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ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual

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The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a
commitment by Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.
Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this
document.
The software described in this document is furnished under license and may be used or copied only in
accordance with the terms of such license.
No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or distributed in any way without prior
written agreement with Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

©Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. 2000.

Printed in U.S.A.
All Rights Reserved.

This electronic book is being displayed using DynaText software produced by Inso Corporation.
DynaText is a registered trademark of Inso Corporation.

ABAQUS is a registered trademark of Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. The following are
trademarks of Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.: ABAQUS/ADAMS; ABAQUS/Aqua;
ABAQUS/CAE; ABAQUS/CAT; ABAQUS/C-MOLD; ABAQUS/Design; ABAQUS/Explicit;
ABAQUS/Post; ABAQUS/Safe; ABAQUS/Standard; ABAQUS/USA; ABAQUS/Viewer; and the
Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. logo.

This release of ABAQUS may contain a capability licensed under U.S. Patent 5,920,491. Hibbitt,
Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. may also have other patents or pending patent applications, trademarks,
copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. The
furnishing of this document does not give you any license to the patents, trademarks, copyrights, or
other intellectual property rights except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from
Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

ADAMS is a registered United States trademark of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc.


ADAMS/Flex and ADAMS/View are trademarks of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc.
CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systémes.
C-MOLD is a registered trademark of Advanced CAE Technology, Inc., doing business as C-MOLD.
Compaq Alpha is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
FE-SAFE is a trademark of Safe Technology, Ltd.
Fujitsu, UXP, and VPP are registered trademarks of Fujitsu Limited.
Hewlett-Packard, HP-GL, and HP-GL/2 are registered trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Co.

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Hitachi is a registered trademark of Hitachi, Ltd.
IBM RS/6000 is a trademark of IBM.
Intel is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation.
NEC is a trademark of the NEC Corporation.
PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.
Silicon Graphics is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc.
SUN is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
TEX is a trademark of the American Mathematical Society.
UNIX and Motif are registered trademarks and X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group
in the U.S. and other countries.
Windows NT is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation.
ABAQUS/CAE incorporates portions of the ACIS software by SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. ACIS
is a registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC.
This release of ABAQUS on Windows NT includes the diff program obtained from the Free Software
Foundation. You may freely distribute the diff program and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
Library General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place,
Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA.
This release of ABAQUS/CAE includes lp_solve, a simplex-based code for linear and integer
programming problems by Michel Berkelaar of Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the
Netherlands.
Python, copyright 1991-1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All
Rights Reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute the Python software and its
documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright
notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
supporting documentation, and that the names of Stichting Mathematisch Centrum or CWI or
Corporation for National Research Initiatives or CNRI not be used in advertising or publicity
pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission.

All other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
companies or organizations.

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General conversion factors (to five significant digits)
Quantity U.S. unit SI equivalent
Length 1 in 0.025400 m
1 ft 0.30480 m
1 mile 1609.3 m
2
Area 1 in 0.64516 ´ 10-3 m2
1 ft2 0.092903 m 2
1 acre 4046.9 m2
Volume 1 in3 0.016387 ´ 10-3 m3
1 ft 3 0.028317 m 3
1 US gallon 3.7854 ´ 10-3 m3
Conversion factors for stress analysis
Quantity U.S. unit SI equivalent
Density 1 slug/ft3 = 1 lbf s2/ft4 515.38 kg/m3
1 lbf s2/in4 10.687 ´ 106 kg/m3
Energy 1 ft lbf 1.3558 J (N m)
Force 1 lbf 4.4482 N (kg m/s2)
2
Mass 1 slug = 1 lbf s /ft 14.594 kg (N s2/m)
1 lbf s2/in 175.13 kg
Power 1 ft lbf/s 1.3558 W (N m/s)
Pressure, Stress 2
1 psi (lbf/in ) 6894.8 Pa (N/m2)
Conversion factors for heat transfer analysis
Quantity U.S. unit SI equivalent
Conductivity 1 Btu/ft hr °F 1.7307 W/m °C
1 Btu/in hr °F 20.769 W/m °C
Density 1 lbm/in3 27680. kg/m3
Energy 1 Btu 1055.1 J
Heat flux density 1 Btu/in 2 hr 454.26 W/m2
Power 1 Btu/hr 0.29307 W
Specific heat 1 Btu/lbm °F 4186.8 J/kg °C
Temperature 1 °F 5/9 °C
Temp °F 9/5 ´ Temp °C + 32°
9/5 ´ Temp °K - 459.67°
Important constants
Constant U.S. unit SI unit
Absolute zero -459.67 °F -273.15 °C
Acceleration of gravity 32.174 ft/s 2 9.8066 m/s2
Atmospheric pressure 14.694 psi 0.10132 ´ 106 Pa
Stefan-Boltzmann 0.1714 ´ 10-8 Btu/hr ft2
5.669 ´ 10-8 W/m2 °K4
constant °R4
where °R = °F + 459.67 where °K = °C + 273.15
Approximate properties of mild steel at room temperature
Quantity U.S. unit SI unit
Conductivity 28.9 Btu/ft hr °F 50 W/m °C
2.4 Btu/in hr °F
Density 15.13 slug/ft3 (lbf s2/ft4) 7800 kg/m3
0.730 ´ 10-3 lbf s2/in4

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0.282 lbm/in 3
Elastic modulus 30 ´ 106 psi 207 ´ 109 Pa
Specific heat 0.11 Btu/lbm °F 460 J/kg °C
Yield stress 30 ´ 103 psi 207 ´ 106 Pa

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This section lists various resources that are available for help with using ABAQUS, including
technical and systems support, training seminars, and documentation.

Support
HKS offers both technical (engineering) support and systems support for ABAQUS. Technical and
systems support are provided through the nearest local support office. You can contact our offices by
telephone, fax, electronic mail, or regular mail. Information on how to contact each office is listed in
the front of each ABAQUS manual. Support information is also available by visiting the ABAQUS
Home Page on the World Wide Web (details are given below). When contacting your local support
office, please specify whether you would like technical support (you have encountered problems
performing an ABAQUS analysis) or systems support (ABAQUS will not install correctly, licensing
does not work correctly, or other hardware-related issues have arisen).
We welcome any suggestions for improvements to the support program or documentation. We will
ensure that any enhancement requests you make are considered for future releases. If you wish to file a
complaint about the service or products provided by HKS, refer to the ABAQUS Home Page.

Technical support
HKS technical support engineers can assist in clarifying ABAQUS features and checking errors by
giving both general information on using ABAQUS and information on its application to specific
analyses. If you have concerns about an analysis, we suggest that you contact us at an early stage, since
it is usually easier to solve problems at the beginning of a project rather than trying to correct an
analysis at the end.
Please have the following information ready before calling the technical support hotline, and include it
in any written contacts:

· The version of ABAQUS that are you using.

- The version numbers for ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit are given at the top of the
data (.dat) file.

- The version numbers for ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS/Viewer can be found by selecting
Help->On version from the main menu bar.

- The version number for ABAQUS/CAT is given at the top of the input ( .inp) file as well as
the data file.

- The version numbers for ABAQUS/ADAMS and ABAQUS/C-MOLD are output to the
screen.

- The version number for ABAQUS/Safe is given under the ABAQUS logo in the main
window.

· The type of computer on which you are running ABAQUS.

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· The symptoms of any problems, including the exact error messages, if any.

· Workarounds or tests that you have already tried.

When calling for support about a specific problem, any available ABAQUS output files may be helpful
in answering questions that the support engineer may ask you.
The support engineer will try to diagnose your problem from the model description and a description
of the difficulties you are having. Frequently, the support engineer will need model sketches, which
can be faxed to HKS or sent in the mail. Plots of the final results or the results near the point that the
analysis terminated may also be needed to understand what may have caused the problem.
If the support engineer cannot diagnose your problem from this information, you may be asked to send
the input data. The data can be sent by means of e-mail, tape, or disk. Please check the ABAQUS
Home Page at www.abaqus.com for the media formats that are currently accepted.
All support calls are logged into a database, which enables us to monitor the progress of a particular
problem and to check that we are resolving support issues efficiently. If you would like to know the log
number of your particular call for future reference, please ask the support engineer. If you are calling to
discuss an existing support problem and you know the log number, please mention it so that we can
consult the database to see what the latest action has been and, thus, avoid duplication of effort. In
addition, please give the receptionist the support engineer's name (or include it at the top of any e-mail
correspondence).

Systems support
HKS systems support engineers can help you resolve issues related to the installation and running of
ABAQUS, including licensing difficulties, that are not covered by technical support.
You should install ABAQUS by carefully following the instructions in the ABAQUS Site Guide. If
you encounter problems with the installation or licensing, first review the instructions in the ABAQUS
Site Guide to ensure that they have been followed correctly. If this does not resolve the problems, look
on the ABAQUS Home Page under Technical Support for information about known installation
problems. If this does not address your situation, please contact your local support office. Send
whatever information is available to define the problem: error messages from an aborted analysis or a
detailed explanation of the problems encountered. Whenever possible, please send the output from the
abaqus info=env and abaqus info=sys commands.

ABAQUS Web server


For users connected to the Internet, many questions can be answered by visiting the ABAQUS Home
Page on the World Wide Web at
http://www.abaqus.com
The information available on the ABAQUS Home Page includes:

· Frequently asked questions

· ABAQUS systems information and machine requirements

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· Benchmark timing documents

· Error status reports

· ABAQUS documentation price list

· Training seminar schedule

· Newsletters

Anonymous ftp site


For users connected to the Internet, HKS maintains useful documents on an anonymous ftp account on
the computer ftp.abaqus.com. Simply ftp to ftp.abaqus.com. Login as user anonymous, and type your
e-mail address as your password. Directions will come up automatically upon login.

Writing to technical support


Address of HKS Headquarters:
Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.
1080 Main Street
Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847, USA
Attention: Technical Support

Addresses for other offices and representatives are listed in the front of each manual.

Support for academic institutions


Under the terms of the Academic License Agreement we do not provide support to users at academic
institutions unless the institution has also purchased technical support. Please see the ABAQUS Home
Page, or contact us for more information.

Training
All HKS offices offer regularly scheduled public training classes.
The Introduction to ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit seminar covers basic usage and
nonlinear applications, such as large deformation, plasticity, contact, and dynamics. Workshops
provide as much practical experience with ABAQUS as possible.
The Introduction to ABAQUS/CAE seminar discusses modeling, managing simulations, and viewing
results with ABAQUS/CAE. "Hands-on" workshops are complemented by lectures.
Advanced seminars cover topics of interest to customers with experience using ABAQUS, such as
engine analysis, metal forming, fracture mechanics, and heat transfer.
We also provide training seminars at customer sites. On-site training seminars can be one or more days
in duration, depending on customer requirements. The training topics can include a combination of
material from our introductory and advanced seminars. Workshops allow customers to exercise
ABAQUS on their own computers.

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For a schedule of seminars see the ABAQUS Home Page, or call HKS or your local HKS
representative.

Documentation
The following documentation and publications are available from HKS, unless otherwise specified, in
printed form and through our online documentation server. For more information on accessing the
online books, refer to the discussion of execution procedures in the user's manuals.
In addition to the documentation listed below, HKS publishes two newsletters on a regular schedule:
ABAQUS/News and ABAQUS/Answers. ABAQUS/News includes topical information about program
releases, training seminars, etc. ABAQUS/Answers includes technical articles on particular topics
related to ABAQUS usage. These newsletters are distributed at no cost to users who wish to subscribe.
Please contact your local ABAQUS support office if you wish to be added to the mailing list for these
publications. They are also archived in the Reference Shelf on the ABAQUS Home Page.

Training Manuals

Getting Started with ABAQUS/Standard: This document is a self-paced tutorial designed to


help new users become familiar with using ABAQUS/Standard for static and dynamic stress
analysis simulations. It contains a number of fully worked examples that provide practical
guidelines for performing structural analyses with ABAQUS.

Getting Started with ABAQUS/Explicit: This document is a self-paced tutorial designed to help
new users become familiar with using ABAQUS/Explicit. It begins with the basics of modeling in
ABAQUS, so no prior knowledge of ABAQUS is required. A number of fully worked examples
provide practical guidelines for performing explicit dynamic analyses, such as drop tests and metal
forming simulations, with ABAQUS/Explicit.

Lecture Notes: These notes are available on many topics to which ABAQUS is applied. They are
used in the technical seminars that HKS presents to help users improve their understanding and
usage of ABAQUS (see the "Training" section above for more information about these seminars).
While not intended as stand-alone tutorial material, they are sufficiently comprehensive that they
can usually be used in that mode. The list of available lecture notes is included in the
Documentation Price List.

User's Manuals

ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual: This volume contains a complete description of the


elements, material models, procedures, input specifications, etc. It is the basic reference document
for ABAQUS/Standard.

ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual: This volume contains a complete description of the elements,
material models, procedures, input specifications, etc. It is the basic reference document for
ABAQUS/Explicit.

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ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual: This reference document for ABAQUS/CAE includes three
comprehensive tutorials as well as detailed descriptions of how to use ABAQUS/CAE for model
generation, analysis, and results evaluation.

ABAQUS/Viewer User's Manual: This basic reference document for ABAQUS/Viewer includes
an introductory tutorial as well as a complete description of how to use ABAQUS/Viewer to
display your model and results.

ABAQUS/ADAMS User's Manual: This document describes how to install and how to use
ABAQUS/ADAMS, an interface program that creates ABAQUS models of ADAMS components
and converts the ABAQUS results into an ADAMS modal neutral file that can be used by the
ADAMS/Flex program. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS/ADAMS program.

ABAQUS/CAT User's Manual: This document describes how to install and how to use
ABAQUS/CAT, an interface program that creates an ABAQUS input file from a CATIA model
and postprocesses the analysis results in CATIA. It is the basic reference document for the
ABAQUS/CAT program.

ABAQUS/C-MOLD User's Manual: This document describes how to install and how to use
ABAQUS/C-MOLD, an interface program that translates finite element mesh, material property,
and initial stress data from a C-MOLD analysis to an ABAQUS input file.

ABAQUS/Safe User's Manual: This document describes how to install and how to use
ABAQUS/Safe, an interface program that calculates fatigue lives and fatigue strength reserve
factors from finite element models. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS/Safe
program. The theoretical background to fatigue analysis is contained in the Modern Metal Fatigue
Analysis manual (available only in print).

Using ABAQUS Online Documentation: This online manual contains instructions on using the
ABAQUS online documentation server to read the manuals that are available online.

ABAQUS Release Notes: This document contains brief descriptions of the new features available
in the latest release of the ABAQUS product line.

ABAQUS Site Guide: This document describes how to install ABAQUS and how to configure
the installation for particular circumstances. Some of this information, of most relevance to users,
is also provided in the user's manuals.

Examples Manuals

ABAQUS Example Problems Manual: This volume contains more than 75 detailed examples
designed to illustrate the approaches and decisions needed to perform meaningful linear and
nonlinear analysis. Typical cases are large motion of an elastic-plastic pipe hitting a rigid wall;
inelastic buckling collapse of a thin-walled elbow; explosive loading of an elastic, viscoplastic thin
ring; consolidation under a footing; buckling of a composite shell with a hole; and deep drawing of
a metal sheet. It is generally useful to look for relevant examples in this manual and to review
them when embarking on a new class of problem.

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ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual: This volume (available online and, if requested, in print)
contains over 200 benchmark problems and standard analyses used to evaluate the performance of
ABAQUS; the tests are multiple element tests of simple geometries or simplified versions of real
problems. The NAFEMS benchmark problems are included in this manual.

ABAQUS Verification Manual: This online-only volume contains more than 5000 basic test
cases, providing verification of each individual program feature (procedures, output options,
MPCs, etc.) against exact calculations and other published results. It may be useful to run these
problems when learning to use a new capability. In addition, the supplied input data files provide
good starting points to check the behavior of elements, materials, etc.

Reference Manuals

ABAQUS Keywords Manual: This volume contains a complete description of all the input
options that are available in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.

ABAQUS Theory Manual: This volume (available online and, if requested, in print) contains
detailed, precise discussions of all theoretical aspects of ABAQUS. It is written to be understood
by users with an engineering background.

ABAQUS Scripting Manual: This online manual provides a description of the ABAQUS
Command Language and a command reference that lists the syntax of each command. The manual
describes how commands can be used to create and analyze ABAQUS/CAE models, to view the
results of the analysis, and to automate repetitive tasks. It also contains information on using the
ABAQUS Command Language or C++ as an application programming interface (API).

ABAQUS Input Files: This online manual contains all the input files that are included with the
ABAQUS release and referred to in the ABAQUS Example Problems Manual, the ABAQUS
Benchmarks Manual, and the ABAQUS Verification Manual. They are listed in the order in which
they appear in the manuals, under the title of the problem that refers to them. The input file
references in the manuals hyperlink directly to this book.

Quality Assurance Plan: This document describes HKS's QA procedures. It is a controlled


document, provided to customers who subscribe to either HKS's Nuclear QA Program or the
Quality Monitoring Service.

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Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE

Part I: Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE


ABAQUS/CAE is a complete ABAQUS environment that provides a simple, consistent interface for
creating, submitting, monitoring, and evaluating results from ABAQUS/Standard and
ABAQUS/Explicit simulations. ABAQUS/CAE is divided into modules, where each module defines a
logical aspect of the modeling process; for example, defining the geometry, defining material
properties, and generating a mesh. As you move from module to module, each module contributes
keywords, parameters, and data to form an input file that you submit to the ABAQUS/Standard or
ABAQUS/Explicit solver. The solver reads the input file generated by ABAQUS/CAE, performs the
analysis, sends information to ABAQUS/CAE to allow you to monitor the progress of the job, and
generates an output database. Finally, you use ABAQUS/CAE to read the output database and view the
results of your analysis.
This part of the manual introduces you to the basics of creating and analyzing a model and viewing the
results of your analysis with the Visualization module and is divided into the following sections:

Using this manual


This section outlines the contents of this manual. It also explains the typographical
conventions used in the documentation and describes how common mouse and keyboard
actions are indicated.

Tutorials
This section contains three tutorials that lead you through the modeling process. In the first
tutorial you create a simple model, analyze it, and then view the results. The second tutorial is
more complex and illustrates how parts, sketches, datum geometry, and partitions work
together and how you assemble part instances. The third tutorial demonstrates how you can
use the Visualization module to display your results in a variety of formats and how you can
customize the display.

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Using this manual

1. Using this manual


The printed form of this manual serves as companion to an online version. Detailed, step-by-step
instructions for using each of the ABAQUS/CAE functions are available only in the online version of
this manual and as context-sensitive help.
This chapter provides information about the contents of this manual and the typographical conventions
used. The following topics are covered:

· ``Overview of this manual,'' Section 1.1

· ``Typographical conventions,'' Section 1.2

· ``Basic mouse actions,'' Section 1.3

1.1 Overview of this manual


This manual is a reference guide to using ABAQUS/CAE. The ABAQUS/CAE user interface is very
intuitive and allows you to begin working without a great deal of preparation. However, you may find
it useful to read through the tutorials contained in Part I, "Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE," before
using the product for the first time.
The remainder of this manual is divided into the following parts:

· Part II, "Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE"

· Part III, "Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases, models, and files"

· Part IV, "Creating and analyzing a model using the ABAQUS/CAE modules"

· Part V, "Viewing results"

· Part VI, "Using ABAQUS/CAE toolsets"

· Part VII, "Customizing geometry and mesh display"

Appendix A, "Keyword support," provides tables that you can use to determine which ABAQUS/CAE
module embodies the functionality of a particular ABAQUS keyword, as well as whether a particular
keyword is supported. Appendix B, "Visualization module limitations," lists the ABAQUS elements
and output variables that are not supported by the Visualization module. If you are familiar with
ABAQUS/Post, Appendix C, "Transitioning to the Visualization module from ABAQUS/Post,"
explains the relationships between the Visualization module functions and the corresponding
ABAQUS/Post commands. This appendix also lists the functionality in ABAQUS/Post that is not yet
available in the Visualization module.

1.2 Typographical conventions


This manual adheres to a set of typographical conventions so that you can recognize actions and items.
The following list illustrates each of the conventions:

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Using this manual

· Text you enter from the keyboard or that ABAQUS/CAE outputs: crankshaft_steel,
1.35E10

· Labels of items on the screen: Canvas Toolbox

· Hyperlinks: click here

· Keyboard actions: [Shift]

· Keystroke combinations (two keys that must be pressed simultaneously): [Alt]+F

· Compound keyboard/mouse actions: [Shift]+Click

· Text indicating that the user has a choice: odb_file, Options->plot mode

· Menu selections and tabs within dialog boxes:


View->View Options->Hardware

1.3 Basic mouse actions


Figure 1-1 shows the mouse button orientation for a left-handed and a right-handed 3-button mouse.

Figure 1-1 Mouse buttons.

The following terms describe actions you perform using the mouse:

Click
Press and quickly release the mouse button. Unless otherwise specified, the instruction ``click''
means that you should click mouse button 1.

Drag
Press and hold down mouse button 1 while moving the mouse.

Point
Move the mouse until the cursor is over the desired item.

Select

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Point to an item and then click mouse button 1.

[Shift]+Click
Press and hold the [Shift] key, click mouse button 1, and then release the [Shift] key.

[Ctrl]+Click
Press and hold the [Ctrl] key, click mouse button 1, and then release the [Ctrl] key.

ABAQUS/CAE is designed for use with a 3-button mouse. Accordingly, this manual refers to mouse
buttons 1, 2, and 3 as shown in Figure 1-1. However, you can use ABAQUS/CAE with a 2-button
mouse as follows:

· The two mouse buttons are equivalent to mouse buttons 1 and 3 on a 3-button mouse.

· Pressing both mouse buttons simultaneously is equivalent to pressing mouse button 2 on a


3-button mouse.

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2. A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model


The following section leads you through the ABAQUS/CAE modeling process by visiting each of the
modules and showing you the basic steps to create and analyze a simple model. To illustrate each of
the steps, you will first create a model of a steel cantilever beam and load its top surface (see Figure
2-1).

Figure 2-1 A loaded cantilever beam.

You will then analyze the beam and plot the resulting stresses and displacements. The entire tutorial
takes approximately 90 minutes to complete.
If you are following the tutorial but are unsure how to proceed at any point, click the highlighted and
underlined text in the help window to view more extensive documentation of the task you are
attempting. Clicking highlighted text (a hyperlink) takes you to a different section of the

ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual; clicking the Go Back button in the toolbar across the top of this
window returns you to your original point in "Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE. For example, click
``Overview of the main window,'' Section 5.2 to see detailed information on the components of the
main window and click the Go Back button to return here.
The following topics are covered:

· ``Understanding ABAQUS/CAE modules,'' Section 2.1

· ``Starting ABAQUS/CAE,'' Section 2.2

· ``Getting help,'' Section 2.3

· ``Creating a part,'' Section 2.4

· ``Creating a material,'' Section 2.5

· ``Defining and assigning section properties,'' Section 2.6

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· ``Assembling the model,'' Section 2.7

· ``Configuring your analysis,'' Section 2.8

· ``Applying a boundary condition and a load to the model, '' Section 2.9

· ``Meshing the model,'' Section 2.10

· ``Creating and submitting an analysis job,'' Section 2.11

· ``Viewing the results of your analysis,'' Section 2.12

2.1 Understanding ABAQUS/CAE modules


ABAQUS/CAE is divided into modules, where each module defines an aspect of the modeling
process; for example, defining the geometry, defining material properties, and generating a mesh. As
you move from module to module, each module contributes keywords, parameters, and data to form an
input file that you submit to the ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit solver for analysis. For
example, you use the Property module to define material and section properties and the Step module to
choose an analysis procedure; the ABAQUS/CAE postprocessor is called the Visualization module.
You enter a module by selecting it from the Module list under the toolbar, as shown in Figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2 Selecting a module.

For the cantilever beam tutorial, you will enter the following ABAQUS/CAE modules and perform the
following tasks:

Part
Sketch a two-dimensional profile and create a part representing the cantilever beam.

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Property
Define the material properties and other section properties of the beam.

Assembly
Assemble the model and create sets.

Step
Configure the analysis procedure and output requests.

Load/BC/IC
Apply loads and boundary conditions to the beam.

Mesh
Mesh the beam.

Job
Create a job and submit it for analysis.

Visualization
View the results of the analysis.

Although the Module list under the toolbar lists the modules in a logical sequence, you can move back
and forth between modules at will. However, certain obvious restrictions apply; for example, you
cannot assign section properties to geometry that has not yet been created.
A completed model contains everything that ABAQUS/CAE needs to generate an input file and start
the analysis. ABAQUS/CAE uses a model database to store your models. When you start
ABAQUS/CAE, the Start Session dialog box allows you to create a new, empty model database in
memory. After you start ABAQUS/CAE, you can save your model database to a disk by selecting
File->Save from the main menu bar; to retrieve it from a disk, select File->Open.

For a complete listing of which module generates a particular keyword, see ``ABAQUS keyword
browser table,'' Section A.1.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Part III, "Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases, models, and files."

· ``What is a module?,'' Section 5.3

2.2 Starting ABAQUS/CAE


You may find it easier to follow the printed version of the tutorial. This will reduce clutter on the
screen and allow you to focus on the task at hand. If you do follow this tutorial online, you should
resize and move the online documentation window and the ABAQUS/CAE window so both are visible
while you work through the tutorial.

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Tip: To open a separate window containing any of the figures in the online documentation, click
the figure itself.

To start ABAQUS/CAE and display the online version of this tutorial:

1. If you did not already start ABAQUS/CAE, type abaqus cae.

2. From the Start Session dialog box that appears, select Start Tutorial.
The ABAQUS/CAE main window and the online documentation window, turned to the chapter
"Getting Started with ABAQUS/CAE," appear.

2.3 Getting help


You may want to read additional information about ABAQUS/CAE features at various points during
this tutorial. The context-sensitive help system allows you to locate relevant information quickly and
easily.
To obtain context-sensitive help:

1. From the ABAQUS/CAE main menu bar, select Help->On Context.


The cursor changes to a question mark.

2. Click any part of the main window except its frame.


After a short delay, a window containing information about the item you selected appears.
Subsequent help requests will not experience this delay, since the server is now running in the
background, waiting for more help requests.

3. In the Find text field at the bottom of the help window, type any word that appears in the text of
the help window and press [Enter].
All occurrences of the word you typed are highlighted. You can enter any phrase to search for, and
the help system will locate precisely that phrase; for example, searching for the word "element"
yields different results than searching for the word "elements." Use the [*] character as a wildcard;
for example, searching for "element*" will find occurrences of the words "element," "elements,"
"elemental," and "elementary."

4. Scroll to the bottom of the help window.


At the bottom of the topic, a list of blue, underlined items appears. These items are hyperlinks to
the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual.

5. Click any one of the items.


An online book window appears. The online version of the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual is
available in the right side of the window, turned to the item that you selected. A table of contents
is available on the left side of the window, and a Find text field similar to the one in the help
window is available at the bottom of the window.

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6. Click any item in the table of contents.


The right side of the book window changes to reflect the item you selected.

7. From the main menu bar of the book window, select File->Close View .
The book window disappears.

8. In the upper-left corner of the context-sensitive help window, double-click the close button.
The help window disappears.

Note the following key points:

· Context-sensitive help is available for every item in the ABAQUS/CAE main window and in all its
dialog boxes.

· You can search individual help windows or the entire online manual for information.

· The online book windows provide a hyperlinked table of contents for easy navigation throughout
the book.

2.4 Creating a part


You use the Part module to create each of the parts you will analyze. You can create parts that are
native to ABAQUS/CAE, or you can import parts created by other applications either as a geometric
representation or as a finite element mesh.
You will start the cantilever beam tutorial by creating a three-dimensional, deformable solid body. You
do this by sketching the two-dimensional profile of the beam (a rectangle) and extruding it.
ABAQUS/CAE automatically enters the Sketcher when you create a part.
ABAQUS/CAE often displays a short message in the prompt area indicating what it expects you to do
next, as shown in Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-3 Messages and instructions are displayed in the prompt area.

Click the cancel button to cancel the current task. Click the backup button to cancel the current step in
the task and return to the previous step.
To create the cantilever beam:

1. If you did not already start ABAQUS/CAE, type abaqus cae.

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2. From the Start Session dialog box that appears, select Start Tutorial.

3. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Part to enter the Part module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Part module loads. When the Part module has
finished loading, it displays the Part module toolbox in the left side of the ABAQUS/CAE main
window. The toolbox contains a set of icons that allow expert users to bypass the menus in the
main menu bar. Each module displays its own set of tools in the module toolbox. As you select
items from the main menu bar, the corresponding tool is highlighted in the module toolbox so that
you can learn its location.

4. From the main menu bar, select Part->Create to create a new part.
The Create Part dialog box appears. ABAQUS/CAE also displays text in the prompt area near the
bottom of the window to guide you through the procedure.
You use the Create Part dialog box to name the part; to choose its modeling space, type, and base
feature; and to set the approximate size. You can edit and rename a part after you create it, but you
cannot change its modeling space, type, or base feature.

5. Name the part Beam. Accept the default settings of a three-dimensional, deformable body and a
solid, extruded base feature. In the Approximate size text field, type 300.

6. Click Continue to exit the Create Part dialog box.


ABAQUS/CAE automatically enters the Sketcher. The Sketcher toolbox appears in the left side of
the main window, and the Sketcher grid appears in the viewport. The Sketcher contains a set of
basic tools that allow you to sketch the two-dimensional profile of your part. ABAQUS/CAE
enters the Sketcher whenever you create or edit a part. To finish using a Sketcher tool, click mouse
button 2 in the viewport or select a new tool.
Tip: Like all tools in ABAQUS/CAE, if you simply position the cursor over a tool in the
Sketcher toolbox for a short time, a small window appears that gives a brief description of the
tool.

The following aspects of the Sketcher help you sketch the desired geometry:

· The Sketcher grid helps you position the cursor and align objects in the viewport.

· Dashed lines indicate the X- and Y-axes of the sketch and intersect at the origin of the sketch.

· A triad in the lower-left corner of the viewport indicates the relationship between the sketch
plane and the orientation of the part.

· When you select a sketching tool, ABAQUS/CAE displays the X- and Y-coordinates of the
cursor in the upper-left corner of the viewport.

7. To sketch the profile of the cantilever beam, you need to draw a rectangle. To select the rectangle
drawing tool, do the following:

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a. Note the small black triangles at the base of some of the toolbox icons. These triangles
indicate the presence of hidden icons that can be revealed. Click the Line tool in the
upper-right corner of the Sketcher toolbox, but do not release mouse button 1. Additional
icons appear, as shown below.

b. Without releasing mouse button 1, drag the cursor along the set of icons that appear until
you reach the rectangle tool. Then release the mouse button to select that tool.
The rectangle drawing tool appears in the Sketcher toolbox with a pink background indicating that
you selected it. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the
procedure.

8. In the viewport, sketch the rectangle using the following steps:

a. Notice that as you move the cursor around the viewport, ABAQUS/CAE displays the
cursor's X- and Y-coordinates in the upper-left corner.

b. Click one corner of the rectangle at coordinates (-100, 10).

c. Move the cursor to the opposite corner (100, -10) so that the rectangle is twenty grid
squares long and two grid squares high as shown in Figure 2-4.

Figure 2-4 Sketch of the rectangle.

d. Click mouse button 1 to create the rectangle.

e. Click mouse button 2 anywhere in the viewport to finish using the rectangle tool.
Note: If you are a Windows NT user with a 2-button mouse, press both mouse buttons simultaneously whenever
you are asked to press mouse button 2.

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9. If you make a mistake while using the Sketcher, you can delete lines in your sketch, as explained
in the following procedure:

a. From the Sketcher toolbox, click the Delete tool, .

b. From the sketch, click a line to select it.


ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected line in red.

c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to delete the selected line.

d. Repeat steps b and c as often as necessary.

e. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to finish using the Delete tool.

10. From the prompt area (near the bottom of the main window), click Done to exit the Sketcher.
Note: If you don't see the Done button in the prompt area, continue to click mouse button 2 in the viewport until it appears.

11. Because you are creating an extruded part, ABAQUS/CAE displays a text field in the prompt area
asking you to define the distance through which the sketch should be extruded. In the text field,
erase the default value of 30.0 and type a value of 25.0. You can either press [Enter] or click
mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept this value.
ABAQUS/CAE displays an isometric view of the new part, as shown in Figure 2-5.

Figure 2-5 Isometric view of the beam.

To help you orient the cantilever beam during the modeling process, ABAQUS/CAE displays a
triad in the lower-left corner indicating the orientation of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes.

12. Before you continue the tutorial, save your model in a model database file.

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a. From the main menu bar, select File->Save. The Save Model Database As dialog box
appears.

b. Type a name for the new model database in the Selection field, and click OK. You do not
need to include the file extension; ABAQUS/CAE automatically appends .cae to the file
name.
ABAQUS/CAE stores the model database in a new file and returns to the Part module.
The title bar of the ABAQUS/CAE window displays the path and name of the model
database. You should always save your model database at regular intervals (for example,
each time you switch modules); ABAQUS/CAE does not save your model database
automatically.

Note the following key points:

· You use the Part module to create parts. When you create a part, you name it and choose its type,
modeling space, base feature, and approximate size.

· ABAQUS/CAE automatically enters the Sketcher when you create or edit a part. You use the
Sketcher to draw the two-dimensional profiles of parts.

· Click and drag toolbox icons to reveal and select hidden icons.

· Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to indicate you have finished selecting items or using a
tool.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 14, "The Part module."

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module."

· ``Customizing the Sketcher,'' Section 22.8

· ``Editing a feature,'' Section 42.3.1

2.5 Creating a material


You use the Property module to create a material and define its properties.
For the cantilever beam tutorial you will create a single linear elastic material with Young's modulus of
209 ´ 103 MPa and Poisson's ratio of 0.3.
To define a material:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, select Property to enter the Property module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select Material->Create to create a new material.

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The Create Material dialog box appears.

3. Name the material Steel, and click Continue.


The material editor appears. Use the menu bar under the browser area of the material editor to
reveal menus containing all the available material options. Some of the menu items contain
submenus; for example, Figure 2-6 shows the options available under the Mechanical->Elasticity
menu item.

Figure 2-6 Submenus available under the Mechanical menu.

When you select a material option, the appropriate data entry form appears below the menu.

4. From the material editor's menu bar, select Mechanical->Elasticity->Elastic.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Elastic data form.

5. Type a value of 209.E3 for Young's modulus and a value of 0.3 for Poisson's ratio in the
respective fields, as shown in Figure 2-7. Use [Tab] to move between cells.

Figure 2-7 Entering data values for the elastic material properties.

6. Click OK to exit the material editor.

Note the following key point:

· You can use the Property module to create a material and define its properties.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Creating materials,'' Section 15.6.1

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2.6 Defining and assigning section properties


You define the section properties of a model by creating sections in the Property module. After you
create the section, you can use one of the following two methods to assign the section to the part in the
current viewport:

· You can simply select the region from the part and assign the section to the selected region.

· You can use the Set toolset to create a homogeneous set containing the region and assign the
section to the set.

For the cantilever beam tutorial you will create a single homogeneous solid section that you will assign
to the beam by selecting the beam from the viewport. The solid section will contain a reference to the
material Steel that you just created.

2.6.1 Defining a homogeneous solid section


A homogeneous solid section is the simplest section type that you can define; it includes only a
material reference and a plane stress/plane strain thickness.
To define the homogeneous solid section:

1. From the main menu bar, select Section->Create.


The Create Section dialog box appears.

2. In the Create Section dialog box:

a. Name the section BeamSection.

b. In the Category list, accept Solid as the default category selection.

c. In the Type list, accept Homogeneous as the default type selection.

d. Click Continue.
The Edit Section dialog box appears.

3. In the dialog box:

a. Accept the default selection of Steel for the Material associated with the section.

b. Accept the default value of 1 for Plane stress/strain thickness .

c. Click OK.

Note the following key points:

· You can use the Property module to create a section and define its category and type (solid and
homogeneous, respectively, in this case).

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· Since the section refers to the material, the material must be defined first.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9

· ``Creating and assigning a homogeneous solid section,'' Section 15.7.4

2.6.2 Assigning the section to the cantilever beam


You use the Assign menu in the Property module to assign the section BeamSection to the beam.
To assign the section to the cantilever beam:

1. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Section.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

2. Click anywhere on the beam to select the region to which the section will be applied.
ABAQUS/CAE highlights the entire beam.

3. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to accept the selected
geometry.
The Assign Section dialog box appears containing a list of existing sections.

4. Accept the default selection of BeamSection as the section, and click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE assigns the solid section to the beam and closes the Assign Section dialog box.

Note the following key point:

· When you assign a section to a region of a part, the region takes on the material properties
associated with the section.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9

· ``Assigning a section to a part or region,'' Section 15.11.1

2.7 Assembling the model


Each part that you create is oriented in its own coordinate system and is independent of the other parts
in the model. You use the Assembly module to define the geometry of the finished model, called the
assembly, by creating instances of a part and then positioning the instances relative to each other in a
global coordinate system. Although a model may contain many parts, it contains only one assembly.
For the cantilever beam tutorial you will create a single instance of your cantilever beam.

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ABAQUS/CAE positions the instance so that the origin of the sketch that defined the rectangular
profile of the beam overlays the origin of the assembly's default coordinate system.
To assemble the model:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Assembly to enter the Assembly module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Assembly module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Create.


The Create Instance dialog box appears.

3. In the dialog box, select Beam and click OK.


ABAQUS/CAE creates an instance of the cantilever beam and displays it using an isometric
orientation. In this example the single instance of the beam defines the assembly. A second triad in
the viewport indicates the origin and orientation of the global coordinate system.

4. In the toolbar near the top of the window, click the rotate view manipulation tool, .
When you move the mouse back into the viewport, a circle appears.

5. Drag the mouse in the viewport to rotate the model and examine it from all sides. Click mouse
button 2 to exit rotate mode.

6. Several other tools (pan , magnify , zoom , and auto-fit ) are also available in
the toolbar to help you examine your model. Experiment with each of these tools until you are
comfortable with them. Use the context-sensitive help system to obtain any additional information
you require about these tools.

Note the following key points:

· A model contains only one assembly. The assembly is composed of instances of parts positioned in
a global coordinate system.

· The view manipulation tools available in the toolbar allow you to examine your model.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 16, "The Assembly module."

2.8 Configuring your analysis


Now that you have created your part, you can move to the Step module to configure your analysis. For
the cantilever beam tutorial the analysis will consist of two steps:

· An initial step, in which you will apply a boundary condition that constrains one end of the
cantilever beam.

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· A general, static analysis step, in which you will apply a pressure load to the top face of the beam.

ABAQUS/CAE generates the initial step automatically, but you must use the Step module to create the
analysis step yourself. The Step module also allows you to request output for any steps in the analysis.

2.8.1 Creating an analysis step


You use the Step menu to create a general, static step that follows the initial step of the analysis.
To create a general, static analysis step:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Step to enter the Step module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Step module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select Step->Create to create a step.


The Create Step dialog box appears with a list of all the general procedures and a default step
name of Step-1. General procedures are those that can be used to analyze linear or nonlinear
response.

3. Name the step Beamload.

4. From the list of available general procedures in the Create Step dialog box, select Static, General
if it is not already selected and click Continue.
The Edit Step dialog box appears with the default settings for a general, static step.

5. The Basic tab is selected by default. In the Description field, type Load the top of the
beam.

6. Click the Incrementation tab, and accept the default time incrementation settings.

7. Click the Other tab to see its contents; you can accept the default values provided for the step.

8. Click OK to create the step and to exit the Edit Step dialog box.

Note the following key points:

· ABAQUS/CAE generates the initial step automatically, but you must use the Step module to create
additional steps.

· You use the step editor to configure each step you create.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 17, "The Step module."

· ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3

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2.8.2 Requesting data output


When you submit your job for analysis, ABAQUS/CAE writes the results of the analysis to the output
database. When you create a step, ABAQUS/CAE generates a default output request for the step. For
each step you create, you can use the Output Database Request Manager to do the following:

· Select the variables that ABAQUS will write to the output database.

· Select the section points for which ABAQUS will generate data.

· Select the region of the model for which ABAQUS will generate data.

· Change the frequency at which ABAQUS will write data to the output database.

For the cantilever beam tutorial, you will simply examine the output requests and accept the default
configuration.
To examine your output requests:

1. From the main menu bar, select Output->Output Database.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Output Database Request Manager .

2. Review the default output request that ABAQUS/CAE generates for the Static, General step you
created and named Beamload.
The variables from the categories shown on the Field output tabbed page of the Output Database
Request Manager will be output. If you change an output request, you can always return to the
default settings by clicking Defaults at the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager .

3. At the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager , click Edit to view more detailed
information about the output request.
The field output editor appears.

4. Click the arrows next to each output variable category to see exactly which variables will be
output. The boxes next to each category title allow you to see at a glance whether all variables in
that category will be output. A filled box indicates that all variables are output, while a partially
filled box indicates that only some variables will be output.
Based on the selections shown at the bottom of the dialog box, data will be generated at every
default section point in the model and will be written to the output database after every increment
during the analysis.

5. Click Cancel to close the field output editor.

6. Click Dismiss to close the Output Database Request Manager .


Note: What is the difference between the Dismiss and Cancel buttons? Dismiss buttons appear in dialog boxes that contain
data that you cannot modify. For example, the Output Database Request Manager allows you to view output requests, but

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you must use the field output editor or the history output editor to modify those requests. Clicking the Dismiss button simply
closes the Output Database Request Manager dialog box. Conversely, Cancel buttons appear in dialog boxes that allow you
to make changes. Clicking Cancel closes the dialog box without saving your changes.

Note the following key points:

· When you create a step, ABAQUS/CAE generates a default output request for the step.

· You use the Output Database Request Manager to examine which categories of data will be
output.

· You invoke the field and history output editors from the Output Database Request Manager to
select the variables that ABAQUS/CAE will write to the output database during the analysis, as
well as the frequency at which they are written and the regions and section points from which they
are written.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 17, "The Step module."

· ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4

2.9 Applying a boundary condition and a load to the model


Prescribed conditions, such as loads and boundary conditions, are step-dependent, which means that
you must specify the step or steps in which they become active. Now that you have defined the steps in
the analysis, you can use the Load/BC/IC module to define the following prescribed conditions:

· A boundary condition that constrains one end of the cantilever beam in the X-, Y-, and
Z-directions; the boundary condition is applied during the initial step.

· A load that you apply to the top face of the beam; the load is applied during the general analysis
step.

2.9.1 Applying a boundary condition to one end of the cantilever


beam
You use the BC menu to create a boundary condition that constrains the cantilever beam in the X-, Y-,
and Z-directions at one end of the beam.
To apply boundary conditions to one end of the cantilever beam:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Load/BC/IC to enter the Load/BC/IC module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Load/BC/IC module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select BC->Create.


The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears.

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3. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box:

a. Name the boundary condition Fixed.

b. From the list of steps, select Initial as the step in which the boundary condition will be
activated.

c. In the Category list, accept Mechanical as the default category selection.

d. In the Type for Selected Step list, accept Displacement/Rotation as the default type
selection, and click Continue.
ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

4. You will fix the face at the left end of the cantilever beam; the desired face is shown in Figure 2-8.

Figure 2-8 Selecting the region on which to apply a boundary condition.

By default, when you click in a region that overlaps more than one face ABAQUS/CAE selects the
face that is ``closest'' to the screen. To select the face at the left end of the cantilever beam you
need to turn off this default behavior and cycle through the valid selections. Do the following:

a. From the prompt area, click the selection options tool .

b. From the Options dialog box that appears, toggle off the closest object tool .

c. Click over the desired face.


ABAQUS/CAE displays Next, Previous, and OK buttons in the prompt area.

d. Click Next andPrevious until the desired face is highlighted.

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e. Click OK to confirm your choice.

5. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to indicate that you have
finished selecting. The selection options return to their default behavior.
The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears. When you are defining a boundary condition
in the initial step, all six degrees of freedom are unconstrained by default.

6. In the dialog box:

a. Toggle on U1, U2, and U3, since only the translational degrees of freedom need to be
constrained.

b. Click OK to create the boundary condition and to close the dialog box.
ABAQUS/CAE displays three arrows at each corner and midpoint on the selected face to
indicate the constrained degrees of freedom.

7. From the main menu bar, select BC->Manager.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Boundary Condition Manager. The manager indicates that the
boundary condition is Created (activated) in the initial step and is Propagated (continues to
be active) in the general analysis step Beamload.

8. Click Dismiss to close the Boundary Condition Manager.

Note the following key points:

· Prescribed conditions, such as loads and boundary conditions, are step-dependent objects, which
means that you must specify the step or steps in which they become active.

· Managers are useful for reviewing and modifying the status of prescribed conditions in each step.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 19, "The Load/BC/IC module."

2.9.2 Applying a load to the top of the cantilever beam


Now that you have fixed one end of the cantilever beam, you can apply a distributed load to the top
face of the beam. The load is applied during the general, static step you created using the Step module.
To apply a load to the top of the cantilever beam:

1. From the main menu bar, select Load->Create.


The Create Load dialog box appears.

2. In the Create Load dialog box:

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a. Name the load Pressure.

b. From the list of steps, select Beamload as the step in which the load will be applied.

c. In the Category list, accept Mechanical as the default category selection.

d. In the Type for Selected Step list, select Pressure.

e. Click Continue.
ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

3. In the viewport, select the top face of the beam as the surface to which the load will be applied.
The desired face is shown by the gridded face in Figure 2-9.

Figure 2-9 Selecting the region on which to apply a pressure load.

4. Click mouse button 2 or click Done in the prompt area in the viewport to indicate that you have
finished selecting regions.
The Edit Load dialog box appears.

5. In the dialog box:

a. Enter a magnitude of 0.5 for the load.

b. Accept the default Amplitude selection--ABAQUS/CAE will ramp the load during the
step.

c. Click OK to create the load and to close the dialog box.


ABAQUS/CAE displays downward-pointing arrows along the top face of the beam to
indicate the load applied in the negative 2-direction.

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6. Examine the Load Manager and note that the new load is ``Created'' (activated) in the general
analysis step Beamload.

7. Click Dismiss to close the Load Manager.

Note the following key points:

· You use the Load/BC/IC module to create loads and to define where the load is applied to the
assembly.

· Loads can be propagated across steps; the Load Manager indicates the steps during which a load
is applied.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 19, "The Load/BC/IC module."

· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

2.10 Meshing the model


You use the Mesh module to generate the finite element mesh. You can choose the meshing technique
that ABAQUS/CAE will use to create the mesh, the element shape, and the element type.
ABAQUS/CAE uses a number of different meshing techniques. The default meshing technique
assigned to the model is indicated by the color of the model when you enter the Mesh module; if
ABAQUS/CAE displays the model in orange, it cannot be meshed without assistance from you.

2.10.1 Assigning mesh controls


In this section you will use the Mesh Controls dialog box to examine the technique that
ABAQUS/CAE will use to mesh the model and the shape of the elements that ABAQUS/CAE will
generate.
To assign the mesh controls:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Mesh to enter the Mesh module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Mesh module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Controls.


The Mesh Controls dialog box appears. ABAQUS/CAE colors the regions of your model to
indicate which technique it will use to mesh that region. ABAQUS/CAE will use structured
meshing to mesh your cantilever beam and displays the beam in green.

3. In the dialog box, accept Hex as the default Element Shape selection.

4. Accept Structured as the default Technique selection.

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5. Click OK to assign the mesh controls and to close the dialog box.
ABAQUS/CAE will use the structured meshing technique to create a mesh of hexahedral-shaped
elements.

2.10.2 Assigning an ABAQUS element type


In this section you will use the Element Type dialog box to assign a particular ABAQUS element type
to the model. Although you will assign the element type now, you could also wait until after the mesh
has been created.
To assign an ABAQUS element type:

1. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Element Type.


The Element Type dialog box appears.

2. In the dialog box, accept the following default selections that control the elements that are
available for selection:

· Standard is the default Element Library selection.

· Linear is the default Geometric Order.

· 3D Stress is the default Family of elements.

3. In the lower portion of the dialog box, examine the element shape options. A brief description of
the default element selection is available at the bottom of each tabbed page.
Since the model is a three-dimensional solid, only three-dimensional solid element
types--hexahedral on the Hex tabbed page, triangular prism on the Wedge page, and tetrahedral on
the Tet page--are shown.

4. Click the Hex tab, and choose Incompatible modes from the list of Element Controls.
A description of the element type C3D8I appears at the bottom of the dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE
will now associate C3D8I elements with the elements in the mesh.

5. Click OK to assign the element type and to close the dialog box.

Note the following key points:

· Although you can create a mesh at any point after creating the assembly, you typically do it after
configuring the rest of the model, since items such as loads, boundary conditions, and steps depend
on the underlying geometry, not the mesh.

· The available element types depend on the geometry of your model.

· You can assign the element type either before or after you create the mesh.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Controlling mesh characteristics,'' Section 20.16

· ``Element library: overview,'' Section 13.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual

· ``Element library: overview,'' Section 12.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

2.10.3 Creating the mesh


Basic meshing is a two-stage operation: first you seed the edges of the part instance, and then you
mesh the part instance. You select the number of seeds based on the desired element size or on the
number of elements that you want along an edge, and ABAQUS/CAE places the nodes of the mesh at
the seeds whenever possible. For the cantilever beam tutorial the default seeding will generate a mesh
with square hexahedral elements.
To mesh the model:

1. From the main menu bar, select Seed->Instance to seed the part instance.
The prompt area displays the default element size that ABAQUS/CAE will use to seed the part
instance. This default element size is based on the size of the part instance.

2. In the prompt area, accept the default element size of 10, and press Enter or click mouse button 2
in the viewport.
ABAQUS/CAE applies the seeds to the part instance, as shown in Figure 2-10.

Figure 2-10 Seeding the mesh.

You can gain more control of the resulting mesh by seeding each edge of the partinstance
individually.

3. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the seeding.

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4. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Instance to mesh the part instance.

5. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Yes to confirm that you want to mesh the part instance.
ABAQUS/CAE meshes the part instance and displays the resulting mesh, as shown in Figure 2-11.

Figure 2-11 Meshing the part instance.

Note the following key points:

· You select the number of seeds based on the element size or on the number of elements that you
want along an edge.

· You use seeds to define the approximate position of nodes in your final mesh.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 20, "The Mesh module."

· ``Advanced meshing techniques,'' Section 20.11

· ``Seeding a model,'' Section 20.14

2.11 Creating and submitting an analysis job


Now that you have configured your analysis, you will move to the Job module to create a job that is
associated with your model and to submit the job for analysis.
To create and submit an analysis job:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Job to enter the Job module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Job module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select Job->Create to create a job.

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The Create Job dialog box appears with a list of the models in the model database.

3. Name the job Deform.

4. Click Continue to create the job.


The Edit Job dialog box appears.

5. In the Description field, type Cantilever beam tutorial.

6. Click the tabs to review the default settings in the job editor. Click OK to accept all the default job
settings and to close the dialog box.

7. From the main menu bar, select Job->Manager to start the Job Manager.
The Job Manager appears and displays a list of your jobs, the model associated with each job, the
type of analysis, and the status of the job.

8. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager, click Submit to submit your job for
analysis.
After you submit your job, the information in the Status column updates to indicate the job's
status. The Status column for the cantilever beam tutorial shows one of the following:

· Submitted while the solver input file is being generated.

· Running while ABAQUS analyzes the model.

· Completed when the analysis is complete, and the output has been written to the output
database.

· Aborted if ABAQUS/CAE finds a problem with the input file or the analysis and aborts the
analysis. In addition, ABAQUS/CAE reports the problem in the message area.

9. When the job completes successfully, you are ready to view the results of the analysis with the
Visualization module. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager, click Results.
ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module, opens the output database created by the job, and
displays a representation of the model.

Note the following key points:

· You use the Job module to create jobs.

· You use the Job Manager to submit jobs and to monitor the status of a job.

2.12 Viewing the results of your analysis


You use the Visualization module to read the output database that ABAQUS/CAE generated during
the analysis and to view the results of the analysis. Because you named the job Deform when you

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created the job, ABAQUS/CAE names the output database Deform.odb.


When you open an output database, ABAQUS/CAE immediately displays a fast representation of the
model that is similar to an undeformed shape plot. For the tutorial you will also view an undeformed,
deformed, and contour plot of the loaded cantilever beam.
To view the results of your analysis:

1. After you click Results in the Job module's Job Manager, ABAQUS/CAE loads the
Visualization module, opens Deform.odb, and displays a fast plot of the model, as shown in
Figure 2-12.

Figure 2-12 Fast plot of model.

The title block indicates the following:

· The job description.

· The output database from which ABAQUS/CAE read the data.

· The version of ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit that was used to generate the output
database.

· The date the output database was generated.

The state block indicates the following:

· The step name and the step description.

· The increment within the step.

· The step time.

By default, ABAQUS/CAE plots the last step and the last frame of your analysis. Buttons that
allow you to control which analysis results are plotted are available in the prompt area.

2. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Undeformed Shape to view an undeformed shape plot.

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The model's color changes to green to indicate that this is an undeformed shape plot, not a fast
plot.

3. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Deformed Shape to view a deformed shape plot.

4. Click the auto-fit tool so that the entire plot is rescaled to fit in the viewport, as shown in
Figure 2-13.

Figure 2-13 Deformed shape plot of model.

5. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Contours to view a contour plot of the von Mises stress, as
shown in Figure 2-14.

Figure 2-14 Contour plot of Mises stress.

6. Click the Contour Options button at the bottom-right corner of the prompt area to change the
appearance of the current plot.

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The Contour Plot Options dialog box appears. You can use this dialog box to, for example, turn
on node and element labeling, change the deformation scale factor of the underlying model, or
adjust the contour intervals. (To change general plot options, such as turning the legend off or on,
select View->Viewport Annotations from the main menu bar.)

7. Click Cancel to close the Contour Plot Options dialog box.

8. For a contour plot the default variable displayed depends on the analysis procedure; in this case,
the default variable is the von Mises stress. From the main menu bar, select Result->Field Output
to examine the variables that are available for display.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Field Output dialog box; click the Primary Variable tab to choose
which variable to display and to select the invariant or component of interest. By default, the
Mises invariant of the Stress components at integration points variable is selected.

9. Click Cancel to close the Field Output dialog box.

Note the following key points:

· You use the Visualization module to read the output database generated by your analysis and to
view the results.

· You can select the variable to display from the data in the output database, and you can also select
the increment being displayed.

· You can display the results in several modes--undeformed, deformed, and contour.

· You can control the appearance of the display in each mode, independent of other modes.

You have now finished the first tutorial. The second tutorial introduces additional techniques to create
and analyze a model; for example, you will create and assemble multiple part instances and define
contact. The third tutorial covers the capabilities of the Visualization module in more detail.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Part V, "Viewing results"

· Chapter 25, "Plotting the undeformed shape"

· Chapter 26, "Plotting the deformed shape"

· Chapter 27, "Contouring analysis results"

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3. A tutorial: Using additional techniques to create


and analyze a model
In the first tutorial (Chapter 2, "A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model") you created and
analyzed a very simple model composed of only one part. In this tutorial you will create and analyze a
more complex model. The model is more complex on two levels:

· It consists of three different parts and three different part instances rather than just one. This
tutorial illustrates how you position instances of these parts to create the assembly and how you
define contact between surfaces of the assembly.

· It includes parts that you will draw using advanced sketching techniques. You will learn how
sketches, datum geometry, and partitions combine to define the features that make up individual
parts. You will also learn how you can modify a part by editing a feature and how modified parts
are regenerated.

As in the first tutorial, you will apply section properties, loads, and boundary conditions to the model;
you will also mesh the model, configure the analysis, and run the analysis job. At the end of the tutorial
you will view your analysis results. The entire tutorial takes approximately three hours to complete.
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the techniques described in the first tutorial, including
the following:

· Using the view manipulation tools to rotate and zoom an object in the viewport.

· Following the prompts in the prompt area.

· Using the mouse to select menu items, toolbox items, and items within the viewport.

· Using hyperlinks to see more detailed help in the online documentation and clicking the Go Back

button in the toolbar across the top of the book window to return you to your original point in
"Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE."

3.1 Overview
During the tutorial you will create an assembly composed of a hinge held together by a pin. The
assembled part instances and the final mesh are illustrated in Figure 3-1.

Figure 3-1 Model used in the hinge tutorial.

