2k6/arch/631
Content
 Urban pattern
 Elements of urban pattern
 Determinants of urban pattern
 Urban form
 Skyline of city
 Transport
 Public spaces
 Case study kg marg, new delhi


Urban pattern

 The pattern of the city is the way how different functions and
elements of the settlement form are distributed and
mixed together spatially.
Elements of urban pattern
 Building
 Public space
 Street
 Transport
 Landscape

Determinents of urban
pattern
 Skyline of city
 Urban form
 Architectural character
 Transport system
 Public space

Urban form
 Urban form is a strong determinant of the ecological
 Sustainability and urban form footprint of a city and compact
and sprawling urban forms can directly impact the city’s
environmental future.
 A form is sustainable if it enables the city to function within its
natural and man made carrying capacities- is user friendly for its
occupants and promotes social equity.
 "Sustainable development is the development that meets
the needs of the presentwithout compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs.”

Faridabad city
Skyline of city
 A skyline is best described as the overall or partial view or
relief of a city's tall buildings and structures. It can also be
described as the artificial horizon that a city's overall
structure creates. Skylines are a good representation of a
city’s overall power 
 Height , shape and approach were the main criteria for the
physical validity of a skyline. Height dealt with the actual
impression of the building with respect to the immediate
surroundings, and gave rise to the term ‘height limit’ in the
modern world. Even though initially, it had more to with
structural safety, it had an impact on the city silhouette.
The main impact was to exempt certain buildings from
the prevailing height limits of a certain area.
 Shape of a building helps to distinguish various architectural
eras. Approach gives a sense of direct experience of the
features of a city to its visitor. The first view of the city is
always important, and the three kinds of approaches are from
the roads, waterfront views, and from a high vantage point,
each giving a different sense of the city.

Chandni chowk
Cannaught place
Architectural chcracter

 Chandigarh
city

C u b ism
 Exposed brick work
Transport
 Transport act as the major determinant of the
city form.
 An effective transport system is that in which
one don’t need to travel a lot while moving
from home to office, school, market or any
other recretional place within the city.
 There needs to be minimum traffic jams.

 In delhi various modes of transport are

1.Buses
2.Metro
3.Auto rickshaws
4.Rickshaws
5.Private vehicle
Traffic scenario in Delhi

 The transportation network in Delhi is predominantly road based with


1,284 km of road per 100 km2. The number of vehicles on Delhi’s road
has increased by 212% in the last 18 years from 19.23 lakh in 1991 to
over 60 lakh by 2008. Road space in Delhi is 21% of the total space
available, thus there is little scope of future expansion of road length. The
road length in Delhi has increased from 22,487 km in 1991 to 31,183 km
in 2008, a modest increase of 17% in the same period. To accommodate
the increasing vehicular population, additional space is increasingly
sought to be created either over or beneath the road, i.e. Flyovers and
underpasses.
 However, traditional approaches do not help to improve the mobility but
help to shift the bottleneck from one point to another. For example,
GNCTD built more than 15 flyovers on Ring Road to increase the
throughput. The condition has improved radically so far as engineering is
concerned, but not necessarily in a mobility context. Ring Road has
become completely signal-free, but not congestion-free.

 Increasing vehicle population is also positively co-related with number of
fatalities caused by road accidents, most of these are pedestrians, cyclists
and bus travelers. According to a recent World Bank report (August 2008),
every year road accidents cost India about 3% of its gross domestic product,
which was more than $1 trillion in 2007. In Delhi alone, till July 2008, 1,128
people had lost their lives in road accidents, of which 64 people had died in
accidents caused by Bluelines buses. Therefore, a long-term solution to
improve the traffic condition in Delhi, which includes bringing behavioral,
attitudinal and cultural changes, is the need of the hour. To avoid the chaos
caused by the mixed traffic and to mitigate the risk of accidents, there is a
need to encourage lane driving of buses that had been introduced earlier
with the orders of the High Court. Further, instead of giving more incentive
and road space to private vehicles owners, there is a need to promote public
transport.
 Delhi Metro has proved to be a tremendous success story in Delhi. The idea was
approved in 1998, with an aim to improve the traffic condition and mobility
of commuters. Delhi Metro is operating around 90 trains and carrying approx.
8 lakhs passenger per day. The bus system, however, has its own
importance. Delhi Metro can not completely replace the bus-based system
on all routes. Due to higher capital cost, low capital returns and large
gestation period, it is not feasible to build Metro line on all stretchs. The logic
of this argument is seen from the situation in other cities with well developed
metro networks like London and Paris, where buses still cater to a much
larger number of passenger trips than metro.
 The reason is that the bus system is more flexible compared to other
transportation system. There is, thus, a need to strengthen the bus-based
system. In Delhi, buses are generally considered unreliable and time
consuming, to reach the destination. Thus, there is need to develop a system
Public spaces

 Public spaces include


1.Parks
2.Markets
3.Monuments
4.Place of worhip
5.And any other recreational space
Landscape
It includes:

 Plantation

 Signages

 Roundabouts

 Street furniture

 Parks, etc


Case study K.G.Marg, New
Delhi
 Kasturba Gandhi Marg, earlier known as
Curzon Road, is one of the main access roads to
Connaught Place. The road was renamed post-
independence after the name of Kasturba
Gandhi, freedom fighter and wife of
Mahatma Gandhi. Starting from
Hyderabad House, the road takes one to the
outer circle of Connaught Place. The road is
dotted with high-raise buildings and shaded by
rows of trees. Baroda House (the headquarters
of Indian Railways), Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan,
British Council Library, Travancore House,
Hindustan Times Building, American Center are
some of the important landmarks on this road.
The famous Parikrama
- the Revolving Restaurant is also located on
this road. Himalaya House is the oldest building
Kg marg
 Low and high rise buildings both are there.
 Same character of buildings between two
circles.
 Less traffic
 Street have trees on both sides
 Nearby indiagate and the baroda house
acting as the tourist spots
 Landscape includes roundabouts, signages
and plantation
 Paved walkway
 Both modern and colonial architecture is
used in the buildings
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