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x6-Physics Insert SINGLE PGS 3/21/01 3:24 AM Page 2

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS UNITS PREFIXES

= 1.66  10 -27 kg
Name Symbol Factor Prefix Symbol
1 unified atomic mass unit, 1u
meter m 10 9 giga G
= 931 MeV/c 2
kilogram kg 10 6 mega M
Proton mass, m p = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg
Neutron mass, mn = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg second s 10 3 kilo k
Electron mass, me = 9.11 × 10 −31
kg −2
ampere A 10 centi c
Magnitude of the electron charge, e = 1.60 × 10 −19 C 10 −3
milli m
kelvin K
Avogadro’s number, N0 = 6.02 × 10 23 mol −1
mole mol 10 −6 micro µ
Universal gas constant, R = 8.31 J / ( mol ¼ K )
hertz Hz 10 −9 nano n
Boltzmann’s constant, k B = 1.38 × 10 −23 J / K
newton N −12
Speed of light, c = 3.00 × 10 8 m / s 10 pico p
Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s pascal Pa
VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
= 4.14 × 10 −15
eV ⋅ s FOR COMMON ANGLES
joule J
hc = 1.99 × 10 −25 J ⋅ m watt W θ sin θ cos θ tan θ
= 1.24 × 10 3 eV ⋅ nm coulomb C 0
o
0 1 0
Vacuum permittivity, ⑀ 0 = 8.85 × 10 −12
C / N⋅m
2 2
volt V
30o 1/2 3 /2 3 /3
Coulomb’s law constant, k = 1 / 4π ⑀ 0 = 9.0 × 10 N ⋅ m / C
9 2 2 ohm Ω

Vacuum permeability, µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 (T ⋅ m ) / A henry H

37o 3/5 4/5 3/4
Magnetic constant, k
= µ 0 / 4π = 10 (T ⋅ m ) / A
tesla T 45o 2 /2 2 /2 1
Universal gravitational constant, G = 6.67  10 -11 m 3 / kg ¼ s 2
degree
Acceleration due to gravity
at the Earth’s surface, g = 9.8 m / s 2 Celsius o
C 53o 4/5 3/5 4/3
1 atmosphere pressure, 1 atm = 1.0 × 10 5 N / m 2
electron-
volt eV 60o 3 /2 1/2 3
= 1.0 × 10 5 Pa
1 electron volt, 1 eV = 1.60 × 10 −19 J 90o 1 0 ∞

The following conventions are used in this examination.

I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial.
II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive charge (conventional current).
III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at an infinite distance from the charge.
*IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations, W represents the work done on a system.

*Not on the Table of Information for Physics C, since Thermodynamics is not a Physics C topic.
x6-Physics Insert SINGLE PGS 3/21/01 3:24 AM Page 3

NEWTONIAN MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

u = u 0 + at a = acceleration 1 q1 q 2 A =area
F=
F = force 4 p⑀ 0 r 2 B =magnetic field
1 2
x = x0 + u0 t + at f = frequency C =capacitance
2 F
h = height E= d =distance
u 2 = u 0 2 + 2a x - x 0 0 5 J =
K =
impulse
kinetic energy
q
1 q1 q 2
E =
e emf
=
electric field

k = spring constant UE = qV = F =force

4 p⑀ 0 r
Ê F = Fnet = ma l = length I =current
m= mass
E avg = −
V l =length
F fric  mN N = normal force d P =power
P = power Q charge
=
∑r
1 qi
u2 p = momentum V= q =point charge
ac = 4 p⑀ 0
r r = radius or distance i i
R =resistance
t = rF sin q r = position vector Q r =distance
C=
T = period V t =time
p = mv t = time ⑀0 A U potential (stored) energy
=
U= potential energy C= V =electric potential or
d
J = FDt = Dp u = velocity or speed potential difference
1 1 u = velocity or speed
W= work done on a system Uc = QV = CV 2
1 x = position 2 2 r = resistivity
K = mu 2 m= fm = magnetic flux
2 coefficient of friction DQ
q = angle I avg =
Dt
DUg = mgh t = torque
ρl
R=
W = F ⴢ Dr = FDr cos q A
V = IR
Pavg =
W P = IV
Dt
C p = ∑ Ci
P = F ⴢ v = Fu cos q i
1 1
=∑
Fs = - k x Cs i Ci

1 2 Rs = ∑ Ri
Us = kx i
2
1 1
m =∑
Ts = 2 p Rp i Ri
k
l FB = qu B sin θ
Tp = 2 p
g
FB = BIl sin θ
1 m0 I
T = B=
f
2p r
Gm1m2
FG = - fm = B • A = BA cos θ
r2
Dfm
UG = -
Gm1m2 eavg = −
r Dt
e = Blu
x6-Physics Insert SINGLE PGS 3/21/01 3:24 AM Page 4