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The tutorial consists of the following sections:

· ``Creating the first half of the hinge,'' Section 3.2

· ``Assigning section properties to the hinge part, '' Section 3.3

· ``Creating and modifying a second hinge piece,'' Section 3.4

· ``Creating the pin,'' Section 3.5

· ``Assembling the model,'' Section 3.6

· ``Defining analysis steps,'' Section 3.7

· ``Creating surfaces to use in contact interactions, '' Section 3.8

· ``Defining contact between regions of the model,'' Section 3.9

· ``Applying boundary conditions and loads to the assembly,'' Section 3.10

· ``Meshing the assembly,'' Section 3.11

· ``Creating and submitting a job,'' Section 3.12

· ``Viewing the results of your analysis,'' Section 3.13

3.2 Creating the first half of the hinge


To start the tutorial, you create the first part--half of the hinge. ABAQUS/CAE models are composed
of features; you create a part by combining features. This portion of the hinge is composed of the
following features:

· A cube--the base feature, since it is the first feature of the part.

· A flange that extends from the cube. The flange also includes a large-diameter hole through which
the pin is inserted.

· A small lubrication hole in one corner of the flange.

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3.2.1 Creating the cube


To create the cube (the base feature), you create a solid, three-dimensional, extruded part and name it.
You then sketch its profile and extrude the profile over a specified distance to produce the base feature
of the first half of the hinge. The desired cube is shown in Figure 3-2.

Figure 3-2 The base feature (a cube) is created first.

To create the cube:

1. Start ABAQUS/CAE, and create a new model database. If you are viewing this tutorial online,
resize your windows so that you can follow the tutorial and see the ABAQUS/CAE main window.

2. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Part to enter the Part module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Part module loads, and the Part module toolbox
appears on the left side of the main window.
The triad in the lower-left corner of the viewport indicates the orientation of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes.
You can turn off this triad by selecting View->Viewport Annotations from the main menu bar
and toggling off the Show triad option. (The triad is sometimes turned off for clarity in the figures
in this tutorial.)

3. From the main menu bar, select Part->Create to create a new part.
The Create Part dialog box appears.
The text in the prompt area asks you to fill out the Create Part dialog. ABAQUS/CAE always
displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through a procedure.

4. Name the part Hinge-hole. Accept the following default settings:

· A three-dimensional, deformable body

· A solid extrusion base feature

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5. In the Approximate size text field, type 0.2. You will be modeling the hinge using meters for the
unit of length, and its overall length is 0.14 meters; therefore, 0.2 meters is a sufficiently large
approximate size for the part. Click Continue to create the part.
The Sketcher starts and displays the toolbox on the left side of the main window. ABAQUS/CAE
uses the approximate size of the part to compute the default sheet size--0.2 meters in this example.
In addition, in this example the Sketcher draws 20 grid lines on the sheet, and the distance between
each grid line is 0.01 meters. (You probably see fewer than 20 grid lines because the sheet extends
beyond your viewport.)

6. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the rectangle tool . (Click and drag on the line toolbox
icon to reveal the hidden rectangle tool.)

7. While you are sketching, ABAQUS/CAE displays the cursor position in the upper-left corner of
the viewport containing the Sketcher grid. Find the origin of the sketch at (0, 0); then move the
cursor to (-0.02, -0.02), and click mouse button 1 to define the first corner of the rectangle. Click
mouse button 1 again at (0.02, 0.02) to define the opposite corner.
Important: To complete this tutorial successfully, it is important that you use the dimensions
stated and do not deviate from the example; otherwise, you will find it difficult to assemble
the model.

8. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to exit the rectangle tool. Click mouse button 2 again to exit
the Sketcher.
Tip: Clicking mouse button 2 in the viewport has the same effect as clicking the default
button in the prompt area--Done in this instance.

9. In the text box in the prompt area, type an extrusion depth of 0.04 and press [Enter].
ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and displays the base feature, a cube, as shown in Figure 3-2.

Note the following key points:

· The default spacing of the Sketcher grid depends on the value you enter in the Approximate size
text field in the Create Part dialog box.

· Dashed lines on the Sketcher grid indicate the X- and Y-axes of the sketch and the origin. While
you are drawing, ABAQUS/CAE displays the cursor position in the upper-left corner of the
viewport containing the Sketcher grid.

3.2.2 Adding the flange to the base feature


You will now add a solid feature--the flange--to the base feature. You select one face of the cube to
define the sketch plane and extrude the sketched profile through half the depth of the cube. The cube
and flange are shown in Figure 3-3.

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Figure 3-3 The flange is added to the base feature.

To add the flange to the base feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Solid->Extrude.

2. Select a face to define the sketching plane, and select the extrusion direction.

a. Select the face at the front of the cube, as shown in Figure 3-4.

Figure 3-4 Select the gridded face to define the sketching plane. The arrow indicates the
correct extrusion direction.

ABAQUS/CAE displays an arrow indicating the extrusion direction. The default extrusion
direction for a solid is always out of the solid. ABAQUS/CAE draws the arrow wherever
you clicked on the face to select it during the previous step; as a result, the arrow may not
appear in the same location shown in Figure 3-4.

b. In the prompt area, click Flip to set the extrusion direction into the cube. Click OK when
the arrow indicates the desired extrusion direction, as shown in Figure 3-4.

3. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the sketch, as shown in Figure 3-5.

Figure 3-5 Select the indicated edge to position the part correctly in the Sketcher.

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The Sketcher starts and displays the outline of the base feature as reference geometry. The sketch
of the flange that you will create is illustrated in Figure 3-6.

Figure 3-6 Use the Sketcher to create the flange profile.

4. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the connected lines tool .

5. Draw the three sides of a rectangle, as shown in Figure 3-7. The four vertices should be at (0.04,
0.02), (0.02, 0.02), (0.02, -0.02), and (0.04, -0.02).

Figure 3-7 First, draw the rectangular portion of the flange.

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Tip: If you make a mistake while sketching, use the Sketcher undo or delete
tools to correct your error.

6. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to exit the connected lines tool. From the Sketcher toolbox,

select the center and two endpoints arc tool .


Note: You do not have to unselect the connected lines tool before you select the arc tool. ABAQUS/CAE automatically
unselects the previous tool when you select a new Sketcher tool.

7. Click at the center of the arc and at each vertex. ABAQUS/CAE draws the arc in a clockwise
direction from the first vertex to the second. The resulting arc is shown in Figure 3-8.

Figure 3-8 Then add the curved portion of the flange.

8. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the circle tool . Click at (0.04, 0) to locate the center of
the circle; click at (0.05, 0) to define the circle.
Note: When you mesh a part, ABAQUS/CAE places nodes wherever vertices appear along an edge; therefore, the location of
the vertex on the circumference of the circle influences the final mesh. Placing the vertex at (0.05, 0) results in a high-quality
mesh.

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9. From the dimension tools in the Sketcher toolbox, select the radial dimension tool .

10. Select the circle to dimension.


ABAQUS/CAE highlights valid selections when you move the cursor around the sketch; the circle
and the arc are the only valid selections in the current sketch.

11. Position the dimension text and click mouse button 1 to accept the location, as shown in Figure
3-9. You can position dimension text at any convenient location in a sketch, although you cannot
subsequently move the text after you have positioned it.

Figure 3-9 Add a dimension label to the flange hole.

12. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to exit the radius dimension tool. Click mouse button 2 again
to exit the Sketcher.

13. From the buttons that appear in the prompt area, select Blind to indicate that you will provide the
depth of the extrusion.

14. In the text box in the prompt area, type an extrusion depth of 0.02 and press [Enter].
ABAQUS/CAE displays the part composed of the cube and the flange. ``Silhouette'' edges appear
in gray indicating curved faces of the flange. Silhouette edges are purely a visual aid; they are not
true edges and cannot be selected.

15. Use the auto-fit view manipulation tool to resize the figure to fit in the viewport.

Note the following key points:

· You create parts by adding features to the base feature; in this example the cube is the base feature
and the flange is added to it.

· When you add a feature, you must select a face on which to sketch the profile of the feature.

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3.2.3 Modifying a feature


Each part is defined by a set of features, and each feature in turn is defined by a set of parameters. For
example, the base feature (the cube) and the second feature (the flange) are both defined by a sketch
and an extrusion depth. You modify a part by modifying the parameters that define its features using
the Feature Manipulation toolset. For the hinge example you will change the radius of the hole in the
sketch of the flange from 0.01 m to 0.012 m.
To modify a feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Feature->Edit.

2. From the lower-right corner of the main window, click Feature List.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Feature List dialog box, showing each feature's Name and Status. In
this example you have created two solid extrusion features: the base feature (the cube), whose
Name is Solid extrude-1, and the flange, whose Name is Solid extrude-2. When you select a
feature from the Feature List dialog box, ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected feature in the
viewport.

3. From the Feature List dialog box, select the flange ( Solid extrude-2) and click OK.
Note: Instead of using the Feature List dialog box, you could have also selected a feature to edit directly from the viewport.

ABAQUS/CAE displays the feature editor. For an extruded solid you can change the extrusion
depth, and you can edit the profile sketch.

4. From the feature editor, click Edit Section Sketch.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the sketch of the second feature, and the feature editor disappears.

5. From the edit tools in the Sketcher toolbox, select the edit dimension value tool .

6. Select the radial dimension of the circle ( .010).

7. In the text box in the prompt area, type a new radius of 0.012 and press [Enter].
ABAQUS/CAE changes the radius of the circle in the sketch only.

8. Click mouse button 2 to exit the edit dimension tool. Click mouse button 2 again to exit the
Sketcher.
ABAQUS/CAE again displays the feature editor.

9. Click OK to regenerate the flange with the modified radius and to exit the feature editor.
The flange hole is enlarged to the new radius dimension.
Note: In some circumstances regenerating a feature causes dependent features to fail. In such a case ABAQUS/CAE asks if
you want to save your changes and suppress the features that failed to regenerate, or if you want to revert to the unmodified

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feature and lose your changes.

Note the following key points:

· You can edit features by modifying the sketch of the feature or a parameter associated with the
feature, such as an extrusion depth.

· Dimensioning a sketch and modifying the dimensions allow you to refine a part.

· Editing features can cause dependent features to fail during regeneration.

3.2.4 Creating the sketch plane


The flange includes a small hole used for lubrication, as shown in Figure 3-10.

Figure 3-10 Isometric shaded view of the hinge with the lubrication hole.

Creating the hole in the desired location requires an appropriate datum plane on which to sketch the
profile of the extruded cut, as shown in Figure 3-11.

Figure 3-11 Two-dimensional view of the datum plane's position with respect to the hinge piece.

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You sketch a circle on the datum plane, which is tangent to the flange, and ABAQUS/CAE extrudes
the circle normal to the datum plane and normal to the flange to create the lubrication hole.
There are three operations involved in creating the datum plane:

· Creating a datum point on the circumference of the flange.

· Creating a datum axis running between two datum points.

· Creating a datum plane through the datum point on the circumference and normal to the datum
axis.

To create the sketch plane:

1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Datum.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Datum dialog box.

2. Create a datum point along the curved edge of the flange through which the datum plane will pass.
From the Create Datum dialog box, choose the Point datum type.

3. From the list of methods, select Use parameter, and click Apply.
Note: What is the difference between the OK and Apply buttons? When you click OK, the Create Datum dialog box closes
before you create the datum. When you click Apply, the Create Datum dialog box remains open while you create the datum
and is available for you to create the next datum. Click OK if you want to create only a single datum; click Apply if you want to
create several pieces of datum geometry before moving on to a new procedure.

4. Select the curved edge, as shown in Figure 3-12. Note the direction of the arrow indicating an
increasing edge parameter from 0.0 to 1.0.

Figure 3-12 Create a datum point along the curved edge of the flange.

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5. In the text box in the prompt area, enter a normalized edge parameter of 0.25, and press [Enter].
ABAQUS/CAE creates a datum point along the selected edge.

6. Create a datum axis that will define the normal to the datum plane. From the Create Datum dialog
box, choose the Axis datum type. Select the 2 points method, and click Apply.
ABAQUS/CAE highlights the points that can be used to create the datum axis.

7. Select the point at the center of the hole (created when you sketched the hole's profile) and the
datum point on the curved edge.
ABAQUS/CAE displays a datum axis passing through the two points, as shown in Figure 3-13.

Figure 3-13 Create a datum axis defined by two datum points.

8. The final step is to create the datum plane normal to the datum axis. From the Create Datum
dialog box, choose the Plane datum type. Select the Point and normal method, and click Apply.

9. Select the datum point on the curved edge as the point through which the datum plane will pass.

10. Select the datum axis as the edge that will be normal to the datum plane.
ABAQUS/CAE creates the datum plane, as shown in Figure 3-14.

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Figure 3-14 Create a datum plane normal to the datum axis.

11. Click Cancel to close the Create Datum dialog box.

Note the following key points:

· If a suitable sketch plane does not exist, you can use the Datum toolset to create one.

· The Datum toolset allows you to create datum points, axes, and planes.

· Click OK in a dialog box to perform the selected operation and to close the dialog box; click
Apply to leave the dialog box open while performing the selected operation. Click Cancel to close
the dialog box without performing an operation.

3.2.5 Sketching the lubrication hole


The next operation creates the lubrication hole on the flange by extruding a circle from the datum
plane that you just created. First, you need to create a datum point on the flange that indicates the
center of the hole, as illustrated in Figure 3-15.

Figure 3-15 A datum point indicates the center of the lubrication hole.

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To create the datum point at the center of the lubrication hole:

1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Datum.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Datum dialog box.

2. Create a datum point along the second curved edge of the flange. From the Create Datum dialog
box, choose the Point datum type.

3. From the list of methods, select Use parameter, and click Apply.

4. Select the second curved edge of the flange, as shown in Figure 3-16.

Figure 3-16 Select the second edge.

5. Enter a normalized edge parameter of 0.75.


ABAQUS/CAE creates a datum point along the selected edge.

6. From the list of methods, select Midway between 2 points , and click Apply.

7. Select the datum point along the first curved edge.

8. Select the datum point along the second curved edge.


ABAQUS/CAE creates a datum point halfway across the flange. This exercise illustrates how you
can use feature-based modeling to capture your design intent. The datum point is a feature that
ABAQUS/CAE defines to be midway between the datum points along the edges of the flange. As a
result, if you change the thickness of the flange, the lubrication hole remains in the center.

9. Click Cancel to close the Create Datum dialog box.

To sketch the lubrication hole:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Cut->Extrude.

2. Click the boundary of the datum plane to select it as the plane on which to sketch.

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3. Select the direction of the extruded cut to be into the part, and click OK.

4. Select the top rear edge of the cube as the edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the
sketch, as shown in Figure 3-17.

Figure 3-17 Select the indicated edge to position the part correctly in the Sketcher grid.

The Sketcher starts with the vertices, datums, and edges of the part projected onto the sketch plane
as reference geometry.
Tip: If you are unsure of the relative orientation of the sketch plane and the part, use the

view manipulation tools to rotate and pan them. Use the cycle view manipulation tool to
restore the original view.

5. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the circle tool .

6. Select the datum point on the center of the flange to indicate the center of the circle.

7. Move the cursor to (-0.01, 0.01), and click mouse button 1.

8. Create a dimension indicating the radius of the hole.


The radius of the circle is 0.004 m and should be changed to 0.003 m.

9. From the edit tools in the Sketcher toolbox, select the edit dimension value tool .

10. Select the radial dimension of the circle. In the text field that appears in the prompt area, type a
new radius of 0.003, and press [Enter].
The radius of the circle changes.

11. Click mouse button 2 to exit the edit dimension value tool. Click mouse button 2 again to indicate
that you have finished sketching.

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12. From the buttons in the prompt area, select Up to Face to define the extrusion distance.
ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and displays an isometric view of the part.

13. Select the cylindrical inner surface of the hole in the part to indicate the face to which to extrude,
as illustrated in Figure 3-18. (Because you can select at most only one face, ABAQUS/CAE does
not ask you to indicate that you have finished selecting.)

Figure 3-18 Select the face to which to extrude.

ABAQUS/CAE immediately extrudes the sketch from the datum plane to the hole in the flange.

14. From the toolbar, select the shaded display tool , and use the rotation tool to see how the
part and its features are oriented, as shown in Figure 3-19. (For clarity, the datum geometry has
been removed from the view in Figure 3-19 by selecting View->Part Display Options->Datum.)

Tip: After you rotate the part, use the cycle views tool to step through the previous
views (up to a maximum of eight) and to restore the original view.

Figure 3-19 Isometric view of the first hinge.

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15. Now that you have created the first part of your model, it is a good idea to save your model in a
model database:

a. From the main menu bar, select File->Save. The Save Model Database As dialog box
appears.

b. Type a name for the new model database in the Selection field, and click OK. You do not
need to include the file extension; ABAQUS/CAE appends .cae automatically to the file
name.
ABAQUS/CAE stores the model database in a new file and returns to the Part module.
The name of your model database appears in the main window title bar.
If you find you need you need to interrupt this tutorial, you can save the model database at any
time and exit ABAQUS/CAE. You can then start a new ABAQUS/CAE session and open the
saved model database by selecting File->Open from the main menu bar. The model database will
contain any parts, materials, loads, etc. that you created, and you will be able to continue the
tutorial.

Note the following key points:

· If you rotate or pan the sketch, use the cycle view manipulation tool to restore the original view.

· Datum geometry that you create on a part can also be used by the Sketcher.

· You should save the model database at regular intervals.

3.3 Assigning section properties to the hinge part


The process of assigning section properties to a part is divided into three tasks:

· Creating a material.

· Creating a section that includes a reference to the material.

· Assigning the section to the part or to a region of the part.

You will use the Property module to perform all of these tasks.

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3.3.1 Creating a material


You will create a material named Steel that has a Young's modulus of 209 GPa and a Poisson's ratio
of 0.3.
To define the material:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Property to enter the Property module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select Material->Create to create a new material.
The Create Material dialog box appears.

3. In the Create Material dialog box, name the material Steel, and click Continue.
The material editor appears.

4. From the editor's menu bar, select Mechanical->Elasticity->Elastic.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Elastic data form.

5. In the respective fields in the Elastic data form, type a value of 209.E9 for Young's modulus and
a value of 0.3 for Poisson's ratio.

6. Click OK to exit the material editor.

Note the following key points:

· You enter material data into tables in the material editor to define the material properties of your
model.

· Creating a material in the Property module is equivalent to entering keywords into an


ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit input file.

3.3.2 Defining a section


Next, you will create a section that includes a reference to the material Steel.
To define the section:

1. From the main menu bar, select Section->Create.


The Create Section dialog box appears.

2. In the Create Section dialog box:

a. Name the section SolidSection.

b. In the Category list, accept Solid as the default selection.

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c. In the Type list, accept Homogeneous as the default selection, and click Continue.
The section editor appears.

3. In the editor:

a. Accept Steel as the material selection.


If you had defined other materials, you could click the arrow next to the Material text box
to see a list of available materials and to select the material of your choice.

b. Accept the default value for Plane stress/strain thickness , and click OK.

Note the following key points:

· You associate a section with materials that you have created.

· You can choose from all materials that have been defined for the model.

3.3.3 Assigning the section


You will use the Assign menu in the Property module to assign the section SolidSection to the
hinge part.
To assign the section to the hinge part:

1. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Section.

2. Drag a rectangle around the hinge piece to select the entire part.
ABAQUS/CAE highlights all the regions of the part.

3. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting the regions to be assigned the
section.
The Assign Section dialog box appears containing a list of existing sections. SolidSection is
selected by default since there are no other sections currently defined.

4. In the Assign Section dialog box, accept the default selection of SolidSection, and click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE assigns the section to the part.

Note the following key points:

· By assigning a section to a region of a part, you associate a material with that region.

· You can choose from all solid sections that have been defined for the model.

3.4 Creating and modifying a second hinge piece


The model contains a second hinge piece similar to the first except that the lubrication hole is not
present. You will create a copy of the first hinge piece and delete the features that form the lubrication

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hole.

3.4.1 Copying the hinge


First you will create an exact copy of the hinge piece.
To copy the hinge:

1. Return to the Part module.

2. From the main menu, select Part->Copy->Hinge-hole.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Copy Part dialog box.

3. In the text box in the Copy Part dialog box, type Hinge-solid, and click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE creates a copy of the hinge piece and names the copy Hinge-solid. The copy of
the hinge piece includes the section from the original hinge piece.

Note the following key point:

· When you copy a part, the copy contains all the features that defined the original part, as well as
any sections that were assigned to it.

3.4.2 Modifying the copy of the hinge


Now you will create a solid hinge piece by deleting the features that form the lubrication hole.
To modify the copy of the hinge:

1. In the Part list located below the toolbar, click Hinge-solid.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the retrieved part in the current viewport. Look at the viewport title bar to
see which part is being displayed.

2. From the main menu bar, select Feature->Delete.

3. From the toolbar across the top of the main ABAQUS/CAE window, select the wireframe display

tool so that you can see the features more clearly.

4. Select the datum point on the edge of the flange, as shown in Figure 3-20.

Tip: You may need to use the zoom and magnify tools to locate the datum point.

Figure 3-20 Delete the datum point and its children.

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5. When you delete a selected feature, ABAQUS/CAE asks whether you also want to delete any
features that depend on the feature being deleted. The feature being deleted is called the ``parent''
feature, and its dependent features are called ``children.'' ABAQUS/CAE highlights all the features
that it will delete if the parent feature is deleted. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Yes to
delete the datum point and all its children.
ABAQUS/CAE deletes the datum point. Because they were dependent on the datum point,
ABAQUS/CAE also deletes the datum axis, the datum plane, and the lubrication hole.
Important: You cannot recover deleted features; however, you can temporarily remove a feature by suppressing it using the
Feature Manipulation toolset.

Note the following key point:

· When you delete a feature from a part, ABAQUS/CAE also deletes any features that depend on the
feature being deleted. These dependent features are called children.

3.5 Creating the pin


The final assembly consists of instances of the two hinge pieces that are free to rotate about a pin. You
will model the pin as a three-dimensional, revolved analytical rigid surface. First you create the pin
and assign the rigid body reference point; then you constrain the pin by applying constraints to this
rigid body reference point.

3.5.1 Creating the pin


You use the Part module to create the pin--a three-dimensional, revolved analytical rigid surface.
To create the pin:

1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Create to create a new part.
The Create Part dialog box appears.

2. Name the part Pin. Choose a three-dimensional body as before, but change the type to Analytical
rigid and the base feature shape to Revolved shell.

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3. Accept the approximate size of 0.2, and click Continue.


The Sketcher starts and displays the axis of revolution as a purple dashed line; your sketch cannot
cross this axis.

4. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the connected lines tool . Sketch a line to the right of the
axis running from (0.010, 0.030) to (0.010, -0.030).

5. Dimension the horizontal distance from the line to the axis, and change the distance to 0.012.
When you modify the dimension, you must select the vertices at each end of the line to move. (Use
[Shift]+[Click] to select both vertices.) The sketch and the resulting shaded part are shown in
Figure 3-21.

Figure 3-21 Create the pin by revolving an analytical rigid surface about an axis.

6. Click mouse button 2 to exit the edit dimension value tool, and click mouse button 2 again to exit
the Sketcher.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the revolved, analytical rigid surface. Note that silhouette edges appear in
gray indicating the curved face of the pin.

Note the following key points:

· When you create a part, you can create a deformable part, a discrete rigid surface, or an analytical
rigid surface. You cannot subsequently change the type of the part.

· When you sketch the profile of an axisymmetric part, the axis of symmetry appears as a
construction line. Your sketch cannot cross the axis of symmetry.

3.5.2 Assigning the rigid body reference point


You need to assign a rigid body reference point to the pin. Because you will not assign mass or rotary
inertia to the pin, the rigid body reference point can be placed anywhere in the viewport. You use the
Load/BC/IC module to apply constraints to the reference point or to define its motion. Motion or
constraints that you apply to the rigid body reference point are applied to the entire rigid surface.

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You can either select the reference point from the part in the viewport, or you can enter its coordinates.
For the tutorial you will select the reference point from the viewport, as shown in Figure 3-22.

Figure 3-22 Create a rigid body reference point on the pin.

To assign the reference point:

1. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Reference Point.

2. From the buttons in the prompt area, select Select in viewport.

3. Select one of the vertices on the circumference of the pin.


ABAQUS/CAE labels the vertex Ref Pt to indicate that the reference point has been assigned to
it.

Note the following key points:

· When you create a rigid surface, you must assign a rigid body reference point to it.

· You can click the part to select the reference point, or you can enter its coordinates.

3.6 Assembling the model


You use the Assembly module to create instances of your parts. A part instance can be thought of as a
representation of the original part; an instance is not a copy of a part. You can then position these part
instances in a global coordinate system to create the assembly.
An instance maintains its association with the original part. If the geometry of a part changes,
ABAQUS/CAE automatically updates all instances of the part to reflect these changes. You cannot edit
the geometry of a part instance directly. The assembly can contain multiple instances of a single part;
for example, a rivet that is used repeatedly in a sheet metal assembly.
When you create a part instance, ABAQUS/CAE positions it so that the origin of the sketch that
defined the base feature overlays the origin of the assembly's global coordinate system. In addition, the
sketch plane is aligned with the X-Y plane of the global coordinate system.
When you create the first part instance, the Assembly module displays a graphic indicating the origin
and the orientation of the global coordinate system. You can use this graphic to help you decide how to

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position a selected instance relative to the global coordinate system. For the tutorial you will keep the
hinge with the lubrication hole fixed and move the second hinge and the pin relative to it.

3.6.1 Creating instances of your parts


First, you need to create the following instances:

· An instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole-- Hinge-hole.

· An instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole removed-- Hinge-solid.

· An instance of the pin--Pin.

To create an instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Assembly to enter the Assembly module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Assembly module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Create.


The Create Instance dialog box appears containing a list of all the parts in the current model--the
two hinge pieces and the pin in this example.

3. In the dialog box, select Hinge-hole.


ABAQUS/CAE displays a temporary image of the selected part.

4. In the dialog box, click Apply.


ABAQUS/CAE creates an instance of the hinge piece and displays a graphic indicating the origin
and orientation of the global coordinate system. ABAQUS/CAE names the instance
Hinge-hole-1 to indicate that it is the first instance of a part called Hinge-hole.
Note: The default position of a part instance is such that the origin and the X- and Y-axes of the sketch of the base feature align
with the origin and the X- and Y-axes of the global coordinate system. For example, the base feature of the hinge piece is the
original cube you created. ABAQUS/CAE positions instances of the hinge piece so that the origin of the cube sketch is located
at the origin of the global coordinate system, and the X- and Y-axes align.

Note the following key points:

· The assembly is created using instances of your parts.

· When you create a part instance, the default position is based on the sketch of the base feature.

· A graphic indicates the origin and the orientation of the global coordinate system in the Assembly
module.

3.6.2 Creating an instance of the solid hinge piece


You will now create an instance of the solid hinge piece. To separate the solid hinge piece from the

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instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole, you ask ABAQUS/CAE to offset the new
instance along the X-axis.
To create an instance of the solid hinge piece:

1. From the Create Instance dialog box, toggle on Auto-offset from other instances.
The auto-offset function prevents new part instances from overlapping existing instances.

2. From the Create Instance dialog box, select Hinge-solid and click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE closes the dialog box, creates the new instance, and applies an offset along the
X-axis that separates the two hinges, as shown in Figure 3-23. (The datum geometry has been
removed from the shaded view for clarity by selecting View->Assembly Display
Options->Datum.)

Figure 3-23 Create an instance of each hinge piece, and apply an offset to position them in the
viewport.

Note the following key point:

· When you create an instance, you can ask ABAQUS/CAE to offset the new instance along the
X-axis so that it does not overlap any existing instances.

3.6.3 Positioning the solid hinge piece


In addition to the simple translate and rotate procedures, the Assembly module provides a set of tools
that allow you to position a selected part instance by defining the relationship between selected faces
or edges. You can select a face (or an edge) of the instance to move, called the movable part instance,
and a face (or an edge) of the instance that remains fixed, called the fixed part instance, and choose one
of the following position constraints:

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Parallel Face
The movable instance moves until the two selected faces are parallel.

Face to Face
The movable instance moves until the two selected faces are parallel and a specified clearance
from each other.

Parallel Edge
The movable instance moves until the two selected edges are parallel.

Edge to Edge
The movable instance moves until the two selected edges are colinear or a specified distance
from each other.

Coaxial
The movable instance moves until the two selected faces are coaxial.

Contact
The movable instance moves in the direction of a selected vector until the two selected faces
come within a specified distance of each other.

ABAQUS/CAE stores position constraints as features of the assembly, and they can be edited, deleted,
and suppressed. In contrast, translations and rotations are not stored and do not appear in the list of
features. Although position constraints are stored as features, they have no knowledge of each other; as
a consequence, a new position constraint may override a previous position constraint.
In this example you will move the solid hinge piece while the hinge piece with the lubrication hole will
remain fixed. You will apply three types of position constraints to position the two hinge pieces
correctly.
To position the solid hinge piece:

1. First, constrain the solid hinge piece so that the two flanges face each other. From the main menu
bar, select Constraint->Face to Face.

2. Select the face of the solid hinge piece shown in Figure 3-24.

Figure 3-24 Select a face on the movable part instance.

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3. Select the face of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole shown in Figure 3-25.

Figure 3-25 Select a face on the fixed instance.

ABAQUS/CAE displays red arrows on each selected face; the movable instance will be positioned
so that the arrows point in the same direction. You can change the direction of the arrow on the
movable instance if necessary.

4. From the prompt area, click Flip to change the direction of the arrow. Click OK when the arrows
point toward each other.

5. In the text box that appears in the prompt area, type the clearance (0.04) that will remain between
the two parts, as measured along the normal to the selected face of the fixed part, and press
[Enter].
ABAQUS/CAE rotates the solid hinge piece so that the two selected faces are parallel to each
other and 0.04 meters apart, as shown in Figure 3-26.

Figure 3-26 Position 1: Constrain the flange of the solid hinge piece to face the flange of the

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hinge piece with the lubrication hole.

The two pieces overlap because the position of the solid hinge piece is not fully determined by the
position constraint you have applied. You will need to apply two more position constraints to
obtain the desired position.

6. Next, align the two flange holes. From the main menu bar, select Constraint->Coaxial.

7. Select the flange hole on the solid hinge piece, as shown in Figure 3-27. (You may find it helpful
to display the wireframe view of the two pieces.)

Figure 3-27 Select a cylindrical face on the movable instance.

8. Select the flange hole on the hinge piece with the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure 3-28.

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Figure 3-28 Select a cylindrical face on the fixed instance.

ABAQUS/CAE displays red arrows on each selected face.

9. From the prompt area, click Flip to change the direction of the arrow. Click OK when the arrow
points downward.
ABAQUS/CAE positions the two hinge pieces so that the two flange holes are coaxial.

10. Use the rotate tool to look at the top view of the two pieces. Notice that the two flanges are
now overlapping, as shown in Figure 3-29.

Figure 3-29 Position 2: Constrain the two flange holes to lie along the same axis.

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11. Finally, add a constraint to eliminate the overlap between the two flanges. From the main menu
bar, select Constraint->Edge to Edge.

12. Select the straight edge on the solid hinge piece shown in Figure 3-30.

Figure 3-30 Select a straight edge on the movable instance.

13. Select the corresponding edge of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure

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3-31.

Figure 3-31 Select a straight edge on the fixed instance.

ABAQUS/CAE displays red arrows on each selected face.

14. From the prompt area, click Flip to change the direction of the arrow. Click OK when the arrows
point in the same direction.
ABAQUS/CAE positions the two hinge pieces so that the two selected edges are colinear, as
shown in Figure 3-32.

Figure 3-32 Final position: Constrain an edge of each hinge piece to lie along the same line.

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Note the following key points:

· You position part instances in the Assembly module using a sequence of constraint operations.

· Constraint operations position one part instance relative to another.

3.6.4 Creating and positioning an instance of the pin


You will now create an instance of the pin and position it symmetrically in the flange holes using
constraints and translation vectors. To define the translation vector, you can select vertices from the
assembly or you can enter the coordinates. You can determine the translation vector using the Query
tool.
To position the pin:

1. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Create.

2. From the Create Instance dialog box, toggle off Auto-offset from other instances and create an
instance of the pin.

3. Constrain the pin to lie along the same axis as the two flange holes. Use the Constraint->Coaxial
menu as you did when you aligned the two flange holes in the previous section. (You can select
either of the flange holes as the cylindrical surface of the fixed instance.)
ABAQUS/CAE will position the pin as shown in Figure 3-33.

Figure 3-33 Align the pin to be coaxial with the two flange holes.

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4. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Query.


The Query dialog box appears.

5. Select Distance from the list of General Queries, and click OK.

6. The Distance query allows you measure the X-, Y-, and Z-components of the vector connecting
two selected points. You need to determine the distance between the end of the pin and the hinge
containing the lubrication hole; the two points to select are illustrated in Figure 3-34.

Figure 3-34 Determining the position of the pin.

a. To define one end of the vector, select a point on the circumference of the hole in the
flange containing the lubrication hole.

b. To define the other end of the vector, select the vertex on the pin that is inside the hinge
containing the lubrication hole.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the vector distance between the two selected points along with
the X-, Y-, and Z-components of the vector in the message area. You will translate the pin
along the Z-axis; the Z-component of the distance is 0.01 meters. You want to position the
pin symmetrically between the hinges, so you will translate it 0.02 meters.

7. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Translate.

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8. Select the pin as the part instance to move.

9. ABAQUS/CAE warns you that translating this part may break the coaxial position constraint that
you have applied to it. Click Yes to continue, since translation in the Z-direction only will not
break the position constraint.

10. In the text boxes in the prompt area, enter a start point for the translation vector of 0,0,0 and an
end point of 0,0,0.02.
ABAQUS/CAE translates the pin a distance of 0.02 along the Z-axis and displays a temporary
image of the new position of the pin.
Note: If the position of a temporary image (colored red) is not correct, you can use the buttons in the prompt area to correct
the problem. Click either the cancel button ( ) to cancel the procedure or the go back button ( ) to step back though the
procedure.

11. From the prompt area, click OK.


The finished assembly is shown in Figure 3-35.

Figure 3-35 Shaded view of the finished assembly.

3.7 Defining analysis steps


Before you apply loads or boundary conditions to the model or define contact within the model, you
must define the different steps in the analysis. Once the steps are created, you can specify in which
steps loads, boundary conditions, and interactions should be applied.
When you create a step, ABAQUS/CAE selects a default set of output variables corresponding to the
analysis procedure and selects a default rate at which the variables are written to the output database.
In this tutorial you will edit the default output frequency for the first step and edit the list of default
output variables for the second step.

3.7.1 Creating the analysis steps


The analysis that you perform on the hinge model will consist of an initial step and two general

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analysis steps:

· In the initial step you apply boundary conditions to regions of the model and define contact
between regions of the model.

· In the first general analysis step you allow contact to become established.

· In the second general analysis step you modify two of the boundary conditions applied to the
model and apply a pressure load to one of the hinge pieces.

ABAQUS/CAE creates the initial step by default, but you must create the two analysis steps.
To create the analysis steps:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Step to enter the Step module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Step module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select Step->Manager.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Step Manager. The initial step created by default is listed in this
dialog box.

3. From the lower-left corner of the Step Manager, click Create.


The Create Step dialog box appears.

4. In the Create Step dialog box:

a. Name the step Contact.

b. Accept the default procedure type (Static, General), and click Continue.
The step editor appears.

5. In the Description field, type Establish contact.

6. Click the Incrementation tab, and delete the value of 1 that appears in the Initial text field. Type a
value of 0.1 for the initial increment size.

7. Click OK to create the step and to exit the editor.


The Contact step appears in the Step Manager.

8. Use the same technique to create a second general, static step named Load. Enter Apply load
in the description field and an initial increment size of 0.1.
The Load step appears in the Step Manager.

9. Click Dismiss to close the manager.

Note the following key points:

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· ABAQUS/CAE creates the initial step by default.

· You create analysis steps yourself and use the step editor to control the time incrementation during
the step.

· Managers are available throughout ABAQUS/CAE. You use managers to display a list of the
entities you have defined--steps in the above example--and to help you perform repeated
operations.

3.7.2 Requesting output


You use the Field output tabbed page in the Output Database Request Manager to request output
of variables that should be written at relatively low frequencies to the output database from the entire
model or from a large portion of the model. Field output is used to generate deformed shape plots,
contour plots, and animations from your analysis results. ABAQUS/CAE writes every component of
the variables to the output database at the selected frequency.
You use the History output tabbed page in the Output Database Request Manager to request output
of variables that should be written to the output database at a high frequency from a small portion of
the model; for example, the displacement of a single node. History output is used to generate X-Y plots
and data reports from your analysis results. When you create a history output request, you must select
the individual components of the variables that will be written to the output database.
The default field output variables for the Contact and Load steps include the following:

· S (Stress components)

· E (Total strain components)

· PE (Plastic strain components)

· PEEQ (Equivalent plastic strain)

· PEMAG (Plastic strain magnitude)

· U (Translations and rotations)

· RF (Reaction forces and moments)

· CF (Concentrated forces and moments)

· CSTRESS (Contact stresses)

· CDISP (Contact displacements)

By default, ABAQUS/CAE writes the default field output variables from a static, general procedure to
the output database after every increment of a step. In the following procedure you will delete the
request for CDISP during the Load step, since it is not needed for postprocessing. In addition, you will
change the output frequency during the Contact step so that data are written to the output database
once--at the last increment of the step.

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To edit an output request and to specify the output frequency during the Load step:

1. From the main menu bar, select Output->Output Database.


The Output Database Request Manager dialog box appears. A list of the steps that you have
created appears in the left panel of the dialog box. A list of the default output variables appears in
the two tabbed pages labeled Field output and History output on the right side of the dialog box.

2. In the left panel of the dialog box, select the Load step. From the buttons at the bottom of the
Output Database Request Manager , click Edit.

The field output editor appears for the Load step.

3. From the list of output categories, click the arrow to the left of Contact.
A list of the contact output variables available appears along with a description of each.

4. Click the check box next to CDISP to deselect this variable for output.
The check box next to Contact changes to half-highlighted to indicate that not all variables in this
category will be output.

5. Accept the default selections in the bottom half of the field output editor:

· Generate output at default section points.

· Save output at every increment.

· Generate output for the whole model.

6. Click OK to create the output request.

7. From the Output Database Request Manager , select the Contact step and click Edit.
The field output editor appears for the Contact step.

8. Near the bottom of the editor, toggle on The last increment to generate output only during the last
increment of the step.

9. Click OK to create the output request.

10. At the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager , click Dismiss to close the dialog box.

Note the following key points:

· During the analysis, ABAQUS/CAE writes the results to the output database.

· You use the Field output tabbed page of the Output Database Request Manager to request
output of field variables to the output database, and you use the History output page to request
output of history variables.

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· ABAQUS/CAE creates a default output request when you create a step. You can edit this default,
and you can create new output requests.

3.7.3 Selecting a degree of freedom to monitor


You can define particular element or node sets that contain only selected portions of your model. Once
you create a set, you can use it to perform the following tasks:

· Assign section properties in the Property module.

· Create contact pairs with contact node sets and surfaces in the Interaction module.

· Define loads and boundary conditions in the Load/BC/IC module.

· Request output to either the output database or the status file from specific regions of the model in
the Step module. Output to the status file is also reported back to the Job module in the form of a
continuously updated X-Y plot.

· Display results for specific regions of the model in the Visualization module.

In this example you will define a node set consisting of a single node. You will then be able to monitor
the results for one degree of freedom at that node when you submit your job for analysis later in this
tutorial.
To create a node set and monitor a particular degree of freedom:

1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Set->Create.


The Create Set dialog box appears.

2. Name the node set Monitor, and click Continue.

3. Select the vertex of the solid hinge piece shown in Figure 3-36.

Figure 3-36 Monitor a degree of freedom on the solid hinge piece.

4. Click Done to indicate that you have finished selecting the geometry for the set.

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ABAQUS/CAE creates a node set with the name Monitor that contains the node at the vertex
you selected.

5. From the main menu bar, select Output->DOF Monitor.


The DOF Monitor dialog box appears.

6. Toggle on Monitor a degree of freedom throughout the analysis.


The node set Monitor that you just created is selected in the Point region text field.

7. Type 1 in the Degree of freedom text field, and click OK.

Note the following key points:

· Sets can be defined throughout the modeling process.

· The progress of a job can be monitored through a particular degree of freedom.

3.8 Creating surfaces to use in contact interactions


Now you will use the Interaction module to define contact between regions of the model. The first step
is to create the surfaces that you will include later in interactions.
It is not always necessary to create your surfaces in advance; if the model is simple or the surfaces easy
to select, you can indicate the master and slave surfaces directly in the viewport as you create the
interactions. However, in this tutorial it is easier to define the surfaces separately and then refer to the
names of those surfaces when you create the interactions. You will use the Surface toolset in the
Interaction module to define the following surfaces:

· A surface named Pin that includes the outside surface of the pin.

· Two surfaces named Flange-h and Flange-s that include the two flange faces that contact
each other.

· Two surfaces named Inside-h and Inside-s that include the inside surfaces of the flanges
that contact the pin.

3.8.1 Defining a surface on the pin


In this section you will define the outside surface of the pin.
To define a surface on the pin:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Interaction to enter the Interaction module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Interaction module loads.

2. You will find it helpful to display only one part at a time while you select the surfaces to be
defined.

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a. From the main menu bar, select View->Assembly Display Options.


The Assembly Display Options dialog box appears.

b. Click the Instance tab.


The part instances that you have created are listed with check marks in the Visible
column. All the part instances are visible by default.

c. Click in the Visible column next to Hinge-hole-1 and Hinge-solid-1, and click
Apply.

The hinge pieces disappear from the view.

3. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Surface->Manager.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Surface Manager.

4. From the lower-left corner of the Surface Manager, click Create.


The Create Surface dialog box appears.

5. In the dialog box, name the surface Pin, accept the default Geometry type, and click Continue.

6. In the viewport, select the pin.

7. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to indicate that you have finished selecting regions for the
surface.
Arrows appear in the viewport indicating the two sides of the hollow cylinder representing the pin,
as shown in Figure 3-37.

Figure 3-37 Select the region to be defined as the surface Pin.

The magenta arrow indicates the outer surface of the pin, and the yellow arrow indicates the inner
surface of the pin. The outer surface contacts the two hinges and is the desired choice.

8. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Magenta to choose the outer surface.
ABAQUS/CAE creates the desired surface called Pin and displays it in the Surface Manager.

Note the following key points:

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· Click the Instance tab in the Assembly Display Options dialog box to make part instances
visible or invisible.

· When you create and name a surface, you can select the surface by name in subsequent operations,
such as defining contact.

· When you create a surface on a shell-type structure, you must select which side of the surface is of
interest.

3.8.2 Defining the surfaces on the hinge pieces


In this section you will define the surfaces on the hinge pieces needed to define contact between the
two hinge pieces and between the hinge pieces and the pin.
To define the surfaces on the hinge pieces:

1. From the Assembly Display Options dialog box, change the visibility settings so that only
Hinge-hole-1 is visible.
ABAQUS/CAE displays only the hinge piece with the lubrication hole in the viewport.

2. From the Surface Manager, click Create.


The Create Surface dialog box appears.

3. In the dialog box, name the surface Flange-h, accept the default Geometry type, and click
Continue.

4. On the instance with the lubrication hole, select the face of the flange that contacts the other
flange, as shown by the gridded face in Figure 3-38. (You may need to rotate the view to see this
face clearly.)

Figure 3-38 Select the region to be defined as the surface Flange-h.

5. When you have selected the desired face, click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection.
ABAQUS/CAE creates the desired surface called Flange-h and displays it in the Surface

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Manager.

6. Create a surface called Inside-h that includes the cylindrical inner surface of the hinge piece
with the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure 3-39. (You may need to zoom in on the view to select
this face.)

Figure 3-39 Select the region to be defined as the surface Inside-h.

7. Change the visibility settings so that only Hinge-solid-1 is visible.

8. Use similar techniques to create a surface called Flange-s that contains the corresponding face
of the solid hinge piece's flange.

9. Finally, create a surface called Inside-s that includes the cylindrical inner surface of the solid
hinge piece.

10. From the Surface Manager, click Dismiss to close the manager.

11. Leave the Assembly Display Options dialog box open so that you can continue to display the
part instances as you need them for the rest of the tutorial.

Note the following key point:

· The surfaces you define are displayed in the Surface Manager.

3.9 Defining contact between regions of the model


Interactions are objects that you create to model mechanical relationships between surfaces that are in
contact or closely spaced. Mere physical proximity of two surfaces on an assembly is not enough to
indicate any type of interaction between the surfaces.
You will use the Interaction module to define the following interactions:

· An interaction called HingePin-hole that defines the contact between the part instance
Hinge-hole-1 and the pin.

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· An interaction called HingePin-solid that defines the contact between the part instance
Hinge-solid-1 and the pin.

· An interaction called Flanges that defines the contact between the two flanges.

Each of these interactions requires a reference to an interaction property. Interaction properties are
collections of information that help you to define certain types of interactions. You will create a
mechanical interaction property that describes the tangential and normal behavior between all surfaces
as frictionless. You will name this property NoFric and use it in all three of the interactions.

3.9.1 Creating an interaction property


In this procedure you will create a mechanical contact interaction property.
To create the interaction property:

1. From the main menu bar, select Property->Create.


The Create Interaction Property dialog box appears.

2. In the Create Interaction Property dialog box:

a. Name the property NoFric.

b. In the Type list, accept Contact as the default selection.

c. Click Continue.
The Edit Contact Property dialog box appears.

3. From the dialog box's menu bar, select Mechanical->Tangential Behavior and accept
Frictionless for the friction formulation.

4. Click OK to save your settings and to close the Edit Contact Property dialog box.

3.9.2 Creating the interactions


In this section you will create three mechanical surface-to-surface contact interactions. Each
interaction will refer to the interaction property that you just created.
To create the interactions:

1. From the main menu bar, select Interaction->Manager.


The Interaction Manager appears.

2. From the lower-left corner of the Interaction Manager, click Create.


The Create Interaction dialog box appears.

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3. In the dialog box:

a. Name the interaction HingePin-hole.

b. Select Initial from the list of steps.

c. In the Types for Selected Step list, accept the default selection of Surface-to-surface
contact (Standard).

d. Click Continue.

4. On the far right side of the prompt area, click the Surfaces button.
The Region Selection dialog box appears containing a list of the surfaces that you defined
earlier.

5. In the Region Selection dialog box, select Pin as the master surface, and click Continue.

6. From the buttons in the prompt area, select Surface as the slave type.

7. In the Region Selection dialog box, select Inside-h as the slave surface, and click Continue.
The Edit Interaction dialog box appears.

8. In the dialog box:

a. Accept the default Sliding formulation selection of Finite sliding.

b. Accept the default Slave Node Adjustment selection of Do not adjust slave nodes .

c. Accept NoFric as the interaction property. (If more properties were defined, you could
click the arrow next to the Interaction property field to see the list of available properties
and select the property of your choice.)

d. Click OK to save the interaction and to close the dialog box.


The interaction that you created appears in the Interaction Manager.

9. Use the same techniques explained in the previous steps to create a similar interaction called
HingePin-solid. Use Pin as the master surface, Inside-s as the slave surface, and
NoFric as the interaction property.

10. Create a similar interaction called Flanges. Use Flange-h as the master surface, Flange-s
as the slave surface, and NoFric as the interaction property.

11. From the Interaction Manager, click Dismiss to close the manager.

Note the following key points:

· Interactions are step dependent. In this tutorial all interactions are associated with the initial step.

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· You must select a master surface and a slave surface when creating an interaction.

· You can select master and slave surfaces either by selecting previously created surfaces from a list
or by selecting surfaces directly from the viewport.

3.10 Applying boundary conditions and loads to the assembly


You will use the Load/BC/IC module to apply the following boundary conditions and load to the hinge
model:

· A boundary condition called Fixed that constrains all degrees of freedom at the end of the hinge
piece with the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure 3-40.

Figure 3-40 One end of the hinge is constrained.

· A boundary condition called NoSlip that constrains all degrees of freedom of the pin while
contact is established during the first analysis step. You will modify this boundary condition in the
second analysis step (the step in which the load is applied) so that degrees of freedom 1 and 5 are
unconstrained. Figure 3-41 illustrates this boundary condition applied at the reference point.

Figure 3-41 The pin is constrained.

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· A boundary condition called Constrain that constrains all degrees of freedom of a point on the
solid hinge piece during the first analysis step. You will modify this boundary condition in the
second analysis step so that degree of freedom 1 is unconstrained when the load is applied.

· A load called Pressure that you apply to the end of the solid hinge piece during the second
analysis step. Figure 3-42 illustrates the constraint and the pressure load applied to the solid
hinge.

Figure 3-42 The second hinge is constrained and loaded.

3.10.1 Constraining the hinge piece with the lubrication hole


You will apply a boundary condition to the face at the end of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole
to fix the hinge piece in place during the analysis.
To constrain the hinge piece with the lubrication hole:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Load/BC/IC to enter the Load/BC/IC module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Load/BC/IC module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select BC->Manager.


The Boundary Condition Manager dialog box appears.

3. In the Boundary Condition Manager, click Create.


The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears.

4. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box:

a. Name the boundary condition Fixed.

b. Accept Initial from the list of steps.

c. Accept Mechanical as the default Category selection and Displacement/Rotation as the


default Type for Selected Step selection.

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d. Click Continue.
The Region Selection dialog box appears.

e. From the right side of the prompt area, click Select in Viewport to select the object
directly from the viewport.
The Region Selection dialog box closes.

5. Select the gridded face shown in Figure 3-43 as the region where the boundary condition will be
applied.

Figure 3-43 Apply a boundary condition to the end of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole.

By default, ABAQUS/CAE selects only objects that are closest to the front of the screen, and you
cannot select the desired face unless you rotate the hinge. However, you can use the selection
options to change this behavior.

a. From the prompt area, click the selection options tool .

b. From the Options dialog box that appears, toggle off the closest object tool .

c. Click over the desired face.


ABAQUS/CAE displays Next, Previous, and OK buttons in the prompt area.

d. Click Next and Previous until the desired face is highlighted.

e. Click OK to confirm your choice.

6. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting regions.
The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears. The selection options return to the default
setting of selecting only objects that are closest to the front of the screen.

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7. In the dialog box:

a. Toggle on the buttons labeled U1, U2, and U3 to constrain the end of the hinge in the 1-,
2-, and 3-directions. You do not need to constrain the rotational degrees of freedom of the
hinge because solid elements (which have only translational degrees of freedom) will be
used to mesh the hinge.

b. Click OK to close the dialog box.


The boundary condition that you just created appears in the Boundary Condition Manager, and
arrows appear on the nodes of the face indicating the constrained degrees of freedom. The
Boundary Condition Manager shows that the boundary condition remains active in all steps of
the analysis.
Tip: You can suppress the display of boundary condition arrows in the same way that you
suppress the visibility of part instances. Click the BC tab in the Assembly Display Options
dialog box to see the boundary condition display options.

Note the following key points:

· Like interactions, boundary conditions are step-dependent and can change from one step to
another.

· The boundary condition editor allows you to constrain selected degrees of freedom.

3.10.2 Constraining the pin


In the first general step of the analysis you will establish contact between the two hinge pieces and
between the hinge pieces and the pin. To fix the pin during this step, you must apply a boundary
condition to the pin that constrains all its degrees of freedom.
To apply a boundary condition to the pin:

1. In the Boundary Condition Manager, click Create.


The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears.

2. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box:

a. Name the boundary condition NoSlip.

b. Accept Initial in the Step text field.

c. Accept Mechanical as the default Category selection and Displacement/Rotation as the


default Type for Selected Step selection.

d. Click Continue.

3. In the viewport, select the rigid body reference point on the pin as the region where the boundary

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condition will be applied.


The vertex at the same location as the reference point is closest to the screen, and ABAQUS/CAE
always selects it over the rigid body reference point. From the Options dialog box, toggle off the

closest object tool . Now ABAQUS/CAE cannot choose between the vertex and the
reference point, and you must click the Next and Previous buttons until ABAQUS/CAE selects
the reference point. The text string in the viewport displays Highlighting Pin-1 Ref
Point when you have selected the reference point.

4. Click OK to confirm your choice.

5. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting regions.
The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears.

6. In the dialog box:

a. Toggle on all the buttons to constrain all the degrees of freedom of the pin.

b. Click OK.
The new boundary condition appears in the Boundary Condition Manager.

Note the following key points:

· To constrain a rigid surface, you must apply constraints to the reference point.

· The selection options help to make selection of regions easier.

3.10.3 Modifying the boundary condition applied to the pin


Objects that you can create and modify in certain steps--such as boundary conditions, loads, and
interactions--have special managers that allow you to modify objects and change their status in
different analysis steps.
In this section you will use the boundary condition manager to modify the boundary condition
NoSlip so that translation in the 1-direction and rotation about the 2-axis are unconstrained during
the loading step.
Currently the Boundary Condition Manager displays the names of the two boundary conditions that
you have created as well as their status in each step: both boundary conditions are Created in the
initial step and Propagated through the following analysis steps.
To modify a boundary condition:

1. In the Boundary Condition Manager, click the cell labeled Propagated that lies in the row
labeled NoSlip and in the column labeled Load, as shown in Figure 3-44.

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Figure 3-44 Select boundary conditions to edit in the Boundary Condition Manager.

That cell becomes highlighted.

2. On the right side of the manager, click Edit to indicate that you want to edit the NoSlip boundary
condition in the Load step.
The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears, and ABAQUS/CAE displays a set of arrows
on the model indicating where the boundary condition is applied and which degrees of freedom are
constrained.

3. In the editor, toggle off the buttons labeled U1 and UR2 so that the pin is allowed to translate in
the 1-direction and rotate about the 2-axis. Click OK to close the dialog box.
In the Boundary Condition Manager, the status of the NoSlip boundary condition in the Load
step changes to Modified.

Note the following key points:

· By default, ABAQUS/CAE propagates a boundary condition to all subsequent steps.

· You can use the Boundary Condition Manager to delete or modify a boundary condition within a
step.

3.10.4 Constraining the solid hinge piece


In the first analysis step, in which contact is established, you will constrain a single node of the solid
hinge piece in all directions. These constraints, along with contact with the pin, are enough to prevent
rigid body motion of the solid piece. In the second analysis step, in which the load is applied to the
model, you will remove the constraint in the 1-direction.
To constrain the solid hinge piece:

1. Create a boundary condition in the Initial step, and call it Constrain.

2. Apply the boundary condition to the vertex selected from the solid hinge piece, as shown in Figure
3-45.

Figure 3-45 Apply a boundary condition to a vertex of the solid hinge piece.

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3. Constrain the vertex in the 1-, 2-, and 3-directions.

4. In the Load step, modify the boundary condition so that the hinge is unconstrained in the
1-direction.

5. When you have finished creating boundary conditions, click Dismiss to close the Boundary
Condition Manager.

3.10.5 Applying a load to the solid hinge


Next, you apply a pressure load to the face at the end of the solid hinge. You apply the load in the
1-direction during the second analysis step.
To apply a load to the solid hinge:

1. From the main menu bar, select Load->Create.


The Create Load dialog box appears.

2. In the Create Load dialog box:

a. Name the load Pressure.

b. Accept Load as the default selection in the Step text field.

c. From the Category list, accept Mechanical as the default selection.

d. From the Type for Selected Step list, select Pressure.

e. Click Continue.

3. In the viewport, select the face at the end of the solid hinge piece as the surface to which the load
will be applied, as shown by the gridded surface in Figure 3-46.

Figure 3-46 Apply a load to the solid hinge piece.

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4. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting regions.
The Edit Load dialog box appears.

5. In the dialog box, enter a magnitude of -1.E6 for the load, and click OK.
Arrows appear on the nodes of the face indicating the applied load.

Note the following key point:

· You can create different types of loads, and you can select the region of the model to which a load
is applied.

3.11 Meshing the assembly


Meshing the assembly is divided into the following operations:

· Making sure the assembly can be meshed and creating additional partitions where necessary.

· Assigning mesh attributes to the part instances.

· Seeding the part instances.

· Meshing the assembly.

3.11.1 Deciding what needs to be partitioned


When you enter the Mesh module, ABAQUS/CAE color codes regions of the model according to the
methods it will use to generate a mesh:

· Green indicates that a region can be meshed using structured methods.

· Yellow indicates that a region can be meshed using sweep methods.

· Orange indicates that a region cannot be meshed using the default element shape assignment
(hexahedral) and must be partitioned further. (Alternatively, you can mesh any model by assigning
tetrahedral elements to the model and using the free meshing technique.)

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For the tutorial ABAQUS/CAE indicates that the hinges need to be partitioned to be meshed using
hexahedral-shaped elements. Specifically, areas surrounding the hole in the flange and the lubrication
hole must be partitioned. The partitioned hinges are shown in Figure 3-47.

Figure 3-47 The partitioned hinges.

Use the following techniques to help you select faces and vertices during the partitioning process:

· Use a combination of the view manipulation tools, the display option tools in the toolbar, and the
tools in the Views toolbox to resize and reposition the model as necessary. (The Views toolbox

appears when you select from the main menu bar.)

· From the prompt area, click the selection options tool and toggle off the closest object tool

to cycle through the possible selections using the Next and Previous buttons in the prompt
area.

· You will probably find the magnification tool and the rotation tool especially useful.

· When necessary, click the Iso tool in the Views toolbox to return the model to its original size and
position in the viewport.

· Select View->Assembly Display Options->Instance to suppress the visibility of part instances


and boundary condition or load symbols that you do not need to see in the viewport.

To decide what needs to be partitioned:

1. Use the Assembly Display Options dialog box to display all three part instances.

2. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Mesh to enter the Mesh module.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the two hinge pieces in orange, which indicates that they need to be
partitioned to be meshed using hexahedral elements, as shown in Figure 3-48.

Figure 3-48 The unpartitioned model cannot be meshed.

ABAQUS/CAE also displays the pin in orange because it is an analytical rigid surface and cannot
be meshed.

3. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Partition to partition the two hinge pieces.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Partition dialog box.

4. From the Create Partition dialog box, choose the Cell partition type. Select the Extend face
method, and click Apply.

5. Select the solid hinge piece as the cell to partition and click Done to indicate you have finished
selecting cells.

6. Select the face to extend, as shown by the gridded face in Figure 3-49. Toggle off the closest

object tool to make the desired face selectable.

Figure 3-49 Select a face of the solid hinge piece to extend to create a partition.

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7. From the prompt area, click Create Partition.


ABAQUS/CAE creates the partition, as shown in Figure 3-50.

Figure 3-50 Partition the solid hinge piece.

Tip: If the partition is not located correctly, select Feature->Delete from the main menu bar
and select the partition to delete.

ABAQUS/CAE colors the cube portion of the solid hinge piece green to indicate that it can be
meshed using the structured meshing technique; it colors the flange of the solid hinge piece yellow
to indicate that it can be meshed using a swept mesh.

8. Use a similar method to that described in the previous steps to create a partition between the cube
and the flange of the other hinge piece.
Again the cube turns green to indicate that it can be meshed using structured meshing, but the
flange containing the lubrication hole remains orange, indicating that you need to perform
additional partitioning to mesh this flange.

Note the following key points:

· ABAQUS/CAE color codes the model to indicate how a region will be meshed. Green indicates
that a region can be meshed with structured methods, yellow indicates that a region can be meshed
with sweep methods, and orange indicates that a region cannot be meshed.

· You can partition the parts of your model into regions to create a model that can be meshed.

3.11.2 Partitioning the flanges


For ABAQUS/CAE to mesh the flange with the lubrication hole, it must be partitioned into the regions
shown in Figure 3-51.

Figure 3-51 Shaded view of the partitioned flange.

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To partition the flanges:

1. From the Create Partition dialog box, select the Define cutting plane method, and click Apply.

2. Select the two flanges. Select the first flange and [Shift]+[Click] the second flange to append it to
your selection. Click Done to indicate you have finished selecting cells.
ABAQUS/CAE provides three methods for specifying the cutting plane:

· Select a point and a normal. The cutting plane passes through the selected point, normal to the
selected edge.

· Select three non-colinear points. The cutting plane passes through each point.

· Select an edge and a point along the edge. The cutting plane passes through the selected point,
normal to the selected edge.

The cutting plane need not be defined in the cell being partitioned. The plane extends infinitely
and partitions the selected cell anywhere there is an intersection.

3. From the buttons in the prompt area, select 3 points.


ABAQUS/CAE highlights points that you can select.

4. Select three points that cut the flanges in half with a vertical partition, as shown in Figure 3-52.

Figure 3-52 Select three points to use in partitioning the flanges.

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Tip: You may find it easier to select the desired points if you magnify, rotate, and pan the
model to obtain a more convenient view.

5. From the prompt area, click Create Partition.


ABAQUS/CAE creates the desired partitions.

6. You have now partitioned each of the flanges into two regions; you need to create a partition that
cuts the resulting four regions in half horizontally, as shown in Figure 3-53. Use the Define
cutting plane method to create the desired partitions. Remember that since the cutting plane
extends infinitely, points that define it need not be on the cells being partitioned; for example, you
can select midpoints of edges around the cube to define the cutting plane through the four regions.
The plane extends infinitely and partitions the selected regions anywhere an intersection occurs.

Figure 3-53 Divide the flanges further with partitions.

7. ABAQUS/CAE colors the region containing the lubrication hole orange to indicate that it still
cannot be meshed. Use the Define cutting plane method to partition the four regions in the flange
containing the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure 3-54.

Figure 3-54 Partition the flange containing the lubrication hole.

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The model with all the partitions is shown in Figure 3-55.

Figure 3-55 The partitioned model.

The coloring of the model indicates that it can now be meshed completely.

8. From the prompt area, click Done to indicate that you have finished partitioning cells.

9. From the Create Partition dialog box, click Cancel.

Note the following key point:

· You use the Partition toolset to divide the model into regions that ABAQUS/CAE can mesh.

3.11.3 Assigning mesh controls


In this section you will use the Mesh Controls dialog box to examine the techniques that
ABAQUS/CAE will use to mesh the model and the shape of the elements that ABAQUS/CAE will
generate.

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To assign the mesh controls:

1. You cannot mesh an analytical rigid surface. As a result you cannot apply mesh controls to an
analytical rigid surface; neither can you seed it or assign an element type to it. To simplify the
meshing procedure, you should use the Assembly Display Options to display only the the two
hinge pieces. The pin, which is an analytical rigid surface, will not be selected in the following
steps.

2. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Controls.

3. Drag a square around the model to select the two hinge parts and click Done to indicate your
selection is complete.
The two hinge pieces appear red in the viewport to indicate that you have selected them, and
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Mesh Controls dialog box.

4. In the dialog box, accept Hex as the default Element Shape selection.

5. Accept Structured as the meshing technique that ABAQUS/CAE will apply.

6. Click OK to assign the mesh controls and to close the dialog box.

7. Click Done in the prompt area.

Note the following key point:

· You can select the meshing techniques that ABAQUS/CAE will apply to your model.

3.11.4 Assigning the ABAQUS element type


In this section you will use the Element Type dialog box to examine the element types that are
assigned to the model.
To assign an ABAQUS element type:

1. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Element Type.

2. Select the two hinge pieces using the same technique described in the mesh controls procedure,
and click Done to indicate your selection is complete.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Element Type dialog box.

3. In the dialog box, accept Standard as the Element Library selection.

4. Accept Linear as the Geometric Order selection.

5. Accept 3D Stress as the default Family of elements.

6. Click the Hex tab, and select Reduced Integration as the Element Controls method if it is not

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already selected.
A description of the default element type, C3D8R, appears at the bottom of the dialog box.
ABAQUS/CAE will now associate C3D8R elements with the elements in the mesh.

7. Click OK to assign the element type and to close the dialog box.

8. Click Done in the prompt area.

Note the following key point:

· ABAQUS/CAE assigns a default ABAQUS element type to the model; you can accept the default
element type or choose to assign other element types to different regions of the model.

3.11.5 Seeding the part instances


The next step of the meshing process is to seed each of the part instances. Seeds represent the
approximate locations of nodes and indicate the target density of the mesh you would like to generate.
You can select seeding based on the number of elements to generate along an edge or the average
element size, or you can bias seed distribution toward one end of an edge. For the tutorial you will seed
the entire assembly so that the hinge pieces have an average element size of 0.004.
To seed the part instances:

1. From the main menu bar, select Seed->Instance.

2. Select the two hinge pieces using the same technique described in the mesh controls procedure,
and click Done to indicate your selection is complete.

3. In the text box in the prompt area, type an approximate global element size of 0.004, and press
[Enter].
Seeds appear on all the edges. You are now ready to mesh the assembly.

4. Click Done in the prompt area.

Note the following key point:

· Seeds represent the approximate locations of nodes and indicate the target density of the mesh that
you would like to generate.

3.11.6 Meshing the assembly


In this section you will mesh the model.
To mesh the assembly:

1. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Instance.


ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the part instances to mesh.

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2. Select the two hinge pieces using the same techniques described in the mesh controls procedure,
and click Done to indicate your selection is complete.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while ABAQUS/CAE meshes the assembly. The final mesh is
illustrated in Figure 3-56.

Figure 3-56 Final view of the meshed model.

3. Click Done in the prompt area.

3.12 Creating and submitting a job


Now that you have configured your analysis, move to the Job module to create a job that is associated
with your model and to submit the job for analysis.
To create and submit an analysis job:

1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Job to enter the Job module.
The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Job module loads.

2. From the main menu bar, select Job->Create to create the job.
The Create Job dialog box appears.

3. Name the job PullHinge, and click Continue.


The job editor appears.

4. In the Description field, type Hinge tutorial.


Click the tabs to see the contents of the job editor, and review the default settings. Click OK to
accept all the default job settings.

5. Select Job->Manager to start the Job Manager.


The Job Manager dialog box appears and displays a list of your jobs, the model associated with
each job, the type of analysis, and the status of the job.

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6. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager, click Submit to submit your job for
analysis.
The job can take anywhere from 10 to 60 minutes, depending on your system.

7. Click the Monitor button on the right edge of the Job Manager to monitor the analysis as it
runs.
A dialog box appears with the name of your job in the title bar and a status chart for the analysis.
Messages appear in the lower panel of the dialog box as the job progresses. Click the Errors and
Warnings tabs to check for problems in the analysis.

Once the analysis is underway, an X-Y plot of the values of the degree of freedom that you selected
to monitor earlier in the tutorial appears in a separate window in the viewport. (You may need to
scroll to the right to see it.) You can follow the progression of the node's displacement over time in
the 1-direction as the analysis runs.

8. When the job completes successfully, the text in the Status field of the Job Manager changes to
Completed. You are now ready to view the results of the analysis with the Visualization module.
From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager, click Results.
ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module, opens the output database created by the job, and
displays a plot of the model.
Note: You can also enter the Visualization module by clicking Visualization in the Module list located under the toolbar.
However, in this case ABAQUS/CAE requires you to open the output database explicitly using the File menu.

Note the following key points:

· When you create and name a job, ABAQUS/CAE uses the same name for the input file it
generates. Consequently, all files associated with the analysis (for example, the output database,
the message file, and the status file) use the same name.

· Use the Job Manager to monitor the status of your job. You can also view the progression of a
degree of freedom over the course of an analysis that you have chosen to monitor before
submitting the job.

3.13 Viewing the results of your analysis


You will view the results of your analysis by drawing a contour plot of the deformed model. You will
then use display groups to display one of the hinge pieces; by displaying just a portion of the model
you can view results that are not visible when you display the whole model.
ABAQUS/CAE displays a fast plot of the model when you enter the Visualization module. A fast plot
is a basic representation of the undeformed model that indicates that you have opened the desired
output database. The fast plot mode does not display results and cannot be customized.

3.13.1 Displaying and customizing a contour plot

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In this section you will display a contour plot of the model and adjust the deformation scale factor.
To display a contour plot of the model:

1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Contours.


ABAQUS/CAE displays a contour plot of von Mises stress superimposed on the deformed shape
of the model at the end of the last increment of the loading step, as indicated by the following text
in the state block:
Step: Load : Apply load Increment 6: Step Time = 1.000

By default, all surfaces with no results (in this case, the pin) are displayed in white.
The deformation is exaggerated because of the default deformation scale factor that
ABAQUS/CAE selects.

2. To remove the white surfaces from the display, do the following:

a. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Display Group->Create.


The Create Display Group dialog box appears.

b. In the ODB Item options list, select Surfaces. In the Selection Method options list,
select All surfaces.

c. At the bottom of the Create Display Group dialog box, click Remove.
The white surfaces disappear from the view.

d. Click Dismiss to close the dialog box.

3. To reduce the deformation scale factor, do the following:

a. From the main menu bar, select Options->Contour.

b. From the Contour Plot Options dialog box that appears, click the Shape tab.

c. From the Deformation Scale Factor options, choose Uniform.

d. In the Value text field, type a value of 100, and click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the contour plot with a deformation scale factor of 100, as shown
in Figure 3-57.

Figure 3-57 Contour plot of von Mises stress with a reduced deformation scale factor.

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4. Use the view manipulation tools to examine the deformed model. Note where the pin appears to be
exerting the most pressure against the insides of the flanges. Also note how the two flanges have
twisted away from each other.

5. By default, the contour plot displays the von Mises stresses in the model. You can view other
variables by selecting Result->Field Output.
The Field Output dialog box appears.

6. Click the Primary Variable tab of the Field Output dialog box, and select S11 from the list of
Component options. Click Apply to see a contour plot of the stresses in the 1-direction.

7. From the Invariant option list, select Max. Principal, and click Apply to see the maximum
principal stresses on the model.

8. Select any other variables of interest from the Field Output dialog box.

9. From the Invariant option list, select Mises and click Apply to display the von Mises stresses
again.

Note the following key points:

· When you first open an output database, ABAQUS/CAE displays a fast plot of the model. You
cannot customize a fast plot.

· For all other plot modes--undeformed, deformed, contour, symbol--you use the associated options
to control the appearance of the plot in each mode. In general, changing an option in one mode
does not affect the appearance of the plot in the other modes.

3.13.2 Using display groups


You will now create a display group that includes only the element sets that make up the hinge piece
that includes the lubrication hole. By removing all other element sets from the display, you will be able
to view results for the surface of the flange that contacts the other hinge.
To create the display group:

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1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Display Group->Create.


The Create Display Group dialog box appears.

2. In the ODB Item options list, select Elements. In the Selection Method options list, accept the
default selection of Element sets.
The right side of the dialog box displays all the element sets in the model. ABAQUS/CAE creates
a number of sets automatically. Some of the sets are named according to the following convention:
ASSEMBLY__part instance name_label__setname. Part instance name consists of the name you
gave to the part when you created it, plus an instance number that ABAQUS/CAE assigns. Label is
G for geometry set, E for elements picked in the viewport, or N for nodes picked in the viewport.
Finally, setname is either a name assigned to the set by ABAQUS/CAE or a set name given by
you. The sets created by ABAQUS/CAE are geometry sets.

3. Select the element set created by ABAQUS/CAE for the Hinge-hole-1 part.

4. At the bottom of the Create Display Group dialog box, click Replace.
The contour plot of the entire model is replaced by a plot of only the selected hinge piece, as
shown in Figure 3-58.

Figure 3-58 Use display groups to view a contour plot of the von Mises stress in the hinge piece
with the lubrication hole.

5. Use the view manipulation tools to view the hinge at different angles. You can now see results for
surfaces on the hinge that were hidden by the solid hinge.

6. Click the Primary Variable tab of the Field Output dialog box, select CPRESS for the
INSIDE-H/PIN contact pair in the Output Variable options list, and click Apply. You may need
to widen the Name column to see the entire contact pair name. Do this by dragging the dividing
line between the Name and Description column headings.
ABAQUS/CAE displays a contour plot of the contact pressures in the flange hole.

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Note the following key points:

· You use display groups to display selected regions of your model.

· A display group can be an element set, a node set, or a list of nodes or elements.

To learn more about the capabilities of the Visualization module, see the third tutorial, Chapter 4, "A
tutorial: Viewing the output from your analysis."
For more information about using the Visualization module, click any of the following items:

· ``Viewing the results of your analysis,'' Section 2.12

· For a more in-depth tutorial of the capabilities of the Chapter 4, "A tutorial: Viewing the output
from your analysis"

You have now completed the second tutorial and learned how to:

· create and modify features;

· use datum geometry to add features to a model;

· use position constraints to assemble a model composed of more than one part;

· define contact interactions between regions of a model;

· monitor the progress of an analysis job; and

· use display groups to view results for individual parts of a model.

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4. A tutorial: Viewing the output from your analysis


This tutorial illustrates how you can use the Visualization module to display the results from your
analysis in graphical form.

4.1 Overview
During the tutorial you will display the output from Case 2 of the example problem, ``Indentation of an
elastomeric foam specimen with a hemispherical punch,'' Section 1.1.4 of the ABAQUS Example
Problems Manual. The problem studies the behavior of a heavy metal punch impacting a soft
elastomeric foam block; the resulting deformation and strain are shown in Figure 4-1.

Figure 4-1 Contour plot showing deformation and strain.

The problem is modeled in two dimensions and is divided into three steps:

1. The punch initially rests on the surface of the foam block and compresses the block under its own
weight. The gravity loading is ramped up over two seconds; but the analysis continues for a total
of five seconds, allowing the foam to relax fully. The analysis uses the *VISCO option to model
the response of the foam block during the step.

2. The punch is forced down with an impulsive load that varies according to a half sine wave over a
period of one second. The response of the foam block is modeled using the *DYNAMIC option.

3. The impulsive load is removed, and the punch is allowed to move freely while the foam expands
and contracts. The viscoelastic foam damps out the vibrations, and the step runs for 10 seconds
while the model returns to steady state. As with the second step, the response of the foam block is
modeled using the *DYNAMIC option.

The tutorial consists of the following sections:

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· ``Which variables are in the output database?, '' Section 4.2

· ``Reading the output database,'' Section 4.3

· ``Displaying and customizing an undeformed shape plot,'' Section 4.4

· ``Displaying and customizing a deformed shape plot,'' Section 4.5

· ``Displaying and customizing a contour plot,'' Section 4.6

· ``Animating a contour plot,'' Section 4.7

· ``Displaying and customizing a symbol plot,'' Section 4.8

· ``Displaying and customizing a material orientation plot,'' Section 4.9

· ``Displaying and customizing an X-Y plot,'' Section 4.10

· ``Operating on X-Y data,'' Section 4.11

· ``Probing an X-Y plot,'' Section 4.12

· ``Displaying results along a path,'' Section 4.13

4.2 Which variables are in the output database?


In the first step of the elastomeric foam example, a set of options is included to control the data output
during each step of the analysis. ABAQUS/Standard writes this output to the Field Output or History
Output portion of the output database, depending on the output type.

Field Output
The Field Output portion of the output database contains variables that should be output
relatively infrequently during the analysis; in this case, after every 10 increments and after the
last increment of a step. Typically, you select output for your entire model or a large region of
your model, and ABAQUS writes every component at the selected frequency. Only the
selected variables are written to the output database.
The following input file fragment shows the options that control the field output variables in
the elastomeric block example:
*OUTPUT, FIELD, FREQUENCY=10
*CONTACT OUTPUT, SLAVE=ASURF, MASTER=BSURF,
VARIABLE=PRESELECT
*NODE OUTPUT
U,
*ELEMENT OUTPUT, ELSET=FOAM
S,E
ABAQUS/Standard writes the following variables to the Field Output portion of the output
database after every 10 increments and at the end of each step:

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· the stress components of every integration point in the foam block;

· the logarithmic strain components of every integration point in the foam block (by default,
the logarithmic strain is written to the output database when the user requests strain for a
geometrically nonlinear analysis);

· the displacement of every node in the model; and

· the default contact output variables (clearance, pressure, shear stress, and tangential
motion) resulting from the contact between the punch and the foam block.

History Output
The History Output portion of the output database contains variables that may be output
relatively frequently during the analysis, as often as every increment. To avoid generating
large amounts of data, you typically select output from a small area of your model, such as a
single element or a small region. In addition, you must select the individual components of the
variables that are written to the output database. History output is typically used for generating
X-Y data plots.
The following input file fragment shows the options that control the history output variables in
the elastomeric block example:
*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=1
*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=N9999
U2, V2, A2
*ELEMENT OUTPUT, ELSET=CORNER
MISES, E22, S22
ABAQUS/Standard writes the following variables from the punch's rigid body reference node
(contained in node set N9999) to the history portion of the output database after every
increment:

· the vertical displacement,

· the vertical velocity, and

· the vertical acceleration.

In addition, after every increment ABAQUS/Standard writes the following variables from the
element at the corner of the block to the history portion of the output database:

· von Mises stress,

· the logarithmic strain in the 2-direction on the 2-plane, and

· the stress in the 2-direction on the 2-plane.

The stress and strain variables are written for all the integration points in the element.

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4.3 Reading the output database


To start the tutorial, open the output database that ABAQUS/Standard generated during the analysis of
the example problem.
To read the output database:

1. If you have not done so already, start ABAQUS/CAE by typing abaqus cae at the operating
system prompt.

2. From the Start Session dialog box that appears, select Open Database .
The Open Database dialog box appears.

3. From the File type list at the top of the Open Database dialog box, select Output Database
(*.odb).

The remainder of the dialog box changes to reflect the fact that you are now interested in files with
the extension .odb only.

4. If you are following this tutorial online, resize your windows so that you can follow this tutorial
and see the ABAQUS/CAE main window. For more information, see ``Starting ABAQUS/CAE,''
Section 5.1.1.

5. In the Selection field at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box, delete the text and type
abaqus_dir/cae/Tutorial/viewer_tutorial.odb, where abaqus_dir is the name of
the directory in which ABAQUS/CAE is installed. To determine the location of abaqus_dir at
your site, type abaqus whereami at an operating system prompt.
Note: On Windows NT systems the path to the output database is
abaqus_dir\cae\Tutorial\viewer_tutorial.odb.

6. Click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE starts the Visualization module and displays a fast plot of the model, as shown in
Figure 4-2. A fast plot is a basic representation of your undeformed model and is an indication that
you have opened the desired output database. The fast plot mode does not display results and
cannot be customized.

Figure 4-2 Fast representation.

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Important: Do not confuse this fast plot with the undeformed shape plot. While the fast plot
displays the undeformed model, you must display the undeformed plot to customize the
appearance of the model; for example, to display element and node numbering. The fast plot
simply indicates that you have opened the desired output database.

The title block at the bottom of the viewport indicates the following:

· The description of the model (from the first line of the *HEADING option in the input file).

· The name of the output database (from the name of the analysis job).

· The product name (ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) and version used to generate


the output database.

· The date the output database was last modified.

The state block at the bottom of the viewport indicates the following:

· Which step is being displayed.

· The increment within the step.

· The step time.

The orientation triad indicates the orientation of the model in the global coordinate system.

Note the following key points:

· ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module automatically when you open an output database.

· The model is initially displayed using a fast mode. You cannot change the appearance of the model
in fast mode.

· The title block displays information about the analysis that generated the output database.

· The state block contains information about the step and increment being displayed.

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4.4 Displaying and customizing an undeformed shape plot


You will now display the undeformed shape plot and use the plot options to request element
numbering.

4.4.1 Displaying an undeformed shape plot


An undeformed plot displays the initial shape of your model.
To display an undeformed shape plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Undeformed Shape .


Tip: You can select a plot mode from the main menu bar or from the Visualization module

toolbox. Click the undeformed plot tool in the Visualization module toolbox to select
the undeformed mode.

The Visualization module enters the undeformed plot mode and displays the undeformed model at
the end of the analysis-- Step 3 and Step Time = 10.00 in this example. The plot mode and
a set of buttons also appear in the prompt area, as shown in Figure 4-3.

Figure 4-3 Frame buttons in the prompt area.

In the elastomeric foam block example ABAQUS/Standard wrote the data to the field output
portion of the output database after every 10 increments and after the last increment of a step. Each
increment written to the output database is called a frame.
In this example the undeformed model does not change between frames, but in some simulations
the model changes during the analysis; for example, if rigid surfaces are introduced.

2. Use the pan tool, which is one of several view manipulation tools available on the toolbar, to move
the model above the state and title blocks as follows.

a. From the toolbar, click the pan tool to enter pan mode.

The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow:

b. To move the model away from the state and title blocks, click in the viewport and drag the

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cursor upward.
The model moves along the same path as the cursor.

c. Click mouse button 2 to exit pan mode.

3. From the prompt area, click the button on the far left to move to the first frame of the current step.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the undeformed model at the beginning of the third step--Step 3,
Increment 0, and Step Time = 0.000. This is the state of the model at the beginning of
the step.
The first frame and last frame buttons take you directly to the first or last frame of the current step
but do not allow you to move between steps. The next frame and previous frame buttons in the
prompt area allow you to move between each frame of the analysis and can cross step boundaries
as needed.

4. Click the previous frame button.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the undeformed model at the end of the second step--Step 2 and Step
Time = 1.000.
When you are at the first frame of the current step, clicking the previous frame button takes you to
the last frame of the previous step. Conversely, when you are at the last frame of the current step,
clicking the next frame button takes you to the first frame of the next step.

Note the following key points:

· To perform many Visualization module functions, you can use either a menu item or a tool in the
toolbox.

· You can use the buttons in the prompt area to display the state of the model in each frame of the
analysis.

· You can use the view manipulation tools in the toolbar to change the view of the model to a more
convenient one. Use mouse button 2 to stop any view manipulation.

4.4.2 Customizing an undeformed shape plot


Each plot mode--undeformed, deformed, contour, etc.--provides a set of options that allow you to
customize the appearance of the type of plot associated with that mode. Regardless of the plot mode,
customization options apply only to the current viewport and are not saved between sessions. Use the
undeformed plot options to customize the appearance of all undeformed plots.
To customize an undeformed shape plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Options->Undeformed.


Tip: The Visualization module provides the following three methods to access the
customization options for the current plot while you are in any of the plot modes:

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· Select Options->Plot Mode from the main menu bar.

· Click the Plot Mode Options button at the far right of the prompt area.

· Click mouse button 3 in the viewport, and select Plot Mode Options from the menu that
appears.

ABAQUS/CAE displays the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box.

2. Click the Basic tab in the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box if it is not already selected.
Choose the Filled render style and Exterior visible edges, and click Apply.
ABAQUS/CAE displays a filled view of the model. Because the model is a two-dimensional
model, it displays all edges--the perimeter edges and the edges of each element--as shown in
Figure 4-4.

Figure 4-4 Undeformed plot with filled view and exterior edges visible.

For clarity, most of the figures in this tutorial do not include the title block, state block, and
orientation triad. In general, the figures illustrate the effect on the model of changing the plot mode
and customizing the plot. You can toggle off and customize the title block, state block, and
orientation triad by selecting View->Viewport Annotations from the main menu bar.

3. By default, ABAQUS/CAE fills the model in green and displays element labels using cyan text.
You will change the color of the element labels from cyan to red and display them. From the
Undeformed Plot Options dialog box, click the Labels tab and do the following:

a. Toggle on Show element labels .

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b. Click Apply.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the element numbering using cyan text.

c. Select the color Red for the element labels.

d. Click OK.
The color of the element labels changes from cyan to red, and the Undeformed Plot
Options dialog box closes.

Note the following key points:

· The Visualization module has different plot modes. Each plot mode has options associated with it
that you can use to control the appearance of the model in that mode. Undeformed plot
customization options apply only to undeformed plots.

· You use the viewport annotation options to customize the appearance of items that appear in all
plots, such as the title block, the state block, and the orientation triad.

· When you click Apply in an options dialog box, ABAQUS/CAE applies the change and keeps the
dialog box displayed. When you click OK, ABAQUS/CAE applies the change and closes the
dialog box.

· Customization options apply only to the current viewport and are not saved between sessions.

4.5 Displaying and customizing a deformed shape plot


You can display a plot of your model showing the deformed shape during each frame of the analysis.
When you request a deformed shape plot of data from a force-displacement analysis, ABAQUS/CAE
plots the nodal displacements by default; but you can display any nodal vector field output variable
that is available on the output database. You can also use the plot options to customize the appearance
of a deformed plot.

4.5.1 Displaying a deformed shape plot


Most procedures in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit write displacement to the output
database by default and also select displacement for the nodal vector quantity to use as the default
deformed variable. When ABAQUS/CAE reads the output database, it uses the default deformed
variable to determine the shape of a deformed plot. In the elastomeric block example the user
requested output of the displacements ( U) for every node in the model after every 10 increments, and
displacement was selected as the default deformed variable.
(Some procedures--for example, heat transfer--do not write nodal vector quantities to the output
database by default and do not select a variable as the default deformed variable. Therefore,
ABAQUS/CAE cannot display a deformed plot, since in such cases the output database does not
contain any variables that can be used to compute a deformed shape.)
To display a deformed shape plot:

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1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Deformed Shape.

Tip: You can also plot the deformed model using the tool in the Visualization module
toolbox.

ABAQUS/CAE displays the deformed model in the same increment and step that it last displayed
the undeformed model. The state block indicates the default deformed variable being plotted ( U)
and the deformation scale factor (1.00). ABAQUS/CAE selects a default deformation scale factor
of 1.00 for large-displacement analyses. If the deformation is small (for example, for a perturbation
analysis), ABAQUS/CAE increases the scale factor. Conversely, if the deformation is large,
ABAQUS/CAE decreases the scale factor to fit the viewport optimally.

2. The buttons in the prompt area allow you to move between frames of the analysis, but you can also
move directly to a selected step and increment using the following technique:

a. From the main menu bar, select Result->Frame.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Frame Selector dialog box.

b. Select Step 1, Increment 0, and click Apply.

c. The Frame Selector also displays the step time associated with an increment. Use the
Frame Selector dialog box to display the deformed model approximately halfway
through the second step.

3. Use a combination of the buttons in the prompt area and the Frame Selector dialog box to view
the deformed plot in different frames and in different steps.

4. Display the deformed model after the last increment of the third step (Step 3 and Step Time
= 10.00), as shown in Figure 4-5.

Figure 4-5 Deformed plot of the model after the last increment of the third step.

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5. Click Cancel to close the Frame Selector dialog box.

Note the following key points:

· When you display a deformed plot, ABAQUS/CAE selects a default variable to display from the
field output portion of the output database.

· You can use the Frame Selector dialog box to select the step and frame to display.

4.5.2 Customizing a deformed shape plot


You can use the deformed plot options to customize the appearance of your deformed plot.
To customize a deformed shape plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Options->Deformed.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Deformed Plot Options dialog box.

2. Click the Basic tab if it is not already selected, and do the following:

a. Toggle on Superimpose undeformed plot.

b. Choose Exterior visible edges.

3. Click the Labels tab, and toggle on Show node symbols .

4. Click OK to apply your changes and to close the Deformed Plot Options dialog box.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the customized deformed plot overlaid with the undeformed plot.

5. To turn off the fill color and the element numbering of the undeformed plot, select
Options->Undeformed from the main menu bar.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box.


Note: The button at the far right of the prompt area displays the options dialog box for the current plot mode--Deformed
Options in this example. You must use the main menu bar to display the undeformed plot options.

6. From the buttons at the bottom of the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box, click Defaults.
Click OK to apply the default undeformed plot options and to close the Undeformed Plot
Options dialog box.

ABAQUS/CAE displays the customized deformed plot, as shown in Figure 4-6.

Figure 4-6 Customized deformed plot.

Note the following key points:

· When you set options in one plot mode, they are not carried over to other plot modes.

· You can use the Defaults button to restore the default plot options in each plot mode.

4.6 Displaying and customizing a contour plot


You can display a contour plot of your model showing a variable such as stress, strain, or temperature.
In all plot modes, including contour, ABAQUS/CAE selects a default variable to display. The default
variable selected depends on the variables available in the output database, which in turn depend on
the analysis procedures and the requested output. You can choose to display any variable that is
available in the field output portion of the output database. If you select a variable when you are not in
a plot mode that can display that variable, a dialog box appears prompting you to switch to a valid plot
mode.
You can use the plot options to customize the appearance of a contour plot. ABAQUS/CAE applies
your customized settings to every contour plot displayed in the current viewport. If you display a
contour plot in a new viewport, ABAQUS/CAE reverts to the default plot options.

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4.6.1 Displaying a contour plot


You will first display a contour plot of the default variable.
To display a contour plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Contours.

Tip: You can also display a contour plot using the tool in the Visualization module
toolbox.

The state block indicates that the variable plotted is S, MISES, the default variable chosen by
ABAQUS/CAE. ABAQUS/CAE displays the results at the same step and frame that you used to
display the deformed shape plot.

2. Use a combination of the buttons in the prompt area and the Frame Selector dialog box to view
the contour plot in different frames and in different steps.
Note: The legend changes as you move between frames. ABAQUS/CAE updates the maximum and minimum values and
computes the contour intervals in every frame.

Note the following key point:

· In all plot modes, including contour, ABAQUS/CAE selects a default variable to display.

4.6.2 Selecting the variable to plot


ABAQUS/CAE selects a default variable to display in a contour plot, but you can display any variable
that is available in the field output portion of the output database.
To select the variable to plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Result->Field Output.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Field Output dialog box. In all plot modes you use the Field Output
dialog box to select the variable to display.
To see the complete description of the variable choices, increase the width of the Field Output
dialog box by dragging the right or left edge.

2. Click the Primary Variable tab if it is not already selected.

3. To select the 22-component of strain as the primary variable, do the following:

a. From the Output Variable field, select LE (logarithmic strain components at integration
points).

b. From the Component field, select the component LE22.

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4. Click OK to select LE22 as the primary variable and to close the Field Output dialog box.
The contour plot in the current viewport changes to a plot of LE22, as shown in Figure 4-7.

Figure 4-7 Contour plot of the model after the last increment of the third step.

Note the following key points:

· In all plot modes you use the Field Output dialog box to select the variable to display.

· You can display a contour plot of any variable stored in the field output portion of the output
database.

4.6.3 Customizing a contour plot


By default, ABAQUS/CAE displays a contour plot using 12 equal intervals between the maximum and
minimum value of the selected variable. ABAQUS/CAE updates the maximum and minimum values
and computes new contour intervals for every frame. The legend indicates the calculated intervals and
the color corresponding to each interval. You can change the number of intervals, and you can set the
values corresponding to the maximum and minimum contour limits. When you set the contour limits,
ABAQUS/CAE uses the values you supply in every contour plot displayed thereafter, regardless of the
frame and which variable is being contoured.
To customize a contour plot:

1. Display the contour plot at the end of the last increment of the second step (Step 2 and Step
Time = 1.000).

2. From the main menu bar, select Options->Contour.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the Contour Plot Options dialog box.

3. Click the Basic tab if it is not already selected, and do the following:

a. Drag the uniform contour intervals slider to 16.

b. Select Exterior visible edges.

4. Click the Limits tab to access the contour limits options.

a. In the Max field, toggle the Specify button and type a maximum contour limit of 0.1.

b. In the Min field, toggle the Specify button and type a minimum of -0.75.

5. Click Apply to view the customized contour plot.


The plot changes, as shown in Figure 4-8.

Figure 4-8 Customized contour plot.

Although you selected 16 contour intervals, the plot legend displays 17 intervals. ABAQUS/CAE
adds intervals to indicate any values that are greater than the maximum contour limit or less than
the minimum contour limit and displays these values in light gray and dark gray, respectively. In
this example, areas undergoing compressive strains greater than 0.75 are shown in dark gray. The
minimum strain in the model is shown at the bottom of the contour legend. You might use either of
these colors to indicate elements that fall outside the design range for the selected variable.

6. Under the Limits tab, examine the Min and Max Auto-compute options.
The minimum and maximum values of strain for the contour plot are shown next to the two

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Auto-compute options.

7. Click OK to close the Contour Plot Options dialog box.

Note the following key points:

· You use the contour plot options to customize the appearance of a contour plot.

· By default, ABAQUS/CAE uses light and dark gray contour bands to indicate values that are
outside the limits shown in the legend.

4.7 Animating a contour plot


You can animate a deformed, contour, or symbol plot using one of the following:

Time History Animation


In a time history animation ABAQUS/CAE automatically displays each frame of each step
from the output database in sequence, and you can see the change in the deformation or the
change in a contour or symbol plot variable while the analysis progresses. In effect,
ABAQUS/CAE animates the results of the analysis. You can select which steps to include in a
time history animation.

Scale Factor Animation


Scale factor animation takes the results from a selected step and frame and simply scales them
to form frames of the animation. You can select a scale factor that varies between zero and one
or between minus one and plus one. Scale factor animation is particularly useful for animating
vibration modes computed by an eigenvalue analysis.

The animation uses the plot options from the relevant mode--deformed, contour, or symbol. In
addition, you can control the following:

· The speed of the animation

· Whether the animation runs continuously or just once

· Whether to display the animation status

For the elastomeric foam example you will display a time history animation of a contour plot. The
animated contour plot displays the variable you selected from the Field Output dialog box (E22). In
addition, it uses the same options that you selected for the contour plot; for example, the contour
intervals and element edge display.
To animate the contour plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Animate->Time History.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the customized contour plot at the beginning of the analysis and steps
through each frame; the state block indicates the current step and increment throughout the

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animation. After the last increment of the last step, the animation restarts at the beginning of the
analysis (Step 1, Increment 0, and Step Time = 0.00).
ABAQUS/CAE also displays the movie player controls on the left side of the prompt area:

You use these controls to start, stop, and step through the animation.

2. In the prompt area, click the stop button to stop the animation.
The animation stops at the current image.

3. In the prompt area, click the play button to continue the animation.
The animation resumes.

4. From the main menu bar, select Options->Animation to view the animation options.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Animation Options dialog box.

5. Click the Player tab if it is not already selected, and do the following:

a. Choose Swing .

b. Drag the frame rate slider to Fast.

c. Click OK.
Because you increased the frame rate, ABAQUS/CAE steps through the animation at a faster rate.
Because you chose Swing , when the animation reaches the end of the analysis, it steps backward
through each frame instead of jumping back to the beginning of the analysis.

6. You can also customize the contour plot while the animation is running.

a. Display the Contour Plot Options dialog box.

b. Reduce the number of contour intervals to 10.

c. Click OK to apply your change and to close the Contour Plot Options dialog box.

7. When you have finished viewing the animation, click the stop button to stop the movie.

Note the following key points:

· You can display a time history animation from the data in an output database, or you can generate
a scale factor animation based on a single increment of the results.

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· You can animate a deformed, contour, or symbol plot; the animation uses the respective plot
options to control the appearance of the model. You can customize these plots while the animation
is running.

· You can use the buttons in the prompt area to start, stop, and step through the animation.

· You can use the Animation Options to control the speed and behavior of the animation.

4.8 Displaying and customizing a symbol plot


Symbol plots allow you to visualize the magnitude and direction of vector and tensor variables in the
form of arrows superimposed on the model. Each arrow starts at the location in the model where the
value was obtained; arrows representing nodal quantities appear at nodes, and arrows representing
integration point quantities appear at integration points. The length of the arrow indicates the
magnitude of the vector or tensor, and the direction of the arrow indicates its direction.
For example, in this section you will create a symbol plot of displacement. The symbol plot displays
arrows representing the magnitude and the direction of the displacement vector at each node.

4.8.1 Displaying a vector symbol plot


Before creating the symbol plot, you use the Field Output dialog box to specify the variable you want
to plot.
To create a symbol plot of nodal displacement:

1. From the main menu bar, select Result->Field Output.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Field Output dialog box.

2. Click the Primary Variable tab if it is not already selected.

3. From the output variable Name list, select U (spatial displacement at nodes).
From the Invariant field, select Magnitude if it is not already selected. This selection indicates
that you want to plot the magnitudes of the displacement vectors.

4. Click OK to select the field output variable and to close the Field Output dialog box.
The contour plot in the current viewport displays the magnitude of the displacement vector but
retains your customized settings for the contour limits. You can click the Defaults button in the
Contour Plot Options dialog box to restore the default options.

5. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Symbols.

Tip: You can also display a symbol plot using the tool in the Visualization module toolbox.

A symbol plot appears, as shown in Figure 4-9.

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Figure 4-9 Symbol plot of displacement.

The arrows represent the total displacement at each node. The length of the arrow represents the
magnitude of the displacement, and the direction of the arrow represents the direction of the
displacement.
If your symbol plot is different from Figure 4-9, you may not have selected the correct output
variable. On the Primary Variable page in the Field Output dialog box, select U and Magnitude
and remember to click OK.

Note the following key points:

· You can display symbol plots of any selected field output variable, including both nodal and
element quantities.

· A symbol plot shows the magnitude and direction of a particular vector or tensor variable at a
specified step and frame. By default, symbol plots display the magnitudes for vector variables or
all principal components for tensor variables.

· The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the variable; the direction of the arrow
represents the direction in which the variable is acting.

4.8.2 Customizing the symbol plot


You will now customize your symbol plot by changing the arrow size and color.
To customize the symbol plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Options->Symbol.


The Symbol Plot Options dialog box appears.

2. In the Symbol Plot Options dialog box, click the Color & Style tab if it is not already selected,
and do the following:

a. Click the Vector tab.

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b. Select Cyan for the vector color.

c. Select Long as the maximum length of the vector.

3. Click OK to apply your changes and to close the Symbol Plot Options dialog box.
The customized symbol plot appears, as shown in Figure 4-10.

Figure 4-10 Customized symbol plot.

4.9 Displaying and customizing a material orientation plot


Material orientation plots allow you to visualize the material directions for each element in your model
at a specified step and frame. Material orientation triads that indicate the material directions are
displayed at the element integration points. By default, material orientation plots are drawn on the
deformed shape of the model.
In this section you will create a material orientation plot and customize its appearance.

4.9.1 Displaying a material orientation plot


The material orientation plot will be created at the step and frame of the analysis you specified
previously.
To display a material orientation plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Material Orientation.

Tip: You can also display a material orientation plot using the tool in the Visualization module toolbox.

A material orientation plot appears, as shown in Figure 4-11.

Figure 4-11 Material orientation plot.

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Material orientation triads at element integration points indicate the material directions of each
element in the model.

Note the following key point:

· A material orientation plot shows the material directions of elements in your model at a specified
step and frame of your analysis. Material orientations are displayed on an element-by-element
basis at the material integration points, with no averaging across elements.

4.9.2 Customizing a material orientation plot


You will now customize your material orientation plot by changing the color and length of the material
orientation triad axes.
To customize the material orientation plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Options->Material Orientation.


The Material Orientation Plot Options dialog box appears.

2. Click the Color & Style tab if it is not already selected, and do the following:

a. Click the Triad tab.

b. Select Red for the 1-axis color.

c. Select Short for the length of the triad axes.

3. Click OK to apply your changes and to close the Material Orientation Plot Options dialog box.
The customized material orientation plot appears, as shown in Figure 4-12.

Figure 4-12 Customized material orientation plot.

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4.10 Displaying and customizing an X-Y plot


You can display X-Y plots of data written to the output database. For the tutorial you will display the
vertical displacement of the rigid body reference node versus time.
The Visualization module also allows you to display X-Y plots of the following:

· Data read from an ASCII file.

· Data entered at the keyboard.

· Existing data, either combined with other data or arithmetically manipulated.

4.10.1 Displaying an X-Y plot


You will now display an X-Y plot of displacement versus time.
To display an X-Y plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Result->History Output.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the ODB History Output dialog box. To see the complete description of
the variable choices, increase the width of the ODB History Output dialog box by dragging the
right or left edge.

2. The Output Variables field contains a list of all the variables in the history portion of the output
database. Select the vertical motion of the rigid body reference node Spatial
displacement: U2 at Node 9999 in NSET N9999 if it is not already selected.

3. The ODB History Output dialog box allows you to select where in the history data the X-Y plot
should begin and end; in most cases the X-axis is assumed to be time. To create an X-Y plot using
data in all three steps, do the following:

a. Enlarge the dialog box so that all steps in the Steps field are visible.

b. Drag the cursor over all three steps.


Steps 1, 2, and 3 are selected.

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You can also choose the frequency at which to read the frames. For the tutorial you can accept the
default setting of Frames: Read all.

4. From the buttons across the bottom of the ODB History Output dialog box, click Plot.
ABAQUS/CAE displays an X-Y plot of displacement versus time, as shown in Figure 4-13.

Figure 4-13 X-Y plot of displacement versus time.

Default options selected by ABAQUS/CAE include default ranges for the X- and Y-axes, axis
titles, major and minor tick marks, the color of the line, and a legend.
The legend labels the X-Y plot U2 N: 9999 NSET N9999 . This is a default name provided by
ABAQUS/CAE.

5. Dismiss the ODB History Output dialog box.

Note the following key points:

· You can display an X-Y plot of any variable stored in the output database. In most cases the X-axis
is assumed to be time.

· You can select the step from which to start and end an X-Y plot, and you can choose the frequency
at which ABAQUS/CAE reads the frames from history data in the output database.

4.10.2 Customizing an X-Y plot


By default, ABAQUS/CAE computes the range of the X- and Y-axes from the minimum and maximum
values found in the data read from the output database. ABAQUS/CAE divides each axis into intervals
and displays the appropriate major and minor tick marks. The XY Plot Options allow you to set the
range of each axis and to customize the appearance of the X-Y plot. As in all plot modes, X-Y plot
customization options apply only to the current viewport and are not saved between sessions.

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To customize an X-Y plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Options->XY Plot.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the XY Plot Options dialog box.

2. Click the Scale tab, if it is not already selected.

3. Specify that the X-axis should extend from 20 (the X-axis maximum) to 0 (the X-axis minimum)
and that the Y-axis should extend from 0 (the Y-axis maximum) to -200 (the Y-axis minimum).

4. Click Apply to view the customized X-Y plot and to keep the XY Plot Options dialog box active.
The axes of the X-Y plot change.

5. From the options in the XY Plot Options dialog box, do the following. (Click Apply as you work
to check the effect of each setting.)

· Select Blue horizontal and vertical major grid lines. The line style should be solid.

· Type a Y-axis title of Displacement U2 (mm).

· Request that major tick marks appear on the X-axis at four-second increments.

· Request a decimal format with zero decimal places for the Y-axis labels.

· Request a minor tick mark every second along the X-axis and every 10 mm along the Y-axis.

6. From the XY Plot Options dialog box, click OK to view the customized X-Y plot, as shown in
Figure 4-14.

Figure 4-14 Customized X-Y plot of displacement.

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7. You will now display a second X-Y plot in a new viewport. To create a new viewport, do the
following:

a. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Create Viewport .

The cursor changes to a cross-hair .

b. Position the cursor at one corner of the desired location for the new viewport.

c. Drag the cursor across the drawing area to the opposite corner of the new viewport. The
exact size and position of the new viewport is not critical because you can move and
resize it later.
The new viewport appears. The same X-Y plot that you had in the first viewport appears in
the new viewport.
The red border around the new viewport indicates that it is the current viewport; all work takes
place in the current viewport. For more information, see ``What is a viewport?,'' Section 7.1.1.

8. Create a similar X-Y plot of vertical velocity ( V2) versus time. You cannot select velocity during
the first step because the first step was not a dynamic step; ABAQUS/Standard computed velocity
and acceleration only during the second and third steps. Use the same X-axis range as before, and
use a Y-axis range from 1000 to -1000. Label the Y-axis Velocity V2. The finished plot is
shown in Figure 4-15.

Figure 4-15 Customized X-Y plot of velocity.

4.11 Operating on X-Y data


An X-Y data object is a collection of ordered pairs that ABAQUS/CAE stores in two columns--an

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X-column and a Y-column. The Operate on XY Data dialog box allows you to create new X-Y data
objects by performing operations on previously saved X-Y data objects. In this tutorial you will create a
stress versus strain data object by combining a stress versus time data object with a strain versus time
data object. Then, you will plot the stress-strain curve.

4.11.1 Creating the stress versus time and strain versus time
data objects
The first step in creating the stress-strain curve is to create the stress versus time and the strain versus
time data objects from the history output. The data objects will contain data from only the first step of
the analysis, where the punch rests on the surface of the foam block and compresses the block under its
own weight.
To create the X-Y data objects:

1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->XY Data->Manager.


The XY Data Manager dialog box appears.

2. From the XY Data Manager, click Create.

3. From the Create XY Data dialog box that appears, select ODB history output if it is not already
selected and click Continue.
The ODB History Output dialog box appears.

4. In the ODB History Output dialog box, do the following:

a. In the Output Variables field, select Logarithmic strain components: LE22


at Element 1 Int Point 1.

b. In the Steps field, select Step 1.

c. Click Save As.


The Save XYData As dialog box appears.

d. Name the X-Y data Strain, and click OK.


A data object called Strain containing logarithmic strain data ( LE22) from integration point 1
of element 1 during the first step of the analysis appears in the XY Data Manager.

5. Use a similar technique to create a data object containing stress data ( S22) from integration point
1 of element 1 during the first step of the analysis. Name this data object Stress.
Now you are ready to combine the two data objects to create a stress versus strain data object.

6. Dismiss the ODB History Output dialog box.

Note the following key point:

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· You can create X-Y data objects using history data from selected steps.

4.11.2 Combining the data objects


In this section you will create a stress versus strain data object by combining the stress versus time and
strain versus time data objects.
To combine the data objects:

1. In the XY Data Manager, click Create.

2. From the Create XY Data dialog box that appears, select Operate on XY data and click
Continue.

An Operate on XY Data dialog box appears. The dialog box contains the following lists:

· The XY Data field on the left contains a list of existing X-Y data objects.

· The Operators field on the right contains a list of all the possible operations you can perform
on the data objects.

3. From the Operators field, click combine(X,X).


combine( ) appears in the expression text field at the top of the dialog box.

4. In the XY Data field, drag the cursor across both the Strain and the Stress data objects to
select both.
When you release the mouse button, the expression combine("Strain","Stress") appears
in the expression text field. In this expression "Strain" will determine the X-values and
"Stress" will determine the Y-values in the combined plot.
Warning: If you select the data objects individually, you must type the comma in the expression text field.

5. From the buttons along the bottom of the Operate on XY Data dialog box, click Save As.

6. From the Save XYData As dialog box that appears, enter the name Stress/strain and click
OK.

The new data object Stress/strain appears in the XY Data Manager.

7. Dismiss the Operate on XY Data dialog box.

Note the following key point:

· You can use the Operate on XY Data dialog box to create new X-Y data objects based on
operations on existing data objects.

4.11.3 Plotting and customizing the stress-strain curve

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You will now use the Stress/strain data object that you just created to plot the stress-strain
curve.
To plot the stress-strain curve:

1. Your plot of stress versus strain will inherit the customized settings from your previous plot. To
restore the default plot options, do the following:

a. Click the XY Plot Options button in the prompt area.

b. In the XY Plot Options dialog box that appears, click Defaults.

c. Click Apply.

2. From the XY Data Manager, select Stress/strain and click Plot.


A plot of the stress-strain curve with default axis titles appears in the viewport.

3. To change the axis titles, click the Titles tab from the XY Plot Options dialog box. Type Strain
for the X-axis title and Stress for the Y-axis title.

4. Click OK to see your titles and to close the XY Plot Options dialog box.
The plot of stress versus strain appears, as shown in Figure 4-16.

Figure 4-16 X-Y plot of stress versus strain.

5. Dismiss the XY Data Manager.

4.12 Probing an X-Y plot


You can use the Query toolset in the Visualization module to probe your model and X-Y plots. You can
also write the resulting probe values to a file. In this tutorial you will use the probe capability to obtain
X- and Y-values from your stress/strain plot and to write these values to a file.

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To probe an X-Y plot:

1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Query; select Probe values from the Visualization
Queries portion of the dialog box; and click OK to enter probe mode.

The Probe Values dialog box appears. Because an X-Y plot is in the current viewport, this dialog
box will display X-Y curve data.

2. At the top of the dialog box, toggle on Interpolate between points . This option allows you to
select arbitrary points along the curve.

3. In the viewport, position the cursor over the X-Y curve.


When the arrow at the cursor approaches the X-Y curve, the point being probed is highlighted and
the corresponding X-Y coordinates appear in the Current Probe Values table.

4. Click at various points along the curve.


The X-Y coordinates for each point are added to the Selected Probe Values table.

5. When you have finished selecting points, click Write to File.


The Report Probe Values dialog box appears.
By default, the data in the Selected Probe Values table are written to a file called abaqus.rpt
in your current directory. The options in this dialog box allow you to change the name of this file
and the format of the data written to the file.

6. Click OK to write your data to the file.

7. From the Probe Values dialog box, click Cancel to exit probe mode.
A dialog box appears to inform you that the Selected Probe Values table contains data. Click
Yes to indicate that it is OK to continue; the data in the table will be deleted.

Note the following key point:

· You can use the Query toolset to probe a model or X-Y plot. You can write the values you obtain
to a file.

4.13 Displaying results along a path


X-Y data can be generated for a specific path through your model. In this tutorial you will specify a
node list path along the top of the foam block and plot the displacement magnitude along this path.

4.13.1 Creating a node list path


A path is a line you define by specifying a series of points through the model. In a node list path all of
the specified points are nodal locations. You create a node list path by entering node labels or node
label ranges in a table. To determine the node labels of interest, it is helpful to create a model plot with
the node labels visible.

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To create a node list path:

1. Click the tool to display a contour plot of the model.


Use the Contour Options to display the node labels.

2. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Path->Create.


The Create Path dialog box appears.

3. Name the path Displacement. Accept the default selection of Node list as the path type, and
click Continue.
The Edit Node List Path dialog box appears.

4. In the Node Labels table, enter 1:601:100; and click OK. (This input specifies a range of nodes
from 1 to 601 at increments of 100.)
Alternatively, you can pick the nodes for the node list directly from the viewport by clicking
Select in the Edit Node List Path dialog box.

4.13.2 Displaying results along a node list path


ABAQUS/CAE obtains analysis results for each of the points on the path you have defined and
generates X-Y data pairs; the X-values are the specified points in the model, and the Y-values are the
analysis results at these points. You can generate an X-Y plot of the data pairs.
To display displacement results along a node list path:

1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->XYData->Create.

2. In the Create XY Data dialog box that appears, select Path; and click Continue.
The Create XY Data from Path dialog box appears with the path that you created visible in the
list of available paths. The selected path is also highlighted in the plot in the current viewport.
Note: ABAQUS/CAE warns you that three of the node labels included in the specified range
are not available and will be ignored. Click Dismiss to continue.

Accept the default selections in the X Values portion of the dialog box.
The result that will be plotted is displayed in the Y Values portion of the dialog box. In this case U
is the field output variable that was selected last (when you generated the symbol plot).

3. Click Plot to generate an X-Y plot of U along the path, as shown in Figure 4-17.

Figure 4-17 Path plot of U along the top of the foam block.

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You have now finished the tutorial.

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Part II: Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE


This part of the manual introduces you to the ABAQUS working environment. The following topics
are covered:

· Chapter 5, "The basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE"

· Chapter 6, "Understanding ABAQUS/CAE windows, dialog boxes, and toolboxes "

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

· Chapter 8, "Manipulating the view and controlling perspective "

· Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport"

· Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

· Chapter 11, "Printing canvas objects"

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5. The basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE


Before you can begin creating and analyzing a model, it is helpful to become familiar with the basics of
interacting with ABAQUS/CAE. This chapter introduces you to the user interface. The following
topics are covered:

· ``Starting and exiting ABAQUS/CAE,'' Section 5.1

· ``Overview of the main window,'' Section 5.2

· ``What is a module?,'' Section 5.3

· ``What is a toolset?,'' Section 5.4

· ``Using the mouse with ABAQUS/CAE,'' Section 5.5

· ``Getting help,'' Section 5.6

5.1 Starting and exiting ABAQUS/CAE


This section explains how to start and how to exit ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered:

· ``Starting ABAQUS/CAE,'' Section 5.1.1

· ``Exiting an ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section 5.1.2

5.1.1 Starting ABAQUS/CAE


When you create a model and analyze it, ABAQUS/CAE generates a set of files containing the
definition of your model, the solver input, and the results of the analysis. In addition, ABAQUS/CAE
generates a replay file that reflects all your interactions with the application. Consequently, before you
run ABAQUS/CAE, you should move to a directory where you have permission to create files.
You execute ABAQUS/CAE by running the abaqus execution procedure and specifying the cae
parameter:

abaqus cae [database=database-file ]


[replay=replay-file]
[recover=journal-file ]
[startup=startup-file ]
[noenvstartup]
You can include the following options on the command line:

database
This option specifies the name of the model database file or output database file to open. To
specify a model database file, include either the .cae file extension or no file extension in
your file name. To specify an output database file, include the .odb file extension in your file

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name.

replay
This option specifies the name of the file from which ABAQUS/CAE commands are to be
replayed. The commands in replay-file will execute immediately upon startup of
ABAQUS/CAE. For more information, see ``Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section
12.4.1.

recover
This option specifies the name of the file from which a model database is to be rebuilt. The
commands in journal-file (model_database_name .jnl) will execute immediately upon
startup of ABAQUS/CAE. For more information, see ``Recreating a saved model database,''
Section 12.4.2, and ``Recreating an unsaved model database,'' Section 12.4.3.

startup
This option specifies the name of the file containing Python configuration commands to be run
at application startup. Commands in this file are run after any configuration commands that
have been set in the environment file.

noenvstartup
This option specifies that all configuration commands in the environment files should not be
run at application startup. This option can be used in conjunction with the startup command
to suppress all configuration commands except for those in the startup file.