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2002

FLUID MECHANICS AND
THERMAL PHYSICS WAVES AND OPTICS

p = p0 + rgh A = area u = fl d = separation

Fbuoy = rVg c = specific heat or molar c f = frequency or focal
n =
A1u1 = A2 u 2
specific heat u length
e = efficiency n 1 sin q1 = n 2 sin q 2 h = height
1
p + rgy + ru 2 = const. F = force
n2
L = distance
2 h = depth sin q c = M= magnification
D l = a l 0 DT Kavg = average molecular n1 m = an integer
Q = mL kinetic energy 1 1 1 n = index of refraction
+ =
L = heat of transformation si s0 f R = radius of curvature
Q = mcDT l = length s = distance
hi s
M= molecular mass M = = - i u = speed
F h0 s0
p = m = mass of sample x = position
A
n = number of moles R l = wavelength
f =
pV = nRT p = pressure 2 q = angle
Q = heat transferred to a system d sin q = ml
3
K avg = k T T = temperature ml L
2 B xm ⬇
U = internal energy d
3 RT 3k B T V = volume
u rms = =
M m u = velocity or speed
urms = root-mean-square
W = - pDV velocity
Q = ncDT W = work done on a system
y = height GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
DU = Q + W a = coefficient of linear
expansion Rectangle A= area
DU = ncV DT µ = mass of molecule A = bh C= circumference
r = density Triangle V= volume
W
e = 1 S = surface area
QH A = bh
2 b = base
TH - TC Circle h = height
ec = A = pr 2 l = length
TH
C = 2 pr w= width
Parallelepiped r = radius
ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS V = lwh
E = hf = pc E = energy Cylinder
f = frequency V = pr 2 l
Kmax = hf − f S = 2 pr l + 2 pr 2
K = kinetic energy
h m = mass Sphere
l = p = momentum 4
V = pr 3
p 3
l = wavelength
DE = ( Dm) c 2 f = work function S = 4 pr 2
Right Triangle
a 2 + b2 = c2 c a
a
sin q = q 90
c
b
b
cos q = c
a
tan q = b
x6-Physics Insert SINGLE PGS 3/21/01 3:24 AM Page 5

MECHANICS ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

u = u 0 + at a = acceleration 1 q1 q 2 A = area
F=
1 2 F = force 4 p⑀ 0 r 2 B = magnetic field
x = x0 + u 0 t + at
2 f = frequency C = capacitance
0 5
F
u 2 = u 0 2 + 2a x - x 0 h = height E= d = distance
q
Ê F = Fnet = ma
I = rotational inertia E = electric field
J = impulse 养 E • dA =
Q e = emf
dp ⑀0
F = K = kinetic energy F = force
dt
I
J = F dt = Dp
k =
l =
spring constant
length E=−
dV
dr
I
L
=
=
current
inductance
p = mv L = angular momentum l = length
∑r
1 qi
F fric  mN m= mass V= n = number of loops of wire per
4 p⑀ 0
W = IF  dr
N =
P =
normal force
power
i i

1 q1 q 2 P = power
unit length
1 UE = qV =
K = mu 2 p = momentum 4 p⑀ 0 r Q= charge
2 r = radius or distance q = point charge
dW Q
P = r = position vector C= R = resistance
dt T = period V r = distance
P = Fⴢv k⑀ A
t = time C= 0 t = time
DU g = mgh U= potential energy d U= potential or stored energy
u 2 = w2r u = velocity or speed C p = ∑ Ci V = electric potential
ac = W= work done on a system i u = velocity or speed
r
t=rF x = position 1
=∑
1 r = resistivity
Ê t = t net = Ia m= coefficient of friction Cs i Ci fm = magnetic flux
I
I = r 2 dm = Ê mr 2
q =
t =
angle
torque I=
dQ k = dielectric constant
rcm = Ê mr Ê m w= angular speed dt
u = rw a = angular acceleration 1 1
Uc = QV = CV 2
L = r  p = Iw 2 2
1 rl
K = Iw 2 R=
2 A
w = w0 + at V = IR
q = q 0 + w0 t + 1 at 2 Rs = ∑ Ri
2 i
Fs = - kx 1 1
=∑
1 Rp i Ri
Us = kx 2
2
2p 1 P = IV
T = =
w f FM = qv × B

Ts = 2 p
m 养 B • d ø = m0 I

Tp = 2 p
k
l I
F = I dø × B
g Bs = m0 nI

FG = -
Gm1m2
r2
r\$ I
fm = B • dA
dfm
UG = -
Gm1m2 e=−
r dt
dI
e = −L
dt
1 2
U L = LI
2
x6-Physics Insert SINGLE PGS 3/21/01 3:24 AM Page 6

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

Rectangle A= area
A = bh C= circumference
Triangle V= volume
1 S = surface area
A = bh
2 b = base
Circle
h = height
A = pr 2 l= length
C = 2 pr w= width
Parallelepiped r = radius
V = lwh
Cylinder
V = pr 2 l
S = 2 prl + 2 pr 2
Sphere
4
V = pr 3
3
S = 4 pr 2
Right Triangle
a 2 + b2 = c2 c a
a
sin q = q 90
c
b
b
cos q =
c
a
tan q =
b

CALCULUS

df d f du
=
dx du dx
d n
dx
2 7
x = nx
n -1

d x
dx 2 7
e = ex

d 1
(1n x) =
dx x
d
(sin x) = cos x
dx
d
(cos x) = - sin x
dx
Ixn dx =
1 n +1
n +1
x , n  -1

Ie x dx = e x

I dx
x
= 1n x

I cos x dx = sin x
I sin x dx = - cos x