ABAQUS/CAE begins. If you do not include the database, replay, or recover options, the Start
Session dialog box appears. Choose one of the following session startup options:

Create Model Database


Use this option to begin a new analysis (equivalent to choosing File->New from the main
menu bar).

Open Database
Use this option to open a previously saved analysis or output database (equivalent to choosing
File->Open from the main menu bar).

Run Script
Use this option to run a file containing ABAQUS/CAE commands (equivalent to choosing
File->Run Script from the main menu bar). For more information, see ``Creating and running
your own scripts,'' Section 12.4.4.

Start Tutorial
Use this option to begin an introductory tutorial from the online documentation (equivalent to
choosing Help->Getting Started from the main menu bar). The ABAQUS/CAE User's
Manual opens in a separate window.

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Note: You can disable the Start Session dialog box by including the following line in your
ABAQUS/CAE resource file:
*useStartupDialog: false
For more information on the ABAQUS/CAE resource file, see ``Customizing X resources,''
Section 6.1. If you choose to disable the Start Session dialog box, you must open an existing or a
new model database after you start ABAQUS/CAE by selecting either File->Open or File->New
from the main menu bar.

5.1.2 Exiting an ABAQUS/CAE session


You can exit the ABAQUS/CAE session at any time by selecting File->Exit from the main menu bar.
If you made any changes to the current model database, ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save the
changes before exiting the session. ABAQUS/CAE then closes the current model database and all
windows and exits the session.
ABAQUS/CAE saves your customization selections, if any, only for the duration of the session.
However, ABAQUS/CAE automatically creates a file called abaqus.rpy that records your
operations during the session; you can use this file to reproduce your operations. For more information
on reproducing operations and on recovering interrupted sessions, see ``Recreating an unsaved model
database,'' Section 12.4.3.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

5.2 Overview of the main window


This section provides an overview of the main window and explains how to operate and manipulate
the elements of the window during a session. The following topics are covered:

· ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1

· ``Components of the main menu bar,'' Section 5.2.2

· ``Components of the toolbar,'' Section 5.2.3

· ``The context bar,'' Section 5.2.4

· ``Components of the viewport,'' Section 5.2.5

5.2.1 Components of the main window


You interact with ABAQUS/CAE through the main window, and the appearance of the window
changes as you work through the modeling process. The components that appear in the main window
after you first start ABAQUS/CAE are shown in Figure 5-1.

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Figure 5-1 Components of the main window.

The components are:

Title bar
The title bar indicates the version of ABAQUS/CAE you are running and the name of the
current model database.

Menu bar
The menu bar contains all the available menus; the menus give access to all the functionality
in the product. Different menus appear in the menu bar depending on which module you
selected from the context bar. For more information, see ``Components of the main menu bar,''
Section 5.2.2.

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Toolbar
The toolbar provides quick access to items that are also available in the menus. For more
information, see ``Components of the toolbar,'' Section 5.2.3.

Context bar
ABAQUS/CAE is divided into a set of modules, where each module allows you to work on
one aspect of your model; the Module list in the context bar allows you to move between these
modules. Other items in the context bar are a function of the module you are working in; for
example, the context bar allows you to retrieve an existing part while creating the geometry of
the model. For more information, see ``The context bar,'' Section 5.2.4.

Toolbox area
When you enter a module, the toolbox area displays tools in the toolbox that are appropriate
for that module. The toolbox allows quick access to many of the module functions that are
also available from the menu bar. For more information, see ``Understanding and using
toolboxes,'' Section 6.4.

Viewport
Viewports are windows on the canvas in which ABAQUS/CAE displays your model. For more
information, see Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas."

Prompt area
The prompt area displays instructions for you to follow during a procedure; for example, it
asks you to select the geometry as you create a set. For more information, see ``Using the
prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2.

Message area
ABAQUS/CAE prints status information and warnings in the message area. To resize the
message area, drag the small square at its upper right corner; to see information that has
scrolled out of the message area, use the scroll bar on the right side.

Canvas and drawing area


The canvas can be thought of as an infinite screen or bulletin board on which you post items
such as viewports, text, and arrow annotations; for more information, see Chapter 7,
"Managing objects on the canvas." The drawing area is the visible portion of the canvas.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 5, "The basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE"

5.2.2 Components of the main menu bar

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When you start a session, the menus listed below appear on the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE
displays additional menu options and provides access to toolsets depending on the current module in
use.

File
The items in the File menu allow you to create, open, and save model databases; open and
close output databases; import and export files; run scripts; manage macros; print canvas
objects; and exit ABAQUS/CAE. For more information, see ``Using the File menu,'' Section
12.5.

Model
The items in the Model menu allow you to open, copy, rename, and delete the models in the
current model database. For more information, see ``Managing models,'' Section 12.7.

Canvas
The items in the Canvas menu allow you to create or manipulate viewports and annotations
and to open the canvas toolbox. All the tools that are available directly from the menu are also
available from the canvas toolbox. For more information, see Chapter 7, "Managing objects on
the canvas."

View
The items in the View menu allow you to manipulate views, customize certain aspects of the
appearance of your model, and control display performance. Some of the operations available
in the view manipulation menu are also available in the toolbar. For more information, see any
of the following:

· Chapter 8, "Manipulating the view and controlling perspective "

· Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

· Chapter 46, "Selecting geometry and mesh display options"

Help
The items in the Help menu allow you to request context-sensitive help and to search or
browse the documentation. For more information, see ``Getting help,'' Section 5.6.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1

5.2.3 Components of the toolbar


The toolbar contains a convenient set of tools for managing your files and viewing your model. Items

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in the toolbar are shortcuts to functions that are also available from the main menu bar. The toolbar is
shown in the following figure:

To obtain a short description of a tool, place the cursor over that tool for a moment; a small box
containing a description, or "tooltip," will appear. The tools are divided into the following groups:

Database manipulation and printing

The database manipulation tools allow you to create and manipulate model databases and to
print viewports and annotations. For more information, see Part III, "Working with
ABAQUS/CAE model databases, models, and files," and Chapter 11, "Printing canvas
objects."

View manipulation

The view manipulation tools allow you to specify different views of the model. For example,
you can pan, rotate, or zoom the model using these tools. For more information, see Chapter 8,
"Manipulating the view and controlling perspective ."

View and display options

The view and display option tools allow you to customize the appearance of your model. For
example, you can specify whether wireframe, hidden line, or shaded render style will be used
and whether perspective will be applied. For more information, see ``Choosing a render style,''
Section 37.2.1, and ``Controlling perspective,'' Section 8.3.

Query

Use the query tool to obtain information about the geometry and features of your model.
For more information, see Chapter 44, "The Query toolset."

Help

Use the context-sensitive help tool to display detailed information about any tool, menu,
dialog box, or option in ABAQUS/CAE. For more information, see ``Getting help,'' Section
5.6.

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For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1

5.2.4 The context bar


The context bar is located under the toolbar; you can use it to do the following:

Select the current module


The Module list on the context bar allows you to move between modules. (For more
information, see ``What is a module?,'' Section 5.3.)

Select module-specific items


As you move between modules, ABAQUS/CAE displays additional items on the context bar
that help you select the context of your current operations. For example, when you are in the
Part module, ABAQUS/CAE displays the Part list in the context bar. The Part list contains
every part in your model; you can use it to retrieve a particular part. The context bar also
allows you to move between models in the model database. The additional items in the context
bar are a function of the module in which you are working.

The items displayed in the context bar always refer to the current viewport, which is indicated by a red
border. For example, if you have different parts displayed in different viewports, the context bar
indicates the name of the part displayed in the current viewport.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``What is a module?,'' Section 5.3

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

5.2.5 Components of the viewport


Figure 5-2 shows the components of the viewport in the Visualization module.

Figure 5-2 Components of the viewport.

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The viewport title and the border around the viewport are called the viewport decorations. For more
information, see ``Showing and hiding viewport decorations,'' Section 7.3.9.
The legend, state block, title block, and view orientation triad are called the viewport annotations. The
view orientation triad is a set of three perpendicular axes that indicate the orientation of the model
currently being displayed. For more information, see ``Customizing the view triad,'' Section 8.2. The
legend, state block, and title block identify results you display using the Visualization module. For
more information, see Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations."

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

5.3 What is a module?


ABAQUS/CAE is divided into functional units called modules. Each module contains only those tools
that are relevant to a specific portion of the modeling task. For example, the Mesh module contains
only the tools needed to create finite element meshes, while the Job module contains only the tools
used to create, edit, submit, and monitor analysis jobs.
You select a module from the Module list in the context bar. The order of the modules in the menu
corresponds to the logical sequence you follow to create a model. In many circumstances you must
follow this natural progression to complete a modeling task; for example, you must create parts before
you create an assembly. Although the order of the modules follows a logical sequence, ABAQUS/CAE

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allows you to select any module at any time, regardless of the state of your model.
The following list of the modules available within ABAQUS/CAE briefly describes the modeling tasks
you can perform in each module. The order of the modules in the list corresponds to the order of the
modules in the context bar's Module list:
Part

Create individual parts by sketching or importing their geometry. For more information, see
Chapter 14, "The Part module."
Property

Create section and material definitions and assign them to regions of parts. For more
information, see Chapter 15, "The Property module."
Assembly

Create and assemble part instances. For more information, see Chapter 16, "The Assembly
module."
Step

Create and configure the analysis steps and associated output requests. For more information,
see Chapter 17, "The Step module."
Interaction

Specify the interactions, such as contact, between regions of a model. For more information,
see Chapter 18, "The Interaction module."
Load/BC/IC

Specify loads, boundary conditions, and initial conditions. For more information, see Chapter
19, "The Load/BC/IC module."
Mesh

Create a finite element mesh. For more information, see Chapter 20, "The Mesh module."
Job

Submit a job for analysis and monitor its progress. For more information, see Chapter 21, "The
Job module."
Visualization

View analysis results. For more information, see Part V, "Viewing results."
Sketch

Create two-dimensional sketches. For more information, see Chapter 22, "The Sketch
module."

The contents of the main window change as you move between modules. Selecting a module from the

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Module list on the context bar causes the context bar, module toolbox, and menu bar to change to
reflect the functionality of the current module.
When you select a module from the Module list on the context bar, ABAQUS/CAE associates the
current viewport with the module you select. You can have multiple viewports, and different viewports
can be associated with different modules. As you select a viewport and make it current, the module
associated with the viewport becomes the current module. For more information on moving between
viewports, see ``Making the selected viewport current,'' Section 7.3.6.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``The context bar,'' Section 5.2.4

· ``What is a viewport?,'' Section 7.1.1

5.4 What is a toolset?


When you enter most modules, a Tools menu appears in the main menu bar containing all of the
toolsets relevant to that module. A toolset is a functional unit that allows you to perform a specific
modeling task. The following toolsets are available in ABAQUS/CAE:

· The Amplitude toolset allows you to define arbitrary time or frequency variations of load,
displacement, and other prescribed variables. For more information, see Chapter 40, "The
Amplitude toolset."

· The Color Code toolset allows you to customize the edge and fill color of individual elements and
surfaces. For more information, see ``Coloring individual elements and surfaces,'' Section 37.4.

· The Datum toolset allows you to create datum points, axes, planes, and coordinate systems for a
variety of modeling tasks. For more information, see Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset."

· The Display Group toolset allows you to selectively plot one or more output database items. For
more information, see Chapter 36, "Displaying a subset of your model."

· The Field Output toolset allows you to perform operations on the field output available in an
output database. For more information, see ``Creating new field output,'' Section 24.5.

· The Partition toolset allows you to divide a part or assembly into regions. For example, you can
partition a face and apply a pressure load to the resulting region. You can also use partitions to
refine your mesh by creating additional edges and vertices. For more information, see Chapter 43,
"The Partition toolset."

· The Set toolset and the Surface toolset allow you to define sets and surfaces from regions of a
model. Sets and surfaces are named regions of a model to which you can assign attributes and
apply prescribed conditions. For example, when you create a load, you must apply the load to a
region of your model. You can specify the load by picking a region from the viewport or by
selecting a set. Likewise, you can create two surfaces from faces of your model and then select
those surfaces when you define an interaction. For more information, see Chapter 45, "The Set and

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Surface toolsets."

· The XY Data toolset allows you to create and operate on X-Y data objects. For more information,
see Chapter 30, "X-Y plotting."

Sometimes the objects that you create with a toolset in one module are useful in other modules. For
example, you can use the Set toolset to create sets in the Assembly module and then apply boundary
conditions to those sets in the Load/BC/IC module. Most of the toolsets include manager menus and
manager dialog boxes that allow you to edit, copy, rename, and delete the objects you create with the
toolset.

5.5 Using the mouse with ABAQUS/CAE


Many of the procedures in the ABAQUS/CAE documentation involve using one or more of the three
mouse buttons. The following list explains the importance of each mouse button when interacting with
ABAQUS/CAE:

Mouse button 1
You use mouse button 1 to select objects in the viewport, to expand pull-down menus, and to
select items from menus. The instructions ``click,'' ``select,'' and ``drag'' in the documentation
refer to mouse button 1.

Mouse button 2
Clicking mouse button 2 in the viewport signifies that you have finished the current task. For
example:

· Selecting entities from the model: when you create a node set, you select the nodes to
include in the set. Clicking mouse button 2 indicates that your selection is complete and
you are ready to create the set.

· Using a tool: click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished with a view
manipulation tool.

In addition, clicking mouse button 2 in the viewport is equivalent to clicking the highlighted
button in the prompt area. For example, if you tried to select nodes from your model and
ABAQUS/CAE displayed the following prompt, clicking mouse button 2 would have the same
effect as clicking OK:

Mouse button 3
Pressing and holding mouse button 3 in the viewport exposes a popup menu that contains
shortcuts to any of the buttons on the prompt area. For example, when you press mouse button
3 in a viewport that contains a contour plot, the Visualization module displays the following
menu:

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The mouse button 3 shortcut is available only when ABAQUS/CAE displays buttons in the
prompt area.

5.6 Getting help


The ABAQUS/CAE online documentation is available through the Help menu on the main menu bar.
This section provides a brief description of the online documentation and explains how to use the Help
menu to find information. (For additional information on using the online documentation, refer to the
online manual Using ABAQUS Online Documentation.) The following topics are covered:

· ``Displaying context-sensitive help,'' Section 5.6.1

· ``Browsing and searching the online manuals,'' Section 5.6.2

· ``Finding special sections of the online documentation, '' Section 5.6.3

· ``Finding information about keywords,'' Section 5.6.4

5.6.1 Displaying context-sensitive help

You can use the help tool in the toolbar to display detailed help on any icon, menu, or dialog box
that you use in ABAQUS/CAE. When you click the help tool and then click an item in the
ABAQUS/CAE window, a help window appears containing the section from the online documentation
that is relevant to that item.
In most cases the section from the online documentation that appears is equally applicable to both
ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit analyses. However, in some cases you must specify the
product of interest (either ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) so that documentation specific to
the analysis type can be displayed. In these cases a dialog box appears in which you can specify the
product of your choice.
To display help on an item in the main window or in a dialog box:

1. From the right end of the toolbar, click the help tool to start the context-sensitive help server.
Tip: You can also start the server by selecting Help->On Context from the main menu bar.

The cursor changes to a question mark.

2. Position the cursor over the item that you need help with and click mouse button 1. Then, if
necessary, select the product (ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) for which you want to
display help.
After a short delay a help window appears that contains the appropriate online documentation and
hyperlinks to associated topics. The window is like any other window on your workstation in that

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it can be resized both horizontally and vertically and moved to suit your needs.
Note: Subsequent context-sensitive help requests are addressed much more quickly because the help server is already running.

3. If a dialog box appears in which you must specify the product of your choice, do the following:

a. Select the product for which you want to display help.

b. Toggle on Do not display this dialog box for subsequent help requests if you want
all help that is displayed during the current session to apply only to the product that you
just selected.

c. Click OK to close the dialog box and to display the help window.
After a short delay the help window appears.

Alternatively, you can use the [F1] key to display help on a particular item. In most cases you can gain
access to context-sensitive help by using the Help menu, the help toolbar icon, or the [F1] key.
However, you must use [F1] if you are seeking information about menu items and certain kinds of
dialog boxes.
To display help using the [F1] key:

1. Click the feature in the ABAQUS/CAE window that you want help with. If the feature is part of a
menu, do not release the mouse button.

2. Press [F1]. Then, if necessary, select the product (ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) for
which you want to display help.
A window appears that contains the appropriate online documentation and links to associated
topics. If you selected a menu item without releasing the mouse button, that menu disappears.

Note: ABAQUS/CAE also provides brief ``tooltips'' that describe the function of tools in
toolboxes and in the toolbar. To see a ``tooltip,'' position the cursor over a tool and leave it
stationary for a short time.

5.6.2 Browsing and searching the online manuals


You can browse and search the entire online manual collection by selecting Help->Search & Browse
Manuals. The window that appears contains a list of all of the manuals in the online documentation
collection. To view a particular manual, simply double-click the title of interest; the manual will
appear in its own window. (For detailed information on using the online documentation, see the online
manual Using ABAQUS Online Documentation.)
To display and search an online manual:

1. From the main menu bar, select Help->Search & Browse Manuals .
ABAQUS/CAE displays the library window with a list of all of the manuals in the online
documentation collection.

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2. In the Book Titles column on the right side of the window, double-click the manual title of
interest.
Tip: You can also open the manual by first selecting it on the right side of the window and
then selecting File->Open Book from the library window menu bar.

ABAQUS/CAE displays a two-panel window containing the manual that you selected. The right
panel contains the contents of the manual, and the left panel contains the table of contents (TOC).
For example, the book window for UNIX systems appears in Figure 5-3. (The book window for
Windows NT systems has the same layout but a slightly different appearance.)

Figure 5-3 The book window.

3. Navigate through the manual's contents in any of the following ways:

· To scroll so that you can view additional manual content or additional TOC entries, use the
scroll bars to the right of the content and TOC panels.

· To jump directly to a section whose title is displayed in the TOC, click that title.

· To search for a word or phrase, enter it in the Find text box at the bottom of the book window.
The search engine searches for the precise word or phrase you type; for example, searching for
the word ``element'' yields different results than searching for the word ``elements.'' Use the

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[*] character as a wildcard; for example, searching for ``element*'' will find occurrences of the
words ``element,'' ``elements,'' ``elemental,'' and ``elementary.'' Searches are not case sensitive.

5.6.3 Finding special sections of the online documentation


The following Help menu items allow you to display sections of the online documentation that you
may find useful:

On Module
Select Help->On Module to display the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual opened to the
beginning of the chapter that describes the current module. If you have not yet entered a
module, the manual will be opened to a description of the module concept. In either case, you
are then free to read additional information as needed and to conduct text searches through the
entire manual.

Getting Started
Select Help->Getting Started to display the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual opened to a
section that provides basic information on how to work in the ABAQUS/CAE window. This
section also contains helpful tutorials. You are free to read additional information as needed
and to conduct text searches through the entire manual.

On Help
Select Help->On Help to display the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual opened to the section that
describes how to use the help system. You are also free to read additional information as
needed and to conduct text searches through the entire manual.

Release Notes
Select Help->Release Notes to display the ABAQUS Release Notes. Release notes detail
new features of the software and provide a list of updates and enhancements.

On Version
Select Help->On Version to determine which version of ABAQUS/CAE you are currently
using.

5.6.4 Finding information about keywords


The keyword browser is a scrollable table that contains the following information:

· The purpose of each keyword.

· The ABAQUS/CAE module or toolset that contains the functionality associated with each
keyword.

To view the keyword browser, select the following:

· Help->Keyword Browser

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For example, you could use the keyword browser to verify that the *ELASTIC option allows you to
specify elastic material properties and that the Property module is the ABAQUS/CAE module
associated with this keyword.
The keyword browser also contains hyperlinks to relevant sections in the online documentation. You
can click a particular keyword in the table to display detailed information concerning the function of
that keyword. You can also click the name of a module or toolset in the table to view related
documentation in the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual.
To display the keyword browser:

1. From the main menu bar, select Help->Keyword Browser .


A table of ABAQUS keywords and their associated modules is displayed.

2. In the Keyword column, click the keyword of interest to view online documentation describing
that keyword.

3. In the Module or Toolset column, click the module or toolset name of interest to view online
documentation concerning that module or toolset.

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6. Understanding ABAQUS/CAE windows, dialog


boxes, and toolboxes
This chapter explains how to interact with the various windows, dialog boxes, and toolboxes that
appear throughout the ABAQUS/CAE application. The following topics are covered:

· ``Customizing X resources,'' Section 6.1

· ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2

· ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

· ``Understanding and using toolboxes,'' Section 6.4

· ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5

6.1 Customizing X resources


You can use the ABAQUS/CAE resource file to control the behavior and appearance within
ABAQUS/CAE of certain X resources, such as colors, fonts, and keyboard mappings. You customize
these resources by creating a local resource file in which you specify your preferences.
You can use the sample resource file supplied as a template for your own customizations; your
customized resource file must be called Abaqus (without a file extension). The location of the sample
and customized resource files depends on the system on which you are running ABAQUS/CAE, as
follows:

On UNIX systems

· The sample resource file is located in


abaqus_dir/cae/Configuration/Xresources/Abaqus

· You can place a customized resource file for all users on a given machine in
/usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/Abaqus
You can place a customized resource file for an individual user either in their home directory
or in the directory to which the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR points. A resource file
for an individual user will take precedence over a machine-wide file.

On Windows NT systems

· The sample resource file is located in


abaqus_dir\cae\Configuration\Xresources\Abaqus

· You can place your customized resource file in


Exceed.nt\user\Abaqus

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or in any directory to which the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR points. If resource files
are present in both locations, the one pointed to by XAPPLRESDIR will take precedence.

To determine the location of abaqus_dir at your site, type abaqus whereami at an operating
system prompt.
Any specifications you enter in your customized resource file override the corresponding default
specifications. For example, the resource specifications for background and foreground window color
are shown below:
?*background : #adadad
?*foreground : Black
These lines specify that the background color of all windows and dialog boxes associated with
ABAQUS/CAE be gray (the shade of gray indicated by the rgb code #adadad) and that objects in the
foreground, such as text, appear in black. In general, rgb color specifications are more precise than
color name specifications, which are system-dependent. If you decide that you want the foreground
color to be blue instead of black, you can include the following in your Abaqus resource file:
?*foreground : Blue

A resource specification for one of the ABAQUS/CAE fonts is shown below:


*mainWindow*menuBar*fontlist: -*-helvetica-medium-r-normal--14-*
To reduce this font in size, you can include the following in your Abaqus resource file:
*mainWindow*menuBar*fontlist: -*-helvetica-medium-r-normal--12-*

You can also use your resource file to specify keyboard shortcuts for certain functions. For example,
the following lines indicate that a keyboard shortcut exists for the Open item in the File menu:
*menuBar*fileMenu.openBtn.accelerator : Ctrl<key>O
*menuBar*fileMenu.openBtn.acceleratorText : Ctrl+O
The first line above specifies that pressing [Ctrl]+O produces the same result as selecting Open from
the File menu. The second line specifies that the text Ctrl+O appears in the File menu next to the
Open menu item to remind you of this keyboard shortcut.

Refer to the sample resource file to see a list of many of the resources that you can customize. The file
contains comments that help you find the resources of interest.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 6, "Understanding ABAQUS/CAE windows, dialog boxes, and toolboxes "

6.2 Using the prompt area during procedures


This section explains how to make use of the procedural steps that ABAQUS/CAE displays in the
prompt area. The following topics are covered:

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· ``What is a procedure?,'' Section 6.2.1

· ``Following instructions and entering data in the prompt area, '' Section 6.2.2

· ``Using the More Options button,'' Section 6.2.3

· ``Using mouse shortcuts with procedures,'' Section 6.2.4

6.2.1 What is a procedure?


Many tasks within ABAQUS/CAE are broken into step-by-step procedures. For example, creating a
text annotation in a viewport is a three-step procedure:

1. Pick the position of the text.

2. Enter the text.

3. Press [Enter].

ABAQUS/CAE displays each step of a procedure in the prompt area near the bottom of the main
window so that you do not need to remember all the steps and their order.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2

6.2.2 Following instructions and entering data in the prompt area


To use a procedure, simply follow the directions that appear in the prompt area near the bottom of the
main window, as shown here:

The button marked X in the above figure is the Cancel button; click this button to cancel the entire
procedure at any time. The arrow to the left of the Cancel button is the Previous Step button; click it to
abort the current step of the procedure and return to the previous one. (The Previous Step button
appears dimmed during the first step of any procedure.) If you prefer, you can place the cursor over the
canvas and press mouse button 3; then select Previous Step or Cancel Procedure from the menu that
appears.
A Stop button appears in the prompt area during certain time-consuming operations, such as part
healing or meshing. You can click Stop to interrupt and cancel the operation.
Many procedures require textual or numeric data; for example, when creating a fillet using the Sketch
module, you must first specify the fillet radius. When textual or numeric data are required,
ABAQUS/CAE displays a text field in the prompt area for you to fill in; usually the text box will
already contain a default value, as shown here:

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Position your cursor over the canvas, and enter data into the text field as follows:

· To accept the default value, press either [Enter] or mouse button 2.

· To replace the default value, simply begin typing; you need not click the text field before typing.
The default value disappears as soon as you begin to type.

· To change a portion of the default value, first click the text field; then use the [Delete] key and the
other keys on your keyboard to change the value.

· To commit any changes, press [Enter] or mouse button 2.

Some procedures require you to choose from a number of options. For example, the Datum toolset may
ask you to choose a coordinate system type. Such options are represented by buttons in the prompt
area, as shown here:

Click the appropriate button to select the desired option.


In some procedures a default option is indicated by a border around the corresponding button; in the
above example the border is drawn around the Rectangular button. To select the default option, click
mouse button 2.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2

6.2.3 Using the More Options button


When you create objects such as loads, initial conditions, and interactions, ABAQUS/CAE often
instructs you to enter data directly in the prompt area. In some cases a More Options button appears
on the far right of the prompt area, as shown below:

If you click More Options, an editor appears that provides you with more options for defining the
object than are available in the prompt area. For example, when you edit a translational velocity initial
condition, a Velocity (V1,V2,V3) text field appears in the prompt area (see the figure above); in this
text field you can enter the three components of the initial velocity. Alternatively, if you click More
Options, the following editor appears:

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As in the prompt area, this editor allows you to enter the initial translational velocity in the 1-, 2-, and
3-directions. In addition, the editor allows you to edit the region to which the initial condition applies.
When you define this type of initial condition in the prompt area instead of using the editor, you must
accept the currently defined region.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2

6.2.4 Using mouse shortcuts with procedures


Mouse shortcuts are available for many of the actions that take place in the prompt area. To use the
shortcuts, first make sure that the cursor is in the drawing area of the main window.

· To commit the contents of any text field that appears in the prompt area, click mouse button 2.

· To accept any default option depicted by a highlighted button in the prompt area, click mouse
button 2.

· To reveal a menu containing options identical to those in the prompt area, press and hold mouse
button 3. For example, given the following prompt:

pressing mouse button 3 will reveal the following menu:

Items above the horizontal line correspond to the option buttons on the right side of the prompt
area, while items below the line correspond to the Previous Step and Cancel buttons.
To select an item from the menu, hold down mouse button 3 while dragging the cursor to the

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desired item; then release mouse button 3.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2

6.3 Interacting with dialog boxes


This section explains how to use the various dialog box components that appear within
ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered:

· ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1

· ``Using dimmed dialog box and toolbox components, '' Section 6.3.2

· ``Understanding the OK, Apply, Defaults, Continue, Cancel, and Dismiss buttons, '' Section 6.3.3

· ``Using dialog boxes separated by tabs,'' Section 6.3.4

· ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5

· ``Customizing fonts,'' Section 6.3.6

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``Selecting multiple items in lists,'' Section 6.3.8

· ``Using keyboard shortcuts,'' Section 6.3.9

6.3.1 Using basic dialog box components


The following types of components are present in dialog boxes throughout ABAQUS/CAE:

Text and numeric fields


Text fields are areas in dialog boxes in which you can enter information. For example, when
you save a display group, you must enter its name in the text field shown below:

Text fields are available whenever you need to name an object, such as a part, material, or set.
Object names must adhere to the following rules:

· The name can have up to 38 characters.

· The name can include spaces and most punctuation marks and special characters.

· The name must not begin with a number.

· The name must not begin or end with an underscore or a space.

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· The name must not contain a period or a double quotes.

However, when you are naming a model or job you cannot use the following characters:
$&*~!()[]{}|;'`",.?/\. Similarly, when you are specifying a name that will be
external to ABAQUS/CAE, such as a file name, you should avoid any character that may have
a reserved meaning on your platform.
ABAQUS/CAE retains the case of any text you enter. For example, if you name a material
STEEL in the Property module, the material will appear as STEEL in the material manager
and the section editor. However, within ABAQUS/CAE, ABAQUS/Standard, and
ABAQUS/Explicit all text is case insensitive; you cannot use case to distinguish between
objects such as parts and materials. If you create a material called STEEL in the Property
module, you cannot create a second material called Steel.
Numeric fields are text fields having two opposing arrows directly to the right of the text area.
You can enter a numeric value into the text field, or you can use the arrows to cycle up and
down through a list of fixed values.

Combo boxes
Combo boxes are text fields having an arrow directly to the right of the text area. If you click
this arrow, a list of the possible choices that you can enter in the field appears. For example, if
you click the arrow to the right of the Color text field shown below, a list of all the possible
colors you can enter in the field appears, and you can select the color of your choice from the
list.

Radio buttons
Radio buttons present a mutually exclusive choice. When an option is controlled by radio
buttons, you can choose only one of the buttons at a time.

Check boxes
You can toggle a check box to turn a particular option off or on.
For example, the visibility of the triad in the current viewport depends on the status of the
Show triad check box. If the box is toggled on, as shown below, the triad appears in the
viewport.

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If the box is toggled off, as shown below, the triad does not appear in the viewport.

In some cases the option controlled by a check box can apply to more than one object. For
example, a single Show line check box on the XY Curve Options dialog box individually
controls the display of all X-Y curve lines in an X-Y plot. If you have toggled Show line on for
some curves and off for others, that check box appears half-highlighted, as shown below.

Menu buttons
When you click a menu button, a menu appears from which you can select the item of your
choice. The current selection appears on the button. The Labels menu button is shown below:

Scroll bars
Scroll bars appear in lists whose contents are too big to display; they allow you to scroll
through the visible contents of the list as well as any contents that are hidden. Scrolling is
often necessary when the numerous items must be listed, as shown below.

Sliders
Sliders allow you to set the value of an option that has a continuous range of possible values.
An example of a slider is shown below.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.2 Using dimmed dialog box and toolbox components


Some objects in dialog boxes and toolboxes are available only under certain circumstances. When an

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object is unavailable, it appears dimmed in the dialog box. Items are usually dimmed as a result of
some other setting in the dialog box. For example, if Show triad is not selected, the triad
customization options below it are not available and appear dimmed, as shown below.

Context-sensitive help is available even for dimmed options, although tooltips are not.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.3 Understanding the OK, Apply, Defaults, Continue, Cancel,


and Dismiss buttons
Note: If you have reached this section through the context-sensitive help system and are actually
looking for help on some feature of a dialog box, then you must request help on that item directly.
To request help on an item, select Help->On Context from the main menu bar and click the item
of interest.

When you are finished working with a dialog box, you can specify how to proceed by using different
action buttons. For example, if you enter data in a dialog box, you can save the data and apply them by
clicking OK. If the dialog box is part of an intermediate step of a procedure, you can click Continue to
move on to the next step.
The following action buttons can appear in a dialog box:

OK
Click OK to commit the current contents of a dialog box and to close the dialog box.

Apply
When you click Apply, any changes you have made in the dialog box take effect, but the
dialog box remains displayed. This button is useful if you make changes in a dialog box and
would like to see the effects of these changes before closing the dialog box.

Defaults
If you want to revert back to the predefined default values after entering data or specifying
preferences in a dialog box, you can click Defaults. This button affects only the information
entered in the dialog box. It does not apply your changes or close the dialog box; therefore, to
see the effect of reverting to the default values, you must click Apply or OK.

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Cancel
Click Cancel to close a dialog box without applying any of the changes that you made. If the
dialog box appears in the middle of a procedure, clicking Cancel also cancels the procedure.

Continue
Dialog boxes that appear in the middle of a procedure contain Continue buttons. When you
click Continue, you indicate that you have finished entering data in the current dialog box and
would like to move on to the next step of the procedure. Continue causes the dialog box to be
closed and all data in it to be saved unless you click Cancel at some point later in the
procedure.

Dismiss
Dismiss buttons appear in dialog boxes that contain data that you cannot modify. For
example, some managers contain lists of objects that exist but no fields in which you can enter
data or specify preferences. Dismiss buttons also appear in message dialog boxes. When you
click Dismiss, the dialog box closes.

To close a toolbox or a dialog box that does not have a Cancel or Dismiss button, double-click the
close button in the upper left corner of the toolbox or dialog box.
Note: On Windows NT systems you click the close button in the upper right corner of the toolbox
or dialog box.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.4 Using dialog boxes separated by tabs


For the sake of organization and convenience, some dialog boxes are separated by tabs. Only one
dialog box is visible at a time. To view a particular dialog box, click its labeled tab.
For example, Figure 6-1 displays the Undeformed Plot Options dialog boxes.

Figure 6-1 Dialog boxes separated by tabs.

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If you click the Color & Style tab, the dialog box containing the color and edge attributes options
comes forward, obscuring the other four dialog boxes, as shown in Figure 6-2.

Figure 6-2 Using tabs to display particular dialog boxes.

In addition, separated dialog boxes can exist within a single dialog box. In this case the tabs of the
separated dialog boxes are aligned vertically but work the same way as tabs aligned horizontally. In
Figure 6-3 the Other dialog box contains two dialog boxes separated by tabs: Scaling and

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Translucency.

Figure 6-3 Dialog box containing additional dialog boxes.

The action buttons in a dialog box apply to the whole set of dialog boxes, not just the one you are
currently viewing. If you click Cancel, all of the unapplied changes you have made in the set of dialog
boxes are canceled, not just those in the current dialog box. Likewise, clicking OK saves all changes
that you have made in any of the dialog boxes.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.5 Entering tabular data


Some operations require the entry of tabular data. For example, the XY Data toolset can produce plots
of data that you enter in the dialog box shown in Figure 6-4.

Figure 6-4 X-Y data table.

Data tables are composed of input boxes, or cells, organized into rows and columns. You can type data

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into a table using the keyboard or you can read data in from a file.
The following list describes techniques for entering and modifying tabular data:

Entering data
Click any cell, and type the required data. You can press [Enter] to commit the data in a
particular cell.
ABAQUS/CAE does not allow you to enter character data in tables requiring numeric data; the
program beeps if you attempt to enter character data in a numeric field. (The letter E that
denotes scientific notation, as in 12. E6, is an exception to this rule.)

Adding new rows


Use the menu that appears when you click the third mouse button to add a new row before or
after an existing row. Click the third mouse button while holding the cursor over the row of
interest; then select the item of your choice from the menu that appears:

· Select Add Row Before to add a blank row above the current row.

· Select Add Row After to add a blank row below the current row.

Alternatively, you can add a blank row to the end of the table by clicking the cell in the last
row and in the last column of the table and then pressing [Enter].

Reading data from a file


You can enter data by reading it in from an ASCII file. Data fields within the file can be
delimited by any combination of spaces, tabs, or commas. To enter data from a file, click
mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the target cell; then select Read From File from
the menu that appears. The Read Data from ASCII File dialog box appears. In this dialog box,
specify the following:

· In the File text field, enter the name of the file to read.

· Specify the row number and column number of the target cell in the Start reading values
into table row and Start reading values into table column fields, respectively. (By
default, ABAQUS sets these fields to the cell your cursor was over when you clicked
mouse button 3.)

Click OK. ABAQUS reads data values from the file into the table according to your
specifications.

Moving from cell to cell


Use the [Enter] key to move from left to right between the cells in a row. When you have
reached the end of the row, press [Enter] to move the cursor to the first cell in the following
row.
In addition, you can use a combination of the [Tab] key and the up and down arrow keys to

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move from cell to cell. Use [Tab] to move to the right and [Shift]+[Tab] to move to the left;
use the up and down arrows to move up and down. You can also simply click the cell of
interest.

Changing data
If a cell already contains data, clicking the cell allows you to use the [Backspace] key and the
other keys on your keyboard to modify the data in that cell. Use the [Escape] key to cancel any
changes you have made and return the contents of the cell to their original state.
After clicking the cell once, you can double-click to highlight the data; as soon as you begin
typing, the highlighted contents of the cell disappear and are replaced by whatever you type.
You can use the [Backspace] or [Delete] keys to delete highlighted data in a cell.

Cutting, copying, and pasting data


Use the menu that appears when you click mouse button 3 to cut, copy, and paste data from
one location in a table to another. You can cut or copy data in single cells, in rows or parts of
rows, in columns or parts of columns, and in series of consecutive rows or columns.
First, drag the mouse over the cells containing the data that you want to cut or copy. All of the
selected cells will become highlighted except the cell that you selected first. This cell becomes
highlighted when you move the cursor outside the data table window or if you click mouse
button 3.
Once you have selected the cells of interest, click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor
over the selection; then select either Cut or Copy from the menu that appears. To paste the
data, select the target cell, click mouse button 3, and select Paste from the menu that appears.

Sorting data
Some data tables offer a sorting feature. (To determine if sorting is available for a particular
table, hold the cursor over the table; then click mouse button 3. If it is available, Sort is listed
in the menu that appears.)
To sort table data, click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the table; then click
Sort. The Sort Table dialog box appears. In this dialog box, choose the following:

· In the Sort by text field, choose the column by which to sort.

· Choose Ascending or Descending sort order.

Click OK or Apply. ABAQUS sorts all rows according to data values in the specified column.

Expanding and contracting columns


You can change the size of the columns in some tables. To expand or contract a column, move
the cursor to the line that divides the headings of the columns you want to resize; a resize
cursor will appear. Drag this cursor to the left or right to resize the two columns on either side
of the dividing line.

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You can also resize the last column in some tables by horizontally enlarging the dialog box
that contains the table.

Viewing data that extend beyond the edge of the dialog box
Use the horizontal and vertical scroll bars to view portions of a table that are outside the
boundaries of the dialog box. In some cases scroll bars may not be available; instead, increase
the size of the dialog box to display more data.

Deleting rows of data


Click any cell within the row you want to delete, or select multiple cells in consecutive rows.
Then, while holding the cursor over the dialog box containing the table, click mouse button 3
and select Delete Rows from the menu that appears. The row or rows disappear; if the rows
are numbered, ABAQUS/CAE automatically renumbers the remaining rows.
You cannot delete rows from tables that display matrices or tensors of fixed size, such as those
used in the orthotropic or anisotropic elasticity data input forms in the Property module.

Creating X-Y data from table data


While you are creating a material in the Property module, you can use the data in a table to
create X-Y data. You can then use the Visualization module to plot the X-Y data and to visually
check its validity. To create an X-Y data object, click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor
over the table; then select Create XY Data from the menu that appears. The Create XY Data
dialog box appears. In this dialog box, do the following:

· Enter the name of the X-Y data to create.

· Specify the column number containing the X-values and the column number containing
the Y-values.

· Click OK. ABAQUS reads the data values from the table into the X-Y data.
ABAQUS/CAE retains saved X-Y data only for the duration of the session.

To view the X-Y data, do the following:

· From the module list on the context bar, select Visualization.

· From the main menu bar, select Tools->XY Data->Plot, and select the X-Y data from the
pull-right menu.

For more information, see Chapter 30, "X-Y plotting."

Clearing the table


You can delete all data from a table. While holding the cursor over the table, click mouse
button 3 and select Clear Table from the menu that appears. The table data disappear.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

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· ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.6 Customizing fonts


The Select Font dialog box, shown in Figure 6-5, allows you to customize the font of certain kinds of
text; for example, you can use this dialog box to customize the font that appears in viewport and
canvas annotations. A similar dialog box is used to customize the font of the Visualization module
labels and titles.

Figure 6-5 Customizing fonts.

The Select Font dialog box allows you to specify and preview the following:

· Proportional or fixed fonts.

· The font family.

· The font size, in points.

· Regular, bold, or italic font.

The available options vary depending on which fonts are installed on your system.
To customize viewport fonts:

1. Display the Select Font dialog box for the text that you want to customize. For more information,
see the following sections:

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· ``Editing canvas annotation color, line, and font attributes, '' Section 7.4.6

· Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations"

· ``Setting the label font,'' Section 37.6.1

2. Select the desired font and properties.


A preview of the selected font appears in the lower portion of the Select Font dialog box.

3. Click OK to accept your changes and to close the Select Font dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Editing canvas annotation color, line, and font attributes, '' Section 7.4.6

· Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations"

· ``Setting the label font,'' Section 37.6.1

6.3.7 Using file selection dialog boxes


File selection dialog boxes allow you to select files from lists that are filtered based on file type,
location, and name. To use a file selection dialog box, you first choose the type of file to open and
then specify the directory and file name pattern to list. ABAQUS/CAE refreshes the dialog box to list
only files that meet your criteria. From this list, you select the file to open.
The dialog box for selecting model databases or output databases is shown in Figure 6-6. The Filter
and Selection fields of the dialog box show the syntax on UNIX systems; on Windows NT systems
the slashes are reversed.

Figure 6-6 Selecting a model database or an output database.

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Similar file selection dialog boxes appear when you perform other File menu functions, such as
importing a part or printing to a file.
Use the following techniques to select the file of your choice:

Filtering the Files list according to file type


Some file selection dialog boxes contain File type fields, which allow you to select the file
extension of interest. For example, the File type selection in Figure 6-6 is Output
Database (*.odb). Therefore, only files with the extension .odb appear in the Files list
on the right side of the dialog box.

Specifying the directory from which to select a file


By default, the Filter field shows the directory in which you started ABAQUS/CAE. If you
want to view a list of files from a different directory, you can enter that directory in the Filter
field and then click Filter at the bottom of the dialog box.
Important: You must always enter a slash after the directory name.
Alternatively, you can select a directory from the Directories list and then click Filter.

Filtering the files in a directory according to file name


By default, ABAQUS/CAE lists all files of the selected type in the selected directory.
Alternatively, you can enter the file name pattern and extension of your choice after the
directory name in the Filter field and then click Filter at the bottom of the dialog box. For
example, if the Filter field reads /disk2/user1/models/c*.odb, ABAQUS/CAE lists
only those files beginning with the letter c and having the extension .odb.

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Selecting a file
To select and open a file, double-click the file name of interest from the list in the Files field.
Alternatively, you can enter the entire directory path and file name of interest directly in the
Selection field and then click OK.

6.3.8 Selecting multiple items in lists


In some ABAQUS/CAE dialog boxes it is necessary to select an item from a list before you can
perform certain functions. For example, if you want to plot X-Y data, you must first select the data
object of your choice from the list in the XY Data Manager, shown in Figure 6-7, and then click Plot.

Figure 6-7 Single item selected.

Some functions allow you to operate on more than one item. For example, if you wanted to delete the
first two data objects in the manager shown in Figure 6-7, you could select them both and then click
Delete.

To select a single item, you need only click that item in the dialog box. To select multiple items, you
can use the following techniques:

Selecting consecutive items from a list


Click the first item of interest and then, while continuing to hold down mouse button 1, drag
the cursor over the remaining items. Release the mouse button when all of the items of interest
are selected. For example, consecutive items are selected in Figure 6-8.

Figure 6-8 Consecutive items selected.

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Another way to select consecutive items is to click the first item of interest and then
[Shift]+Click the last item of interest. All items between the first and the last are selected
automatically.

Selecting nonconsecutive items from a list


Click the first item of interest and then [Ctrl]+Click any other items you want to select. For
example, nonconsecutive items are selected in Figure 6-9.

Figure 6-9 Nonconsecutive items selected.

Canceling a selection
You can [Ctrl]+Click previously selected items to remove them from your selection. For
example, if you [Ctrl]+Click Strain in the list shown in Figure 6-9, that data object is no
longer selected, as shown in Figure 6-10.

Figure 6-10 Individual item removed from selection.

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Certain functions in a dialog box may become unavailable when you select multiple items. For
example, the Edit, Copy, and Rename functions in the Data Manager shown in Figure 6-10 are valid
only for individual data objects. When you select multiple data objects, these three functions become
unavailable.

6.3.9 Using keyboard shortcuts


You can use the keyboard instead of the mouse to perform most actions within the ABAQUS/CAE
main window and dialog boxes. The following actions have keyboard shortcuts:

Context-sensitive help
Press [F1] to display context-sensitive help concerning the currently selected object in the
ABAQUS/CAE main window or dialog box. For more information on using [F1] for
context-sensitive help, see ``Displaying context-sensitive help,'' Section 5.6.1.

Menus
On UNIX systems you can display a particular menu by pressing the [Alt] key in combination
with the underlined character in that menu's name. For example, the letter C is underlined in
the Canvas menu in the main menu bar:

Therefore, you can type [Alt]+C to display the Canvas menu. The function of the [Alt] key on
Windows NT systems depends on your Exceed configuration settings.
You can also press F10 to select the menu bar and then use the arrow keys to select different
menus. When you have selected the menu of interest, press either [Enter], [Space], or the
down arrow key to display the contents of the menu. Click F10 again to deactivate the menu
bar.

Menu items
Once the menu is displayed, you can select a particular menu item by pressing the underlined
character in that menu item's name. For example, the letter T is underlined in Toolbox in the
Canvas menu:

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Therefore, you can type [Alt]+C to display the Canvas menu and then T to select Toolbox.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.4 Understanding and using toolboxes


This section explains how to use the toolbox windows to perform common functions within a module,
toolset, or on the canvas. The following topic is covered:

· ``What is a toolbox?,'' Section 6.4.1

· ``Using toolboxes that contain hidden icons, '' Section 6.4.2

6.4.1 What is a toolbox?


Toolboxes are collections of icons that provide quick access to commonly used ABAQUS/CAE
functions. For example, the visualization toolbox contains icons representing the tools used to generate
different kinds of plots, while the canvas toolbox contains icons for tools you use to create and
manipulate viewports and annotations on the canvas. The canvas and visualization toolboxes are
shown in Figure 6-11.

Figure 6-11 Canvas and visualization toolboxes.

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All module toolboxes are available immediately to the left of the drawing area as soon as you enter the
module. The canvas and view manipulation toolboxes behave differently; they appear in separate
dialog boxes, and you must select the appropriate menu items to display them: Canvas->Toolbox and
View->Views Toolbox , respectively.

In all cases the tools available from a toolbox are also available from the main menu bar. Toolboxes
are convenient when you are performing many related operations in sequence, whereas menus are more
convenient when you are performing only isolated operations. For example, the canvas toolbox is
useful if you are intricately annotating several viewports; conversely, selecting Canvas->Create
Viewport from the main menu may be more convenient than using the toolbox icon if you are creating
only a single viewport.
To obtain a short description of a tool, place the cursor over that tool for a moment; a small box
containing a description, or ``tooltip,'' will appear. Tooltips are not available for icons that appear
dimmed; to get information on those icons, use context-sensitive help instead.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Understanding and using toolboxes,'' Section 6.4

6.4.2 Using toolboxes that contain hidden icons


In some toolboxes, such as the canvas toolbox, all tool icons are immediately visible; however, most
toolboxes contain hidden icons to conserve space. Any icon that includes a small triangle in its lower
right corner conceals a group of icons whose function is closely related to that of the visible icon.

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To select tools whose icons are initially hidden:

1. Click and hold any icon that includes a triangle in its lower right corner.
Icons for all the tools that are closely related to the original icon appear. For example, Figure 6-12
shows the top portion of the Sketcher toolbox with all of the icons revealed that are used for
creating lines.

Figure 6-12 Sketcher toolbox with all line creation icons displayed.

2. Drag the cursor to the desired icon, and release the mouse button.
The selected icon replaces the icon that was visible originally, and you can begin using the
corresponding tool immediately.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Understanding and using toolboxes,'' Section 6.4

6.5 Managing objects


Managers are dialog boxes you use to manage all objects of a given type associated with the current
model; examples of such objects include materials, parts, and steps. In addition, you can use the Model
Manager to manage the models contained in the current model database. This section describes basic
and step-dependent managers and how you can use them in ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are
covered:

· ``What are basic managers?,'' Section 6.5.1

· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

· ``Understanding the status of an object in a step, '' Section 6.5.3

· ``Modifying the history of a step-dependent object,'' Section 6.5.4

· ``Understanding modified step-dependent objects, '' Section 6.5.5

· ``Managing objects using manager dialog boxes,'' Section 6.5.6

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· ``Managing objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7

· ``Changing the status of an object in a step,'' Section 6.5.8

· ``Editing step-dependent objects,'' Section 6.5.9

6.5.1 What are basic managers?


Basic managers consist of a list of objects and a series of buttons; you use the buttons to perform tasks
on the objects you select from the list or to add new objects to the list.
Figure 6-13 shows the Material Manager, which is an example of a basic manager used in
ABAQUS/CAE.

Figure 6-13 The Material Manager.

The list box on the left shows all the materials that you have defined within the context of the current
model. You use the buttons on the right to create new material definitions and to edit, copy, rename,
and delete existing material definitions. The Dismiss button is used to close the manager dialog box.
Often, the manager provides more information about an object than just its name; for example, in the
Job module, the Job Manager provides information about currently executing jobs and provides
buttons that allow you to write input files, submit jobs, monitor the analysis, or view output files for a
given job. The Job Manager is shown in Figure 6-14.

Figure 6-14 The Job Manager.

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Every task you can perform with a manager can also be performed using the pull-down menus
available from the main menu bar; for example, Figure 6-15 shows the menu items that correspond to

Figure 6-15 Menu items that correspond to the Job Manager.

the Job Manager. After you select a management operation from the main menu bar, the procedure is
exactly the same as if you had clicked the corresponding button inside the manager dialog box.
The decision whether to use menus or dialog boxes is yours. In general, menus are more convenient if
you are performing isolated operations; the advantages of manager dialog boxes become apparent
when you are performing several operations in sequence, when you need to browse through a long list
of objects, or when you need quick access to the additional information that is displayed by some
managers.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5

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· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.2 What are step-dependent managers?


Like basic managers, step-dependent managers contain a list of all of the objects of a certain type that
you have created. In addition, they contain Create, Edit, Copy, Rename, and Delete buttons that you
can use to manipulate existing objects and to create new ones.
However, the types of objects that appear in step-dependent managers are those that you can create
and, in some cases, modify and deactivate in particular analysis steps. Therefore, unlike basic
managers, step-dependent managers contain additional information concerning the history of each
object listed in the manager. Step-dependent managers display how these objects propagate from one
step to another during the course of an ABAQUS analysis. (For information on steps and multiple step
analyses, see ``Procedures: overview,'' Section 6.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the
ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.)
The following step-dependent managers exist in ABAQUS/CAE:

In the Load/BC/IC module:

· Load Manager

· Boundary Condition Manager

In the Interaction module:

· Interaction Manager

For example, the Load Manager is shown in Figure 6-16.

Figure 6-16 The Load Manager.

This manager displays an alphabetical list of existing loads along the left side of the dialog box. The

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names of all the steps in the analysis appear along the top of the dialog box in the order of execution.
The table formed by these two lists displays the status of each load in each step. (For information on
creating and deleting steps, see Chapter 17, "The Step module.")
If you click one of the cells in the table, that cell becomes highlighted, and the following information
related to the cell appears in the legend at the bottom of the manager:

· The type of analysis procedure carried out in the step in that column.

· The type of step-dependent object in that row.

You can resize the columns of the table by dragging the dividers between the column headings to the
right or left. You can also increase the size of the dialog box by dragging the sides of the box. If the
analysis includes many steps or many step-dependent objects, increasing the size of the dialog box
allows you to view more rows and columns without having to use the scroll bars.
The five buttons along the right side of the manager allow you to manipulate objects in the steps that
you select. For example, if you click Edit in the Load Manager shown above, an editor appears in
which you could modify the load named Force in Step-1. The other buttons-- Move Left, Move
Right, Activate, and Deactivate--allow you to change the status of an object in a particular step. For
more information, see ``Modifying the history of a step-dependent object,'' Section 6.5.4, ``Changing
the status of an object in a step, '' Section 6.5.8, and ``Editing step-dependent objects,'' Section 6.5.9.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

· ``Managing prescribed conditions,'' Section 19.3

· ``Managing interactions, interaction properties, and constraints, '' Section 18.6.1

6.5.3 Understanding the status of an object in a step


A model can contain a sequence of steps. When you create an object in an analysis step, that object
may or may not continue to be active in any of the following steps. The activity (or inactivity) of an
object in any particular step is called its ``status'' in that step.
For example, Figure 6-17 shows the status of a load in a series of general static analysis steps.

Figure 6-17 The analysis history of a load.

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The load in this example is created in Step 1; therefore, the status of the load in Step 1 is Created.
Since Step 1 is a general static step, the load's magnitude is ramped up over the course of the step. If
the load continues to be active in Step 2, its status in Step 2 is Propagated and its magnitude
remains constant throughout that step. If you edit the load in Step 3, its status in Step 3 becomes
Modified and its magnitude ramps to the new value over the course of the step. If the modified
version of the load continues to be active in Step 4, its status in Step 4 (as in Step 2) is Propagated
and the value is constant. If you deactivate the load in Step 5, its status in Step 5 is Inactive and its
magnitude ramps down to zero. The load remains inactive in Step 6.
ABAQUS/CAE uses the following general terms, which can apply to any step-dependent object, to
describe the status of step-dependent objects in a particular step:

Created
The object was created and becomes active in this step. The point in the step at which a
prescribed condition becomes active depends on the amplitude variation associated with that
step. For more information, see ``Prescribed conditions'' in ``Procedures: overview,'' Section
6.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.

Propagated
The object was created or modified in an earlier step of the analysis and continues to be active
in this step.

Modified
The definition of the object has been modified in this step. Again, the variation of a prescribed
condition over the course of the step depends on the amplitude variation associated with that
step.

Inactive
The object has been deactivated in this step or in a previous step. It will remain deactivated in
all subsequent steps until you reactivate it. You cannot deactivate an object in the step in
which it was created. The point in the step at which a prescribed condition becomes inactive
depends on the amplitude variation associated with that step. For more information, see
``Prescribed conditions'' in ``Procedures: overview,'' Section 6.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard
User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.)

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The following terms apply only in linear perturbation steps:

Built into base state


If the step is a linear perturbation step, any active load or interaction created in a preceding
general analysis step will be part of the base state and cannot be changed during the linear
perturbation step.

Propagated from base state


Boundary conditions that were created in a previous general step continue to be active in this
linear perturbation step.

Deactivated from base state


Boundary conditions that were created in a previous general step are deactivated in this linear
perturbation step. The deactivated state applies only to the linear perturbation step and does
not propagate to the remaining steps.

For information on linear perturbation steps, see ``Linear and nonlinear procedures,'' Section 6.1.2 of
the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.4 Modifying the history of a step-dependent object


You can modify the analysis history of an object by using the five buttons aligned along the right side
of the step-dependent manager: Edit, Move Left, Move Right, Activate, and Deactivate. (For
information on how to use these buttons, see ``Changing the status of an object in a step,'' Section
6.5.8.) The use of these buttons may be restricted depending on the nature of each step and the status
of the object in the steps.
The following list describes the rules for modifying the history of a step-dependent object:

Changing the step in which an object becomes active.


You can change the step in which an object becomes active by moving the Created status to
that step. You can move the Created status of an object to any previous general step, or you
can move the Created status to the following general step if its status in the following step is
Propagated.
For example, you could select the Created status of Load1 in the load manager table below.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5
Load1 Created Propagated Propagated Propagated
If you moved the Created status to Step 1, the table would change as shown below.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5
Load1 Created Propagated Propagated Propagated Propagated
If you moved the Created status to Step 3, the table would change as shown below.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

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Load1 Created Propagated Propagated


Note: If an object is created in a linear perturbation step, its Created status cannot be
moved.

Modifying an object
You can modify an object when its status is Propagated; the object's status in that step
changes to Modified.

Moving the modifications of an object to another step


You can transfer the modifications of an object to another step by moving the object's
modified status to that step. You can move the Modified status of an object to the previous
general step or to the following general step if the status of the object in those steps is
Propagated.
For example, you could select the Modified status of Load1 in the load manager table
below.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5
Load1 Created Propagated Modified Propagated
If you moved the Modified status to Step 3, the table would change as shown below.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5
Load1 Created Modified Propagated Propagated
If you moved the Modified status to Step 5, the table would change as shown below.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5
Load1 Created Propagated Propagated Modified

Deactivating an object
You can deactivate an object when its status is Propagated or Modified; the object's
status in that step and in any following steps changes to Inactive.
Warning: If you deactivate an object in a step in which its status is Modified, the
modifications to the object are lost. If you later reactivate the object in that step, the
original propagated version of the object becomes active in that step and in all
subsequent steps.

Reactivating an object
You can reactivate an object that has Inactive status; however, the Activate button is
available only in the step in which the object is first deactivated (for example, Step 3 in the
following table).
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5
Load1 Created Propagated Inactive Inactive Inactive
When you reactivate the load in the example above, its status in Step 3 and in all following
steps changes to Propagated.

The following rules apply to linear perturbation steps:

Deactivating a boundary condition whose status is Propagated from base state

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You can deactivate a boundary condition whose status is Propagated from base
state; the boundary condition's status in the linear perturbation step changes to
Deactivated from base state. The status Propagated from base state
cannot be moved to other steps.

Reactivating a boundary condition whose status is Deactivated from base state


You can reactivate a boundary condition whose status is Deactivated from base
state; the boundary condition's status in the linear perturbation step changes to
Propagated from base state. The status Propagated from base state
cannot be moved to other steps.

Objects whose status is Built into base state


The status Built into base state applies only to loads and interactions and cannot be
changed directly.

For information on linear perturbation steps, see ``Linear and nonlinear procedures,'' Section 6.1.2 of
the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.5 Understanding modified step-dependent objects


When you edit an object in the step in which it was created, you change the definition of the object in
all of the steps in which it is active. In some cases you can also edit an object in steps in which its
status is Propagated or Modified. In these cases the object's definition varies according to the
analysis step.
The effects of editing a step-dependent object are summarized below.

If the status of the object is Created in the selected step:

· Modifications that you make to the object in this step become effective in this step and
propagate through all subsequent steps in which the condition is active unless you modify the
object again in a later step.

· The status of the object remains Created in the selected step and also remains unchanged in
all subsequent steps. For more information, see ``Understanding the status of an object in a
step,'' Section 6.5.3.

If the status of the object is Propagated or Modified in the selected step:

· Modifications that you make to the object in this step become effective in this step and
propagate through all subsequent steps in which the condition is active.

· The status of the object becomes (or remains) Modified in this step and remains unchanged

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in all other steps. (In other words, if the status of the object in the following step was
Propagated before modification, its status in the following step remains Propagated
after modification.) For example, the load applied over a sequence of general static analysis
steps in Figure 6-17 has been modified in Step 3; the modifications remain in effect in Step 4
even though the status in Steps 4 is Propagated. For more information, see ``Understanding
the status of an object in a step, '' Section 6.5.3.

· When you modify the data in a Load/BC/IC module editor, ABAQUS/CAE indicates in the
editor which data have been modified. These indications disappear if you change the data in
the editor back to their original values.

In some cases you cannot edit a particular aspect of an object's definition because it must be consistent
for the analysis to proceed correctly. For example, although you can modify the magnitude of a load in
any analysis step, you cannot modify the region to which the load is applied. The areas in an editor that
specify this kind of restricted data are unavailable in all steps except the one in which the object was
created.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.6 Managing objects using manager dialog boxes


ABAQUS/CAE provides you with a set of managers that list all the objects defined in the current
model such as parts, stand-alone sketches, materials, sections, and steps. In addition, the Model
Manager lists all the models defined in the current model database.

Note: For more information on specific managers and where they are located, see the
documentation for the particular module you are interested in.
Use the buttons in the manager's dialog box to manage the list of objects.
To manage objects:

1. To display a manager, do one of the following:

· To start a manager associated with a module, select Manager from the appropriate menu on
the main menu bar. For example, to start the Section Manager while you are working in the
Property module, select Section->Manager from the main menu bar.

· To start a manager associated with a toolset, select Tools->Toolset->Manager from the main
menu bar. For example, to start the Set Manager, select Tools->Set->Manager from the main
menu bar.

· To start the Model Manager, select Model->Manager from the main menu bar.

The manager appears and displays a list of objects in the current model. The list contains the name
of each object and, in some cases, information about each object. For example, the Part Manager

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lists the name of each part, its type, and the modeling space in which it was created.

2. To manage an existing object, select the object or objects of interest from the list in the manager an
then click the appropriate button. (For example, to delete an object, select that object's name from
the list and then click Delete.)
In most cases a dialog box appears; for example, when you click Rename, the dialog box asks for
the new name of the selected object.

3. If a dialog box appears, provide the requested information.

4. Click Dismiss to close the manager.

Tip: You can also use the menus in the main menu bar to manage objects. For more information,
see ``Managing objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Managing objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7

6.5.7 Managing objects using manager menus


Like managers, pull-down menus from the main menu bar allow you to manage all the objects defined
in the current model.
To manage objects using menus:

1. From the main menu bar, select one of the following:

· To manage objects associated with a module, select the manager menu items in the appropriate
menu in the main menu bar. For example, to edit a material in the Property module you would
select Material->Edit->material of your choice from the main menu bar.

· To manage objects associated with a toolset, select the appropriate manager menu items in the
Tools menu. For example, to delete a set you would select Tools->Set->Delete->set of your
choice from the main menu bar.

· To manage all the models defined in the current model database, select the manager menu
items in the Model menu in the main menu bar. For example, to copy a model you would
select Model->Copy->model of your choice from the main menu bar.

In most cases a dialog box appears; for example, when you rename an object, a dialog box appears
that asks for the new name of the object.

2. If a dialog box appears, provide the requested information.

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Tip: You can also use manager dialog boxes to manage objects. For more information, see ``What
are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Managing objects using manager dialog boxes,'' Section 6.5.6

6.5.8 Changing the status of an object in a step


Step-dependent managers contain buttons that you can use, under certain circumstances, to alter the
status of an object in a particular step. These buttons are labeled Move Left, Move Right, Activate,
and Deactivate.
Whether or not you can change the status of an object in a step depends on the step's procedure and the
object's status in the step. The manager allows you to make only valid changes to the history of an
object. If the operation of one of the buttons would cause an invalid change in status, that button
becomes unavailable. For more information, see ``Modifying the history of a step-dependent object,''
Section 6.5.4.
The following list describes techniques for manipulating the status of a step-dependent object:

To select the status that you want to change:


Click in the cell that is located in the row of the object of interest and in the column of the step
of interest.
The status of the object in that step becomes highlighted, and, in most cases, some or all of the
buttons on the right side of the dialog box become available. The availability of the buttons
depends on the status of the object in the current step, in the preceding step, and in the
following step.
For example, the Created status of Pressure in Step-3 is selected in the figure below:

Use the buttons that become available to manipulate the status of the object in the step that
you have chosen, as described below.

To move the status in the selected step to the preceding step:


Click Move Left to move the highlighted status from the selected to the preceding step.

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For example, the Created status of Pressure in Step-3 is selected in the history shown
above. If you clicked Move Left, the history would change as shown below:

The Created status of Pressure moves to Step-2 and is replaced by Propagated in


Step-3.

To move the status in the selected step to the following step:


Click Move Right to move the highlighted status from the selected step to the following step.
In the history shown below, for example, the Modified status of Pressure in Step-5 is
selected.

If you clicked Move Right, the history would change as shown below:

The Modified status of Pressure moves to Step-6 (indicating that the modifications to
Pressure become effective in Step-6), and Modified is replaced by Propagated in
Step-5.

To deactivate the object in the selected step:


Click Deactivate to deactivate the object in the selected step.
In the history shown below, for example, the Propagated status of Pressure in Step-4 is
selected.

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If you clicked Deactivate, the history would change as shown below:

The Propagated status of Pressure in Step-4 changes to Inactive, and the status in
all subsequent steps becomes Inactive.
Warning: If you deactivate an object in a step in which its status is Modified, the
modifications to the object are lost. If you later reactivate the object in that step, the
original, unmodified version of the object becomes active in that step and in all
subsequent steps.

To reactivate the object in the selected step:


Click Activate to reactivate the object in the selected step.
In the history shown above, for example, the Inactive status of Pressure in Step-4 is
selected. If you clicked Activate, the history would change as shown below:

The Inactivated status of Pressure changes to Propagated in Step-4 and in any


following steps.
Note: The Activate button is available only in the step in which an object is first
deactivated.

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For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.9 Editing step-dependent objects


You can use either menus or managers to edit step-dependent objects in a particular step. (For
information about the status of modified objects, see ``Understanding modified step-dependent
objects,'' Section 6.5.5.)
To edit step-dependent objects using menus:

1. In the Step list located under the toolbar, click the step of your choice.
The step that you select becomes the current step.

2. From the main menu bar, select Edit->object of your choice from the appropriate menu. For
example, if you want to edit a load in the Load/BC/IC module, select Load->Edit->load of your
choice.

The region to which the object is applied becomes highlighted in the current viewport.
Either an editor appears or you are prompted to enter data in the prompt area, depending on the
object you are editing. In some cases when you are prompted to enter data in the prompt area, you
can also click More Options to display an editor.

3. In the prompt area or in the editor, modify the object definition as desired.

4. If you are using an editor, click OK to save your changes. If you are using the prompt area, click
the mouse button 2 to save your changes.

To edit step-dependent objects using managers:

1. In the load, boundary condition, or interaction manager, double-click the cell located in the row of
the object that you want to modify and in the column of the step of interest.
Note: Alternatively, you can click the cell located in the row of the object that you want to modify and in the column of the
step of interest and then click Edit.

The current step automatically changes to the analysis step whose column you clicked.
The appropriate editor appears. The region to which the object is applied becomes highlighted in
the current viewport.

2. In the editor, modify the object definition as desired and click OK.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

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· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

· ``Understanding modified step-dependent objects, '' Section 6.5.5

· ``Understanding symbols that represent prescribed conditions, '' Section 19.5

· ``Editing the region to which a prescribed condition is applied, '' Section 19.7.19

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7. Managing objects on the canvas


The canvas can be thought of as an infinite screen or bulletin board on which you post objects; you can
imagine the canvas extending beyond the main window and your monitor. The visible portion of the
canvas is called the drawing area, and you can increase its size by increasing the size of the main
window.
There are three kinds of objects that are displayed on the canvas: viewports, text annotations, and
arrow annotations. You can position these objects anywhere on the canvas, and you can drag them
outside the drawing area. When canvas objects are positioned outside the drawing area,
ABAQUS/CAE displays scroll bars to help you move around the canvas and view them. Canvas
objects are not part of a model and are not saved between sessions.
This chapter explains how to create, manipulate, and work with canvas objects. The following topics
are covered:

· ``Understanding canvas objects,'' Section 7.1

· ``Manipulating canvas objects,'' Section 7.2

· ``Working with viewports,'' Section 7.3

· ``Working with canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4

7.1 Understanding canvas objects


A canvas object is defined as either a viewport or an annotation, and you can create and manipulate
canvas objects using either the Canvas menu or the Canvas toolbox.The following sections describe
the canvas objects in more detail:

· ``What is a viewport?,'' Section 7.1.1

· ``What is a canvas annotation?,'' Section 7.1.2

7.1.1 What is a viewport?


Viewports are areas on the canvas where you can display models or analysis results. You can easily
create and delete viewports and control their size, position, and appearance. Figure 7-1 illustrates how
you might use several viewports to view the results from your analysis.

Figure 7-1 Working with multiple viewports.

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While the canvas can be thought of as an infinite screen or bulletin board, viewports are simply display
areas posted onto that screen. You can have many viewports on the canvas. A viewport is similar to
other windows on your workstation in that it can be moved, resized, and maximized, and it can overlap
other objects on the canvas. For more information, see ``Working with viewports,'' Section 7.3.
Viewport decorations consist of the border around the viewport and the title bar across the top of the
viewport. You can display or suppress viewport decorations.
The view manipulation tools, such as zoom and rotate, operate on whichever viewport contains the
cursor. Other operations interact with two particular viewports: the selected viewport and the current
viewport.

The selected viewport


Before you can change the geometry or location of a viewport, you must first select it by
clicking anywhere along its border. After you select a viewport, eight small squares known as
handles appear along its border; you can drag these handles to resize the viewport. You can
move the viewport by clicking anywhere on its border and dragging it. To unselect the
viewport, click any unused portion of the drawing area.

The current viewport


To change the contents of a viewport, you must first designate the desired viewport as current
using Canvas->Make Viewport Current or by double-clicking the viewport border. After you
make this designation, a red border surrounds the viewport to indicate that it is current. All
work then takes place within the current viewport.

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All viewports are associated with a certain model and module. When you create a new model
or open an existing model or output database, that model becomes associated with whichever
viewport is presently designated as current. You can create different viewports and associate
each one with a different model, so designating each viewport as current results in switching
between the associated models. Similarly, you can work with multiple modules simultaneously
by designating a new viewport as current before starting a different module.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1

7.1.2 What is a canvas annotation?


Canvas annotations are text strings and arrows that you create and position on the canvas to enhance
the appearance and clarity of displayed results. Typically, they are used to annotate the contents of a
viewport. Although you can position canvas annotations so that they appear to lie within a viewport,
their location is associated only with the canvas. Moving a viewport will have no affect on the location
of a canvas annotation.
Figure 7-2 shows the use of text annotations and arrows to describe details of a model.

Figure 7-2 Text and arrow annotations.

Annotation attributes--color, line style, line thickness, and text font--can be modified from either the
Canvas menu or the Canvas toolbox.

Do not confuse canvas annotations (text and arrows) with viewport annotations. Viewport annotations
include the view orientation triad and, in the Visualization module, the legend, the title block, and the
state block. For more information, see Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations."

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Working with canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4

· ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1

· ``Working with viewports,'' Section 7.3

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7.2 Manipulating canvas objects


This section explains how to manipulate canvas objects using the options provided in either the
Canvas menu or the Canvas toolbox. The following topics are covered:

· ``Managing canvas objects from the main menu bar,'' Section 7.2.1

· ``Managing canvas objects from the Canvas toolbox,'' Section 7.2.2

· ``Moving canvas objects to the front or the back, '' Section 7.2.3

· ``Deleting selected canvas objects,'' Section 7.2.4

7.2.1 Managing canvas objects from the main menu bar


Use the Canvas menu, located on the main menu bar, to create, delete, modify, or rearrange canvas
objects. If you prefer, you can select Canvas->Toolbox from the main menu bar to display a toolbox
containing all the functionality of the items in the Canvas menu.
The Canvas menu and toolbox allow you to do the following:

· Create a viewport

· Edit viewport annotation attributes (triad, legend, title block, and state block)

· Make the selected viewport current

· Show or hide the decorations (title and border) of selected viewports

· Create a text annotation

· Create an arrow annotation

· Edit canvas annotation attributes (text and arrows)

· Move selected canvas objects to the front or the back of the canvas

· Delete selected canvas objects

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.2.2 Managing canvas objects from the Canvas toolbox


To open the Canvas toolbox, select Canvas->Toolbox from the main menu bar. Figure 7-3 describes
the tools available from the Canvas toolbox.

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Figure 7-3 The Canvas toolbox.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.2.3 Moving canvas objects to the front or the back


If you have several viewports and annotations on the canvas, you may want to rearrange them to view
or hide particular objects. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Bring to Front to move selected
objects to the front of the canvas so that they obscure other objects. Select Canvas->Send to Back to
send selected objects to the back of the canvas so that they are hidden by other objects.
If no objects are selected or if there is only one object on the canvas, the Bring to Front and Send to
Back menu items are unavailable. If you send the current viewport to the back, its select handles
remain visible. To remove the select handles, click the mouse anywhere on the canvas outside any
viewport.
To move objects to the front or the back of the canvas:

1. Select the first canvas object you wish to move.


Handles indicate the selected object.

2. To select additional canvas objects, [Shift]+Click each object.

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3. Do one of the following:

· From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Bring to Front to move the selected objects to the
front of the canvas.

· From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Send to Back to send the selected objects to the
back of the canvas.

ABAQUS/CAE moves the selected objects. If you selected more than one object, ABAQUS/CAE
retains the original layering of the selected objects.
Tip: You can also move selected objects to the front and back of the canvas by clicking

or in the Canvas toolbox.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.2.4 Deleting selected canvas objects


If you have several viewports and annotations, you may want to delete one or more. Select the canvas
objects, and select Canvas->Delete from the main menu bar to delete them.
Warning: Deleted canvas objects cannot be recovered.

The canvas must always contain at least one viewport. As a result, if the canvas contains only one
viewport, you cannot delete the viewport. In addition, if no canvas objects are selected, the Delete
menu item is unavailable.
To delete selected canvas objects:

1. Select the first canvas object you want to delete. For more information, see ``Selecting viewports,''
Section 7.3.2, and ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4.
Handles indicate the selected object.

2. To select additional canvas objects, [Shift]+Click each object.

3. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Delete to delete the selected objects.
ABAQUS/CAE deletes the selected objects from the canvas.

Tip: You can also delete selected canvas objects by clicking in the Canvas toolbox.

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In addition, you can delete a viewport by clicking the delete button located in the top right
corner, next to the viewport title. For more information, see ``Deleting a viewport,'' Section
7.3.7.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3 Working with viewports


This section explains how to create and manage viewports and how to modify their appearance. The
following topics are covered:

· ``Creating new viewports,'' Section 7.3.1

· ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

· ``Moving viewports,'' Section 7.3.3

· ``Resizing the selected viewport,'' Section 7.3.4

· ``Maximizing a viewport to fill the drawing area,'' Section 7.3.5

· ``Making the selected viewport current,'' Section 7.3.6

· ``Deleting a viewport,'' Section 7.3.7

· ``Showing and hiding the title of selected viewports, '' Section 7.3.8

· ``Showing and hiding viewport decorations,'' Section 7.3.9

7.3.1 Creating new viewports


You can create new viewports at any time; there is no limit to the number of viewports or their
position on the canvas.
To create a new viewport:

1. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Create Viewport .

The cursor changes to a cross-hair .

Tip: You can also create a new viewport by clicking in the Canvas toolbox.

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2. Position the cursor at one corner of the new viewport.

3. Drag the cursor across the drawing area to the opposite corner of the new viewport.
The new viewport appears and becomes the current viewport; a red border indicates the current
viewport.
The exact size and position of the new viewport is not critical because you can move and resize it
later to suit your needs.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3.2 Selecting viewports


Viewport operations, such as Delete and Make Viewport Current , require you to select one or more
viewports before you can continue. A selected viewport has eight handles around its border, as shown
in the following figure:

Click a viewport's border to select it.


To select a viewport:

1. Move the cursor near the border of the viewport.

The cursor changes to a box-in-box .

2. Click mouse button 1.


The viewport becomes the selected viewport, and its handles appear. If another viewport was
already selected, it becomes unselected and its handles disappear.

3. To select additional viewports, [Shift]+Click on their borders.

4. To unselect an individual viewport, [Control]+Click on its border.

5. To unselect all selected viewports, click an unused portion of the drawing area.

Note: Do not confuse the selected viewport with the current viewport. The current viewport is

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indicated by a red borderand is associated with a particular model and module . Conversely, the
selected viewport is affected by viewport management and manipulation actions, such as moving,
resizing, or deleting.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3.3 Moving viewports


You can move a selected viewport to any location on the canvas. This may be necessary to expose
hidden viewports or simply to reduce clutter in the drawing area. To move a viewport, click anywhere
on the viewport border (except directly on a handle) and then drag it to the desired position.
To move a viewport:

1. Select the desired viewport.


Handles indicate the selected viewport.

2. Place the cursor anywhere on the viewport border except directly on a handle.

The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow .

3. Drag the cursor to the new location.


An outline of the viewport indicates its new position as you drag. While you are dragging the
viewport, the title box of the original viewport displays the new X- and Y-coordinates (in pixels) of
the upper left corner of the new viewport relative to the upper left corner of the drawing area.

4. Release mouse button 1.


The viewport moves to the new location, and the viewport title reappears in the title bar.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

· ``Moving and editing canvas annotations, '' Section 7.4.5

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3.4 Resizing the selected viewport


You can change the size and shape of the selected viewport by dragging one of its handles.

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To resize the selected viewport:

1. Select the desired viewport.


Handles indicate the selected viewport.

2. Resize the viewport by dragging one of its handles; an outline of the viewport shows the new
shape. You can do one of the following:

· Drag one of the four handles located at each corner of the viewport. You can drag these
handles in any direction--vertically, horizontally, or diagonally.

· Drag the handle on either the top or the bottom border of the viewport. You can drag these
handles only vertically.

· Drag the handle on either the left or the right border of the viewport. You can drag these
handles only horizontally.

While you are dragging a handle, the title box of the original viewport displays the distance
between the upper left corner of the new viewport and the upper left corner of the drawing area.
The distance is displayed in units of horizontal ( X) and vertical (Y) screen pixels.

3. Release mouse button 1.


The viewport is displayed with the dimensions you have chosen, and the viewport title reappears
in the title bar.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

· ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

7.3.5 Maximizing a viewport to fill the drawing area


Maximize and delete buttons are located in the top right corner of each viewport, next to the viewport
title, as shown in the following figure:

If necessary, use the scroll bars at the edge of the drawing area to reveal the viewport's maximize and
delete buttons.

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When you click the maximize button, the viewport changes size and position to fill the drawing area.
In addition, the viewport covers any other viewports that were originally visible in the drawing area.

To maximize the current viewport, you can also click the maximize tool in the Canvas toolbox
or select Canvas->Maximize Current Viewport from the main menu bar.
After you have maximized a viewport to fill the drawing area, you can click this button again to restore
the viewport to its previous size and position. To restore the current viewport, you can also click the

restore tool in the Canvas toolbox or select Canvas->Restore Current Viewport from the
main menu bar.
If the viewport title is hidden, the maximize button is also hidden. However, you can still use the
Canvas menu items or the tools in the toolbox to perform the same functions as the maximize button.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Working with viewports,'' Section 7.3

7.3.6 Making the selected viewport current


Most of your interactions with the model, such as sketching a part, positioning a load, assembling part
instances, and generating a mesh, take place through the current viewport. In addition, if you have
multiple viewports displayed on the canvas, the current viewport indicates the model you are working
on (the current model) and the module you are working in (the current module). The current viewport
is indicated by a red border, while the selected viewport is indicated by handles on its border.
To make the selected viewport current:

1. Select the desired viewport.


Handles indicate the selected viewport.

2. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Make Viewport Current .


A red border indicates the current viewport.
Tip: You can make any viewport current by double-clicking the viewport border or title bar.

You can also make a selected viewport current by clicking in the Canvas toolbox.

Only one viewport can be the current viewport; if more than one viewport is selected, the Make
Viewport Current menu item is unavailable.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

· ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

7.3.7 Deleting a viewport


Maximize and delete buttons are located in the top right corner of each viewport, next to the viewport
title, as shown in the following figure:

If necessary, use the scroll bars at the edge of the drawing area to reveal the viewport's maximize and
delete buttons.
If it is not the current viewport, ABAQUS/CAE deletes a viewport when you click its delete button. As
with any canvas object, you cannot restore a viewport once you have deleted it. If you try to use the
delete button to delete the current viewport (indicated by a red border), ABAQUS/CAE does the
following:

· If the current viewport is the only viewport on the canvas, ABAQUS/CAE does not allow you to
delete it.

· If you have created additional viewports on the canvas, ABAQUS/CAE deletes the current
viewport and selects one of the additional viewports to be the current viewport. You cannot
control which viewport ABAQUS/CAE selects to be current.

To delete a selected viewport, you can also click the delete tool in the Canvas toolbox or select
Canvas->Delete from the main menu bar. However, you must first select the viewport. If the viewport
decorations are hidden, the viewport title bar and the delete button are also hidden. However, you can
still use the Canvas menu items or the tools in the toolbox to perform the same functions as the delete
button.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

· ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

7.3.8 Showing and hiding the title of selected viewports

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By default, ABAQUS/CAE displays a title bar across the top of a viewport. The title bar contains the
viewport name and additional information to help you identify the context of the viewport. If the title
bar is not helpful, you can remove it to create additional screen space. You cannot show the viewport
title without also showing the viewport border.
To show and hide the title of selected viewports:

1. Select the desired viewport.


Handles indicate the selected viewport.

2. To select additional viewports, [Shift]+Click on their borders.

3. From the main menu bar, select either:

· Canvas->Show Viewport Title to show the title bar of the selected viewports.

· Canvas->Hide Viewport Title to hide the title bar of the selected viewports.

If no viewports are selected, the Show Viewport Title and Hide Viewport Title menu items are
unavailable.

Tip: You can also show and hide the titles of selected viewports by clicking and

in the Canvas toolbox.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3.9 Showing and hiding viewport decorations


Viewport decorations consist of the border around the viewport and the title bar across the top of the
viewport. By default, ABAQUS/CAE displays the decorations around a viewport. If the decorations
are not helpful, you can remove them and make use of the additional screen space. You cannot hide the
border of the current viewport.
To show and hide the decorations of selected viewports:

1. Select the desired viewport.


Handles indicate the selected viewport.

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2. To select additional viewports, [Shift]+Click on their borders.

3. From the main menu bar, select either:

· Canvas->Show Viewport Decorations to show the decorations of selected viewports.

· Canvas->Hide Viewport Decorations to hide the decorations of selected viewports.

If no viewports are selected or the selected viewport is also the current viewport, the Show
Viewport Decorations and Hide Viewport Decorations menu items are unavailable.

Tip: You can also show and hide the decorations of selected viewports by clicking and

in the Canvas toolbox.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4 Working with canvas annotations


This section explains how to create, modify, and manage canvas annotations. The following topics are
covered:

· ``Annotating the drawing area,'' Section 7.4.1

· ``Creating a text annotation,'' Section 7.4.2

· ``Creating an arrow annotation,'' Section 7.4.3

· ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4

· ``Moving and editing canvas annotations, '' Section 7.4.5

· ``Editing canvas annotation color, line, and font attributes, '' Section 7.4.6

· ``Copying and applying canvas annotation attributes,'' Section 7.4.7

7.4.1 Annotating the drawing area


ABAQUS/CAE provides two types of canvas annotations that you can use to annotate the drawing
area: text strings and arrows. You use the Canvas option from the main menu to create these
annotations, and you can position them anywhere on the canvas. The Canvas->Canvas Annotation
Options option from the main menu allows you to change the font, text size, line width, and other

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attributes of canvas annotations. Canvas annotations are not saved when you exit the ABAQUS/CAE
session.
Figure 7-4 shows text strings and arrows used to annotate a model.

Figure 7-4 Text and arrow annotations.

Text
Text annotations can consist of any characters that can be displayed using the fonts available
on your workstation. ABAQUS/CAE restricts each annotation to a single line of text.
However, you can place text anywhere on the drawing area, and you can move a text
annotation after you have created it. Different text annotations can be displayed using different
fonts, but you cannot change fonts in a single text annotation.

Arrows
You can create arrows anywhere in the drawing area; typically, an arrow will connect a text
annotation to a point within a viewport. Arrows can have one of several different thicknesses
and line styles and can be displayed in any color available on your workstation. You can
modify and move an arrow after you have created it.

For information about viewport annotations, which are annotations that ABAQUS/CAE creates
automatically within a viewport, see Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations."

7.4.2 Creating a text annotation


You can create a single line of text to annotate the contents of a viewport and place it anywhere on the
drawing area.
To create a text annotation:

1. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Create Text.


The cursor changes to a cross-hair.

Tip: You can also create a text annotation by clicking in the Canvas toolbox.

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2. Move the cross-hair to the desired position of the text annotation, and click mouse button 1. (Text
can be placed anywhere on the drawing area.)
A box appears; the contrasting color of the border indicates it is selected.

3. Type the desired line of text.


The width of the box automatically adjusts to the length of your text, but you cannot type on more
than one line.
When typing a text annotation, you can use standard mouse and keyboard editing techniques such
as backspace, copy, and paste.

4. To finish creating your text annotation, either:

· Press [Enter], or

· Click Done in the prompt area.

Tip: To edit an existing text annotation, click the text to select it. A box surrounds the text, and
you can position the cursor within the box and add or delete text. You can also move the selected
text annotation by dragging its handle to a new position on the canvas.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.3 Creating an arrow annotation


You can create an arrow to help annotate the contents of a viewport, and you can place the arrow
anywhere on the canvas. Typically, you would use an arrow to connect a text annotation and an object
within a viewport.
To create an arrow annotation:

1. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Create Arrow to create an arrow.
The cursor changes to a cross-hair.

Tip: You can also create an arrow by clicking in the Canvas toolbox.

2. Click the desired position of the arrow's tail and head, in that order.
The arrow appears in the desired location. You cannot reverse the direction of an arrow.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.4 Selecting canvas annotations


Most annotation operations require you to first select one or more annotations. To select a canvas
annotation, move the cursor close to the annotation and click mouse button 1 when the cursor changes

to a box-in-box: . A selected text annotation is surrounded by a box and has a handle to the left, as
shown in the following figure:

A selected arrow has handles at each end, as shown in the following figure:

If another annotation was already selected, it becomes unselected and its handles disappear. To select
additional annotations, [Shift]+Click instead of clicking. To unselect an annotation, [Ctrl]+Click the
annotation.
An additional method for selecting multiple annotations is to drag a rectangle around those
annotations; you can select viewports at the same time by including them in the rectangle. To select
multiple canvas objects your rectangle must begin in an unused portion of the drawing area and must
completely enclose the objects you want to select.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.5 Moving and editing canvas annotations


You can move a text or arrow annotation to any location on the canvas by selecting it and dragging it
to the desired location. To edit a text annotation, select the annotation and click in the surrounding
box.
To move or edit a canvas annotation:

1. Select the text or arrow.

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If you select a text annotation, a box surrounds the text with a handle at the left end; if you select
an arrow, handles appear at each end.

2. Do one of the following:

To move a text annotation:


Place the cursor on the handle and drag the cursor to the new location. The cursor changes

to a four-headed arrow while you move the text. You can drag the text anywhere on
the canvas, even outside the drawing area.

To edit a text annotation:


Click inside the box surrounding the text to position the cursor. Use standard keyboard
and mouse editing techniques to edit the text string.
The width of the box automatically adjusts to the length of the text annotation, but you
cannot type on more than one line. To create a multi-line text annotation, create and align
separate annotations. To finish editing, select another canvas object or click an unused
portion of the drawing area.

To move an arrow annotation:


Drag anywhere on the arrow shaft to move it around the canvas.

To change the length or orientation of an arrow annotation:


Drag one of the handles to lengthen, reduce, or reorient the arrow.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.6 Editing canvas annotation color, line, and font attributes


You can change the following attributes of selected canvas annotations:

· The color of the annotation.

· The font attributes of a text annotation.

· The line thickness and line style of an arrow annotation.

ABAQUS/CAE applies your customizations not only to the annotations you have selected but also to
any new annotations you subsequently create.

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You can also copy the attributes of a text annotation and apply those attributes to another text
annotation. Similarly, you can copy the attributes of an arrow annotation and apply those attributes to
another arrow annotation. For more information, see ``Copying and applying canvas annotation
attributes,'' Section 7.4.7.
To edit annotation attributes:

1. Click the annotation to select it.


Handles indicate the selected text or arrow.

2. [Shift]+Click to select additional annotations.

3. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Canvas Annotation Options.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Canvas Annotations dialog box.

Tip: You can also display the Canvas Annotations dialog box by clicking from the
Canvas toolbox.

4. From the Canvas Annotations dialog box, select the Text tab or the Arrow tab, and select the
desired color, line style, line thickness, or font attributes.

5. To close the Canvas Annotations dialog box, double-click the top left corner.
If you subsequently create a new annotation, ABAQUS/CAE displays it using the customized
properties.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.7 Copying and applying canvas annotation attributes


You can copy the attributes of a selected arrow and apply those same attributes to other arrow
annotations. Similarly, you can copy the attributes of a selected text annotation and apply those same
attributes to other text annotations.
To copy and apply annotation attributes:

1. Click the annotation whose attributes you want to copy.


Handles indicate the selected annotation.

2. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Canvas Annotation Options.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the Canvas Annotations dialog box.

Tip: You can also display the Canvas Annotations dialog box by clicking from the
Canvas toolbox.

3. From the Canvas Annotations dialog box, click Copy Options to copy the attributes of the
selected annotation.
If more than one annotation is selected, the Copy Options button is disabled.

4. Click the annotation to which you want to apply the attributes.


Handles indicate the selected annotation.

5. [Shift]+Click to select additional annotations.

6. From the Canvas Annotations dialog box, click Apply to Selection to apply the saved attributes
to the selected annotations.
The attributes of the selected annotations change.

7. To close the Canvas Annotations dialog box, double-click the top left corner.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4

· Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

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8. Manipulating the view and controlling


perspective
This chapter describes the view manipulation tools and the perspective tools, all of which are located
in the toolbar near the top of the main window. The view manipulation tools allow you to position,
orient, and magnify objects within any viewport. You can also select custom views such as front and
back, as well as define your own views. The perspective tools control whether ABAQUS/CAE
displays your model with or without perspective; using perspective gives a more realistic appearance
for three-dimensional models. The following topics are covered:

· ``Understanding the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1

· ``Customizing the view triad,'' Section 8.2

· ``Controlling perspective,'' Section 8.3

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.1 Understanding the view manipulation tools


This section describes basic concepts you should understand before using the view manipulation tools.
The following topics are covered:

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``The pan view tool,'' Section 8.1.2

· ``The rotate view tool,'' Section 8.1.3

· ``The magnify tool,'' Section 8.1.4

· ``The box zoom tool,'' Section 8.1.5

· ``The auto-fit tool,'' Section 8.1.6

· ``The cycle tool,'' Section 8.1.7

· ``Custom views,'' Section 8.1.8

· ``Numerically specifying a view,'' Section 8.1.9

8.1.1 An overview of the view manipulation tools


The position, orientation, and zoom factor combine to define the ``view'' of an object in the viewport.
Your view of the assembly, as well as each of your parts, is positioned relative to a default Cartesian
coordinate system, and the orientation of this default coordinate system within a viewport is indicated
by the view triad. By default, an isometric view is used when a module first displays a
three-dimensional part or an assembly.

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You can manipulate this view using the pan, rotate, magnify, box zoom, and auto-fit tools on the
toolbar. For example, you might want to pan and zoom a contour plot to view an area of stress
concentration. The view manipulation tools allow you to perform the following operations:

· Move the view horizontally and vertically; that is, pan the view.

· Rotate the view.

· Magnify or reduce the view.

· Zoom in to a selected area of the view.

· Rescale the view to fill the viewport; that is, auto-fit the view.

· Cycle through previous views.

· Use the Views toolbox to apply a predefined or user-defined view or to save a user-defined
view.

Clicking a view manipulation tool puts you into the corresponding view manipulation mode. You then
manipulate the view in a particular viewport by moving the cursor to that viewport and dragging or
clicking as necessary. To exit a view manipulation mode, do one of the following:

· Click mouse button 2.

· Click the cancel button in the prompt area.

· Click the view manipulation tool again.

· Click any other view manipulation tool.

You can use the view manipulation tools as many times as necessary to reach the desired view, and
you can perform the view manipulation in any viewport, regardless of what is being displayed.
ABAQUS/CAE stores the eight most recent views from each viewport, and you can use the cycle view
manipulation tool to cycle backward and forward through these views.
By default, ABAQUS/CAE displays the image using a simple wireframe representation while you
manipulate the view of an object, regardless of whether the current render style is wireframe, filled,
hidden line, or shaded. The image reverts to the original render style when you complete the
manipulation. You can control this behavior by setting the Drag Mode in the View Options dialog
box.
If you prefer to use menus rather than the tools on the toolbar, you can access all of the view
manipulation tools through the View menu on the main menu bar. In addition, you can apply
predefined and user-defined views using the Views toolbox, and you can numerically specify a precise

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view using the dialog box that appears when you select View->Specify from the main menu bar. For
more information on custom and numerically specified views, see ``Custom views,'' Section 8.1.8, and
``Numerically specifying a view,'' Section 8.1.9, respectively.
Alternatively, you can enter three of the view manipulation modes by using a combination of keyboard
and mouse actions.

· To rotate the view, press Ctrl+Alt, and hold down mouse button 1.

· To pan the view, press Ctrl+Alt, and hold down mouse button 2.

· To magnify or reduce the view, press Ctrl+Alt, and hold down mouse button 3.

To exit a view manipulation mode after using one of the preceding actions, simply release the mouse
button. You can customize the key configurations associated with these actions; for more information
see ``Customizing X resources,'' Section 6.1.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.1.2 The pan view tool

When you select the pan tool and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters pan
mode, as indicated by the cursor.
The position of your view of the model changes as you click and then drag the cursor, and a
rubberband line indicates the amount of translation. The initial location of the cursor is not important,
as long as you place it within the viewport. Cursor motion is limited only by the physical bounds of
your monitor, and panning will continue even if you move the cursor outside the viewport or window.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Panning the view,'' Section 8.4.1

8.1.3 The rotate view tool

When you select the rotate tool and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters rotate
mode. In this mode the cursor changes to a right facing arrow, and a large circle appears in the
viewport. Your view of the model rotates as you drag the cursor, and a rubberband line indicates the
amount and the direction of rotation. As you rotate your view of the model, the view triad indicates the
orientation of the global coordinate system.
The circle that is drawn when you enter rotate mode represents the silhouette of an imaginary sphere
that surrounds the object. When you drag the mouse inside the circle, you might imagine that you are

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actually rotating the sphere, as you would a trackball. Your model is attached to the center of the
sphere, so that rotating the sphere causes your view of the model to rotate as well.
You determine the axis of rotation as you move the cursor over the surface of the imaginary sphere.
The rubberband line represents the intersection of a cutting plane with the sphere's surface, and the
rotation axis is normal to this cutting plane. The angle of rotation is twice the angle made by the
rubberband line on the sphere's surface, so that dragging all the way across the circle produces a 360°
rotation. Figure 8-1 illustrates the imaginary sphere and a rubberband line being dragged across its
surface.

Figure 8-1 The rotate tool.

When you drag outside the circle, the rubberband line is superimposed on the circle, and your view of
the object simply rotates about an axis normal to the screen and passing through the center of the
circle. In this case the rubberband line directly represents the angle through which the object has
rotated.
It is usually easier to obtain a desired rotation by performing a sequence of smaller rotations rather
than one large one. If you need to abandon the rotation and return to a known orientation, use either

the predefined views in the Views toolbox or the cycle view tool .

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2

8.1.4 The magnify tool

When you select the magnify tool and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters
magnify mode, as indicated by the magnify cursor . When you drag the cursor to the right while in

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magnify mode, your view of the model expands within the viewport, and a rubberband line indicates
the relative magnification. Similarly, when you drag the cursor to the left, your view of the model
contracts, and a rubberband line indicates the relative reduction. The dragging action must start in the
viewport, but you can continue to drag within the limits of your monitor. You can also drag repeatedly
to achieve the desired view. The magnify tool recognizes only the horizontal component of your
dragging motion, as indicated by the rubberband line. Consequently, you can achieve finer control by
dragging diagonally across the screen, since this results in a smaller horizontal component of the
cursor's motion than dragging the same distance horizontally.

If you lose track of your position, you may want to use the auto-fit tool to rescale the view to fit
the viewport.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Magnifying or reducing the view,'' Section 8.4.3

8.1.5 The box zoom tool

When you select the box zoom tool and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters
box zoom mode, as indicated by a rectangular cursor with a small arrow in one corner. You use this
tool to select a rectangular area of your model; ABAQUS/CAE enlarges your view of the selected
portion of your model to fill the viewport.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Zooming in to a selected area of the view,'' Section 8.4.4

8.1.6 The auto-fit tool

Use the auto-fit tool from the toolbar to quickly adjust your view of the model so that the model
fills the viewport and is centered within it. When you fit a view, the orientation does not change, as
indicated by the view triad.
If you have only one viewport, auto-fitting occurs as soon as you click the auto-fit tool. If you have
more than one viewport, select the auto-fit tool and then place the cursor over the viewport you want to
rescale. The cursor changes; click, and ABAQUS/CAE auto-fits the view.
A separate option, Auto-fit after view rotations, is available when you select View->View Options
from the main menu bar. You use this option to control whether or not ABAQUS/CAE automatically
rescales the view to fit the viewport as you rotate. For more information on using this option, see
``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Rescaling the view to fit the viewport,'' Section 8.4.5

8.1.7 The cycle tool

When you select the cycle tool and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters cycle
mode, as indicated by a cursor in the form of a two-way arrow. You can cycle through the eight most
recent views in each viewport.
To cycle through previous views, click in the viewport whose view you want to change. To control the
direction of cycling, click Backward or Forward in the prompt area. The default is to cycle backward.
After you cycle backward to the oldest available view, continued clicking has no effect. Similarly, after
you cycle forward to the most recent view, continued clicking has no effect.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Cycling through views,'' Section 8.4.6

8.1.8 Custom views

When you select the view toolbox from the toolbar, ABAQUS/CAE displays the Views toolbox
that allows you to apply a custom view to the model in the selected viewport. (A view is the
combination of the position, orientation, and zoom factor of the model in the viewport.)
Custom views include seven predefined views (such as front and back) and up to four user-defined
views.

Predefined views
Predefined views are based on the six faces of an imaginary cube and an isometric view. The
view triad indicates the orientation of this imaginary cube within a viewport. Figure 8-2
illustrates the six predefined cube face views.

Figure 8-2 Predefined views.

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User-defined views
You can use the view manipulation tools to position your view of a model in a viewport and

then click in the Views toolbox to save the view as one of four user-defined views.
You can use this saved view to restore the object in the viewport to a known orientation, and
you can apply a saved view to other viewports. Saved views are not stored between sessions.
The view consists of three components: orientation, zoom factor, and position. You can
choose whether or not all three of these components are saved using the Scale & Position
options, as follows:
Auto-fit

When you save a view after choosing this option, only the orientation is saved. When
you apply a view saved with this option, the saved orientation is applied, but the zoom
factor and position are adjusted to make the view fit the viewport.
Save current

When you save a view after choosing this option, the orientation, the zoom factor, and
the position are all saved. When you apply a view saved with this option, the saved
orientation, zoom factor, and position are all applied to the object in the viewport. To
compare different objects in different viewports by placing the viewports side-by-side
and applying a known orientation, zoom factor, and position to each, choose the Save
current option.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Applying custom views,'' Section 8.4.7

· ``Saving a user-defined view,'' Section 8.4.8

8.1.9 Numerically specifying a view

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You can bypass the view manipulation tools and specify a particular view numerically. Specifying a
view is useful if you want to reproduce a particular view between ABAQUS/CAE sessions or if
numerically specifying a view is simpler and more convenient than applying a series of view
manipulations. You can use the following methods to specify your view:
Rotation Angles

Enter three angles (µ1 , µ2 , µ3 ) representing the angles through which your view of the model
rotates about the screen or model 1-, 2-, and 3-axes, respectively. Rotations are interpreted in
the order (µ1 , µ2 , µ3 ), and a positive angle represents a right-handed rotation about the axis.
You must choose one of the following modes to apply the rotation:

· Increment About Model Axes. When you choose Increment About Model Axes,
ABAQUS/CAE simply applies the rotation to the current view. Figure 8-3 shows the
result of applying an incremental model axes rotation of 90, 0, 0 from the isometric view.

Figure 8-3 Specifying an incremental model axes rotation angle.

· Increment About Screen Axes. The screen X-axis is horizontal, the Y-axis is vertical,
and the Z-axis is out of the screen. The origin of the screen axes is the center of the
viewport. When you choose Increment About Screen Axes, ABAQUS/CAE simply
applies the rotation to the current view. Figure 8-4 shows the result of applying an
incremental screen axes rotation of 90, 0, 0 from the isometric view.

Figure 8-4 Specifying an incremental screen axes rotation angle.

· Total Rotation From (0,0,1). When you choose Total Rotation From (0,0,1),

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ABAQUS/CAE first rotates the view to the default position (a view looking down the
3-axis with the 1- and 2-axes in the plane of the screen) and then applies the desired
rotation. Figure 8-5 shows the result of applying a total rotation of 90, 0, 0 from the
isometric view.

Figure 8-5 Specifying a total rotation angle.

Viewpoint
When you choose Viewpoint , you enter three values representing the 1-, 2-, and 3-position of
an observer. ABAQUS/CAE constructs a vector from the origin of the model to the position
that you specify and rotates your view of the model so that this vector points out of the screen.
Figure 8-6 shows the result of applying a viewpoint of 1, 1, 1 (an isometric view) and a
viewpoint of 1, 0, 0.

Figure 8-6 Specifying a viewpoint.

When you use the Viewpoint method to specify a view, you can also specify the Up vector.
ABAQUS/CAE positions your view of the model so that this vector points upward. Figure 8-7
shows the result of applying an up vector of 0, 1, 0 and an up vector of 0, -1, 0 to an isometric
view.

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Figure 8-7 Specifying an Up vector.

The Up vector must not equal the Viewpoint vector.

Zoom
Enter a value representing a magnification factor. A value greater than 1 expands your view of
the model in the viewport; for example, a Zoom factor of 2 doubles the size of your view of
the model. A value between 0 and 1 contracts your view of the model in the viewport; for
example, a value of 0.25 contracts your view of the model to a quarter of its original size. The
value must be greater than zero.
You must choose one of the following methods to apply the zoom:

· Absolute. When you choose Absolute, ABAQUS/CAE first fits the view to the viewport
and then applies the desired Zoom factor.

· Relative. When you choose Relative, ABAQUS/CAE applies the Zoom factor to the
current view.

Pan
Enter values that ABAQUS/CAE uses to Pan your view of the model to a specified horizontal
and vertical position within the viewport. ABAQUS/CAE first centers the view in the
viewport and then moves it to the desired position. The values that you enter indicate the
desired position of your view of the model based on fractions of the 1- and 2-dimensions of
the viewport. Positive 1-values indicate a position toward the right edge of the viewport, and
positive 2-values indicate a position toward the top of the viewport. For example, if the
viewport is 200 mm wide and 100 mm tall and you enter values of 0.5, -0.1 in the Fraction of
viewport to pan (X,Y) field, ABAQUS/CAE positions your view of the model 100 mm
toward the right and 10 mm down from the center of the viewport.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Applying a specified view,'' Section 8.4.9

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8.2 Customizing the view triad


The view triad, shown below, is a set of three perpendicular axes that indicate the orientation of your
view of the model currently being displayed. As you rotate your view of the model, the triad changes to
indicate the new orientation. For more information on using the rotate tool, see ``Rotating the view,''
Section 8.4.2.

You can use the View->Viewport Annotations menu item to request or suppress the display of the
triad and to control the triad's position and appearance. You can also control the triad's color, labels,
and label font.
To control triad display options:

1. From the main menu bar, select View->Viewport Annotations.


The Viewport Annotation Options dialog box appears.

2. Click the Triad tab, and toggle Show triad to display or suppress the triad.
When Show triad is toggled on, Position and Attributes options become available.

3. If Show triad is toggled on, enter percentage values for the triad X and Y positions in the %
Viewport X and % Viewport Y boxes, respectively.

A value of 0 for % Viewport X moves the triad origin to the extreme left of the viewport while a
value of 100 moves it to the extreme right. A value of 0 for % Viewport Y moves the triad origin
to the extreme bottom of the viewport, while a value of 100 moves it to the extreme top.

4. Click the Color arrow and select a color option from the list that appears.
The specified color name appears in the color box.

5. Click the Labels menu button and select either numerical or alphabetical labeling for the triad.
The specified style appears in the Labels box.

6. Click Set Label Font to set the font type, size, and style using the dialog box that appears.

7. Click Apply to implement your changes.


Your changes are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Overview of general display options,'' Section 10.5

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8.3 Controlling perspective


Perspective representation accurately depicts the spatial relationship of three-dimensional objects in a
two-dimensional plane. In other words, a three-dimensional model on your screen appears more
realistic when perspective is turned on. Alternatively, parallel lines in the model appear parallel when
perspective is turned off. Perspective affects plots in all modules and is turned on by default.

You can use the View->View Options menu item or the and icons located in the toolbar to
control perspective.
To control perspective:

1. Locate the perspective option.


From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . The View Options dialog box appears.
Click the General tab in the View Options dialog box.

Tip: You can also control perspective using the and icons located in the toolbar.

2. Choose either Off or On.

3. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box.


Your changes apply only to the current viewport and are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 8, "Manipulating the view and controlling perspective "

8.4 Using the view manipulation tools


This section provides details of using the tools in the toolbar that allow you to manipulate the position,
orientation, and scaling of the model within a viewport. The following topics are covered:

· ``Panning the view,'' Section 8.4.1

· ``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2

· ``Magnifying or reducing the view,'' Section 8.4.3

· ``Zooming in to a selected area of the view,'' Section 8.4.4

· ``Rescaling the view to fit the viewport,'' Section 8.4.5

· ``Cycling through views,'' Section 8.4.6

· ``Applying custom views,'' Section 8.4.7

· ``Saving a user-defined view,'' Section 8.4.8

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· ``Applying a specified view,'' Section 8.4.9

8.4.1 Panning the view

Use the pan tool from the toolbar to move the view horizontally and vertically within the
viewport.
To pan the view:

1. From the toolbar, click the pan tool to enter pan mode.
Tip: You can also select View->Pan from the main menu or press [F2].

2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change.

The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow:

3. Drag the cursor in any direction until you obtain the desired view.
The position of your view of the model in the viewport changes as you drag the cursor, and a
rubberband line indicates the amount of translation.
Note: The initial location of the cursor is not important, as long as you place it within the viewport. Cursor motion is limited
only by the physical bounds of your monitor, and panning will continue even if you move the cursor outside the viewport or
window.

To return to the original view, drag the cursor back to the origin of the rubberband line.

4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you achieve the desired view.

5. To exit pan mode, do one of the following:

· Click mouse button 2.

· Click the cancel button in the prompt area.

· Click the pan tool.

· Click any other view manipulation tool.

Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``The pan view tool,'' Section 8.1.2

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· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.2 Rotating the view

Use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the view within the viewport. Using a separate
option you can control whether or not ABAQUS/CAE rescales your model to fit the viewport as you
rotate.
To rotate the view:

1. From the toolbar, click the rotate tool to enter rotate mode.
Tip: You can also select View->Rotate from the main menu or press [F3].

2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change.
A large circle appears in the viewport and the cursor changes to a right facing arrow.

3. Drag the cursor in any direction.


The view rotates as you drag the cursor, and a rubberband line indicates the amount and direction
of rotation.
Tip: It is usually easier to achieve the desired orientation by performing a sequence of small
rotations rather than a single large rotation.

To rotate the view about the normal to the screen, move the cursor outside the circle and drag it
clockwise or counterclockwise.
To return to the original view, drag the cursor back to the origin of the rubberband line.

4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you achieve the desired views.

5. To exit rotate mode, do one of the following:

· Click mouse button 2.

· Click the cancel button in the prompt area.

· Click the rotate tool.

· Click any other view manipulation tool.

Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view.

To rescale the view to fit the viewport as you rotate:

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1. From the main menu bar, select View->View Options .


The View Options dialog box appears.

2. Toggle Auto-fit after view rotations on to automatically rescale the view to fit the viewport as
you rotate; toggle it off to disable automatic rescaling during rotation.

3. Click OK to implement your changes and close the dialog box.


Your changes are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``The rotate view tool,'' Section 8.1.3

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Rescaling the view to fit the viewport,'' Section 8.4.5

8.4.3 Magnifying or reducing the view

Use the magnify tool from the toolbar to change the scale of the view in the viewport.
To magnify or reduce the view:

1. From the toolbar, click the magnify tool to enter magnify mode.
Tip: You can also select View->Magnify from the main menu or press [F4].

2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change.

The cursor changes to a magnifying glass:

3. Drag the cursor either left or right.

· To magnify the view (zoom in), drag the cursor to the right of the starting point.

· To reduce the view (zoom out), drag the cursor to the left of the starting point.

ABAQUS/CAE draws a horizontal rubberband line from the starting point as you drag the cursor
across the screen. The rubberband line indicates the amount of zooming that has been applied, and
the amount of zooming is proportional to only the horizontal component of your dragging motion.
To return to the original view, drag the cursor back to the origin of the rubberband line.

4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you achieve the desired view.

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5. To exit magnify mode, do one of the following:

· Click mouse button 2.

· Click the cancel button in the prompt area.

· Click the magnify tool.

· Click any other view manipulation tool.

Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``The magnify tool,'' Section 8.1.4

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.4 Zooming in to a selected area of the view

Use the box zoom tool from the toolbar to enlarge the view so that a selected area fills the
viewport.
To zoom in to a selected area of the view:

1. From the toolbar, click the box zoom tool to enter zoom mode.
Tip: You can also select View->Box Zoom from the main menu or press [F5].

2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change.
The cursor changes to a rectangle with a small arrow in one corner.

3. Position the cursor at one corner of the area to be enlarged.

4. Drag the cursor to the opposite corner.


A rectangle indicates the area to be enlarged.

5. Release mouse button 1.


The area defined by the rectangle enlarges to fill the viewport.

6. Repeat Steps 2 through 5 as many times as necessary to achieve the desired view.

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7. To exit box zoom mode, do one of the following:

· Click mouse button 2.

· Click the cancel button in the prompt area.

· Click the box zoom tool.

· Click any other view manipulation tool.

Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``The box zoom tool,'' Section 8.1.5

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.5 Rescaling the view to fit the viewport

Use the auto-fit tool from the toolbar to quickly pan and magnify or reduce a view so that the
view fills the viewport and is centered within it. When you fit a view, the orientation remains fixed, as
indicated by the view triad.

From the toolbar, click the auto-fit tool to enter auto-fit mode.
Tip: You can also select View->Auto-fit from the main menu or press [F6].

If you have only one viewport, ABAQUS/CAE immediately scales the view to fit the viewport without
changing the orientation, centers the view within the viewport, and exits fit mode. If you have more
than one viewport, select the auto-fit tool and then place the cursor over the viewport you want to
rescale. Click in the viewport to auto-fit; ABAQUS/CAE rescales the view and exits fit mode.

Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view.

For information on how to automatically rescale the view to fit the viewport during rotation, see
``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``The auto-fit tool,'' Section 8.1.6

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· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.6 Cycling through views

Use the cycle tool from the toolbar to cycle through previous views; ABAQUS/CAE saves the
eight most recent views for each viewport.
To cycle through previous views:

1. From the toolbar, click the cycle tool to enter cycle mode.
Tip: You can also select View->Previous Views from the main menu or press [F7].

2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change (the cursor changes to a
two-way arrow); then click.

3. To control the direction of cycling, click Backward or Forward in the prompt area. The default is
to cycle backward.

4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 as many times as necessary to achieve the desired views.
After you cycle backward to the oldest available view, continued clicking has no effect. Similarly,
after you cycle forward to the most recent view, continued clicking has no effect.

5. To exit cycle mode, do one of the following:

· Click mouse button 2.

· Click the cancel or Done button in the prompt area.

· Click the cycle view tool.

· Click any other view manipulation tool.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``The cycle tool,'' Section 8.1.7

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

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8.4.7 Applying custom views


Use the Views toolbox to orient, scale, and position a view to one of seven predefined or four

user-defined settings. To display the Views toolbox, click the views tool from the toolbar; the
Views toolbox is illustrated in the following figure:

The following custom views are available:

· Front, Back, Top, Bottom, Left, and Right: equivalent to observing the model from the six sides
of a cube.

· Iso: an isometric view. This is the default orientation for three-dimensional models.

· User1, User2, User3, and User4: four user-defined views. See ``Saving a user-defined view,''
Section 8.4.8, for a description of how to save a user-defined view.

To apply a custom view:

1. From the toolbar, click the View tool .


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Views toolbox.
Tip: You can also select View->Views Toolbox from the main menu or press [F8].

2. From the Views toolbox, click the desired tool.


If you have only one viewport, ABAQUS/CAE immediately applies the selected view and
unselects it from the Views toolbox. If you have more than one viewport, place the cursor over the
viewport whose view you want to change. The cursor changes to a triad; click, and ABAQUS/CAE
applies the selected view to that viewport.
Note: When you apply a view that was saved with the Auto-fit option selected, the view adopts the orientation of the saved
view and immediately rescales it to fill the viewport. When you apply a view that was saved with the Save current option
selected, the view adopts the orientation, zoom factor, and position of the saved view.

3. Repeat Step 2 as many times as necessary to achieve the desired view.


Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view.

4. To close the Views toolbox, double-click the close button in the upper-left corner of the toolbox.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

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· ``Custom views,'' Section 8.1.8

· ``Saving a user-defined view,'' Section 8.4.8

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.8 Saving a user-defined view

Use the save tool in the Views toolbox to open the Save Views dialog box and save a
user-defined view. The Save Views dialog box is illustrated in the following figure:

Use the Scale & Position options to determine whether the saved view contains zoom factor and
position information.
To save a user-defined view:

1. From the toolbar, click the View tool .


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Views toolbox.
Tip: You can also select View->Save from the main menu.

2. From the Views toolbox, click the save tool .


If you have only one viewport, ABAQUS/CAE immediately opens the Save View dialog box. If
you have more than one viewport, click in the viewport whose view you want to save;
ABAQUS/CAE then opens the Save View dialog box.

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3. From the Save View dialog box, choose the desired Scale & Position behavior:

· Choose Auto-fit to save only the orientation of the view. When you apply a view saved with
this option, the saved orientation is applied, but the scaling factor and position are adjusted to
make the view fill the viewport.

· Choose Save current to save the orientation, the zoom factor, and the position of the view.
When you apply a view saved with this option, the saved orientation, scaling factor, and
position are all applied.

4. In the View Name list in the Save Views dialog box, click the name of the tool you will use to
recall this view.
If you overwrite one of the six custom views--front, back, top, bottom, left, right--the other five
views still retain their original definitions; that is, they do not become rotated to positions
orthogonal to your saved view.

5. From the Save View dialog box, click OK.


ABAQUS/CAE saves the definition of the view you selected and returns to the Views toolbox.
The view is saved only for the duration of the current session; the saved view will not be available
the next time you run ABAQUS/CAE.

6. To remove the Views toolbox, double-click the close button in the upper-left corner of the
toolbox.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Custom views,'' Section 8.1.8

· ``Applying custom views,'' Section 8.4.7

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.9 Applying a specified view


Select View->Specify from the main menu to specify a view. You can choose from the following
methods to specify the view:
Rotation Angles

You can specify the angles through which ABAQUS/CAE will rotate your view of the model
about the model or screen 1-, 2-, and 3-axes. You can also choose to rotate your view of the
model from an absolute position (a ``Front'' view) or from the current position.

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Viewpoint

You can specify the coordinates of a vector along which an observer views your model. You
can also orient the global 1-, 2-, and 3-axes within the viewport by specifying a vector
representing the ``up'' direction.
Zoom

You can specify a zoom factor that expands or contracts the view. You can also choose to
zoom the view relative to an absolute size of the objects in the viewport (the default size with
a zoom factor of one applied) or relative to the current size of the objects in the viewport.
Pan

You can specify that your view of the model will be moved to a certain position within the
viewport. The values correspond to fractions of the viewport dimensions and are relative to the
center of the viewport.

For a more detailed explanation, see ``Numerically specifying a view,'' Section 8.1.9.
To specify the view:

1. From the main menu bar, select View->Specify.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Specify View dialog box.

2. From the Specify View dialog box, select the desired Method and do one of the following:

· If you selected the Rotation Angles method, enter the rotation angles about the X-, Y-, and
Z-axes (µx , µy , µz ); a positive number corresponds to a counterclockwise rotation about each
axis.
Use the Mode button to specify how ABAQUS/CAE is to apply your rotation:

- Choose Increment About Model Axes to apply the rotation to the model axes of the
current view.

- Choose Increment About Screen Axes to apply the rotation to the screen axes of the
current view. The screen X-axis is horizontal, the Y-axis is vertical, and the Z-axis is out of
the screen. The origin of the screen axes is the center of the viewport.

- Choose Total Rotation From (0,0,1) to first rotate the view to the default position (a view
looking down the 3-axis with the 1- and 2-axes in the plane of the screen) and then apply
the rotation.

· If you selected the Viewpoint method, enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the viewpoint
vector and the coordinates of the up vector.

· If you selected the Zoom method, enter the zoom factor and choose either Absolute or
Relative magnification. A zoom factor greater than one expands your view of the model, and a
zoom factor between zero and one contracts your view of the model.

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· If you selected the Pan method, enter the values indicating how you want to position your
view of the model within the viewport. The first value represents a horizontal position, and the
second value represents a vertical position.

3. Click OK to apply your specified view and to close the Specify View dialog box.
Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the original view.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Numerically specifying a view,'' Section 8.1.9

· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1

· ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

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9. Selecting objects within the viewport


This chapter explains how to select objects that appear within a viewport, such as nodes, elements,
vertices, edges, faces, and cells. The following topics are covered:

· ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1

· ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

· ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3

Selecting dialog box options is discussed in ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3. Selecting
canvas objects is discussed in ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2, and ``Selecting canvas
annotations,'' Section 7.4.4.

9.1 Understanding selection within viewports


This section describes the objects that you can select in a viewport and explains what these objects
represent. The following topics are covered:

· ``What objects can you select from the viewport?,'' Section 9.1.1

· ``Understanding the correspondence between geometric and physical objects, '' Section 9.1.2

9.1.1 What objects can you select from the viewport?


Selecting an object within the current viewport is one of the most common tasks you have to perform
during the modeling process. In the course of various modeling procedures you may need to select
geometric objects (such as vertices, edges, faces, cells, datum geometry, and partitions) or discrete
objects (such as nodes and elements). Figure 9-1 shows these different object types.

Figure 9-1 Object types that you can select.

You can select objects in the viewport only during certain procedures, such as those listed below:

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· Creating sets and surfaces

· Partitioning a part instance

· Editing a feature

· Seeding a part instance for meshing

In most circumstances only objects that are appropriate for the current procedure are available for
selection. For example, the first step in partitioning an edge is selecting the edge of interest. Therefore,
at this point in the procedure you can select only an edge; you cannot select a cell, a face, or a vertex.
Messages in the prompt area guide you through the steps of a procedure and indicate which types of
objects are available for selection.
In some circumstances ABAQUS/CAE cannot determine which objects are appropriate for selection
and does not limit your selection. For example, when you are creating a set you can select from cells,
faces, edges, and vertices to include in the set, and ABAQUS/CAE allows you to select any of these
objects. When you make a selection from the viewport, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to cycle through
the available objects until the desired object is selected. This ambiguity is described in ``Cycling
through valid selections,'' Section 9.2.5. You may find it easier to use the selection filters to limit the
type of object you can create. For more information, see ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1

· ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

9.1.2 Understanding the correspondence between geometric and


physical objects
When you select geometric objects in a viewport, it is important to understand what physical structure
each object represents. The geometric objects that make up a model--cells, faces, edges, and
vertices--can represent different physical structures depending on the space in which they are
embedded.
For example, beams and other wire parts are represented by edges in the geometric model (see Figure
9-2).

Figure 9-2 Selecting wire parts.

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The end surfaces of these parts are represented by the vertices on either side of the edge, and the
circumferential surface is represented by the line joining the vertices. To select a wire part, you can
click the edge, and, if necessary, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to specify the surface of interest.
Likewise, axisymmetric shells are also represented by edges in the geometric model (see Figure 9-3).

Figure 9-3 Selecting axisymmetric shells.

You can select the axisymmetric shell by clicking the edge in the viewport, and, if necessary,
ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to specify either the inside surface or the outside surface of the shell. You
must select either the inside or the outside surface if you are applying a prescribed condition or contact
definition to the surface. For example, if you want to apply a pressure load to a shell, you must specify
which side of the shell should receive the load.
For more information on selecting surfaces, see ``Specifying a particular side or end of a region,''
Section 45.2.5. For more information on modeling space, see ``The relationship between parts and
features,'' Section 14.3.1, and ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1

· ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

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9.2 Selecting objects within the current viewport


This section describes techniques that you can use for selecting one or more objects in the current
viewport. The following topics are covered:

· ``Selecting and unselecting individual objects, '' Section 9.2.1

· ``Drag-selecting multiple objects,'' Section 9.2.2

· ``Using the face angle method to create a surface from an orphan mesh,'' Section 9.2.3

· ``Combining selection techniques,'' Section 9.2.4

· ``Cycling through valid selections,'' Section 9.2.5

9.2.1 Selecting and unselecting individual objects


Selecting and unselecting objects in the current viewport are straightforward operations that use
standard methods. For more information on selecting canvas objects, see ``Selecting viewports,''
Section 7.3.2, and ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4.
You will use the following three selection operations most frequently:

Click to select an object


To select a single object from the current viewport, move the cursor to the object and click
mouse button 1.

· To select a point, click the corresponding point marker. The color of the point marker
changes color when selected. Vertices that you can select are marked by small, filled
circles, and datum points are marked by small, unfilled circles. (See ``Understanding the
role of datum geometry,'' Section 41.1, for information on datum points.) Edge midpoints
and arc centers that you can select are marked by small diamonds.
Note: Some of the selection markers that appear when you are using the Sketch
module are different from those described here. For information on selecting objects
while using the Sketch module, see ``The Sketcher cursors and preselection,'' Section
22.4.5.

· To select an edge, click the edge while positioning the cursor away from any vertex.
Selected edges are highlighted.

· To select a face, click the face while positioning the cursor away from any edge or vertex.
Selected faces are highlighted with a grid pattern. (The grid pattern is unrelated to mesh
element location.)

· To select a cell, click any of its faces. All edges of selected cells are highlighted.

If a selection is ambiguous, ABAQUS/CAE displays buttons in the prompt area that allow you

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to cycle between the valid choices and to confirm your selection. For more information, see
``Cycling through valid selections,'' Section 9.2.5.
Once you select an object, any objects previously selected in the current viewport are
unselected automatically.

[Shift]+Click to select additional objects


To select an additional object, move the cursor to the object and [Shift]+Click. Your original
selection remains highlighted, and the newly selected object becomes highlighted.
An alternative method for selecting multiple objects is to drag a rectangle around the objects.
For more information see ``Drag-selecting multiple objects,'' Section 9.2.2.

[Ctrl]+Click to unselect objects


To unselect an object, move the cursor to the object and [Ctrl]+Click. To unselect all objects,
click an unused region of the current viewport.

When you have finished selecting and unselecting items in the viewport, click mouse button 2 to
confirm your selection. You might find it useful to use the selection option tools to adjust the shape of
the drag-select region. You can also choose which objects are selected by the drag-select region. To

access the selection option tools, click in the prompt area. For more information, see ``Modifying
the shape of the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.4, and ``Choosing which objects are selected by the
drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.5.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

· ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1

9.2.2 Drag-selecting multiple objects


Most prompts ask you to select just one object from the current viewport. However, some tasks allow
you to select one or more objects; for example, the Set toolset allows you to select several objects of
the same type and group them into sets. You can select multiple objects using the [Shift]+Click
method described in ``Selecting and unselecting individual objects, '' Section 9.2.1. An additional
method for selecting multiple objects is to drag a rectangle around those objects. You might find it
useful to use the selection option tools to adjust the shape of the drag-select region. You can also
choose which objects are selected by the drag-select region. To access the selection option tools, click

in the prompt area. For more information, see ``Modifying the shape of the drag-select region,''
Section 9.3.4, and ``Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.5.
Detailed instructions for drag-selecting multiple objects:

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1. Imagine a rectangle that encloses only the objects you want to select.

2. Click at one corner of the rectangle and, while continuing to press the mouse button, drag until you
have enclosed all the objects.

3. Release the mouse button.


All the valid objects inside or crossing the rectangle are highlighted.

4. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting objects.

Sometimes it is convenient to use a combination of the [Shift]+Click and drag-select selection


techniques. For more information, see ``Combining selection techniques,'' Section 9.2.4.
Tip: If you select multiple objects and then want to unselect one or more of them, [Ctrl]+Click
the objects you want to unselect. To unselect all the objects, click in an unused area of the
viewport.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

· ``Selecting and unselecting individual objects, '' Section 9.2.1

· ``Cycling through valid selections,'' Section 9.2.5

9.2.3 Using the face angle method to create a surface from an


orphan mesh
When you import a part from an output database (ODB), ABAQUS/CAE imports the part in the form
of an orphan mesh. Similarly, when you import a model from an input file, ABAQUS/CAE imports the
part in the form of an orphan mesh. An orphan mesh is a collection of nodes, elements, surfaces, and
sets that has been ``orphaned'' from its original geometry. If you want to create a new surface from an
orphan mesh, you must select the element faces that make up the set. Selecting individual element
faces and appending them to the surface definition is time consuming and prone to error. To speed up
the selection process, ABAQUS/CAE provides the face angle method for creating a surface from an
orphan mesh.
The face angle method is a two-step process:

1. You select an element face from the target face.

2. You enter a face angle (from 0° to 90°).

ABAQUS/CAE selects every adjacent element from the target face until the angle between the element
faces is equal to or exceeds the face angle. Figure 9-4 illustrates an exhaust manifold and the effect of

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the face angle selection method given a target face on a flange and a face angle of 90°.

Figure 9-4 Select a target face and a face angle to create a surface.

After you use the face angle method, you can [Shift]+Click on additional elements to append them to
your selection, and you can [Ctrl]+Click on elements to unselect them. For more information, see
``Combining selection techniques,'' Section 9.2.4.
When you are creating a surface from an orphan mesh, you use the menu button in the prompt area to
choose between the selection methods-- Individual and Face angle.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

· ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1

9.2.4 Combining selection techniques


There are times when it is convenient to use a combination of the methods for selecting and
unselecting objects. For example, you can drag-select a group of nodes while creating a node set using
the Set toolset. You can then [Ctrl]+Click individual nodes to unselect them and [Shift]+Click
additional nodes to add them to your selection. A combination of the three techniques is illustrated
below:

1. First, you use drag-select to select a group of nodes.

2. Then, you use [Ctrl]+Click to unselect individual nodes.

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3. Finally, you use [Shift]+Click to add nodes to your set and then click mouse button 2 to indicate
you have finished selecting.

You may find it useful to adjust the view orientation to make particular items in the viewport more
accessible. You can adjust the view orientation at any point during the selection process. For
information on the view manipulation tools, see Chapter 8, "Manipulating the view and controlling
perspective."
Tip: To unselect all the objects, click an unused part of the current viewport.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

· ``Selecting and unselecting individual objects, '' Section 9.2.1

· ``Drag-selecting multiple objects,'' Section 9.2.2

9.2.5 Cycling through valid selections


In some cases ABAQUS/CAE is unable to differentiate between the object you have selected and other
nearby or related objects. This ambiguity can arise as follows:

· Imagine a small square surrounding the cursor. When you click an object, any other valid objects
of the same type that fall inside this square are also considered to be possible selections. For
example, if you select an edge that is positioned very close to another edge, ABAQUS/CAE may
consider both edges to be possible selections.
The size of the square is independent of the monitor size, the viewport size, and the dimensions of
the model. It also remains constant when you zoom in and out on your model. Therefore, you can
select a specific object in the viewport more precisely by zooming in on your model to increase the
distance between objects.

· If your model is three-dimensional, imagine a line that is perpendicular to the screen and that
passes through the cursor and into the model. When you select an object, any valid objects of the

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same type that intersect this line are considered to be possible selections. (Rotating your model
may remove some of the ambiguity.)

ABAQUS/CAE reduces the potential for ambiguity by filtering your selection against the current
procedure whenever possible. For example, if you are partitioning a cell, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you
to select the cell to partition. When you make a selection, ABAQUS/CAE considers only cells to be a
valid selection. Conversely, if you are creating a geometry set, ABAQUS/CAE considers cells, faces,
edges, and vertices to be a valid selection and the potential for ambiguity is increased.
If your selection is ambiguous, ABAQUS/CAE displays buttons in the prompt area that allow you to
cycle through all of the possible selections, as shown here:

Use the Next and Previous buttons to cycle forward and backward through all of the objects in the
viewport that are possible selections; each object becomes highlighted in turn. When the object of your
choice is highlighted, click OK or click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection. (You can also click
mouse button 3 in the drawing area to reveal a menu of the options in the prompt area.)

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

9.3 Using the selection options


ABAQUS/CAE provides a set of tools that can make it easier and more efficient for you to select

objects from the viewport. The selection options tool appears on the prompt line when you are
prompted to make a selection from the viewport, as shown in Figure 9-5.

Figure 9-5 The selection options tool appears on the prompt line when you are prompted to make a
selection from the viewport.

This section describes the selection options. The following topics are covered:

· ``Overview of the selection options,'' Section 9.3.1

· ``Filtering your selection based on the type of object,'' Section 9.3.2

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· ``Filtering your selection based on the position of the object, '' Section 9.3.3

· ``Modifying the shape of the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.4

· ``Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.5

9.3.1 Overview of the selection options


When you are prompted to select an object from the viewport, ABAQUS/CAE provides selection
options tools that can make it easier and more efficient for you to make the desired selection.

From the prompt area, click the selection options tool to configure the selection options.
Selection options remain in effect only during the current procedure. When you enter the next
procedure, the selection options revert to their default settings.
Figure 9-6 shows the layout of the selection options tools.

Figure 9-6 The selection options tools.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

· ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3

9.3.2 Filtering your selection based on the type of object


To help you select the desired entities (vertices, edges, faces, cells, nodes, and elements) from the
current viewport, ABAQUS/CAE provides a set of filters that you can use to limit your selection based
on the type of object. For example, if you are creating a set that contains only surfaces, you can limit
your selection to only faces--vertices, edges, and cells will not be selected.

When you click on the selection options tool , ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox and
configures the contents based on the current procedure. The Options toolbox allows you to control the

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following selection options:

Object type
If the current viewport contains an ABAQUS/CAE part or part instance, you can select one of
the following filters:

· All

· Vertices

· Edges

· Faces

· Cells

· Skins

By default, ABAQUS/CAE selects from all vertices, edges, faces, and cells. You can select a
skin from the viewport only after you select the skins filter.
Similarly, if you are selecting elements from an orphan mesh in the current viewport (to assign
an element type, for example), you can select one of the following filters:

· All

· Zero-dimensional elements

· One-dimensional elements

· Two-dimensional elements

· Three-dimensional elements

By default, ABAQUS/CAE selects from all elements.

9.3.3 Filtering your selection based on the position of the object


The selection tools allow you to choose from which objects to select, based on their positions in the

viewport. When you click on the selection options tool , ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options
toolbox, and you can select the following:

Objects closest to the screen

Toggle on this tool to select only the objects closest to the front of the screen. This tool
is toggled on by default.
If you toggle off this tool, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to cycle through all of the possible
selections. Use the Next and Previous buttons in the prompt area to cycle forward and
backward through all of the objects in the viewport that are possible selections; each object

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becomes highlighted in turn. For more information, see ``Cycling through valid selections,''
Section 9.2.5.
This filter applies to vertices, edges, faces, and cells of an ABAQUS/CAE native part and to
nodes and elements of an orphan mesh.

Interior and exterior objects


Choose one of the following filters:

· Select objects located both outside and inside a part. This tool is selected by default.

· Select only objects located on the outside of a part.

· Select only objects located on the inside of a part.

9.3.4 Modifying the shape of the drag-select region


The selection tools allow you to change the shape of the drag-select region. When you click on the

selection options tool , ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox, and you can choose one of
the following:

Rectangle

Click to indicate one corner of the rectangle, and drag the cursor to the second corner.
This tool is selected by default.

Circle

Click to indicate the center of the circle, and drag the cursor to a point on the
circumference.

Polygon

Click to indicate one vertex of the polygon, and drag the cursor to the second vertex.
You then continue to click on each vertex of the polygon. Click mouse button 2 to indicate
you have finished entering vertices. There is no limit to the number of vertices in the
polygon.

9.3.5 Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select


region

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The selection tools allow you to choose which objects are selected by the drag-select region. When you

click on the selection options tool , ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox, and you can
choose one of the following:

Inside

Select only the objects that fall inside the drag-select region.

Inside and crossing

Select only the objects that fall inside or cross the drag-select region. This tool is
selected by default.

Crossing

Select only the objects that cross the drag-select region.

Outside and crossing

Select only the objects that fall outside or cross the drag-select region.

Outside

Select only the objects that fall outside the drag-select region.

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10. Tuning display performance


This chapter explains how you can tune display performance in ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics
are covered:

· ``Controlling drag mode,'' Section 10.1

· ``Using double buffering,'' Section 10.2

· ``Choosing a graphics driver,'' Section 10.3

· ``Using display lists,'' Section 10.4

· ``Overview of general display options,'' Section 10.5

To locate the options referred to in this chapter, select View->View Options from the main menu bar.

10.1 Controlling drag mode


In ABAQUS/CAE you can manipulate a displayed object dynamically using the mouse; for example,
you can pan, zoom, or rotate objects as needed. During such manipulation ABAQUS/CAE draws the
object as it moves, thus producing a series of intermediate images. The drag mode controls the render
style and, therefore, the speed with which these intermediate images are presented.
In general, you use the Fast (wireframe) drag mode to display intermediate images as quickly as
possible. Regardless of the current render style, Fast (wireframe) drag mode uses wireframe render
style to display these images; in the Visualization module this drag mode is equivalent to using the fast
plot mode. Setting the drag mode to Fast (wireframe) significantly improves view manipulation
performance for many models, particularly for shaded images. This option is the default.
Use the As is drag mode to draw using the selected render style throughout the entire manipulation.
Setting the drag mode to As is usually provides a more realistic portrayal of the object but can be
significantly slower than setting the drag mode to Fast (wireframe) , particularly if a render style such
as shaded is used. Set the drag mode to As is to observe all stages of the object's motion in the selected
render style. For example, you may want to use As is to locate areas of high stress concentration as
you rotate a contour plot.
The effect of your drag mode selection on drawing speed depends not only on your model and render
style but on your graphics hardware and on the settings you have chosen for the other graphics options.
For example, if you have very high performance graphics hardware and you enable the use of display
lists, the As is drag mode may provide the quickest display. For more information on this option, see
``Using display lists,'' Section 10.4.
To control the drag mode:

1. Locate the drag mode options.


From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . Click the General tab in the dialog box
that appears.

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2. Select the Fast (wireframe) or As is drag mode.

3. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box.


Your changes are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

10.2 Using double buffering


Double buffering is a graphics rendering technique that prevents screen flicker when the viewport is
refreshed and, as a result, produces a smoother effect, particularly for shaded render style plots. Double
buffering is on by default, which works well for most applications.
The term ``double buffering'' indicates that two graphics buffers are used. Successive image frames are
alternately produced in the two buffers. The presence of two buffers, however, consumes additional
graphics resources, which in turn may decrease the number of available colors on some systems.
Turning double buffering off may increase color resolution on some workstations.
To control double buffering:

1. Locate the buffering options.


From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . Click the Hardware tab in the dialog box
that appears.

2. Choose either On or Off for double buffering.

3. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box.


Your changes are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

10.3 Choosing a graphics driver


You can choose between two graphics drivers to operate your display: X11 and OpenGL. OpenGL is a
graphics library that provides high-speed graphics rendering and is available on most systems.
ABAQUS/CAE automatically determines whether OpenGL is available on your system and, if so,
establishes this driver as the default.
In general, if you have OpenGL on your system, you should use it since OpenGL provides better
performance than X11. In the following cases, however, you might prefer to use X11 over OpenGL:

· If you run ABAQUS/CAE on a remote machine and display the images on a local machine,

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OpenGL may generate excessive network traffic, especially for large models.

· If you use wireframe render style, X11 graphics may perform adequately while saving memory
resources in comparison to OpenGL graphics.

Note: X11 graphics are not supported on Windows NT systems.

To select a graphics driver:

1. Locate the graphics driver options.


From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . Click the Hardware tab in the dialog box
that appears.

2. Choose either X11 or OpenGL for the graphics driver.

3. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box.


Your changes are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

10.4 Using display lists


Display lists help you display repeated images faster. When an object is displayed repeatedly, for
example, as part of an animation, the system must perform many computations to produce each image
(frame of the animation). When you use a display list, the results of these computations are stored the
first time the object is displayed. The speed of subsequent display increases since ABAQUS/CAE can
then refer to the display list instead of recomputing each time the object is redisplayed.
You can also use display lists to improve the display speed of large models during view manipulation.
In this case display lists are most effective when you use them in combination with the As is drag
mode, since the display list must be recomputed when display options such as render style change.
By default, ABAQUS/CAE does not use display lists because there is some system overhead involved.
In particular, for small models the overhead of accessing the display list can cause the display to be
slower than if the display list were not used at all. As a rule, if you notice that animations involving
large models are slow to display, use display lists to improve the performance. Display lists operate
only in conjunction with the OpenGL driver.
To control display lists:

1. Locate the display lists options.


From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . Click the Hardware tab in the dialog box
that appears.

2. Choose OpenGL for the graphics driver.

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3. Toggle Enable display list to enable or suppress display lists.


When Enable display list is on, you may notice a brief delay the first time an image is drawn; this
occurs because ABAQUS/CAE must construct the display list. Subsequent drawing of the image is
faster.

4. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box.


Your changes are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

10.5 Overview of general display options


You can use the general display options within the View Options dialog box to control object
appearance and to tune display performance.
To specify general display options:

1. From the main menu bar, select View->View Options .


The View Options dialog box appears. It contains the following tabbed pages:

· General:

- Control perspective. For more information, see ``Controlling perspective,'' Section 8.3.

- Choose the drag mode. For more information, see ``Controlling drag mode,'' Section 10.1.

- Enable or disable the automatic fitting of your view to the viewport after rotations. For
more information, see ``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2.

· Hardware :
Tune performance using options for double buffering, display lists, and graphics drivers. For
more information on performance options, see Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance."

2. Use the tabbed pages in the dialog box to customize object appearance and to improve display
performance.

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11. Printing canvas objects


This chapter describes how you send an image of selected canvas objects--viewports, text annotations,
and arrows--either directly to a printer or to a file. The following topics are covered:

· ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

For additional information on configuring printers, see the ABAQUS Site Guide.

11.1 Understanding printing


ABAQUS/CAE allows you to take a snapshot of selected objects on the canvas and to send the image
either directly to a printer or to a file for later use; for example, to include in a presentation, embed in a
printed report, or display in an HTML document. The objects can be one or more viewports and their
contents, as well as any annotations (text and arrows) that appear on the canvas. Additional options
allow you to select the appearance of viewports in the resulting image, as well as the color, resolution,
and size of the image.
This section describes basic concepts you should understand before sending output to a printer or to a
file. The following topics are covered:

· ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1

· ``PostScript image size and layout,'' Section 11.1.2

· ``EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size,'' Section 11.1.3

· ``Hardcopy image quality,'' Section 11.1.4

· ``Importing ABAQUS/CAE images into other software products,'' Section 11.1.5

11.1.1 Printed image formats


ABAQUS/CAE allows you to print images directly to a PostScript printer or to save the image in a
PostScript (PS), Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), Tag Image File Format (TIFF), or Portable Network
Graphics (PNG) file. The following list describes these file formats:

PostScript
PostScript is the recognized standard for desktop publishing. PostScript is actually a
programming language whose instructions and data are usually stored in an ASCII format that
can be transferred easily between operating systems. You can print an image directly to a
PostScript printer, or you can save the same image in a PostScript file. When you select the
PostScript format, ABAQUS/CAE generates either a compressed bitmap representation or a
vector representation of your image, according to the following convention:

· In general, ABAQUS/CAE creates a vector representation of your image when you print

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wireframe render style plots. The Visualization module creates a vector representation of
your image when you print an X-Y plot, a wireframe undeformed or deformed plot, or a
wireframe symbol plot having wireframe arrowheads.

· ABAQUS/CAE creates a bitmap representation of your image when you print a hidden
line or shaded render style plot. The Visualization module also creates a bitmap
representation of your image when you print a filled render style plot or a symbol plot
having filled arrowheads. Since contour plots are considered filled plots, they also
generate a bitmap representation of your image.

For efficiency when producing bitmap images, you should minimize the size of your image
and limit the resolution of the image to, at most, the resolution of the device on which the
image is to be printed or displayed.

Encapsulated PostScript
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is a variation of PostScript that describes a single graphic
designed to be included in a larger document without modification. EPS files are identical to
PostScript files except for some information that describes the size and positioning of the
image. As a result, the above discussion about vector and bitmap representations of your
image applies equally to the EPS format. Most word processing and graphics applications
support the inclusion of EPS files.

TIFF
Tag Image File Format (TIFF) is a well-established bitmap image format that is recognized by
many software applications. The TIFF format supports both color and grayscale.

PNG
Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is an industry standard for storing bitmap images. The use
of PNG files has been popularized by the World Wide Web, and PNG images are displayed by
most popular web browsers running on a variety of operating systems. A PNG file consists of
color information and a compressed bitmap representation of the image.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.1.2 PostScript image size and layout


When you print a snapshot of selected canvas objects directly to a PostScript printer or save it in a
PostScript file, the size and layout of the image is determined by the available page size, the
orientation, and the aspect ratio of the objects:

Available page size


The available page size is calculated from the total page size and the margin information that

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you supply, as illustrated by the sample dimensions shown in Figure 11-1.

Figure 11-1 The available page size.

Orientation
The orientation of your page can be either portrait or landscape.

Aspect ratio
The aspect ratio is the ratio between the overall width and the overall height of the canvas
objects--viewports and annotations--that you select for printing. ABAQUS/CAE calculates the
size of your image by scaling the selected canvas objects so that the overall object size fits
within the available page size without changing the aspect ratio of the objects, as shown in
Figure 11-2. You cannot directly specify the size of your PostScript image; however, you can
control the aspect ratio by manipulating the objects on the canvas before printing them.

Figure 11-2 Scaling the objects to maintain the aspect ratio.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Customizing the image sent to a PostScript printer or file, '' Section 11.2.5

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

· ``EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size,'' Section 11.1.3

11.1.3 EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size


When you print a snapshot of selected canvas objects to an Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), TIFF, or

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PNG-format file, ABAQUS/CAE determines the size of the image based on the size you specify and
the overall aspect ratio of the canvas objects. You can control the aspect ratio by manipulating the
objects on the canvas.
In the options dialog box (EPS Options, PNG Options, or TIFF Options) you can choose one of the
following methods to specify the size of the printed image:

· Use the size of the image on the screen. (ABAQUS/CAE indicates the current image size in the
options dialog box.) This method is the default.

· Set the width or height. You specify only one dimension; ABAQUS/CAE computes the other
dimension to maintain the aspect ratio of the canvas objects. When you are creating an EPS-format
file, you specify the width or height in either inches or millimeters. When you are creating a TIFF-
or a PNG-format file, you specify the width or height in screen pixels; increasing the number of
pixels increases the image size. The maximum image size allowed is 1280 ´ 1024 pixels.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``PostScript image size and layout,'' Section 11.1.2

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.1.4 Hardcopy image quality


When you print a snapshot of selected canvas objects directly to a PostScript printer or save it in a
PostScript or Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file, ABAQUS/CAE creates either a vector or bitmap
representation of the image (for more information, see ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1).
Vector representation images are resolution independent, so their quality depends only on the
resolution of your printer.
For bitmap representation PostScript and EPS images, and for PNG and TIFF format images, you can
use the Resolution menu button in the corresponding options dialog box to specify the resolution of
the image you save or print. At higher resolution, images appear to be smoother and less jagged.
Although a higher resolution image has higher quality, more data are required to define the image; the
resulting file can consume a large amount of disk space. A lower resolution image will normally print
and display faster. In general, you should select the lowest resolution that still produces an acceptable
image. You may want to save a lower resolution image while you produce draft copies of your work
and switch to a higher resolution for the finished version.
The resolution of your printer sets an upper limit on the printed image resolution. For example, if you
save an image at a resolution of 600 dots per inch (dpi) and print it on a printer that has a resolution of
300 dpi, the printed image will have a resolution of only 300 dpi.
Bitmap representation image quality may also be affected by changes you make to the image with
external software after the image has been created, such as scaling and rotation. Scaling and rotation
may distort a bitmap image. Consequently, before you print a bitmap representation of your image, you

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should adjust the objects on your canvas to match the dimensions and orientation that will appear in
the final application. Scaling and rotation do not distort or diminish the quality of vector representation
images.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.1.5 Importing ABAQUS/CAE images into other software


products
Many popular software systems such as word processors have mechanisms to incorporate externally
generated graphic images. In some cases these imported images can be previewed online. The ability to
preview an EPS image created by ABAQUS/CAE varies from product to product, depending on
whether the product requires that bitmap preview data be present within the image file. Since
ABAQUS/CAE does not include preview data in its image files, you will not be able to preview the
image in products that require the preview data to be present. However, regardless of the success or
failure of previewing, ABAQUS/CAE images print successfully in these systems.

11.2 Controlling the destination and appearance of printed


images
This section describes the options available for controlling the destination and appearance of printed
images. The following topics are covered:

· ``Printing to a printer or to a file,'' Section 11.2.1

· ``Selecting which part of the image to print,'' Section 11.2.2

· ``Choosing the color of your image,'' Section 11.2.3

· ``Choosing the destination of your image,'' Section 11.2.4

· ``Customizing the image sent to a PostScript printer or file, '' Section 11.2.5

· ``Customizing the image saved in an Encapsulated PostScript file, '' Section 11.2.6

· ``Customizing the image saved in TIFF or PNG files,'' Section 11.2.7

11.2.1 Printing to a printer or to a file


ABAQUS/CAE allows you to print a snapshot of selected objects on the canvas and to send the image
either directly to a printer, or to a file for later use; for example, to include in a presentation, embed in
a printed report, or display in an HTML document. The objects on the canvas can be one or more
viewports and their contents, as well as any annotations (text and arrows) that appear on the canvas.
The printed image will reproduce the layering of objects on the canvas; that is, if one object obscures

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another on the canvas, the obscured portion will not appear in the printed image. You can select the
format of the printed image, and additional options allow you to select the appearance of viewports in
the resulting image, and the color, resolution, orientation, and size of the image.
To create a printed image, select File->Print from the main menu bar. To configure your image, use the
Print dialog box that appears. For detailed help on the items within the dialog box, request
context-sensitive help on the individual items.
When you have finished selecting options, click OK in the Print dialog box to send the image to the
selected destination. ABAQUS/CAE closes the Print dialog box, sends the image to the selected
destination, and saves your print options for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.2 Selecting which part of the image to print


When you print an image directly to a PostScript printer or to a file, you can use the Print dialog box
to select which objects on the canvas to include in the printed image. You can select the following:

All or selected canvas objects


Select All Canvas Objects to print all objects (viewports, text annotations, and arrows) on the
canvas. Objects that are on the canvas but are not visible because they are outside the drawing
area will still be printed. If viewports and annotations are overlaid, the printed image will
reproduce the layering of objects on the canvas. That is, if one object obscures another, the
obscured portion will not appear in the printed image. By default, ABAQUS/CAE prints all
the objects on the canvas.
Select Selected Canvas Objects to print selected objects only. See ``Selecting viewports,''
Section 7.3.2, and ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4, for more information on
selecting canvas objects.

Viewport decorations
Use the Print viewport decorations (if visible) option to select whether your image will
include viewport decorations. Decorations are defined as the viewport border and the viewport
title.
If you want to print a viewport's decoration, it must first be visible on the canvas; you can turn
decorations off and on using the Canvas menu in the main menu bar.
Note: Toggling the Print viewport decorations (if visible) option off is the only way to
prevent the red border around the current viewport from appearing in your printed image;
the red border cannot otherwise be disabled.

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Viewport backgrounds
Use the Print viewport backgrounds option to control the appearance of a viewport's
background in your printed image. This option is available only when you choose either a
grayscale or a color image; when you choose black and white, ABAQUS/CAE always prints a
black image on a white background.
Note: Printing without the viewport background (so that the background appears
transparent or white) usually produces the most attractive hardcopy image.

To select which part of the image to print:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print.

Tip: You can also click in the toolbar.

The Print dialog box appears.

2. From the Print menu button at the top of the dialog box, select either:

· All Canvas Objects to print all canvas objects, even if they lie outside the drawing area.

· Selected Canvas Objects to print only the canvas objects you have selected.

Canvas objects are defined as viewports, text annotations, and arrows.

3. Toggle Print viewport decorations (if visible).


When Print viewport decorations (if visible) is on, all viewport titles and borders that are visible
on the canvas will be printed.
When Print viewport decorations (if visible) is off, none of the viewport titles or borders will be
printed. You cannot use the Canvas menu items to hide the red border surrounding the current
viewport. As a result, in order to print the current viewport without the border, you must toggle
this option off.

4. Toggle Print viewport backgrounds .


When Print viewport backgrounds is on, your image will inherit the background color of
viewports on your monitor.
When Print viewport backgrounds is off, the appearance of viewport backgrounds depends on
the format you choose for your image:

· When you choose PS (PostScript) or EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) format, viewports in your
image will have a white background.

· When you choose PNG or TIFF format, viewports in your image will have a transparent
background.

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5. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output.
ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print
dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.3 Choosing the color of your image


When you print an image from the canvas directly to a printer or a file, you can use the Print dialog
box to select the color of your image. The following color options are available:
Black&White

Use this option to print black images on a white background. This option is useful for printing
wireframe and hidden-line images of parts, assemblies, and meshes, including any partitions
and datum geometry. You can also print black and white images of undeformed and deformed
shape plots. When you choose Black&White, ABAQUS/CAE always prints a black image on
a white background, and the viewport background is printed as either transparent or white.
This option should not be used for printing images that depend heavily on color, such as
contour plots.
Grayscale

Use this option to print grayscale versions of color images, where each color is approximated
by a shade of gray. (ABAQUS/CAE converts each color to one of 256 true shades of gray.)
This option is useful for printing color images, such as contour plots, to a black and white
laser printer. To improve the appearance of images sent to a printer, you may want to print
viewports with the background turned off (so that it appears white or transparent).
Color

Use this option to print an approximation of the colors you see. ( ABAQUS/CAE uses up to
256 different colors, both on the screen and in your printed image.) This option is useful for
printing images such as contour plots to a color printer or to a file that will ultimately be
displayed online. If you try to print a color image to a black and white PostScript printer, the
printer converts the colors to shades of gray.

To select the color of your image:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print.

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Tip: You can also click in the toolbar.

The Print dialog box appears.

2. From the Rendition menu button in the Settings field, select one of the following color options:

· Select Black&White to create a black image on a white background.

· Select Grayscale to print a grayscale approximation of a color image.

· Select Color to print a color approximation of the colors on your screen.

3. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output.
ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print
dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.4 Choosing the destination of your image


You can choose to send an image directly to a printer, or you can save the image in a file. If you send
the image directly to a printer, ABAQUS/CAE selects PostScript format, and you can specify the
number of copies and the printer command. Additional options for the PostScript format allow you to
choose the paper size, orientation, margins, and resolution of your image, and whether or not to
include the date and ABAQUS logo.
If you choose to save the image in a file, you must provide a file name and select one of the following
file formats:

PostScript
Select PostScript (PS) if you want the saved image to be identical to the image that
ABAQUS/CAE would print to a PostScript printer. Additional options for this format allow
you to choose the paper size, orientation, margins, and resolution of your image, and whether
or not to include the date and ABAQUS logo. For more information, see ``Customizing the
image sent to a PostScript printer or file,'' Section 11.2.5.

Encapsulated PostScript
Select Encapsulated Postscript ( EPS) if you want to incorporate the saved image in a separate
document; for example, a word processing file. Additional options for this format allow you to

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specify the size and resolution of the image. For more information, see ``Customizing the
image saved in an Encapsulated PostScript file,'' Section 11.2.6.
TIFF

Select TIFF if you want to incorporate the saved image in a separate document; for example, a
word processing file. Additional options for this format allow you to specify the size of the
image. For more information, see ``Customizing the image saved in TIFF or PNG files,''
Section 11.2.7.
PNG

Select PNG if you want to incorporate the saved image in a separate document; for example,
an HTML file for display on the World Wide Web. Additional options for this format allow
you to specify the size of the image. For more information, see ``Customizing the image saved
in TIFF or PNG files,'' Section 11.2.7.

To select the destination of your image:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print.

Tip: You can also click in the toolbar.

The Print dialog box appears.

2. From the Destination buttons in the Settings field, select one of the following:

Printer
Choose Printer to send your PostScript image to a printer, and type the print command in
the Print command text field. This command should be the same command that you
would use at your workstation to print a PostScript file. Do not include a file name in the
print command; ABAQUS/CAE automatically appends the file name to your command.
See your systems administrator for details on the valid commands at your site.
Click the arrows in the Copies field to set the desired number of copies to print, or type
the number of copies you want into the text field. You can print up to 100 copies. If
desired, click PS Options to specify the page size, printed image resolution, and other
options.

File
Choose File to send your image to a file. There are two ways to supply the file name:
File name

Type the name in the File name text field. You can type any characters that are
legal UNIX or Windows NT file names; for example, on a UNIX system:
stressfield.png
../../nozzle/presentation/injector_mesh
~/pump/actuator/strainpattern.eps

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If you do not type a file extension, ABAQUS/CAE will append an extension


(.ps, .eps, .png, or .tif) to the file name.
Select

Use the Select button to supply a file name using the standard file browser. For
more information on file selection, see ``Using file selection dialog boxes,''
Section 6.3.7.

3. If you selected to print the image to a file, click the Format menu button to select either a
PostScript (PS), Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), TIFF, or PNG format file. If desired, click the
respective options button to specify additional options.

4. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output.
ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print
dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1

· ``Hardcopy image quality,'' Section 11.1.4

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.5 Customizing the image sent to a PostScript printer or file


When you print objects on the canvas to a PostScript file or directly to a PostScript printer, you can use
the PostScript Options dialog box to customize the resulting printed image. You can configure the
following:

Paper Size
You can choose from a list of standard page sizes.

Orientation
You can choose either Portrait or Landscape orientation. Portrait and landscape orientations
are illustrated in the following figure:

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Margins
You can provide the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right margins. ABAQUS/CAE computes the
maximum image size as the page size minus the margins. You can specify zero-width margins;
however, printers cannot print to the edge of the paper and typically have margins of at least
0.25 inches (8 mm). ABAQUS/CAE maintains the margins you specify regardless of the
orientation of the paper. For example, assume you chose a Portrait image and entered a value
for the Top margin. If you now choose a Landscape image, ABAQUS/CAE uses the value
you entered for the Top margin to compute the Left margin. Similarly, the value you entered
for the Right margin becomes the Top margin.

Text Rendering
You can specify how you want text on the canvas to appear in the printed image. You can use
either PostScript fonts or request that text characters be output as small bitmaps.
If you select Always use PostScript printer fonts, ABAQUS/CAE prints only font families
that are commonly available on a postscript printer (Courier, Helvetica, Times, and Symbol.)
Any other font is replaced by Courier, the default font.
If you select Use PostScript printer fonts when available , ABAQUS/CAE prints any
canvas text that appears in Courier, Helvetica, Times, or Symbol font. However, text in any
other font is output as small bitmaps for each character. This option requires more processing
and results in a larger PostScript file. No fonts are replaced by the default font.
If you select Always use displayed fonts (WYSIWYG), all characters are output as small
bitmaps.

Resolution
You can select from a list of standard resolutions. The resolution setting will be used only to
generate bitmap representation PostScript images. (For more information, see ``Printed image
formats,'' Section 11.1.1.) The maximum effective resolution of a bitmap PostScript image is
limited to the resolution of the device on which the image will be displayed. By default,
ABAQUS/CAE sets the resolution of a bitmap PostScript image to 150 dpi. To save disk
space, you should select the minimum acceptable resolution.

Date and logo


By default ABAQUS/CAE includes the date and time and an ABAQUS/CAE logo across the
top of a PostScript image. You can choose to remove the date and time or the logo from your

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output.

If you are printing to a printer, the Print dialog box also allows you to type a printer command and set
the number of copies to print.
For more information, see ``PostScript image size and layout,'' Section 11.1.2 and ``Hardcopy image
quality,'' Section 11.1.4.
To customize the image sent to a printer:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print.

Tip: You can also click in the toolbar.

The Print dialog box appears.

2. From the Destination radio buttons, choose Printer.

3. In the Print command text field, type the print command.

4. Click the arrows to the right of the Copies text field to increase or decrease the number of copies
to print or type the number directly in the text field. You can print 1 to 100 copies.

5. From the lower-right corner of the Print dialog box, click PS Options.
The PostScript Options dialog box appears.

6. From the Paper Size field, select a standard page size.

7. From the Orientation field, choose the paper orientation.

8. From the Margins field, type the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right margins in inches.

9. From the Resolution menu button, select from the list of resolutions.

10. If desired, toggle off Print date to remove the date and time from your output.

11. If desired, toggle off Print ABAQUS logo to remove the logo from your output.

12. Click OK to save your PostScript customization settings and to close the PostScript Options
dialog box.

13. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output.
ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print
dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``PostScript image size and layout,'' Section 11.1.2

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.6 Customizing the image saved in an Encapsulated


PostScript file
When you print objects on the canvas to an EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) file, you can customize the
resulting image. The Encapsulated PostScript Options dialog box allows you to configure the
following:

Image Size
You can save an image that is the same size as the image on the screen, or you can specify the
size of the image in inches or millimeters. You specify either the width or the height;
ABAQUS/CAE calculates the other dimension to maintain the aspect ratio of the canvas
objects.

Text Rendering
You can specify how you want text on the canvas to appear in the printed image. You can use
either PostScript fonts or request that text characters be output as small bitmaps.
If you select Always use PostScript printer fonts, ABAQUS/CAE prints only font families
that are commonly available on a postscript printer (Courier, Helvetica, Times, and Symbol.)
Any other font is replaced by Courier, the default font.
If you select Use PostScript printer fonts when available , ABAQUS/CAE prints any
canvas text that appears in Courier, Helvetica, Times, or Symbol font. However, text in any
other font is output as small bitmaps for each character. This option requires more processing
and results in a larger PostScript file. No fonts are replaced by the default font.
If you select Always use displayed fonts (WYSIWYG), all characters are output as small
bitmaps.

Resolution
You can select from a list of standard resolutions. The resolution setting will be used only to
generate bitmap representation EPS images. (For more information, see ``Printed image
formats,'' Section 11.1.1.) The maximum effective resolution of a bitmap representation EPS
image is limited to the resolution of the device on which the image will be displayed. By
default, ABAQUS/CAE sets the resolution of a bitmap EPS image to 150 dpi. To save disk
space, you should select the minimum acceptable resolution. For more information, see
``Hardcopy image quality,'' Section 11.1.4.

To customize the images saved in an Encapsulated PostScript file:

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1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print.

Tip: You can also click in the toolbar.

The Print dialog box appears.

2. From the Destination radio buttons, choose File.

3. In the File name text field, type the file name or click Select to select the file name from the
standard file browser.

4. From the Format menu button, select EPS.

5. From the lower-right corner of the Print dialog box, click EPS Options.
The Encapsulated PostScript Options dialog box appears.

6. From the Image Size field, choose one of the following:

· Choose Use size on screen to save an EPS image that is the same size as the overall width
and height of the canvas objects that you select for printing. ABAQUS/CAE displays the
resulting size to the right of the Use size on screen radio button.

· Choose Use settings below to specify the width or height of the resulting image in either
inches or millimeters.

7. From the Resolution menu button, select from the list of resolutions.

8. Click OK to save your customization settings and to close the Encapsulated PostScript Options
dialog box.

9. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output.
ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print
dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.7 Customizing the image saved in TIFF or PNG files


When you print objects on the canvas to either a TIFF or a PNG-format file, you can customize the
resulting image. You can save an image that is the same size as the image on the screen, or you can

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specify the size of the image in pixels.


For more information, see ``EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size,'' Section 11.1.3 and ``Printed image
formats,'' Section 11.1.1.
To customize the image saved in TIFF or PNG files:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print.

Note: You can also click in the toolbar.

The Print dialog box appears.

2. In the File name text field, type the file name or click Select to select the file name from the
standard file browser.

3. Type or select the file name.

4. From the Format menu button, select TIFF or PNG.

5. From the lower-right corner of the Print dialog box, click TIFF Options or PNG Options.
The appropriate dialog box appears.

6. From the Image Size field, choose one of the following:

· Choose Use size on screen to save an image that is the same size as the overall width and
height of the canvas objects that you select for printing. ABAQUS/CAE displays the resulting
size to the right of the Use size on screen radio button.

· Choose Use settings below to specify the width or height of the resulting image in units of
pixels. The maximum image size allowed is 1280 ´ 1024 pixels.

7. Click OK to save your customization settings and to close the dialog box.

8. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output.
ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print
dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1

· ``EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size,'' Section 11.1.3

· ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

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Part III: Working with ABAQUS/CAE model


databases, models, and files
Almost every modeling operation you perform while working in an ABAQUS/CAE module
contributes to the definition of a model in a model database. This part describes ABAQUS/CAE
models and model databases, the files created by the modeling process, and how you work with these
models and files. The following topics are covered:

· Chapter 12, "Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models, model databases, and files"

· Chapter 13, "Importing and exporting geometry data and models"

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12. Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE


models, model databases, and files
A finished model contains all the data that ABAQUS/CAE needs to create and submit the analysis to
ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. Models are stored in a model database. This chapter
discusses models and model databases and describes the various files that ABAQUS/CAE generates
and reads. The following topics are covered:

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3

· ``ABAQUS/CAE command files,'' Section 12.4

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

· ``Managing model and output databases,'' Section 12.6

· ``Managing models,'' Section 12.7

· ``Adding unsupported keywords to your ABAQUS/CAE model,'' Section 12.8

· ``Managing macros,'' Section 12.9

12.1 What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?


A model database (file extension .cae) stores models and analysis jobs. (For more information on
analysis jobs, see ``Understanding analysis jobs,'' Section 21.2.) You can have multiple model
databases stored on your workstation or network, but ABAQUS/CAE can work on only one of them at
any time. As a result, every model you plan to work on simultaneously must be stored in one model
database. The model database in use is known as the current model database; ABAQUS/CAE displays
the name of the current model database across the top of the main window, as shown in Figure 12-1.

Figure 12-1 ABAQUS/CAE displays the model database name and the model name.

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When you first start ABAQUS/CAE, the Start Session dialog box allows you to either create a new,
empty model database or to open an existing model database. Anything you create or define in
ABAQUS/CAE is stored in this model database. You save the contents by selecting File->Save or
File->Save As from the main menu bar.

ABAQUS/CAE never saves the model database unless you perform an explicit save operation; there is
no timer-based automatic saving, for example. However, while you work on your model,
ABAQUS/CAE maintains a record of all the operations that changed the model database. Although
you may not have saved the model database, you can always replay the operations that replicate its
current state. For more information on recreating the model database, see ``Recreating an unsaved
model database,'' Section 12.4.3.
After you begin an ABAQUS/CAE session, you can open an existing model database by selecting
File->Open from the main bar, or you can create a new model database by selecting File->New . If you
open or create another model database after you have made changes to the current one, ABAQUS/CAE
asks if you want to save the changes before it closes the current model database.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 12, "Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models, model databases, and files

· ``Managing model and output databases,'' Section 12.6

12.2 What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?


An ABAQUS/CAE model contains the following kinds of objects:

· parts

· materials and sections

· assembly information

· sets and surfaces

· steps

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· loads, boundary conditions, and initial conditions

· interactions and their properties

· meshes

A model database can contain any number of models so that you can keep all models related to a single
problem in one database. (For more information, see ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,''
Section 12.1.) You can open multiple models from the model database at the same time, and you can
work on different models in different viewports. The viewport title bar (if visible) displays the name of
the model associated with the viewport. The model associated with the current viewport (indicated by
a red border) is called the current model, and there is only one current model. Figure 12-1 shows two
viewports displaying two different models (high_speed and low_speed) in the same model
database (crankshaft.cae); the current viewport in Figure 12-1 is displaying the high_speed
model.
You use the Model Manager or the Model menu items from the main menu bar to create and manage
your models. You use the Model list located under the toolbar to switch to a different model in the
current model database.
You can create a copy of a model within a model database; in addition, you can copy the following
objects between models:

· Sketches

· Parts (part sets are also copied)

· Materials

· Sections

· Amplitudes

However, you cannot copy a model from one model database to another. For detailed instructions, see
``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1, and ``Copying objects between
models,'' Section 12.7.3.
ABAQUS/CAE checks that your model is complete when you submit it for analysis. For example, if
you request a dynamic analysis, you must specify the density of the materials so that the mass and
inertia properties of the model can be calculated. If you did not provide a material density in the
Property module, the Job module reports an error; for more information, see ``Monitoring the progress
of an analysis job,'' Section 21.2.6.
In some modules ABAQUS/CAE does not support functionality from ABAQUS/Standard or
ABAQUS/Explicit that you may want to include in the analysis. You may be able to add such
functionality by using the Keywords Editor to edit the ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit
keywords associated with a model. Select Model->Edit Keywords->model name from the main menu
bar to start the Keywords Editor. (You can review the keywords supported by ABAQUS/CAE by
selecting Help->Keyword Browser from the main menu bar.)

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For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 12, "Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models, model databases, and files

12.3 Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing


a model
When you start a session and begin defining your model, ABAQUS/CAE generates the following file:

The replay file (abaqus.rpy)


The replay file contains ABAQUS/CAE commands that record almost every modeling
operation you perform during a session. For more information, see ``Replaying an
ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section 12.4.1.

When you select File->Save from the main menu bar and save the model database, ABAQUS/CAE
saves the following files:

The model database file (model_database_ name.cae)


The model database file contains models and analysis jobs. For more information, see ``What
is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1.

The journal file (model_database_ name.jnl)


The journal file contains the ABAQUS/CAE commands that will replicate the model database
that was saved to disk. For more information, see ``Recreating a saved model database,''
Section 12.4.2.

When you continue to work on your model, ABAQUS/CAE continues to record your actions in the
replay file. In addition, ABAQUS/CAE saves the following file:

The recover file ( model_database_ name.rec)


The recover file contains the ABAQUS/CAE commands that will replicate the version of the
model database in memory. The model database recovery file contains only the commands that
changed the model database since you last saved it. For more information, see ``Recreating an
unsaved model database,'' Section 12.4.3.

When you submit a job for analysis, ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit create a set of files;
for a complete list of these files, see ``File extensions used by ABAQUS,'' Section 3.5.1 of the
ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. The following list
describes some of the files that ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit create and their
relationship to ABAQUS/CAE:

Input files ( job_name.inp)


ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file that is read by ABAQUS/Standard or
ABAQUS/Explicit when you submit a job for analysis. For more information, see ``Basic
steps for analyzing a model,'' Section 21.2.1.

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Output database files ( job_name.odb)


Output database files contain the results from your analysis. You use the Step module's Output
Database Request Manager to choose which variables are written to the output database during
the analysis and at what rate. An output database is associated with the job you submit from
the Job module; for example, if you named your job FrictionLoad, the analysis creates an
output database called FrictionLoad.odb.
When you open an output database, ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module and
allows you to view a graphical representation of the contents. You can also import a part from
an output database as an orphan mesh.

The restart file (job_name.res)


The restart file is used to continue an analysis that stopped before it was complete. You use
the Step module to specify which analysis steps should write restart information and how
often. If you are using ABAQUS/Explicit, the restart information you supply in the Step
module controls the data written to the state file ( job_name.abq). For more information,
see ``Configuring restart output requests,'' Section 17.10.1.

The data file ( job_name.dat)


The data file contains printed output from the solver input file processor, as well as printed
output of selected results written during the analysis. ABAQUS/CAE automatically requests
that the default printed output for the current analysis procedure be generated at the end of
each step; you cannot use ABAQUS/CAE to exert any additional control over the contents of
the data file.

The message file (job_name.msg)


The message file contains diagnostic or informative messages about the progress of the
solution. You can control the diagnostic information that is output to the message file using
the Step module. For more information, see ``Diagnostic printing,'' Section 17.5.2.

The status file (job_name.sta)


The status file (job_name.sta) contains information about the progress of the analysis. In
addition, you use the Step module to request that the value of a single degree of freedom at a
single node be output to the status file. For more information, see ``Degree of freedom monitor
requests,'' Section 17.5.3.

Note: The errors and warnings that ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit write to the data,
message, and status files while analyzing a job can be monitored by the Job module; for more
information, see ``Monitoring the progress of an analysis job,'' Section 21.2.6.

12.4 ABAQUS/CAE command files


This section describes the command files that you can use to reproduce your work and to customize
ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered:

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· ``Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section 12.4.1

· ``Recreating a saved model database,'' Section 12.4.2

· ``Recreating an unsaved model database,'' Section 12.4.3

· ``Creating and running your own scripts,'' Section 12.4.4

· ``Creating and running a macro,'' Section 12.4.5

· ``Customizing your ABAQUS/CAE environment,'' Section 12.4.6

12.4.1 Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session


Almost every modeling operation that you perform in ABAQUS/CAE is recorded automatically in the
replay file (abaqus.rpy) in the form of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands. Executing the
replay file is equivalent to replaying the original sequence of operations including any redundant
procedures and any mistakes and subsequent corrections that you made. The replay file also includes
canvas operations, such as creating a new viewport or adding a text annotation.
ABAQUS/CAE retains the five most recent versions of the replay file. The most recent version of the
replay file is called abaqus.rpy. The four older versions have a number appended to the end of the
file name; the file name with the lowest number indicates the oldest replay file, and the file name with
the highest number indicates the second most recent replay file.
You can execute the replay file when you start ABAQUS/CAE or during a session; however, the
resulting model may be different if the replay file generates an error.

From the ABAQUS execution procedure


To run a replay file from the ABAQUS execution procedure, type abaqus cae
replay=replay_file_name.rpy. If executing the replay file generates an error,
ABAQUS/CAE ignores the error and continues to the next command in the replay file. As a
result, ABAQUS/CAE always attempts to execute every command in the replay file.

During an ABAQUS/CAE session


To run a replay file during a session, select File->Run Script from the main menu bar. If the
replay file generates an error, ABAQUS/CAE stops executing the replay file and displays an
error message in the command area. It is recommended that you run a replay file from the
ABAQUS execution procedure.

12.4.2 Recreating a saved model database


When you save a model database (by selecting File->Save or File->Save As from the main menu bar),
ABAQUS/CAE also saves a model database journal file (model_database_name.jnl)
containing the ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands that will recreate the model database. Should
the saved model database become corrupted, you can recreate it by starting ABAQUS/CAE with the
recover option. (Type abaqus cae recover=model_database_name.jnl.) The recover

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option executes the commands in the specified model database journal file.
The model database journal file differs from the replay file in that it does not contain every operation
performed during a session. The model database journal file contains only the commands that change
the saved model database; for example, commands that create or edit a part, change the time
incrementation of an analysis step, or modify the mesh. Operations that do not change the model
database are not saved in the journal file; for example, sending an image to a printer, creating a
viewport, rotating the model, or viewing results in the Visualization module.
As you continue to work on your model, the model database in memory will differ from the most
recently saved model database. The model database journal file is updated only when you perform an
explicit save of the model database using File->Save or File->Save As. If you copy the model
database to a different location, you should also copy the associated model database journal file.
Otherwise, you will not be able to recreate the model database.

12.4.3 Recreating an unsaved model database


After you save the model database and continue to work on your model, ABAQUS/CAE saves a model
database recovery file (model_database_name.rec) containing ABAQUS Scripting Interface
commands that will recreate the version of the model database in memory. The model database
recovery file contains only the commands that changed the model database since you last saved it. The
model database recovery file is similar to the model database journal file in that it contains only the
commands that change the contents of the model database.
You usually use the recovery file to recreate a model database that was lost due to a catastrophic
interruption of your ABAQUS/CAE session; for example, as a result of a loss of power to your
computer. If you have not yet saved the current model database, ABAQUS/CAE creates a model
database recovery file called abaqus.rec. When you restart ABAQUS/CAE, it detects the presence
of a model database recovery file called abaqus.rec and asks if you want to recreate the model
database before continuing.
The recovery behavior is similar after you save the model database. When you perform the save
operation, ABAQUS/CAE copies the model database recovery file to a new model database journal
file and deletes the recovery file. As you continue to work on your model, ABAQUS/CAE creates a
new model database recovery file called model_database_name.rec. If you restart
ABAQUS/CAE after a catastrophic interruption of your session, ABAQUS/CAE does not detect the
presence of the model database recovery file until you open the model database called
model_database_name.cae. ABAQUS/CAE then asks if you wish to restore the model database
before continuing.

12.4.4 Creating and running your own scripts


Almost every modeling operation that you perform during an ABAQUS/CAE session can be
duplicated by a script (script_name.py) containing a set of ABAQUS Scripting Interface
commands. Conversely, running a script from within ABAQUS/CAE is equivalent to performing the
corresponding operations using the menus, toolboxes, and dialog boxes that ABAQUS/CAE provides.
You can create scripts that duplicate operations you perform routinely during a session; for example,

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you might write a script that defines the material properties of a commonly used material. The replay
file, the model database journal file, and the model database recovery file all contain ABAQUS/CAE
commands. ABAQUS/CAE commands are written in the Python scripting language, and you can use
Python to enhance the scripts generated by ABAQUS/CAE. For more information on ABAQUS/CAE
commands, see the ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual.
Commands are stored as ASCII text in the replay, journal, and recovery files and in ABAQUS/CAE
scripts that you create. As a result, you can use a standard text editor to edit the contents of the files.
For more information on commands, see the ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual.
To run a script, select File->Run Script from the main menu bar, and select the script to run from the
Run Script dialog box.

Note: You should use the recover option from the ABAQUS/CAE execution procedure to run a
journal file and recreate a saved model database. (Type abaqus cae
recover=model_database_name.jnl.) Selecting File->Run Script to run a journal file
may result in an incomplete model database.

12.4.5 Creating and running a macro


The Macro Manager allows you to record a sequence of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands in a
macro file while you interact with ABAQUS/CAE. Each command corresponds to an interaction with
ABAQUS/CAE, and replaying the macro reproduces the sequence of interactions. You can use a
macro to automate tasks that you find yourself performing repeatedly, such as printing the current
viewport or applying a predefined view. All of your macros are stored in a file called
abaqusMacros.py in the local directory. For more information on ABAQUS Scripting Interface
commands, see the ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual.
To create, delete, or run a macro, select File->Macro Manager from the main menu bar.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Macro Manager and a list of the existing macros in
abaqusMacros.py in the local directory. For more information, see ``Managing macros,'' Section
12.9.

12.4.6 Customizing your ABAQUS/CAE environment


You use the ABAQUS environment file ( abaqus_v6.env) to specify parameters that control
ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. In addition, you can use the environment file to specify a
set of commands that are executed when you start an ABAQUS/CAE session. Examples of commands
that configure how you want a job to run on a remote host computer are given in ``Submitting a job
remotely,'' Section 21.2.7.

12.5 Using the File menu


Use the items under File on the main menu bar to do the following:

· Select File->New to create a new model database. You can also click in the toolbar. For more
information, see ``Creating a new model database,'' Section 12.6.1.

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· Select File->Open to open an existing model database or output database. You can also click
in the toolbar. For more information, see ``Opening a model database or an output database, ''
Section 12.6.2.

· Select File->Close ODB to close an output database. For more information, see ``Closing the
current output database,'' Section 12.6.3.

· Select File->Save to save the current model database. You can also click in the toolbar. For
more information, see ``Saving the current model database,'' Section 12.6.4.

· Select File->Save As to save the current model database with a new name. For more information,
see ``Saving the current model database with a new name,'' Section 12.6.5.

· Select File->Import->Sketch to import a planar sketch from the following:

- An IGES-format file (.igs files)

- An AutoCAD-format file (.dxf files)

- An ACIS-format file (.sat files)

For more information, see ``Importing sketches,'' Section 13.5.1.

· Select File->Import->Part to import a part from the following:

- An ACIS-format file (.sat files)

- An IGES-format file (.igs files)

- A VDA-FS format file (.vda files)

- An output database (.odb files)

For more information, see ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2.

· Select File->Import->Model to import a model from an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit


input file. For more information, see ``Using the input file reader to import a model,'' Section 13.6.

· Select File->Export->Sketch to export the current sketch to the following:

- An IGES-format file (.igs files)

- An ACIS-format file (.sat files)

For more information, see ``Exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file,'' Section
13.7.2.

· Select File->Export->Part to export the current part to the following:

- An ACIS-format file (.sat files)

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- An IGES-format file (.igs files)

- A VDA-FS format file (.vda files)

For more information, see ``Exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file,'' Section
13.7.2.

· Select File->Export->Assembly to export the part instances in the assembly to:

- An ACIS-format file (.sat files)

For more information, see ``Exporting the assembly to an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.7.3.

· Select File->Run Script to execute a file containing ABAQUS/CAE commands.

· Select File->Macro Manager to store your actions in a macro file as a sequence of ABAQUS/CAE
commands. You can also run a run a macro and rename an existing macro.

· Select File->Print to print all or selected viewports and annotations. You can also click in the
toolbar. For more information, see Chapter 11, "Printing canvas objects."

· Select File->Exit to exit the ABAQUS/CAE session. For more information, see ``Exiting an
ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section 5.1.2.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3

12.6 Managing model and output databases


This section describes how you use the main menu bar's File menu to manage model and output
databases. The following topics are covered:

· ``Creating a new model database,'' Section 12.6.1

· ``Opening a model database or an output database, '' Section 12.6.2

· ``Closing the current output database, '' Section 12.6.3

· ``Saving the current model database,'' Section 12.6.4

· ``Saving the current model database with a new name,'' Section 12.6.5

12.6.1 Creating a new model database


You can create and store multiple model databases on your computer, but you can have only one
model database open at any time. Select File->New from the main menu bar to create a new, empty

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model database. You can also click in the toolbar.


If you have made any changes to the current model database, ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save
your changes before it closes the current model database and creates the new one. The new database
then becomes the current database. To save the new model database, select File->Save from the main
menu bar and enter the name of the database. After you save the model database, ABAQUS/CAE
displays its name in the title bar of the main window.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1

· ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

12.6.2 Opening a model database or an output database


Select File->Open from the main menu bar to open either:

· A model database (file extension .cae)

· An output database (file extension .odb)

From the Open Database dialog box that appears, select the File Type and the file to open and click
OK.

To specify the directory that should be searched by default when you open a model database or an
output database and which files should be displayed in the Open Database dialog box, you can
include lines similar to the following in your ABAQUS resource file (Abaqus).

On UNIX systems
*FileOpenDB.dialog*pattern: /usr/smith/my_models/*.cae
*FileOpenDB.dialog*pattern: /usr/smith/my_output/*.odb

On Windows NT systems
*FileOpenDB.dialog*pattern: c:\users\smith\my_models\*.cae
*FileOpenDB.dialog*pattern: c:\users\smith\my_output\*.odb

For more information on the ABAQUS resource file, see ``Customizing X resources,'' Section 6.1.
Detailed instructions for opening a model database or an output database:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Open.

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Tip: You can also click in the toolbar to open a model database or an output database.

ABAQUS/CAE displays the Open Database dialog box.

2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Open Database dialog box, select one of the
following:
Model Database (*.cae)

ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the file extension .cae.
Select the model database to open, and click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE opens the model database and displays its name in the title bar of the main
window. All operations now refer to the new model database. If you have modified the
current model database, ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save it before it opens the
selected model database.
Output Database (*.odb)

ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the file extension .odb.
Select the output database to open, and click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE starts the the Visualization module in the current viewport and displays
the model in fast mode. You can open more than one output database at the same time and
display the contents in different viewports.

For more information on specifying the file to open, see ``Using file selection dialog boxes,''
Section 6.3.7.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``What is the fast plot mode?,'' Section 23.3.3

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

12.6.3 Closing the current output database


Select File->Close from the main menu bar to close an output database. Closing an output database
releases computer resources, such as memory.
Detailed instructions for closing an output database:

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1. From the main menu bar, select File->Close.


The Close Output Database dialog box appears with a list of all the output databases that are
open, the date they were last updated, and the viewports that reference each open output database.

2. Select the output database to close and click OK to close the dialog box.
ABAQUS/CAE closes the selected output database and clears any viewports that were displaying
data from that output database.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

12.6.4 Saving the current model database

Select File->Save from the main menu bar or click in the toolbar to save the current model
database. After you save the model database, ABAQUS/CAE displays its name in the title bar of the
main window.
Before you save the current model database for the first time, it exists only in memory and has no
name. When you save the current model database for the first time, ABAQUS/CAE displays the Save
Model Database As dialog box to allow you to enter a name; subsequent saves use this name. If you
omit the file extension, ABAQUS/CAE appends .cae to the file name.
For information on saving the model database using a different name and on customizing the default
behavior of the Save Model Database As dialog box, see ``Saving the current model database with a
new name,'' Section 12.6.5. For more information on saving files, see ``Using file selection dialog
boxes,'' Section 6.3.7.
You should save the model database periodically. ABAQUS/CAE never saves the model database
unless you perform an explicit save operation; there is no timer-based automatic saving, for example. If
you try to save a model database that has not been modified, no action is taken.
ABAQUS/CAE asks you if you want to save a modified model database before you exit the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

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· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

12.6.5 Saving the current model database with a new name


Select File->Save As from the main menu bar to save the current model database with a new name.
From the Save Model Database As dialog box that appears, enter a new name for the model database
and click OK. If you omit the file extension, ABAQUS/CAE appends .cae to the file name. See
``Saving the current model database,'' Section 12.6.4, for information on saving the model database
using the same name.
To specify the directory that should be searched by default when you save a model database and which
files should be displayed in the Save Model Database As dialog box, you can include lines similar to
the following in your ABAQUS resource file (Abaqus).

On UNIX systems
*saveMdbDB.dialog*pattern: /usr/smith/my_models/*.cae
*saveMdbDB.dialog*pattern: /usr/smith/my_output/*.odb

On Windows NT systems
*saveMdbDB.dialog*pattern: c:\users\smith\my_models\*.cae
*saveMdbDB.dialog*pattern: c:\users\smith\my_output\*.odb

For more information on the ABAQUS resource file, see ``Customizing X resources,'' Section 6.1.
Note: You cannot save a model database using the name abaqus.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

12.7 Managing models


This section describes how you manage models within the current model database. The following
topics are covered:

· ``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1

· ``Opening an existing model,'' Section 12.7.2

· ``Copying objects between models,'' Section 12.7.3

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· ``Editing model attributes,'' Section 12.7.4

For general information on managing objects, see ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5, and ``Managing
objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7.

12.7.1 Manipulating models within a model database


A model database can contain many models. Although you can have only one model database open at
any time, you can open more than one model at a time. The main window's title bar displays the name
of the model database, and the title bar of each viewport displays the name of the model associated
with the viewport. The current viewport is indicated by a red border; the model associated with the
current viewport is known as the current model. The name of the current model is also displayed in the
Model list under the toolbar.

To create a new model, select Model->Create from the main menu bar and enter the name of the
model in the Create Model dialog box that appears.
To open a model and associate it with the current viewport, select the desired model from the Model
list under the toolbar. The Model list contains all the models in the current model database.
To copy, rename, or delete models, select the Copy, Rename, or Delete items listed under the Model
menu on the main menu bar. The Copy, Rename, and Delete items contain submenus listing all the
models in the current model database. For general information on how to use these menus, see
``Managing objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7.
You can also create, copy, rename, and delete models using the Model Manager. To display the Model
Manager, select Model->Manager from the main menu bar. The Model Manager dialog box contains
functions identical to those listed under the Model menu but with a convenient browser that lists all
the models available in the current model database. For general information on how to use managers,
see ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5.
You can copy a model to a new model in a model database. In addition, you can copy sketches, parts,
materials, sections, and amplitudes between the models in a model database.; for more information, see
``Copying objects between models,'' Section 12.7.3. However, you cannot copy models between model
databases.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Managing models,'' Section 12.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

· ``Copying objects between models,'' Section 12.7.3

· ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5

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12.7.2 Opening an existing model


To open a model and associate it with the current viewport, select the desired model from the Model
list under the toolbar. The Model list contains all the models in the current model database.
ABAQUS/CAE switches to the selected model and associates it with the current viewport (indicated
by a red border). The new model appears in the list of models under the toolbar.
You can have multiple models open at any one time; the title bar of a viewport indicates the model
associated with the current viewport. You do not have to save the current model prior to opening an
existing model because ABAQUS/CAE stores all models in the model database.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

12.7.3 Copying objects between models


Select Model->Copy Objects from the main menu bar to copy objects between models in the current
model database. You can copy the following objects:

· Sketches

· Parts (part sets are also copied)

· Materials

· Sections

· Amplitudes

You cannot copy other individual objects, such as the assembly, loads, or steps; however, you can
achieve a similar effect by copying the entire model to a new model and editing the objects in the new
model. For more information, see ``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1.
Dependent objects are not copied automatically when you copy an object between models. For
example, if you copy a section, the associated material is not copied along with the section; you must
copy the material in a separate copy operation.
Detailed instructions for copying objects between models:

1. From the main menu bar, select Model->Copy Objects.


The Copy Model Objects dialog box appears.

2. From the dialog box, select the model to copy objects from.

3. Use the following techniques to specify the objects to copy from the selected model:

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· Click the arrow next to the desired object category. From the list of objects that appears,
toggle the names of the objects of your choice. An object category is unavailable if it contains
no objects.

· Toggle the desired object category. This action selects or deselects all objects within that
category.

The check box next to an object category becomes completely filled when all objects within that
category are selected. The box becomes half filled if only some of the objects within that category
are selected. You must select at least one object or object category to copy.

4. From the bottom of the Copy Model Objects dialog box, select the model to copy the selected
objects to.

5. Click OK to copy the selected objects and to close the Copy Model Objects dialog box.
ABAQUS/CAE copies the selected objects. If an object with the same name already exists in the
model to which you are copying the object, ABAQUS/CAE asks for confirmation that you want to
overwrite the existing object. Click Yes to All to overwrite all existing objects with the same name
as the objects you are copying.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1

12.7.4 Editing model attributes


Select Model->Edit Attributes from the main menu bar to edit the description of a model and/or to
define the absolute zero and the Stefan Boltzmann constant for the model.
To edit model attributes:

1. From the main menu bar, select Model->Edit Attributes->model name.


The Edit Attributes dialog box appears.

2. In the dialog box, edit the model attributes as desired:

· In the Description field, type information that you want to record about the model.

· In the area of the dialog box labeled Physical Constants, enter values for absolute zero and
the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.

3. Click OK to save your data and to close the dialog box.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1

12.8 Adding unsupported keywords to your ABAQUS/CAE model


ABAQUS/CAE uses your model definition to generate ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit
keywords and data that are placed in an input file when you submit the analysis job. Currently
ABAQUS/CAE may not support ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit functionality that you
might like to include in your model. If that is the case, you may be able to add the functionality using
the Keywords Editor. Select Model->Edit Keywords->model _name from the main menu bar to
start the Keywords Editor.
To use the Keywords Editor, you should be familiar with the syntax of ABAQUS/Standard or
ABAQUS/Explicit keywords and data. For example, the Interaction module does not allow you to
impose constraints between different degrees of freedom of the model using multi-point constraints. To
impose multi-point constraints, you can use the Keywords Editor to add the *MPC keyword to the
model. Similarly, you can use the Keywords Editor to select an element type that is not supported by
ABAQUS/CAE.
When you submit the model for analysis in the Job module, ABAQUS/CAE incorporates changes you
made using the Keywords Editor in the input file that is submitted for analysis. Keywords that you add
to your model using the Keywords Editor persist even after you modify or regenerate the model using
ABAQUS/CAE, because ABAQUS/CAE stores the contents of the Keywords Editor along with the
model definition in the model database.
The Keywords Editor does not allow you to edit the geometry of your model; you must use
ABAQUS/CAE to make geometry changes. Therefore, the Keywords Editor is available only after
you have generated the mesh.
Warning: It is recommended that you not edit keywords that are supported by ABAQUS/CAE; for
example, you should use the Property module, not the Keywords Editor, to change the properties
of a material. This approach maintains consistency between directly supported aspects of a model
and those added by the Keywords Editor.
If you do edit a keyword using the Keywords Editor and then use ABAQUS/CAE to make a
change to your model that refers to the same keyword, ABAQUS/CAE cannot determine which
version of the keyword to incorporate in the input file and writes text to the input file signaling the
problem. As a result, an error is generated when you submit the model for analysis. If you display
the input file using the Keywords Editor, any keywords or data lines that conflict are indicated
by a *Conflicts statement. In addition, the *Conflicts statement indicates whether the text was
generated by ABAQUS/CAE or by the Keywords Editor. You should use the Keywords Editor to
remove any unwanted keywords or data lines. You should also remove all the *Conflicts

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statements.

You can review the keywords supported by ABAQUS/CAE by selecting Help->Keyword Browser
from the main menu bar.
Detailed instructions for editing the model's keywords:

1. From the main menu bar, select Model->Edit Keywords->model _name.


The Keywords Editor appears and displays the keywords associated with the model you select.
Note: The keywords are available to be edited only after you have generated a mesh.

2. Each keyword in the input file is displayed in its own block. Buttons in the lower left corner of the
Keywords Editor allow you to do the following:

Add After

Add an empty block of text below the selected block. A blue vertical bar indicates a block
that you added.
Remove

Remove the selected block of text that was added using the Keywords Editor. You
cannot remove a block generated by ABAQUS/CAE.
Discard Changes

Discard the changes you made to a block generated by ABAQUS/CAE during the most
recent use of the Keywords Editor.

In addition, you can click any block and edit the text inside. A red vertical bar indicates a block
generated by ABAQUS/CAE that you edited.

3. From the buttons across the bottom of the Keywords Editor, click OK to include your changes
and to close the editor. Click Cancel to disregard your changes.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· Appendix A, "Keyword support

12.9 Managing macros


To manage macros containing a set of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands, select File->Macro
Manager from the main menu bar. When you create a macro, ABAQUS/CAE records a sequence of
ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands in a macro file while you interact with ABAQUS/CAE. Each
command corresponds to an interaction with ABAQUS/CAE, and replaying the macro reproduces the

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sequence of interactions.
The macro file is called abaqusMacros.py and is saved in your local directory. The Macro
Manager contains a list of the existing macros that ABAQUS/CAE detected in the
abaqusMacros.py file. You can copy or rename abaqusMacros.py; however, the new file will
not be recognized by the Macro Manager.
Your macro will run only in the same context in which it was recorded. For example, if you create a
macro while in the Part module that copies a part named gear1 to a new part named gear2 and exit
ABAQUS/CAE, the macro will be executed in a new ABAQUS/CAE session only if you enter the Part
module and a part named gear1 exists.
The ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands are stored in ASCII text, and you can edit
abaqusMacros.py with a standard text editor. For more information on commands, see the
ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual.
Detailed instructions for creating a macro:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Macro Manager.


The Macro Manager dialog box appears.

2. From the buttons across the bottom of the Macro Manager dialog box, click Create.

3. Enter a name for the macro in the Create Macro dialog box that appears, and click Continue. You
cannot overwrite an existing macro.
Each of your interactions with ABAQUS/CAE is stored as a command in the
abaqusMacros.py file. A Recording macro dialog box appears to remind you the macro is
recording. In addition, the Create, Delete, and Run buttons are not available in the Macro
Manager while the macro is recording.

4. Click the Stop recording button to save the macro in abaqusMacros.py.

Detailed instructions for deleting a macro:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Macro Manager.


The Macro Manager dialog box appears.

2. Select the macro to delete. You can select more than one macro.

3. From the buttons across the bottom of the Macro Manager dialog box, click Delete.

4. From the dialog box that appears, click OK to confirm your action.
ABAQUS/CAE deletes the macro from abaqusMacros.py. You cannot recover a deleted
macro.

Detailed instructions for running a macro:

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1. From the main menu bar, select File->Macro Manager.


The Macro Manager dialog box appears.

2. Select the macro to run.

3. From the buttons across the bottom of the Macro Manager dialog box, click Run. You can run
only one macro; the Run button is not available if you selected more than one macro.
ABAQUS/CAE runs the commands in the selected macro and displays a message in the message
area when the macro execution completes.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Creating and running a macro,'' Section 12.4.5

· ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual

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13. Importing and exporting geometry data and


models
This section describes the files that can be imported and exported from ABAQUS/CAE. The following
topics are covered:

· ``What kinds of files can be imported and exported from ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 13.1

· ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2

· ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

· ``Importing models from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files,'' Section 13.4

· ``Importing geometry data and models,'' Section 13.5

· ``Using the input file reader to import a model,'' Section 13.6

· ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section 13.7

13.1 What kinds of files can be imported and exported from


ABAQUS/CAE?
ABAQUS/CAE reads and writes geometry data stored in the following formats:

ACIS (file_name.sat)
ACIS is an object-oriented toolkit designed for use as a geometry engine for modeling
applications and is considered the industry standard for geometry modeling. You can import
ACIS-format parts, and you can export parts or the assembly in ACIS format. In addition, you
can import and export a sketch from an ACIS file. For more information, see ``Importing
sketches,'' Section 13.5.1; ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2; and ``Exporting geometry data,''
Section 13.7.

IGES (file_name.igs)
The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) is a neutral data format designed for
graphics exchange between computer-aided design (CAD) systems. You can import
IGES-format parts, and you can export parts in IGES format. In addition, you can import and
export a sketch from an IGES file. For more information, see ``Importing sketches,'' Section
13.5.1; ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2; and ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section 13.7.

VDA-FS (file_name.vda)
The Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA) surface data format is a geometry standard
developed by the German automotive industry. Both VDA-FS and IGES files contain a
mathematical representation of the part in an ASCII format; however, the VDA-FS standard
concentrates on geometry information. Additional information covered by the IGES standard,

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such as dimensions, text, and colors, is not stored in a VDA-FS file. As a result, the file format
is simplified, and you may find it easier to transfer files between CAD systems and
ABAQUS/CAE using VDA-FS files.
You can import VDA-FS-format parts, and you can export parts in VDA-FS-format. For more
information, see ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2; and ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section
13.7.

AutoCAD (file_name.dxf)
Two-dimensional profiles stored in AutoCAD (.dxf) files can be imported as stand-alone
sketches. For more information and details of the AutoCAD entities supported by
ABAQUS/CAE, see ``Importing sketches,'' Section 13.5.1.

Output database (output_database_ name.odb)


An output database contains the data generated during an ABAQUS/Standard or
ABAQUS/Explicit analysis. You can import a part from an output database in the form of an
orphan mesh. An orphan mesh part contains no feature information and is extracted from the
output database as a collection of nodes, elements, surfaces, and sets. You can use the Part
module to edit the original mesh definition, and you can use the Mesh module to change the
element type assigned to the mesh. For more information, see ``Importing parts,'' Section
13.5.2; ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22; and ``Assigning ABAQUS element types,''
Section 20.5.
If you import an orphan mesh from an output database when the current viewport already
contains an orphan mesh, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to do either of the following:

· Create a new part from the imported orphan mesh.

· Replace the mesh of the current orphan mesh part with the imported orphan mesh. All
current sets are deleted, and sets from the imported orphan mesh are imported into the
current part. The name of the current part does not change; and, if the set names in the
imported database are the same as the current set names, the part will maintain all
set-based assignments.

ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files


ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file when you submit a job for analysis. You can import
input files into ABAQUS/CAE. ABAQUS/CAE translates the keywords and data lines in the
imported input file into a new model; however, a limited set of ABAQUS/Standard and
ABAQUS/Explicit keywords are supported, as described in ``Importing models from
ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files,'' Section 13.4. For more information on
creating and submitting jobs, see ``Basic steps for analyzing a model,'' Section 21.2.1.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 12, "Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models, model databases, and files

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13.2 Understanding the contents of an IGES file


The IGES neutral file format is an international standard that allows you to transfer geometric data
between ABAQUS/CAE and other CAD applications. You can use IGES-format files to import and
export sketches and parts.
During importing ABAQUS/CAE scans the IGES file and detects all the entities stored in the file. An
entity can be a geometric entity, such as a vertex, an arc, or a line. Alternatively, an entity can be
separate from the geometry, such as a comment. IGES allocates a number to each entity; for example, a
circular arc is entity number 100.
After ABAQUS/CAE scans the IGES file, it displays the IGES Options dialog box, which lists the
entities contained in the file along with the following:

· A description of the entity along with its entity number.

· The number of occurrences found in the IGES file.

· Whether the entity is supported by ABAQUS/CAE.

For a complete list of the IGES entities that can be imported into ABAQUS/CAE, see ``IGES entities
recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section 13.5.5.
Some of the IGES entities are stored as a set of parametric surfaces along with a set of trim curves that
delineate the boundaries of the surfaces. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to choose how these trim curves
are defined:

As per IGES file


Using the definition in the IGES file.

Always use parametric data


Using the parameter space of the surface being trimmed.

Always use 3D data


Using real space--the part's coordinate system--together with an indication that the trim curve
lies on the parametric surface.

An IGES file can contain curves defined using real space, parameter space, or both. When you import a
part from an IGES file into ABAQUS/CAE, the surface and the trim curves are converted into an
internal representation of the part. By default, ABAQUS/CAE uses the information stored in the
IGES-file to decide how the trim curve is defined; alternatively, you can force ABAQUS/CAE to
always use either real space or parameter space.
CAD applications store data in IGES-format files using their own interpretation of the IGES standard.
ABAQUS/CAE is able to interpret IGES-format files generated by most applications. In addition,
when you export a part or the assembly to an IGES-format file, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to specify
the application that will be reading the file, and the data are written out in the appropriate tailored
format or flavor. You can choose one of the following flavors:

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· Standard

· AutoCAD

· SolidWorks

· JAMA (Japanese Automotive Manufacturer's Association)

By default, ABAQUS/CAE exports data to an IGES file using a standard flavor.


CAD applications can store entities in an IGES-format file in a sequence of layers. ABAQUS/CAE
imports all supported entities from all layers. Similarly, ABAQUS/CAE writes the geometry data to a
single layer in the IGES file.
For a detailed description of how to import and export from IGES-format files, see ``Importing a part
from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4, and ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section 13.7.

13.3 Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts


Transferring parts and sketches between CAD applications sometimes results in the loss of
information. Common problems include:

· Incomplete or approximate geometric data.

· Inconsistent or inaccurate curve and surface data.

· Mismatch between two- and three-dimensional data.

· Wrong orientation of curves or surfaces.

ABAQUS/CAE stores the geometry of a part to an accuracy of 10-6 units; however, different
applications may use a lower precision. As a result, during the import process ABAQUS/CAE may
detect problems with face trimming curves that appear to be disconnected or separated from the
underlying surface. Figure 13-1 illustrates an imported part. Because of precision limitations, vertex A
appears to be separated from vertex B; similarly, trim curve A appears to be separated from trim curve
B.

Figure 13-1 An imported part that must be repaired.

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When you import a part, ABAQUS/CAE displays a dialog box that allows you to repair the part. Parts
created by ABAQUS/CAE are composed of geometry that is always considered to be valid and precise.
Conversely, a part imported from another application can be invalid or imprecise and should be
repaired. Invalid and imprecise parts are described in the following list:

Invalid
If the part is invalid, you can use the automated geometry repair tool to try and make it valid.
If the part still cannot be made valid, you cannot modify it in the Part module or mesh it in the
Mesh module. In addition, it cannot be analyzed by either ABAQUS/Standard or
ABAQUS/Explicit. In general, a part that cannot be made valid cannot be used by
ABAQUS/CAE. You must return to the CAD application that generated the original file and
attempt to fix the geometry.

Imprecise
A valid part can be either precise or imprecise. If the part is imprecise, you can use the
geometry repair tools to try and make it precise. If the part still cannot be made precise, it can
still be used by ABAQUS/CAE; however, some functionality will be disabled. You should
return to the CAD application that generated the original file and increase the precision.

ABAQUS/CAE can perform the following set of operations in an effort to repair the geometry of an
imported part.

· Convert the part to its analytical representation

· Stitch the edges of the part

· Convert to a more precise representation

Some of the operations are dependent on each other. For example, if you stitch the edges of a part, you
must also convert it to an analytical representation. Similarly, if you convert the part to a more precise
representation, you must also stitch its edges and convert it to an analytical representation.

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You can repair a part during the import process. Alternatively, you can repair a part after importing it
by selecting Part->Repair Geomety from the main menu bar. The Part module provides a more
complete set of geometry repair tools that allows you to repair and edit imported and ABAQUS/CAE
native parts; for more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3.

13.4 Importing models from ABAQUS/Standard and


ABAQUS/Explicit input files
You can import an ABAQUS input file into ABAQUS/CAE by selecting File->Import->Model from
the main menu bar. Imported keywords are incorporated into a new model; for example, if the Young's
modulus was imported from the *ELASTIC keyword, it will be available in the Property module.
Keywords that are not supported are ignored during import. The input file does not have to be
complete; for example, it may not contain any history data.
The following functionality can be imported into a model from an ABAQUS input file:

· Nodes and elements

· Surfaces, node and element sets, and contact node sets

· Adaptive mesh controls

· Materials and sections

· Interactions and interaction properties

· Loads and boundary conditions (in the global coordinate system)

· Amplitudes

· Procedures, output requests, and monitor variables

See ``Keyword support from the input file reader,'' Section A.2 for a complete list of the keywords that
are supported by the input file reader.
You can import models with a mixture of rigid and deformable parts. The input file reader uses
element definitions to create separate deformable parts and analytical and discrete rigid parts. All of
the deformable elements in the input file form a single deformable part in ABAQUS/CAE. However, a
separate rigid part is created for each *RIGID BODY, *RIGID SURFACE, and *SURFACE option
that is encountered. The rigid body reference nodes are assigned according to the REF NODE
parameter on the *RIGID BODY and *RIGID SURFACE options. Deformable and rigid parts created
by the import capability are stored in the form of an orphan mesh; an orphan mesh comprises node and
element definitions and the type of element assigned. An orphan mesh part consists of a single feature;
you can use the mesh edit tools to modify an orphan mesh, but you cannot add geometric features to
it.
The import capability creates sets based on any *ELSET or *NSET keywords, as well as any ELSET or
NSET parameters on other supported keywords. If the nodes or elements in a set appear on only a
single part (deformable or rigid), ABAQUS/CAE creates both a part set and an assembly set. Similarly,

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if these nodes or elements appear on separate parts, ABAQUS/CAE creates an assembly set and
multiple part sets. Each part set contains only the nodes or elements from the imported set that appear
on the particular part.
Most of the commonly used element types can be assigned to the elements in an orphan mesh.
However, some element types cannot be imported from an input file. For a full list of unsupported
elements and detailed instructions on using the input file reader, see ``Using the input file reader to
import a model,'' Section 13.6.
You can use the Mesh module to change the element type assigned to an orphan mesh imported from
an input file. In addition, you can use the Keywords Editor to include options that the input file reader
does not support; for detailed instructions on using the Keywords Editor, see ``Adding unsupported
keywords to your ABAQUS/CAE model,'' Section 12.8.

13.5 Importing geometry data and models


This section describes how you use the main menu bar's File menu to import sketches, parts, and
models. The following topics are covered:

· ``Importing sketches,'' Section 13.5.1

· ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2

· ``Importing parts from an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.5.3

· ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4

· ``IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section 13.5.5

· ``Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file,'' Section 13.5.6

· ``Importing a part from an output database,'' Section 13.5.7

· ``Repairing an imported part,'' Section 13.5.8

13.5.1 Importing sketches


Select File->Import->Sketch from the main menu bar to import a sketch from either:

· An IGES-format file (.igs files)

· An AutoCAD-format file (.dxf files)

· An ACIS-format file (.sat files)

If you are importing a sketch, the file must contain a two-dimensional planar profile that can be
mapped directly to the sketch plane. If the file contains three-dimensional geometry, ABAQUS/CAE
does the following:

· If you are importing an AutoCAD file, ABAQUS/CAE creates the sketch using the geometry in the

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X-Y plane only.

· If you are importing an IGES or ACIS file, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and cancels
the import procedure.

You can import sketches from files that contain only simple geometry because ABAQUS/CAE must be
able to translate the geometry to a corresponding Sketcher entity, such as a line, circle, arc, or spline. If
ABAQUS/CAE finds geometry it cannot translate, it ignores that geometry. For a list of the IGES and
AutoCAD entities supported by ABAQUS/CAE, see ``Imported sketches,'' Section 22.3.2.
Detailed instructions for importing a sketch:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Sketch.


ABAQUS/CAE displays the Import Sketch dialog box.

2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select one of the following:

· IGES (*.igs)

· AutoCAD DXF (*.dxf)

· ACIS (*.sat)

3. Select the file containing the sketch to import and click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketch module, converts the profile in the file to a sketch, and exits the
Sketch module. The sketch now appears in the list of sketches in the model and can be retrieved
when you enter the Sketch module. For information on how to use the imported sketch, see
``Stand-alone sketches,'' Section 22.3.1.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2

· ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.5.2 Importing parts


Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import a part from either:

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An IGES-, ACIS-, or VDA-FS-format file


Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can write IGES-, ACIS, or
VDA-FS-format files; you can use these files to import geometry information from these
applications into ABAQUS/CAE.
You can import multiple parts stored in an ACIS-format file; however, if IGES- or
VDA-FS-format files contains multiple parts, ABAQUS/CAE imports them as a single part.
For more information, see ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4;
``IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section
13.5.5; ``Importing parts from an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.5.3; and .

An output database
You can import the assembly stored in an output database in the form of an orphan mesh. An
orphan mesh part contains no feature information and is extracted from the output database as
a collection of nodes, elements, surfaces, and sets. You can use the Part module to edit the
nodes and elements that form the orphan mesh. Although the model that was analyzed may
have been constructed from multiple part instances, only one orphan mesh part can be
extracted from the resulting output database.
For more information, see ``Importing a part from an output database,'' Section 13.5.7.

Detailed instructions for importing a part:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part.


The Import Part dialog box appears.

2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select one of the following:

· IGES (*.igs); for more information, see ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section
13.5.4.

· VDA-FS (*.vda); for more information, see ``Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file,''
Section 13.5.6.

· ACIS (*.sat); for more information, see ``Importing parts from an ACIS-format file,'' Section
13.5.3.

· Output Database (*.odb); for more information, see ``Importing a part from an output
database,'' Section 13.5.7.

3. ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the appropriate file extension. Select
the file containing the part to import, and click Continue.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Part module, the imported part replaces the contents of the current
viewport, and the part appears in the model's list of parts below the toolbar.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

· ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1

13.5.3 Importing parts from an ACIS-format file


Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write ACIS-format files; you
can use these files to exchange geometry information between these applications and ABAQUS/CAE.
Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import a part from an ACIS-format file. You can
import multiple parts stored in an ACIS-format file. You can export parts and the assembly from
ABAQUS/CAE into an ACIS-format file.
You cannot import parts of mixed modeling space from an ACIS-format file; for example, solids and
axisymmetric surfaces. In addition, you cannot import parts of mixed type; for example, deformable
bodies and discrete rigid surfaces.
An imported ACIS part forms the base feature of a new part in ABAQUS/CAE; you cannot modify this
base feature directly, but you can add additional features to it, such as a solid extrusion or a blind cut.
Detailed instructions for importing a part from an ACIS-format file:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part.


The Import Part dialog box appears.

2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select ACIS (*.sat).
ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with a .sat file extension.

3. Select the ACIS file containing the part or parts to import, and click Continue.
The Create Part from ACIS File dialog box appears.

4. ABAQUS/CAE uses the name of the file to name the part and assumes that the part type is
deformable; you can change the part's name and type if desired. ABAQUS/CAE tries to determine
the modeling space as follows:

· If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is three-dimensional, it sets the modeling space to


three-dimensional.

· If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar, you can choose whether the modeling space is

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two- or three-dimensional.

· If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar and that its geometry does not cross the Y-axis,
you can choose whether the modeling space is axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or
three-dimensional. If you choose axisymmetric, the Y-axis is assumed to be the axis of
revolution, and you can add a twist degree of freedom.

5. If desired, click the Repair Options tab and toggle the desired repair operations. For more
information, see ``Repairing an imported part,'' Section 13.5.8.

6. Click OK to import the ACIS part.


ABAQUS/CAE enters the Part module, the imported part replaces the contents of the current
viewport, and the part appears in the model's list of parts below the toolbar.
Note: An ACIS file can contain more than one part. If that is the case, ABAQUS/CAE imports each part separately and
displays the Create Part from ACIS File dialog box for each part. Click Cancel to stop importing parts from an ACIS file.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

· ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1

13.5.4 Importing a part from an IGES-format file


Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write IGES-format files; you
can use these files to exchange geometry information between these applications and ABAQUS/CAE.
Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import a part from an IGES-format file. You can
export sketches and parts from ABAQUS/CAE into an IGES-format file, but you cannot export the
assembly to an IGES-format file.
If the IGES-format file contains multiple parts, ABAQUS/CAE imports them as a single part. An
imported IGES part forms the base feature of a new part in ABAQUS/CAE; you cannot modify this
base feature directly, but you can add additional features to it, such as a solid extrusion or a blind cut.
Detailed instructions for importing a part from an IGES-format file:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part.


The Import Part dialog box appears.

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2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select IGES (*.igs).
ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with a .igs file extension.

3. Select the IGES file containing the part to import, and click Continue.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Import from IGES dialog box containing header information from the
IGES file.

4. If desired, click IGES Options to open the IGES Options dialog box and to view a list of the
entities read from the IGES-format file. The list includes a description of the entity along with its
entity number, the number of occurrences found in the IGES file, and whether it is supported by
ABAQUS/CAE. For a complete list of the IGES entities that can be imported into ABAQUS/CAE,
see ``IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section
13.5.5.

5. If desired, use the IGES Options dialog box to customize the following:

· How ABAQUS/CAE converts the surface and the trim curves into an internal representation
of the part. By default, ABAQUS/CAE uses the information stored in the IGES-file to decide
how the trim curve is defined; alternatively, you can force ABAQUS/CAE to always use either
real three-dimensional space or parameter space.

· The scale factor applied to the imported geometry.


Note: ABAQUS/CAE applies the scale factor to all of the coordinates in the file. As a
consequence, any offset from the origin will be scaled accordingly.

For more information, see ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2.
Click OK to close the IGES Options dialog box.

6. From the Import from IGES dialog box, click OK to import the IGES part.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Part from IGES File dialog box.

7. ABAQUS/CAE uses the name of the file to name the part and assumes that the part type is
deformable; you can use the Create Part from IGES File to change the part's name and type if
desired. ABAQUS/CAE tries to determine the modeling space as follows:

· If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is three-dimensional, it sets the modeling space to


three-dimensional.

· If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar, you can choose whether the modeling space is
two- or three-dimensional.

· If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar and that its geometry does not cross the Y-axis,
you can choose whether the modeling space is axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or
three-dimensional. If you choose axisymmetric, the Y-axis is assumed to be the axis of
revolution, and you can choose whether to include a twist degree of freedom.

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8. If desired, click the Repair Options tab and toggle the desired repair operations. For more
information, see ``Repairing an imported part,'' Section 13.5.8.

9. Click OK to exit the Create Part from IGES File dialog box.
ABAQUS/CAE scans the IGES file and starts the repair process, depending on the options
selected in step 8. If you wish to cancel the import process, click Stop in the prompt area.
When the part is imported, ABAQUS/CAE displays a message in the message area indicating if
the part contains any validity or precision problems. Select Part->Repair Geometry from the main
menu bar to try and repair an imported part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section 13.5.5

· ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2

· ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.5.5 IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing


a part or a sketch
During the import process, ABAQUS/CAE converts the entities stored in the IGES file to an internal
representation recognized by ABAQUS/CAE. The IGES file can contain entities that are not
recognized by ABAQUS/CAE; however, these entities are ignored during the conversion.
Table 13-1 lists the IGES entities that ABAQUS/CAE recognizes.

Table 13-1. IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch.
ID Form IGES Entity Name
100 0 Circular arc
102 0 Composite curve
104 1 Conic arc: general
104 2 Conic arc: ellipse
104 3 Conic arc: parabola
106 11 Copious data: 2D path
106 12 Copious data: 3D path
106 63 Copious data: Closed 2D curve

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108 1 Plane entity: bounded


110 0 Line
112 0 Parametric spline curve
114 0 Parametric spline surface
116 0 Point
118 1 Ruled surface
120 0 Surface of revolution
122 0 Tabulated cylinder
123 0 Direction
124 0 Transformation
126 0 Rational B-spline curve
128 0 Rational B-spline surface
130 0 Offset curve
140 0 Offset surface
141 0 Boundary entity
142 0 Curve on parametric surface
143 0 Bounded surface
144 0 Trimmed surface
186 0 MSBO
190 0 Plane surface
192 0 Right circular cylindrical surface
194 0 Right circular conical surface
196 0 Spherical surface
198 0 Toroidal surface
502 1 Vertex list
504 1 Edge list
508 1 Loop
510 1 Face
514 1 Shell

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4

· ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2

· ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

13.5.6 Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file


Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write VDA-FS-format files;
you can use these files to exchange geometry information between these applications and
ABAQUS/CAE. Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import a part from a
VDA-FS-format file. You can export parts from ABAQUS/CAE into a VDA-FS-format file, but you
cannot export the assembly to a VDA-FS-format file.
If the VDA-FS-format file contains multiple parts, ABAQUS/CAE imports them as a single part. An
imported VDA-FS part forms the base feature of a new part in ABAQUS/CAE; you cannot modify this

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base feature directly, but you can add additional features to it, such as a solid extrusion or a blind cut.
Detailed instructions for importing a part from a VDA-FS-format file:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part.


The Import Part dialog box appears.

2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select VDA-FS (*.vda).
ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with a .vda file extension.

3. Select the VDA-FS file containing the part to import, and click Continue.
ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Part from VDA File dialog box.

4. ABAQUS/CAE uses the name of the file to name the part and assumes that the part type is
deformable; you can use the Create Part from VDA File dialog box to change the part's name and
type if desired. ABAQUS/CAE tries to determine the modeling space as follows:

· If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is three-dimensional, it sets the modeling space to


three-dimensional.

· If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar, you can choose whether the modeling space is
two- or three-dimensional.

· If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar and that its geometry does not cross the Y-axis,
you can choose whether the modeling space is axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or
three-dimensional. If you choose axisymmetric, the Y-axis is assumed to be the axis of
revolution, and you can choose whether to include a twist degree of freedom.

5. If desired, click the Repair Options tab and toggle the desired repair operations. For more
information, see ``Repairing an imported part,'' Section 13.5.8.

6. Click OK to exit the Create Part from VDA File dialog box.
ABAQUS/CAE scans the VDA-FS file and starts the repair process, depending on the options
selected in Step 5. If you wish to cancel the import process, click Stop in the prompt area.
When the part is imported, ABAQUS/CAE displays a message in the message area indicating if
the part contains any validity or precision problems. Select Part->Repair Geometry from the main
menu bar to try and repair an imported part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

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· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.5.7 Importing a part from an output database


Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import the assembly stored in an output database
in the form of an orphan mesh. An orphan mesh part contains no feature information and is extracted
from the output database as a collection of nodes, elements, surfaces, and sets. You can use the Part
module to edit the original mesh definition, and you can use the Mesh module to change the element
type assigned to the mesh. For more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section
14.5.3 and ``Assigning ABAQUS element types,'' Section 20.5.
Although your model may have been constructed from multiple part instances, only one orphan mesh
part can be extracted from an output database. An orphan mesh part consists of a single feature that
you cannot modify or add geometric features to.
Detailed instructions for importing a part from an output database:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part.


The Import Part dialog box appears.

2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select Output Database
(*.odb).

ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with a .odb file extension.

3. Select the output database containing the part to import, and click Continue.

4. If the current part is not an orphan mesh, the Create Part from Output Database dialog box
appears. Do the following:

a. Enter the name of the part. By default, ABAQUS/CAE uses the name of the output
database to name the imported part, but you can change the name if desired.
ABAQUS/CAE determines the modeling space (three-dimensional, two-dimensional, or
axisymmetric) and type (deformable body, discrete rigid surface, or analytical rigid
surface) of the imported part from the output database, and you cannot change the
modeling space and type.

b. Click OK to import the orphan mesh from the output database.


The imported part replaces the contents of the current viewport, and the part appears in the
model's list of parts below the toolbar.

5. If the current part is an orphan mesh, you must select one of the following from the buttons that
appear in the prompt area:

Create new part

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Select Create new part to import the orphan mesh and create a new part. The Create Part
from Output Database dialog box appears, and you follow the steps described above.

Replace current mesh


Select Replace current mesh to import the orphan mesh but use the name of the current
part. ABAQUS/CAE replaces the nodes and elements of the current part with the nodes
and elements of the imported orphan mesh. Sections that were assigned to the current part
are maintained. However, ABAQUS/CAE imports sets from the imported orphan mesh
and deletes sets that referred to the current part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

· ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1

13.5.8 Repairing an imported part


When you import a part from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to
choose whether to repair the part during the import process. ABAQUS/CAE can perform the following
repair operations:

Convert to analytical representation


ABAQUS/CAE tries to change the internal definition of edges, faces, and cells into a simpler
form that can be represented analytically. For example, a plane that is nearly planar will be
converted to an equation that represents the plane. Converting to an analytical representation
usually provides the following advantages:

· Processing of the part is faster.

· The converted entity is available during feature operations.

· The geometry is improved.

Stitch edges
ABAQUS/CAE tries to remove duplicate edges, vertices, and trim surfaces. Stitching edges
usually results in valid geometry. However, due to internal tolerances, the resulting
representation of small features may not match the geometry that was intended in the original

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file.

Convert to precise representation


ABAQUS/CAE tries to change neighboring entities so that their geometry matches exactly.
Converting to a precise representation usually results in precise geometry. However, this can
be a lengthy operation that increases the complexity of the imported part. As a result,
processing of the part is slower.

Detailed instructions for repairing an imported part:

1. Follow the procedure to import a part. For more information, see ``Importing parts from an
ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.5.3; ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4;
and ``Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file,'' Section 13.5.6.

2. From the Create Part from (ACIS, IGES, or VDA) File dialog box that appears, select the Repair
Options tab and toggle the desired repair operations.

Some of the operations are dependent on each other. For example, if you choose to stitch the edges
of a part, ABAQUS/CAE automatically toggles on the Convert to precise representation option.

3. Click OK.
ABAQUS/CAE imports the part and displays a message in the prompt area indicating if the part
has validity or precision problems.

4. If the part is still invalid or imprecise, select Part->Repair Geometry to use the geometry repair
tools. For more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Importing parts from an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.5.3

· ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4

· ``Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file,'' Section 13.5.6

13.6 Using the input file reader to import a model


Select File->Import->Model from the main menu bar to import a model from an ABAQUS input file.
Options and parameters in the input file are translated into objects recognized by the import capability,
and a new model is created. For a description of the input file reader, see ``Importing models from
ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files,'' Section 13.4. For a detailed list of the
keywords supported by the import model capability, see ``Keyword support from the input file reader,''
Section A.2.
Parts are imported from an input file in the form of an orphan mesh; an orphan mesh comprises node

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and element definitions and the type of element assigned. The input file reader can import an orphan
mesh containing most of the commonly used elements types. However, the input file reader cannot
import an orphan mesh containing the following element types:

· Acoustic interface elements (ASI*)

· Stress/displacement variable node continuum elements ( C3D15V, C3D15VH, C3D27, C3D27H,


C3D27R, and C3D27RH)

· Asymmetric-axisymmetric Fourier elements (CAXA*N and SAXA*N)

· Infinite elements (CIN*)

· Dashpot elements (DASHPOT*)

· Distributed coupling elements (DCOUP*)

· Drag chain elements (DRAG*)

· Triangular shell heat transfer elements (DS3 and DS6)

· Hydrostatic fluid and fluid link elements (F2D2, F3D3, F3D4, FAX2, and FLINK)

· Frame elements (FRAME*)

· Gap contact stress/displacement elements (GAPCYL, GAPSPHER, and GAPUNI)

· Gasket elements (GK*)

· Interface elements (INTER*, ISL*, IRS*, ISP*, ITT*, and DINTER*)

· Tube support elements (ITS*)

· Joint elements (JOINT*)

· Line spring elements (LS*)

· 9-node quadrilateral membrane elements (M3D9 and M3D9R)

· Mass element (MASS)

· Rotary inertia element (ROTARYI)

· 9-node shell element (S9R5)

· Hexagonal duct elements (SPHEX*)

· Spring elements (SPRING*)

· USA structural interface elements (USI*)

Detailed instructions for importing a model:

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1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Model.


The Import Model dialog box appears.

2. From the Import Model dialog box, select the input file (file extension .inp) to import, and click
Continue. For more information on specifying the file to open, see ``Using file selection dialog
boxes,'' Section 6.3.7.
ABAQUS/CAE imports the input file and creates a model using information from the supported
options. Unsupported options and parameters are ignored. The new model, which has the same
name as the input file, becomes the current model and appears in the model list below the toolbar.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Importing models from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files,'' Section 13.4

· ``Keyword support from the input file reader,'' Section A.2

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.7 Exporting geometry data


This section describes how you use the main menu bar's File menu to export sketches, parts, and the
assembly. The following topics are covered:

· ``Exporting a sketch to an ACIS- or IGES-format file,'' Section 13.7.1

· ``Exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file,'' Section 13.7.2

· ``Exporting the assembly to an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.7.3

13.7.1 Exporting a sketch to an ACIS- or IGES-format file


Select File->Export->Sketch from the main menu bar to export the current sketch to an ACIS or IGES
file. Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write ACIS and IGES files;
therefore, you can transfer sketches between ABAQUS/CAE and these applications.
You can export a sketch at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session. If you are not in the Sketcher,
ABAQUS/CAE exports the sketch most recently displayed in the Sketcher.
Detailed instructions for exporting a sketch to an ACIS- or IGES-format file:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Export->Sketch.


The Export Sketch dialog box appears.

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2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Export Sketch dialog box, select one of the following:

· ACIS (*.sat)

· IGES (*.igs)

ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the appropriate file extension.

3. Select the file to which you want to export the sketch, or type the name of a new file in the
Selection text field.

4. If you are exporting a sketch to an IGES file, you can select the application that you expect to read
the file. You can choose one of the following:

· Neutral

· AutoCAD

· Solid Works

· JAMA

ABAQUS/CAE tailors the internal representation of the IGES file to match the format expected by
the selected application. By default, ABAQUS/CAE exports a sketch in a neutral format.
ABAQUS/CAE writes all of the geometry data to a single layer in the IGES file. The IGES file
contains geometry data only, ABAQUS/CAE does not export construction lines and dimensions
from the sketch.

5. Click OK to export the sketch and to close the Export Sketch dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.7.2 Exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file


Select File->Export->Part from the main menu bar to export the current part to an ACIS, IGES, or
VDA-FS file. Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write ACIS,
IGES, or VDA-FS files; therefore, you can transfer parts between ABAQUS/CAE and these
applications.
You can export a part at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session. If you are not in the Part module,

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ABAQUS/CAE exports the part most recently displayed in the Part module. You cannot export a part
that you imported from an output database.
Detailed instructions for exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Export->Part.


The Export Part dialog box appears.

2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Export Part dialog box, select one of the following:

· ACIS (*.sat)

· IGES (*.igs)

· VDA-FS (*.vda)

ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the appropriate file extension.

3. Select the file to which you want to export the part, or type the name of a new file in the Selection
text field.

4. If you are exporting a part to an IGES file, you can do the following:

· Select the application that you expect to read the file from one of the following:

- Standard

- AutoCAD

- SolidWorks

- JAMA

ABAQUS/CAE tailors the internal representation of the IGES file to match the format
expected by the selected application. By default, ABAQUS/CAE exports a part in a neutral
format.

· Scale the geometry that ABAQUS/CAE writes to the IGES file.

ABAQUS/CAE writes all of the geometry data to a single layer in the IGES file. For more
information, see ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2.

5. Click OK to export the part and to close the file selection dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

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Importing and exporting geometry data and models

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.7.3 Exporting the assembly to an ACIS-format file


Select File->Export->Assembly from the main menu bar to export the assembly to an ACIS-format
file. Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write ACIS files; therefore,
you can transfer parts between ABAQUS/CAE and these applications. You cannot export an orphan
mesh part that you imported from an output database.
You can export the assembly at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session. ABAQUS/CAE exports
each part separately along with its position. If you subsequently import an ACIS-format file containing
an assembly, ABAQUS/CAE creates a part corresponding to each instance while retaining each part's
original position for later use when you instance the part in the Assembly module. When you create
instances of the imported ACIS parts, ABAQUS/CAE uses the position information to recreate the
original assembly. You cannot import the assembly directly.
Detailed instructions for exporting the assembly to an ACIS-format file:

1. From the main menu bar, select File->Export->Assembly.


The Export Assembly dialog box appears.
ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the .sat file extension.

2. Select the file to which you want to export the assembly, or type the name of a new file in the
Selection text field.

3. Click OK to export the assembly and to close the Export Assembly dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

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Creating and analyzing a model using the ABAQUS/CAE modules

Part IV: Creating and analyzing a model using the


ABAQUS/CAE modules
This part describes how to use the modules in ABAQUS/CAE to define a model's geometry and other
physical properties and then submit the model for analysis. The following topics are covered:

· Chapter 14, "The Part module"

· Chapter 15, "The Property module"

· Chapter 16, "The Assembly module"

· Chapter 17, "The Step module"

· Chapter 18, "The Interaction module"

· Chapter 19, "The Load/BC/IC module"

· Chapter 20, "The Mesh module"

· Chapter 21, "The Job module"

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

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14. The Part module


Parts are the building blocks of an ABAQUS/CAE model. You use the Part module to create each part,
and you use the Assembly module to assemble instances of the parts. Chapter 3, "A tutorial: Using
additional techniques to create and analyze a model ," contains examples of how you create, modify,
and manipulate parts. This chapter explains how you use the tools within the Part module to work with
parts. The following topics are covered:

· ``Understanding the role of the Part module,'' Section 14.1

· ``Entering and exiting the Part module,'' Section 14.2

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Importing parts into the Part module,'' Section 14.5

· ``What types of features can you create?,'' Section 14.6

· ``Using feature-based modeling effectively,'' Section 14.7

· ``Capturing your design and analysis intent,'' Section 14.8

· ``Understanding extruding, revolving, and sweeping,'' Section 14.9

· ``Using the Sketcher in conjunction with the Part module,'' Section 14.10

· ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11

· ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12

· ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13

· ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14

· ``Adding a feature to a part,'' Section 14.15

· ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16

· ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17

· ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18

· ``Adding a cut feature,'' Section 14.19

· ``Blending edges,'' Section 14.20

· ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21

· ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22

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The Part module

14.1 Understanding the role of the Part module


There are several ways to create a part in ABAQUS/CAE:

· Create it using the tools available in the Part module.

· Import its geometry from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS compatible file.

· Import its mesh from an output database.

· Import its mesh from an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit input file.

A part created using the Part module tools is called a native part and has a feature-based
representation. A feature captures your design intent and contains geometry information as well as a
set of rules that govern the behavior of the geometry. For example, a circular through cut is a feature,
and ABAQUS/CAE stores the diameter of the cut along with the information that it should pass all the
way through the part. If you increase the size of the part, ABAQUS/CAE recognizes that the depth of
the cut should increase so that it continues to pass through the part.
You use the Part module to create, edit, and manage the parts in the current model. ABAQUS/CAE
stores each part in the form of an ordered list of features. The parameters that define each
feature--extruded depth, hole diameter, sweep path, etc.--combine to define the geometry of the part.
The Part module allows you to do the following:

· Create deformable, discrete rigid, or analytical rigid parts. The part tools also allow you to edit and
manipulate the existing parts defined in the current model.

· Create the features--solids, shells, wires, cuts, and rounds--that define the geometry of the part.

· Use the Feature Manipulation toolset to edit, delete, suppress, resume, and regenerate a part's
features.

· Assign the reference point to a rigid part.

· Use the Sketcher to create, edit, and manage the two-dimensional sketches that form the profile of
a part's features. These profiles can be extruded, revolved, or swept to create part geometry, or they
can be used directly to form a planar or axisymmetric part.

· Use the Set toolset, the Partition toolset, and the Datum toolset. These toolsets operate on the part
in the current viewport and allow you to create sets, partitions, and datum geometry, respectively.

14.2 Entering and exiting the Part module


You can enter the Part module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Part in the
Module list located under the toolbar. The Part, Shape, Feature, Assign, and Tools menus appear on
the main menu bar, and the title bar of the current viewport displays the name of the current part, if one
exists.
To exit the Part module, select any other module from the Module list. You need not take any specific

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The Part module

action to save your parts before exiting the module; they are saved automatically when you save the
entire model by selecting File->Save or File->Save As from the main menu bar.

14.3 Understanding feature-based modeling


This section describes the feature-based modeling approach that ABAQUS/CAE uses to define a part.
The topics covered are:

· ``The relationship between parts and features, '' Section 14.3.1

· ``The base feature,'' Section 14.3.2

· ``Part instances,'' Section 14.3.3

14.3.1 The relationship between parts and features


A part created in ABAQUS/CAE has a feature-based representation. A feature is a meaningful piece of
the design and provides the engineer with a convenient and natural way to build and modify a part.
Parts created in ABAQUS/CAE are constructed from an ordered list of features and the parameters that
define the geometry of each feature. You select from the following shape features to build a part in the
Part module:

· Solids

· Shells

· Wires

· Cuts

· Blends

Using the tools in the Part module, you create and edit all the features necessary to describe each of the
parts in your model. ABAQUS/CAE stores each feature and uses this information to define the entire
part, to regenerate the part if you modify it, and to generate an instance of the part in the Assembly
module. For more information on how parts are related to part instances, see ``Part instances,'' Section
14.3.3.
The following sequence illustrates how the three-dimensional part in Figure 14-1 would be constructed
using each of the features available in ABAQUS/CAE.

Figure 14-1 Part constructed using solid, shell, wire, cut, and blend features.

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The Part module

1. The first feature you create while building a part is called the base feature; you construct the
remainder of the part by adding more features that either modify or add detail to the base feature.
In this example the base feature is a U-shaped part; the user sketched a two-dimensional profile
and extruded it to form the base feature, as shown in Figure 14-2.

Figure 14-2 The base feature.

The sketch and the extrusion depth (a) are the modifiable parameters that define the base feature.
You can revisit the base feature and change its size or shape by using the Feature Manipulation
toolset to modify either the section sketch or the extrusion distance. If desired, you can delete the
base feature and sketch a new shape.

2. A stiffening web is added as a shell feature. The user sketched a line on one of the internal faces
and extruded the sketch to the opposite face, as shown in Figure 14-3. The sketch is the only
modifiable parameter that defines the shell feature.

Figure 14-3 A shell feature.

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The Part module

3. Rods are added to the corners as wire features. The wire was created by connecting two points that
the user selected, as shown in Figure 14-4. Wires created in this way have no modifiable
parameters; they must be deleted and recreated if you need to change them.

Figure 14-4 Wire features.

4. A blind cut is cut into the top of the clamp. The user sketched a two-dimensional profile, and the
profile was extruded into the clamp through a specified distance, as shown in Figure 14-5. The
sketch and the depth of the slot are the modifiable parameters that define the blind cut feature.

Figure 14-5 A cut feature.

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The Part module

5. The edges of the cut are rounded. The user selected the edges to round and provided the radius of
the round, as shown in Figure 14-6. The radius is the modifiable parameter that defines the round
feature.

Figure 14-6 Round features.

If the geometry of a new feature depends on an existing feature, ABAQUS/CAE creates a parent-child
relationship between the features. The new feature is the child, and the feature it depends on is the
parent. For example, in the part described above the round feature is a child of the cut feature. If you
change the position or size of the cut, the edges remain rounded. Similarly, if you delete the cut,
ABAQUS/CAE also deletes the rounds.
If you modify a parent feature, the modification may invalidate children of the parent feature. For
example, in the part described above if you were to increase the depth of the cut so that it became a
through cut, you would lose the fillets along its edges; that is, the fillets would fail to regenerate after
the modification. ABAQUS/CAE offers you the following two choices:

· Keep the changes to the parent feature but suppress the features that failed to regenerate. Children
of the suppressed features will also be suppressed.

· Abort the modification of the parent feature and return to the state of the last successful
regeneration.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

· ``Using the Feature Manipulation toolset,'' Section 42.3

14.3.2 The base feature


The first feature you create while building a part is called the base feature; you construct the remainder
of the part by adding more features that either modify or add detail to the base feature. This process of
building an ABAQUS/CAE native part using the tools in the Part module follows a sequence of
operations analogous to building a part in a machine shop. For example, you start with a piece of billet
stock (the base feature) and then you do the following:

· Attach additional pieces to the billet (apply a solid extrusion, a revolved shell, or a sketched wire).

· Cut away the billet (apply an extruded cut, a revolved cut, a circular hole, or round or chamfer an
edge).

When you create a new part, you must describe the base feature. You do this by specifying two
properties of the base feature: its shape and type. The shape indicates the basic topology of the feature;
that is, whether it is a solid, shell, or wire. The type indicates which of the following four methods will
be used to generate the part:

Planar
You sketch the feature on a two-dimensional sketch plane.

Extrusion
You sketch the feature profile and then extrude it through a specified distance.

Revolution
You sketch the feature profile and then revolve it by a specified angle about an axis.

Sweep
You sketch two shapes: a sweep path and a sweep profile. The profile is then swept along the
path to create the feature.

Before you create a part and choose the shape and the type of the base feature, you should know the
sequence you will use to construct the desired part. Choosing the correct type and shape of the base
feature is important.
Table 14-1 shows the base features that you can select based on the part's modeling space and type:

Table 14-1. Choosing the base feature.


Modeling Space

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Three-dimensional Two-dimensional or
Part Type Axisymmetric
Deformable Any Planar shell or planar wire
Discrete rigid Any (you must convert a 3-D Planar shell or planar wire
solid discrete rigid part to a
shell before you instance it)
Analytical Extruded or revolved shell Planar wire
rigid
An ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS part consists of a single feature that you import into ABAQUS/CAE as
the base feature of a new part. You cannot modify this base feature, but you can add additional features
to it. Similarly, an orphan mesh is imported from an output database as the base feature of a new part.
You can use the mesh editing tools to add and delete nodes and elements from an orphan mesh.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14

· ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16

· ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17

· ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18

14.3.3 Part instances


A part instance can be thought of as a representation of the original part. You create a part in the Part
module and define its properties in the Property module. However, when you assemble the model
using the Assembly module, you work only with instances of the part, not the part itself. The
Interaction module, the Load/BC/IC module, and the Mesh module also operate on the assembly and,
therefore, on part instances.
A part instance is a reference to the original part; it is not a copy. You cannot modify the features of a
part instance directly; you can modify the part itself only within the Part module. When you modify a
part, ABAQUS/CAE automatically regenerates all instances of the modified part in the assembly.
The following example illustrates the relationship between parts and part instances. A child's wagon is
composed of five parts: a body, an axle, an axle mount, a handle, and a wheel. In the Part module you
create each of the five parts shown in Figure 14-7:

· One body

· One axle

· One axle mount

· One handle

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The Part module

· One wheel

Figure 14-7 The original parts.

In the Assembly module you assemble instances of each part:

· One instance of the body.

· Two instances of the axle.

· Four instances of the axle mount.

· One instance of the handle.

· Four instances of the wheel.

You then position the instances relative to a common coordinate system, thereby creating the model of
the cart, as shown in Figure 14-8.

Figure 14-8 The model is assembled from instances of the parts.

Now, suppose you want to reduce the diameter of the wheels. You return to the Part module and
modify the diameter of the wheel by editing the original part. When you return to the Assembly
module, ABAQUS/CAE recognizes that the part was modified and automatically regenerates the four
instances of the wheel to reflect the change in the diameter.
You can create multiple instances of a single part. In addition, you can assemble instances of
deformable, analytical rigid, and discrete rigid parts when you are solving contact problems. For more
information on the types of parts you can create in ABAQUS/CAE, see ``Part types,'' Section 14.4.2.

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Sets are not transferred when you create a part instance from a part. For example, you might use the
Property module to create a set from the geometry of a part and assign a section to that set; however,
that set is not available later when you work with the part instance in the Assembly module.

14.4 How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?


This section describes the parts you can create in the Part module--deformable and rigid. The topics
covered are:

· ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1

· ``Part types,'' Section 14.4.2

· ``Rigid parts,'' Section 14.4.3

· ``Sketching the profile of a rigid part,'' Section 14.4.4

· ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5

14.4.1 Part modeling space


When you create a new part, you must specify the modeling space in which the part will reside. You
can assign the following three types of modeling space:

Three-dimensional
ABAQUS/CAE embeds the part in the X-, Y-, Z coordinate system. A three-dimensional part
can contain any combination of solid, shell, wire, cut, round and chamfer features. You model
a three-dimensional part using three-dimensional solid, shell, beam, truss, or membrane
elements.

Two-dimensional planar
ABAQUS/CAE embeds the part in the X-Y plane. A two-dimensional planar part can contain a
combination of only planar shell and wire features, and all cut features are defined as planar
through cuts. You model a two-dimensional planar part using two-dimensional solid
continuum elements, as well as truss or beam elements.

Axisymmetric
ABAQUS/CAE embeds the part in the X-Y plane with the Y-axis indicating the axis of
revolution. An axisymmetric part can contain a combination of only planar shell and wire
features, and all cut features are defined as planar through cuts. You model an axisymmetric
part using axisymmetric solid continuum elements or axisymmetric shell elements.

Modeling space refers to the space in which the part is embedded rather than to the topology of the part
itself. Thus, you can create a three-dimensional part using a topologically two-dimensional shell
feature or a one-dimensional wire feature.
You cannot change an ABAQUS/CAE native part's modeling space after you have created the part.
When you import an orphan mesh from an output database, ABAQUS/CAE determines the modeling

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space of the new part from the information stored in the output database. When you import a part from
an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file, you can specify the part's modeling space, provided that
ABAQUS/CAE does not determine it must be three-dimensional. Detailed instructions on how to
specify modeling space when creating and importing a part can be found in ``Choosing the modeling
space of a new part,'' Section 14.14.2, and ``Importing geometry data and models,'' Section 13.5.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

14.4.2 Part types


When you create a new part or import a part from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file, you must
choose the part's type. The three possible types are:

Deformable
Any arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional part that you can
create or import can be specified as a deformable part. A deformable part represents a part that
can deform under load; the load can be mechanical, thermal, or electrical. By default,
ABAQUS/CAE creates parts that are deformable.

Discrete rigid
A discrete rigid part is similar to a deformable part in that it can be any arbitrary shape.
However, a discrete rigid part is assumed to be rigid and is used in contact analyses to model
bodies that cannot deform.

Analytical rigid
An analytical rigid part is similar to a discrete rigid part in that it is used to represent a rigid
surface in a contact analysis. However, the shape of an analytical rigid part is not arbitrary and
must be formed from a set of sketched lines, arcs, and parabolas.

You can assemble deformable bodies, discrete rigid parts, and analytical rigid parts in the Assembly
module, but ABAQUS/CAE supports contact only between two deformable bodies or between a
deformable part and a rigid part.
You cannot change a part's type after you have created it. However, you can export a part in ACIS
format and then import it as a new ACIS part of a different type. When you import an orphan mesh,
ABAQUS/CAE determines the type of the new part from the information stored in the output database.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Rigid parts,'' Section 14.4.3

· ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

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14.4.3 Rigid parts


When your model contains parts that contact each other, you can specify that one or more of the parts
is rigid. A rigid part represents a part that is so much stiffer than the rest of the model that its
deformation can be considered negligible. In addition, in a coupled thermal-mechanical analysis no
heat can be transferred to the rigid part. If a rigid body is considered as isothermal, a single
temperature degree of freedom describing the temperature of the rigid body exists at the rigid body
reference node.
In contrast to a part that you define as rigid, a part that you define as deformable can deform during
contact with either a rigid part or another deformable part, and heat can be transferred through a
deformable part. For example, a model of a metal stamping process might use a deformable part to
model the blank and rigid parts to model the mold and die, as shown in Figure 14-9.

Figure 14-9 Rigid and deformable parts.

In this example the mold is constrained to have no motion, and the die moves through a prescribed
path during the stamping process. You control the motion of rigid parts by selecting a rigid body
reference point and constraining or prescribing its motion. For more information, see ``The reference
point,'' Section 14.4.5.
You can choose between two kinds of rigid parts:

Discrete rigid parts


A part that you declared to be a discrete rigid part can be any arbitrary three-dimensional,
two-dimensional, or axisymmetric shape. Therefore, you can use all the Part module feature
tools--solids, shells, wires, cuts, and blends--to create a discrete rigid part. However, only
discrete rigid parts containing shells and wires can be meshed with rigid elements in the Mesh
module. If you try to create an instance of a solid discrete rigid part in the Assembly module,
ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message; you must return to the Part module and convert the
faces of the solid to shells.

Analytical rigid parts


An analytical rigid part is similar to a discrete rigid part in that it is used to represent a rigid
part in a contact analysis. If possible, you should use an analytical rigid part when describing a
rigid part because it is computationally less expensive than a discrete rigid part. The shape of

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an analytical rigid part is not arbitrary, and the profile must be smooth. You can use only the
following methods to create an analytical rigid part:

· You can sketch the two-dimensional profile of the part and revolve the profile around an
axis of symmetry to form a three-dimensional revolved analytical rigid part, as shown in
Figure 14-10.

Figure 14-10 A revolved analytical rigid part.

· You can sketch the two-dimensional profile of the part and extrude the profile infinitely to
form a three-dimensional extruded analytical rigid part. Although ABAQUS/CAE
considers that the extrusion extends to infinity, the Part module displays a
three-dimensional extruded analytical rigid part with a depth that you specify, as shown in
Figure 14-11.

Figure 14-11 An extruded analytical rigid part.

· You can sketch the profile of a planar two-dimensional analytical rigid part, as shown in
Figure 14-12.

Figure 14-12 A planar analytical rigid part.

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· You can sketch the profile of an axisymmetric two-dimensional analytical rigid part, as
shown in Figure 14-13.

Figure 14-13 An axisymmetric analytical rigid part.

You can import a part from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file and define it to be either
a deformable or a discrete rigid part; however, you cannot define an imported part to be an
analytical rigid part. As an alternative, you can import the geometry of the analytical rigid part
into a sketch. You can then create a new analytical rigid part and copy the imported sketch
into the Sketcher toolset.

A rigid part in ABAQUS/CAE is equivalent to a rigid surface in an ABAQUS/Standard or


ABAQUS/Explicit analysis. For more information, see the following:

· ``Defining analytical rigid surfaces,'' Section 2.3.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and
the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

· ``Defining rigid bodies,'' Section 2.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the
ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

· ``Rigid elements,'' Section 16.3.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 15.3.1 of
the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

· ``Contact and interaction analysis: overview, '' Section 21.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's
Manual and ``Contact analysis: overview,'' Section 20.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5

· ``Part types,'' Section 14.4.2

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Sketching simple objects,'' Section 22.9

14.4.4 Sketching the profile of a rigid part


ABAQUS/CAE represents analytical rigid parts using profiles that are composed of a series of lines,
arcs, and parabolas. Several tools are available in the Sketcher to help you construct each portion of
the rigid part profile:

Lines
You use the Sketcher's Line tool to sketch straight lines.

Arcs and fillets


You use the Sketcher's Arc and Fillet tools to sketch circular arcs or to fillet two lines. Any
resulting arcs must subtend an angle less than 180°; if you want to construct an arc subtending
an angle greater than 180°, you should create two adjacent arcs. ABAQUS/CAE displays an
error message if you create an arc subtending an angle greater than 180° while sketching the
profile of an analytical rigid surface.

Splines
You use the Sketcher's Spline tool to sketch parabolas. You create a parabola by defining a
three-point spline, where the three points are the start of the spline, a point anywhere along the
spline, and the end of the spline. Only splines composed of exactly three points generate the
parabolas required by the analytical rigid part definition; consequently, ABAQUS/CAE
displays an error message if you create a spline using more than three points while sketching
the profile of an analytical rigid part.

You can construct an analytical rigid part from any combination of lines, arcs, and parabolas; however,
the resulting profile must be a single connected (but not necessarily closed) curve. In addition, the
curve must be smooth to obtain a converged solution with ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit.
You may want to apply a sequence of small lines, arcs, or parabolas to eliminate any surface
discontinuities (ABAQUS/CAE does not have an equivalent to the FILLET RADIUS parameter on the
ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit *SURFACE option). For more information on creating
parabolas and maintaining tangency, see ``Sketching splines,'' Section 22.9.8. For more information on
the rules governing analytical rigid surfaces, see ``Defining analytical rigid surfaces,'' Section 2.3.4 of
the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.
A sketch of an analytical rigid part that includes a line, an arc, and a fillet is illustrated in Figure 14-14.

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Figure 14-14 A sketch of an analytical rigid part.

An analytical rigid part is defined completely by the two-dimensional profile of the base feature that
you create with the Sketch; consequently, the Part module tools cannot be used to add features when
you return to the Part module from the Sketch. You can modify the part only by editing the original
sketch.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Sketching simple objects,'' Section 22.9

14.4.5 The reference point


You can create a reference point that is associated with a part. The reference point can be used for one
of the following:

· If the part is a discrete or analytical rigid part, you use the reference point to indicate the rigid body
reference point. You use the Load/BC/IC module to apply constraints to the reference point or to
define the motion of the reference point using loads or boundary conditions. Motion or constraints
that you apply to the rigid body reference point are then applied to the entire rigid part. Similarly,
if you created an isothermal rigid part, you use the Load/BC/IC module to apply a temperature
constraint to the rigid body reference point.
Typically, the location of the rigid body reference point is not important; however, if the rigid
body moves freely in a dynamic analysis, its mass and rotary inertia influence the motion, and the
reference point should be placed at the center of mass. You can use the Query toolset to determine
the coordinates of the centroid of a solid, and you can use the Property module to assign mass and
rotary inertia section properties to the reference point. The section can also include optional
damping data.

· If the part is a deformable planar part, you can model it with generalized plane strain elements.
You must create a reference point to indicate the first extra node required by generalized plane
strain elements. ABAQUS/CAE places the second extra node at the same location as the first. You
cannot model initial curvature in the model in the axial direction; for more information on
generalized plane strain elements, see ``Choosing the element's dimensionality,'' Section 13.1.2 of
the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual.

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· You can create and name a set containing the reference point. You can then use the set when
creating an equation constraint in the Interaction module. You can also refer to the set in the
keywords editor when creating a multi-point constraint.

You use the Part module to create a reference point. From the main menu bar, select
Assign->Reference Point and use either of the following techniques:

Select in Viewport

You can select any existing vertex from the part, including datum points.
Enter Coordinates

You can type the components of a vector representing the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the
reference point.

ABAQUS/CAE displays the reference point at the desired location and labels it Ref Pt.
You can assign only one reference point to a part; ABAQUS/CAE asks you if you want to delete the
original point if you try to assign a second point. If you entered coordinates to define the reference
point, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to edit the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates using the Feature Manipulation
toolset. You can use the Interaction module to define the rigid body's surface normals.

14.5 Importing parts into the Part module


You can import parts stored in the following formats into ABAQUS/CAE:

· ACIS

· IGES

· VDA-FS

· ABAQUS output database (ODB)

For more information, see Chapter 13, "Importing and exporting geometry data and models."
Because ABAQUS/CAE treats imported parts as a single feature, you cannot use the feature
manipulation toolset to remove excessive detail, such as small holes and fillets, from an imported part.
However, you can use the geometry repair tools to edit an ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS part. In general,
you can add features to an imported ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS part so that the final geometry may be
very different from the part you imported. Similarly, you cannot add geometric features to a part
imported from an output database (ODB); however, you can use the mesh editing tools to modify its
nodes and elements. In addition, you can add reference geometry, called datum geometry to an orphan
mesh. (For more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3, and Chapter
41, "The Datum toolset.")
You can assemble a combination of native parts, ACIS parts, IGES parts, VDA-FS parts, and parts
from an ODB in the Assembly module. You can mesh native parts and ACIS, IGES, and VDA-FS
parts in the Mesh module.
You can select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar at any time during a session. When you

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import a part into a model, ABAQUS/CAE switches to the Part module and displays the imported part
in the current viewport. In addition, the imported part becomes the base feature of a new part.
The following topics are covered:

· ``Importing parts from an output database (ODB),'' Section 14.5.1

· ``Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files,'' Section 14.5.2

· ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3

14.5.1 Importing parts from an output database (ODB)


To import an orphan mesh into ABAQUS/CAE, select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar.
When you use the Job module to submit a job for analysis, ABAQUS/CAE writes the results from the
analysis to a binary file called an output database. The output database also contains the geometry of
the nodes, elements, surfaces, and sets that made up the original meshed assembly, and this geometry
can be imported into ABAQUS/CAE from an output database in the form of a part called an orphan
mesh. In effect, the mesh information has been ``orphaned'' from its parent geometry.
Once you import an orphan mesh, it appears in the model's list of parts. You can instance an orphan
mesh part in the Assembly module, and position it with other part instances in the assembly.
An orphan mesh consists of a single feature; you can modify this single feature with the following
operations:

· Add nodes or elements.

· Delete nodes or elements.

· Edit nodes.

· Resize the elements.

· Change the direction of the normal from a shell element.

In addition, you can add reference geometry, called datum geometry to an orphan mesh. (For more
information, see Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset.")
Node and element sets are maintained when you import an orphan mesh. If you delete any nodes or
elements from the orphan mesh, they are also deleted from these sets. In addition, you can create new
sets using the Set toolset.
If the current part is an orphan mesh, you can choose to replace its mesh with the imported orphan
mesh. The name of the current part does not change, and the part maintains its original section
assignments.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22

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· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

· ``Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files,'' Section 14.5.2

14.5.2 Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files


To import a part from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file into ABAQUS/CAE, select
File->Import->Part from the main menu bar.

ACIS is a geometric modeling toolkit that serves as the underlying geometry engine for many
three-dimensional modeling applications, including ABAQUS/CAE. Consequently, the ACIS format
has become an industry standard for storing the geometry of a part, and parts stored in ACIS format
can be interchanged between many applications. An ACIS-format file can contain more than one part,
and ABAQUS/CAE allows you to import each one separately.
The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) is a similar industry standard, and IGES-format
files contain a neutral data format designed for graphics exchange between computer-aided design
(CAD) systems. An IGES-format file can contain only one part.
The Verband der Automobilindustrie e.V. (VDA) surface data format is a geometry standard
developed by the German automotive industry. Both VDA-FS and IGES files contain a mathematical
representation of the part in an ASCII format; however, the VDA-FS standard is simpler and
concentrates on geometry information.
ABAQUS/CAE can import a part stored in an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file, but the imported
part does not retain any record of the features that originally defined it. As a result, the imported part
forms the base feature of a new part; you can add features to the part, but you cannot edit this base
feature.
In general, you can import any part saved in ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS format; however, subsequent
operations, such as partitioning and meshing, may fail if the geometry is not valid. ABAQUS/CAE can
detect and repair invalid geometry during the import process, or you can repair the imported part in the
Part module. For more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3.
You can use ACIS, IGES, and VDA-FS format to transfer parts between ABAQUS/CAE and
third-party solid modeling products, since ABAQUS/CAE can import and export parts in both formats.
The feature-based information stored in the part or part instance is lost when you export it to ACIS
format. To export a part from ABAQUS/CAE into an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS format file, select
File->Export->Part from the main menu bar. For detailed instructions on importing and exporting
parts, see ``Importing geometry data and models,'' Section 13.5, and ``Exporting geometry data,''
Section 13.7.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

· ``Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files,'' Section 14.5.2

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14.5.3 Repairing and editing imported parts


When you import a part, you may find that aspects of the part are invalid or inappropriate for your
analysis. Two sets of tools exist that allow you to edit imported parts as necessary to make them useful
for modeling.

Geometry repair tools


Parts that you create using the Part module in ABAQUS/CAE are considered valid and
precise. However, parts imported from other applications may be invalid or imprecise. The
geometry repair tools allow you to improve the quality of parts that you import into
ABAQUS/CAE. For example, you can use these tools to delete unwanted vertices, edges, and
faces and to create new faces.
Warning: You should use the geometry repair tools to edit only imported parts. The
geometry repair tools do not take into account the feature-based representation of an
ABAQUS/CAE native part and may delete important feature information.

If you import an invalid part into ABAQUS/CAE, you can try to correct the geometry using
the geometry repair tools. If you cannot correct the geometry using these tools, it cannot be
changed or analyzed in ABAQUS/CAE and is generally not useful.
If you import a valid but imprecise part into ABAQUS/CAE, you can try to increase the
precision of the geometry using the geometry repair tools. If you cannot make the geometry
more precise using these tools, you can still use the part in ABAQUS/CAE; however, some
ABAQUS/CAE functions will be disabled.
For detailed instructions on how to use the imported geometry repair tools, see ``Repairing
imported geometry,'' Section 14.21.

Orphan mesh editing tools


The orphan mesh editing tools allow you to improve the quality of orphan meshes that you
import into ABAQUS/CAE. You can use these tools to perform the following tasks:

· Create a node. You can specify the coordinates of the new node either in the global
coordinate system or in a datum coordinate system that you specify.

· Edit nodes. You can specify the new coordinates of the nodes either in the global
coordinate system or in a datum coordinate system that you specify. You can edit a single
node or you can edit multiple nodes simultaneously.

· Delete nodes. Any elements associated with the deleted nodes are also deleted. In
addition, you have the option of deleting any remaining nodes that would be left
unassociated with any elements once the nodes selected for deletion and their associated
elements are deleted.

· Create an element. You must specify the shape of the element that you want to create, and
you must select the nodes in the order appropriate for that element shape.

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· Delete elements. You have the option of deleting any nodes that would be left
unassociated with any elements once the selected elements are deleted.

· Reverse the surface normal of shell elements.

· Refine a planar, linear, triangular orphan mesh. ABAQUS/CAE maintains the edges of the
elements along the boundary of the part while improving the mesh quality in the interior.
Alternatively, you can specify a global element size before refining the mesh, and the
density of the new mesh reflects the new target element size.

For detailed instructions on how to use the orphan mesh editing tools, see ``Editing an orphan
mesh,'' Section 14.22.

14.6 What types of features can you create?


After you select the type and shape of the part and sketch the two-dimensional profile of its base
feature, you add additional features or modify existing features to create the finished part. The
following sections describe the features that can be added to a part:

· ``Solid features,'' Section 14.6.1

· ``Shell features,'' Section 14.6.2

· ``Wire features,'' Section 14.6.3

· ``Cut features,'' Section 14.6.4

· ``Blend features,'' Section 14.6.5

14.6.1 Solid features


To create a solid feature, select Extrude, Revolve, or Sweep from the Shape->Solid menu on the
main menu bar or select one of the solid tools in the Part module toolbox. Once you have sketched the
profile, you perform one of the following operations to create the feature:

· To create an extruded solid feature, you extrude the profile through a specified distance (d), as
shown in Figure 14-15. Select Shape->Solid->Extrude from the main menu bar to create this type
of feature.

Figure 14-15 An extruded solid feature.

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· To create a revolved solid feature, you revolve the profile through a specified angle (a). A
construction line serves as the axis of revolution, as shown in Figure 14-16. Select
Shape->Solid->Revolve from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-16 A revolved solid feature.

· To create a swept solid feature, you sweep the profile along a specified path, as shown in Figure
14-17. Select Shape->Solid->Sweep from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. For
more information, see ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3.

Figure 14-17 A swept solid feature.

You can use any of the solid tools to add a solid feature to a deformable or discrete part that you

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created in three-dimensional modeling space. You cannot add a solid feature to a two-dimensional or
axisymmetric part.
Figure 14-15, Figure 14-16, and Figure 14-17 illustrate how each feature might later be meshed. You
can mesh a solid feature using any of the three-dimensional, solid continuum elements available in
ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.6.2 Shell features


A shell feature is an idealization of a solid in which thickness is considered small compared to the
width and depth. To create a shell feature, select Shape->Shell from the main menu bar or select one
of the shell tools in the Part module toolbox. You create a shell feature in the Part module using the
shell tools to do one of the following:

· Sketch a line or curve and extrude it though a specified distance to create an extruded shell feature,
as shown in Figure 14-18. Select Shape->Shell->Extrude from the main menu bar to create this
type of feature.

Figure 14-18 An extruded shell feature.

· Sketch a line or curve and revolve it through a specified angle to create a revolved shell feature. A
construction line serves as the axis of revolution, as shown in Figure 14-19. Select
Shape->Shell->Revolve from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-19 A revolved shell feature.

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· Sketch a path and a profile, and sweep the profile normal to the path to create a swept shell
feature, as shown in Figure 14-20. Select Shape->Shell->Planar from the main menu bar to create
this type of feature. For more information, see ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,''
Section 14.9.3.

Figure 14-20 A swept shell feature.

· Sketch the outline of the shell on a selected planar face or datum plane to create a planar shell
feature, as shown in Figure 14-21. When you sketch on a planar face (for example, the side of a
cube), the shell feature is created only where it extends beyond the face; a shell feature cannot
overlap a face. A sketch on a planar face of a cube and the resulting shell feature are shown in
Figure 14-21. In this example the shell feature is a fin extending beyond the selected face of the
cube. Select Shape->Shell->Planar from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-21 A sketched shell feature.

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· Convert the faces of a solid feature to shell features; in effect, hollow out a solid. A
shell-from-solid feature is shown in Figure 14-22. Select Shape->Shell->From Solid from the
main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-22 A shell-from-solid feature.

· Remove selected faces from a solid and convert the remaining solid to shell features. A
remove-face shell feature is shown in Figure 14-23. Select Shape->Shell->Remove Face from
the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-23 A remove-face shell feature.

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You can use any of the shell tools to add a shell feature to a part that you created in three-dimensional
modeling space; however, when you are working on parts created in two-dimensional or axisymmetric
modeling space, you can use only the planar shell tool to add a shell feature. You use the Property
module to create a section prescribing the desired thickness and to assign the section to the shell
feature. For more information, see ``Defining sections,'' Section 15.2.3, and ``Assigning sections,
material orientations, and beam orientations to a part, '' Section 15.3.
Figure 14-21 and Figure 14-23 illustrate how each feature might later be meshed. You can mesh a shell
feature using:

· Two-dimensional or axisymmetric continuum elements (limited to planar shell features)

· Three-dimensional shell elements

· Membrane elements

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.6.3 Wire features


A wire is depicted as a line in ABAQUS/CAE and is used to idealize a solid in which both its
thickness and depth are considered small compared to its length. To create a wire feature, select
Shape->Wire from the main menu bar or select one of the wire tools in the Part module toolbox. You
create a wire feature in the Part module using the wire tools to do one of the following:

· Sketch a wire on a selected planar face or datum plane to create a sketched wire feature, as shown
in Figure 14-24. Select Shape->Wire->Sketch from the main menu bar to create this type of
feature.

Figure 14-24 A sketched wire feature.

When you sketch on a planar face (for example, the side of a cube), the wire feature is created only
where it extends beyond the face. A wire feature cannot overlap a face; however, you can partition
the face to simulate a wire extending over the face.

· Connect two selected points with a straight line, as shown in Figure 14-25. Select
Shape->Wire->2 Points from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

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Figure 14-25 A wire feature connecting two points.

You can use the wire tools to add a wire feature to any deformable or discrete rigid part. You cannot
add a wire feature to an analytical rigid part; you can only modify the original sketch that defined that
part.
You use the Property module to create a section that prescribes the desired cross-sectional geometry
and to assign that section to the wire feature. (For more information, see ``Defining sections,'' Section
15.2.3, and ``Assigning sections, material orientations, and beam orientations to a part, '' Section 15.3.)
You can model a wire feature using any of the beam, truss, or axisymmetric shell elements available in
ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit.
Note: Although you can create a mesh of beam elements, the current version of ABAQUS/CAE
allows you to assign only the following sections to a wire:

· Beam section

· Truss section

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.6.4 Cut features


A cut is a feature that removes material from a part. A cut can be a circular hole, or it can be any
arbitrary shape. To create a cut feature, select Shape->Cut from the main menu bar or select one of the
cut tools in the Part module toolbox. You create a cut feature in the Part module using the cut tools to
do one of the following:

· Sketch the two-dimensional profile of the cut and extrude it through a specified distance ( d), as
shown in Figure 14-26. Select Shape->Cut->Extrude from the main menu bar to create this type
of feature.

Figure 14-26 An extruded cut feature.

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· Sketch the two-dimensional profile of the cut and revolve it through a specified angle ( a). A
construction line serves as the axis of revolution, as shown in Figure 14-27. Select
Shape->Cut->Revolve from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-27 A revolved cut feature.

· Sketch the two-dimensional profile of the cut and sweep it along a specified path, as shown in
Figure 14-28. Select Shape->Cut->Sweep from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.
For more information, see ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3.

Figure 14-28 A swept cut feature.

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· Enter the diameter of a hole and the distance of its center from two selected edges, as shown in
Figure 14-29. Select Shape->Cut->Circular Hole from the main menu bar to create this type of
feature.

Figure 14-29 A circular hole feature.

You can use the cut tools to add a cut feature to any deformable or discrete rigid part. You cannot add
a cut feature to an analytical rigid part; you can only modify the original sketch that defined that part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.6.5 Blend features


A blend feature smooths an edge of a three-dimensional solid part. To create a blend feature, select
Shape->Blend from the main menu bar or select one of the blend tools in the Part module toolbox.
You create a blend feature in the Part module using the blend tools to do one of the following:

· Smooth an edge with a circular blend of a specified radius, as shown in Figure 14-30. Select
Shape->Blend->Round/Fillet from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-30 A round/fillet blend feature.

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· Bevel an edge with a chamfered blend of a specified length, as shown in Figure 14-31. Select
Shape->Blend->Chamfer from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-31 A chamfer blend feature.

You can use the blend tools to blend edges of a deformable or discrete rigid part that you created in
three-dimensional modeling space. You cannot add a blend feature to a two-dimensional or
axisymmetric part; however, you can blend its corners by editing the sketch of the part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.7 Using feature-based modeling effectively


You can devise an efficient approach to creating a part if you understand how ABAQUS/CAE uses
feature-based modeling and how the rules that define a feature are applied. The following techniques
will help you plan efficiently:

Plan a strategy
Feature-based modeling provides flexibility, but it can also add overhead to your model. For

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example, you can effectively suppress an extrusion by removing it with a cut feature. Although
you can restore the extrusion subsequently by removing the cut feature, the resulting part
contains additional feature-based information that can slow down regeneration. In addition,
dependencies may cause feature regeneration to fail if you add more detail to the part; and,
because the extrusion is no longer visible, the cause of the failure to regenerate may be hard to
determine.
Before you decide how to create a part, you should always consider if you will ever need to
modify the part in the future. If you decide that you might need to modify the part, you should
consider the techniques that you will use to create the features that define the part. The
simplest techniques may not provide the flexibility you need for modifying the features. You
may find it cumbersome to edit or suppress individual items of geometry, such as an extrusion,
a fillet, or a hole.
Alternatively, if you know that you will never change the final design, you may not need the
flexibility provided by feature-based modeling and can use the simplest and most convenient
techniques to define the part.

Use reference geometry


When you are adding a feature to a part, you should always use underlying reference geometry
to define the new feature's location relative to existing features. While sketching a feature, you
may be able to select reference geometry directly; for example, if you are sketching a circle,
you may be able to select a vertex from the reference geometry to define its center.
Alternatively, you may have to add a dimension between reference geometry and the new
feature. If you do not use reference geometry to position a new feature and subsequently
modify the part, the resulting changes to the feature can be unpredictable.

Dimensions add clarity


Dimensions add clarity to the sketches that define features and document your design intent
for future reference. You can modify dimensions in the Sketcher, and the part and assembly
will regenerate accordingly.

Pay attention to the order in which you create features


A new feature of a part is aware of existing features. In addition, if the new feature depends on
an existing feature for positioning information, ABAQUS/CAE creates a parent-child
relationship between the features. Parent-child relationships and the order in which you
created features play an important role in feature regeneration.
To satisfy the rules that govern successful regeneration, try to use the following sequence
when creating the features that define your part:

1. Create the basic geometry of a part using extrusions, revolutions, cuts, and sweeps.

2. Add extruded, revolved, swept, and planar features.

3. Add round or fillet features.

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4. Add partitions only when the rest of the geometry is complete.

5. Dimension new features with respect to existing features.

Allow for some overlap


If possible, you should allow for overlap between an existing feature and a feature that fills a
hole or cuts a hole. Allowing for overlap makes your part robust, and the features are more
likely to regenerate successfully. For example, when you cut a slot, extend its sketched profile
above the surface you are cutting, as shown in Figure 14-32.

Figure 14-32 The sketched profile of a slot should extend beyond any surfaces that are cut.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

· ``Using the Feature Manipulation toolset,'' Section 42.3

· ``Capturing your design and analysis intent,'' Section 14.8

14.8 Capturing your design and analysis intent


If used carefully, the feature-based modeling approach used by ABAQUS/CAE allows you to capture
both your design and analysis intent.
Design intent is the capability to make changes based on design considerations. For example, when
you add a cut feature, you can select either a through cut or a blind cut. If the cut feature represents a
bolt hole, you know that the hole must always pass completely through the part. As a consequence, you
should select a through cut, and ABAQUS/CAE recognizes that the hole remains through even when
you change the thickness of the part.
Analysis intent is the capability to make changes based on analysis considerations. Although
ABAQUS/CAE allows you to create parts with complex, detailed geometry, your final goal is usually a
finite element analysis of a meshed representation of the part. Excessive detail, such as fillets and
small holes, can lead to regions with a very fine mesh that will, in turn, dominate the time taken by

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ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit to reach a solution. The amount of detail you provide when
you create a part in the Part module should be a reflection of your goals. Alternatively, you can create a
part with detailed features but suppress them prior to meshing the assembly. For example, if a model
takes several days to analyze, you may wish to simplify it by suppressing features; you could then
submit an analysis that runs faster and checks your basic modeling assumptions. If the simplified
model behaves as expected, you can unsuppress the features and resubmit a full analysis.
For an example of different feature-based design approaches based on design and analysis intent,
consider the cover plate shown in Figure 14-33.

Figure 14-33 A model of a cover plate.

You could create the three-dimensional shell that models the plate in several ways:

1. Sketch a base feature that includes the four holes.

2. Sketch a rectangular base feature, and add four separate cut features.

3. Sketch a rectangular base feature, and add a single cut feature that cuts all four holes.

Either of the three approaches would generate the same part, but your design intent and your analysis
intent govern the best approach. For example:

· Do you want to create and analyze plates of varying sizes with different sized holes for different
applications? If the diameter of all four holes is always identical, you should create all four holes
as a single cut feature. However, if the diameter of individual holes might differ, you should create
four separate cut features.

· Do you want to suppress features before you finalize your design? For example, you could perform
a series of analyses with the holes suppressed to determine the desired plate thickness. You could
then unsuppress the holes and analyze the finished model. In addition, suppressing features may
simplify the mesh that ABAQUS/CAE generates, or suppressing features may make the assembly
sweep meshable.
If you want to suppress all four holes in the example of the rectangular cover plate, you should
create all four holes as a single cut feature. However, if you want to suppress individual holes, you
should create four separate cut features. If the analysis is straightforward and you do not need to
analyze a simplified model, you should sketch a base feature that includes the four holes.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

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· ``Using the Feature Manipulation toolset,'' Section 42.3

· ``Using feature-based modeling effectively,'' Section 14.7

14.9 Understanding extruding, revolving, and sweeping


The following sections describe the techniques you can use to extrude, revolve, and sweep a
two-dimensional sketch to create a three-dimensional part or feature. The following topics are covered:

· ``Defining the extrusion distance,'' Section 14.9.1

· ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2

· ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3

14.9.1 Defining the extrusion distance


You can sketch a two-dimensional profile and extrude it to create the following:

· A three-dimensional extruded solid feature.

· A three-dimensional extruded shell feature.

· A three-dimensional extruded cut feature.

ABAQUS/CAE provides the following methods for defining the extrusion distance:
Blind

Specify the distance over which ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch. The sketch and the
distance define the feature and can be edited using the Feature Manipulation toolset. You can
use this method when creating extruded solid, shell, and cut features. Figure 14-34 illustrates a
blind extruded cut in a solid part.

Figure 14-34 A blind extruded cut.

Up to Face

Select a single face to which ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch. The selected face does not

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have to be parallel to the sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. If you select this method
to define the extrusion distance, only the sketch can be modified using the Feature
Manipulation toolset; if you wish to extrude to a different face, you must create a new
extruded cut feature. You can use this method when creating extruded solid, shell, and cut
features. Figure 14-35 illustrates a sketch extruded to a nonplanar face.

Figure 14-35 A solid feature extruded up to a nonplanar face.

Through All

This method is available only for extruded cut features. ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch
defining the profile of the cut completely though the part. If you select this method to define
the extrusion distance, only the sketch can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset.
Figure 14-36 illustrates a through all cut in a solid part.

Figure 14-36 A through all extruded cut.

14.9.2 Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and


for revolved features
When you create an axisymmetric part and when you add a revolved feature to a part, the sketch of the
profile must include a construction line that defines the axis of rotation. The following rules apply to
the sketch and to the construction line:

Creating a three-dimensional part with a revolved base feature


You can create three-dimensional parts with a revolved solid or a revolved shell base feature

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by selecting Part->Create from the main menu bar. When you sketch the part's base feature,
ABAQUS/CAE superimposes a vertical construction line representing the axis of rotation on
the Y-axis of the sketch. You can delete this construction line and redraw it at a different angle
and location; however, the finished sketch must contain a construction line representing the
axis of rotation.
You can sketch on either the right or the left of the construction line, and your sketch can
touch this line but cannot cross it. When you exit the Sketcher, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to
enter the angle through which the sketch will be revolved. In addition, if the sketch contains
more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the construction line
that will serve as the axis of rotation.

Creating an axisymmetric part


You can create axisymmetric parts that are defined by either a shell or a wire along with an
axis of symmetry by selecting Part->Create from the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE allows
you to include a twist degree of freedom in your model when you create an axisymmetric part.
When you sketch the part's base feature, ABAQUS/CAE displays a vertical construction line
on the Y-axis of the sketch representing the axis of symmetry. You must sketch only to the
right of the line. Your sketch can touch this line but cannot cross it.
You can add only shell and wire features to an axisymmetric base feature. ABAQUS/CAE
displays the original sketch and construction line when you add a feature, and the same rules
apply--you cannot delete this construction line, and you must sketch only to the right of it.

Creating revolved features


You can add revolved solids, shells, and cuts to three-dimensional solids and shells by
selecting Shape->Solid->Revolve, Shape->Shell->Revolve, or Shape->Cut->Revolve from
the main menu bar or by selecting the equivalent tool from the Part module toolbox. After you
select the planar face on which to sketch, ABAQUS/CAE displays an empty sketch sheet. You
sketch the profile to revolve, and you must also sketch a construction line representing the axis
of revolution. The construction line can be positioned at any location or angle on the sketch.
You can sketch on either the right or the left of the construction line, and your sketch can
touch this line but cannot cross it. When you exit the Sketcher, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to
enter the angle through which the sketch will be revolved. In addition, if the sketch contains
more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the construction line
that will serve as the axis of rotation.
When you are sketching the contruction line that represents the axis of revolution, you can
position the construction line by selecting a datum axis from the underlying part. You cannot
select the datum axis directly; you must select a point from either end of the datum axis. You
can use the datum axis to create concentric features. For example, you can create a datum axis
along the axis of a curved face and use the datum axis to create a revolved feature that is
concentric with the curved face. Similarly, if you are adding more than one revolved feature to
a part, you can make the features concentric by using a single datum axis to position the axis

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of rotation for each feature.

14.9.3 Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile


To create a swept feature, select Shape->Solid->Sweep , Shape->Shell->Sweep , or
Shape->Cut->Sweep from the main menu bar or select the equivalent tool from the Part module
toolbox.
Sweeping is a two-part operation: first you sketch the sweep path, and then you sketch the sweep
profile. The profile is swept along the length of the path to form a three-dimensional solid, shell, or cut
feature. The sweep path can be any continuous path you can create with the Sketcher. The beginning of
the path is always perpendicular to the sweep profile, and the profile always remains normal to the path
as it is swept along its length. Figure 14-37 shows an example of a sweep path and a sweep profile.

Figure 14-37 An example of a sweep path and profile.

The feature created by sweeping the sweep profile along the above path is shown in Figure 14-38.

Figure 14-38 The resulting swept feature.

The sketches that define the sweep path and the sweep profile can both be modified using the Feature
Manipulation toolset. The sweeping tools are available only when you are working on a deformable or
discrete part that you created in a three-dimensional modeling space.
The sweep profile must be closed when you are creating a swept solid or cut feature. However, unlike
the sweep profile, the sweep path can be open or closed regardless of whether you are creating a swept

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solid, shell, or cut feature. If the sweep path is closed, the two ends of the path must meet tangentially.
For example, the closed sweep paths labeled ``Bad'' in Figure 14-39 are not allowed because the ends
of the path meet at an angle.

Figure 14-39 Invalid sweep paths.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.10 Using the Sketcher in conjunction with the Part module


Sketches are two-dimensional profiles that form the geometry of the features defining an
ABAQUS/CAE native part. You use the Sketcher to create these sketches; in the Part module you use
them directly to define a planar part or a beam, or you extrude, sweep, or revolve them to form a
three-dimensional or axisymmetric part. Whenever you need to create the base feature of a new part,
add a feature to a part, or modify an existing feature, the Part module automatically enters the
Sketcher, and you operate on the sketch that forms the two-dimensional profile of the feature. When
you have finished sketching, ABAQUS/CAE automatically returns you to the Part module.
If you are adding a feature or modifying an existing feature, you must choose the plane on which to
sketch. For a detailed description of how ABAQUS/CAE determines the orientation of the part relative
to the sketch plane, see ``Entering and exiting the Sketch module,'' Section 22.2.

For information on related topics, click the following item:

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module

14.11 Understanding toolsets in the Part module


The Part module provides a set of toolsets that allow you to add and modify the features that define a
part. This section describes how these toolsets are used within the Part module. The following topics
are covered:

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· ``Using the Datum toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.1

· ``Using the Feature Manipulation toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.2

· ``Using the Partition toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.3

· ``Using the Query toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.4

· ``Using the Set toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.5

For more detailed information about each toolset, refer to:

· Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset"

· Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset"

· Chapter 43, "The Partition toolset"

· Chapter 44, "The Query toolset"

· Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets"

14.11.1 Using the Datum toolset in the Part module


A datum can be thought of as reference geometry or a construction aid that helps you create a feature
when the part does not contain the necessary geometry; you create datum geometry using the Datum
toolset. A datum is a feature of a part and is regenerated along with the rest of the part. Furthermore,
datum geometry is visible unless you toggle it off by selecting View->Part Display Options->Datum
from the main menu bar. A datum created in the Part module appears with each instance of the part in
the Assembly module and the Mesh module.
Datum points are projected onto the Sketch plane in the Sketcher, and the projected point can be
selected. However, you cannot refer to datum axes or planes in the Sketcher. Examples of how you
might use datum planes and axes in the Part module are given below:

Datum plane
You can sketch directly on datum planes, and any features you sketch on a datum plane will be
projected onto the part. Projecting a sketch from a datum plane is useful if the part does not
already contain a convenient sketch plane.
For example, suppose you want to cut a hole straight through the three-dimensional triangular
part shown in Figure 14-40, parallel to the X-axis.

Figure 14-40 The desired cut feature.

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The part does not already have a face that is suitable for sketching the profile of the hole;
sketching the profile directly on a face results in a hole normal to the face, as shown in Figure
14-41.

Figure 14-41 A cut normal to the face.

To cut the desired hole, first use the Datum toolset to create a datum plane on the Y-Z
principal plane, as shown in Figure 14-42.

Figure 14-42 A datum plane.

Second, sketch the profile of the cut on the new datum plane, as shown in Figure 14-43.

Figure 14-43 A sketch on the datum plane.

When you exit the Sketcher, ABAQUS/CAE cuts the sketched hole through the part,
perpendicular to the datum plane and parallel to the X-axis. This cut is illustrated in Figure
14-44.

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Figure 14-44 The desired cut.

Datum axis
You can use the Datum toolset to create a datum axis that you will select as the vertical
direction for the sketch when adding or modifying a feature to a three-dimensional solid.
Creating a datum axis is useful when the part does not already contain the necessary axis.
For example, suppose you want to cut a slot through the part as shown in Figure 14-45.

Figure 14-45 The desired slot.

Sketching the slot is difficult because selecting either of the two straight edges of the part as
the sketch's vertical axis causes the sketch grid lines to align with the line you select, not with
the X- or Y-axis. To make it easier to create the slot with the desired orientation, first use the
Datum toolset to create a datum axis along the Y-axis, as shown in Figure 14-46.

Figure 14-46 The datum axis.

When you select the datum axis to define the Sketcher's vertical direction, the Sketcher starts,
and its grid is aligned with the part's X- and Y-axes, as shown in Figure 14-47.

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Figure 14-47 The resulting sketch orientation.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11

· Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset

14.11.2 Using the Feature Manipulation toolset in the Part


module
The following are considered to be features of a part:

· Geometric features, such as extruded solids, revolved shells, sketched wires, and rounded edges

· Repair operation

· Partitions

· Datum geometry

When the Feature Manipulation toolset asks you to select a feature, you can select it from the viewport.
Alternatively, you can click the Feature List button on the right side of the prompt area and select the
feature from the Feature List dialog box that appears.
Use the Feature Manipulation toolset in the Part module to edit, suppress, resume, and delete features
of a part. The feature manipulation tools are described below:

Edit
When you edit a feature, ABAQUS/CAE displays the feature editor. You can either modify the
feature's parameters directly or, if applicable, you can modify the sketch that forms the
two-dimensional profile or sweep path of a feature.

Suppress
Suppressing a feature temporarily removes it from the definition of the part. A suppressed
feature is invisible, cannot be meshed, and is not included in the analysis of the model. You
cannot suppress the base feature, and suppressing a parent feature will suppress all of its child
features.

Resume

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Resuming a feature restores a suppressed feature to the part; resuming a parent feature restores
all of its child features. You can choose to resume all features, the set of features most recently
suppressed, or a selected feature.

Delete
Deleting a feature removes it from the part. You cannot resume a deleted feature.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11

· Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset

14.11.3 Using the Partition toolset in the Part module


Within the Part module, you can use the Partition toolset to partition a part into additional regions. The
partitions you create are features associated with the part, so that each instance of that part in the
assembly will contain all the partitions created in the Part module. You can use the regions when
working with the assembly in other modules; for example, you can apply a load over a region in the
Load/BC/IC module. If you do not want to associate the partitions with every instance of the part,
partition the desired instance in the Assembly module instead. For more information, see ``Partitioning
the assembly,'' Section 16.5.3.
After you partition a part, you can use the Property module to assign different sections to the resulting
regions; for example, you might use partitions to delineate regions of the part that are comprised of
different materials.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11

· Chapter 43, "The Partition toolset

14.11.4 Using the Query toolset in the Part module

Select Tools->Query from the main menu bar, or click the query tool in the toolbar to start the
Query toolset.
You can use the Query toolset to request either general information or module-specific information.
For a discussion of the information displayed by general queries, see ``Obtaining general information
about the model,'' Section 44.2.2.
The following queries are specific to the Part module.

Part attributes
ABAQUS/CAE displays the part name, modeling space, and type in the message area.

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Geometry precision
ABAQUS/CAE highlights the regions of an imported part that have geometry precision
warnings.

Geometry validity
ABAQUS/CAE highlights the regions of an imported part that have geometry validity errors.

Volume properties
ABAQUS/CAE displays the volume and the centroid of the solid features of the part in the
message area. ABAQUS/CAE computes the volume using only the solid features of the part;
shell and wire features are not taken into consideration. ABAQUS/CAE does not display any
volume information if the part contains only shell and/or wire features.

Shell element normals


If the current part is an orphan mesh, ABAQUS/CAE color codes the faces of two-dimensional
shell elements according to the direction of the normal. ABAQUS/CAE does not display any
information related to normals for other element types or for ABAQUS/CAE native parts.

14.11.5 Using the Set toolset in the Part module


You use the Set toolset to create a named part set containing regions of a part. When you assign
section properties to a part in the Property module, you can either select the region from the part in the
current viewport, or you can select a named part set that you created in the Part module with the Set
toolset. Part sets are not transferred when you create an instance of a part in the Assembly module; you
must use the Set toolset to create assembly sets in modules that operate on the assembly. For more
information, see ``Using sets and surfaces in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5.5.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11

· Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets."

14.12 Using the Part module toolbox


You can access all the Part module tools through either the main menu bar or the Part module toolbox.
Figure 14-48 shows the hidden icons for all the part tools in the Part module toolbox.

Figure 14-48 The Part module toolbox.

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For information on using each of the Part module tools, refer to the following sections:

· ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13

· ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14

· ``Adding a feature to a part,'' Section 14.15

· ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16

· ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17

· ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18

· ``Adding a cut feature,'' Section 14.19

· ``Blending edges,'' Section 14.20

14.13 Managing parts


This section describes how you manage the parts in your model while working in the Part module. The
following topics are covered:

· ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13.1

· ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2

14.13.1 Managing parts


To create, copy, rename, and delete parts, use one of the following:

· The Create, Copy, Rename, and Delete items listed under the Part menu on the main menu bar.
The Copy, Rename, and Delete items contain submenus listing all the parts in the current model.

· The Part Manager dialog box. The Part Manager dialog box contains functions similar to those
listed under the Part menu on the main menu bar, but with a convenient browser that lists the
names of all the parts available within the current model along with their modeling space
(three-dimensional, two-dimensional, or axisymmetric) and type (deformable, discrete rigid, or
analytical rigid). To display the Part Manager dialog box, select Part->Manager from the main
menu bar.

To retrieve a part from the model database and display it in the current viewport, select the part from

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the Part list located under the toolbar. The Part list contains all the parts in the current model.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13

· ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5

14.13.2 Creating a new part


Select Part->Create from the main menu bar to create a new part in the current viewport.
A model can contain multiple parts; each part exists in a local coordinate system, and you use the
Assembly module to create instances of the parts and position those instances relative to each other in
a global coordinate system. When you create a part, you name the part and select its type, modeling
space, base feature, and approximate size; you then sketch the profile of the part's base feature.
Detailed instructions for creating a new part:

1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Create.


The Create Part dialog box appears. For more information, see ``Using the Create Part dialog
box,'' Section 14.14.

Tip: You can also create a part using the tool in the Part module toolbox. For a
diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section
14.12.

2. Type a name for the part. For information on naming ABAQUS/CAE objects, see ``Using basic
dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1.

3. Choose the new part's modeling space, type, base feature, and approximate size. For more
information, see ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4.
Note: You can rename a part after you create it, but you cannot change its modeling space or type.

4. Click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box.


The Sketcher starts, and the Sketch grid appears in the current viewport.
If you are creating a three-dimensional revolved solid or shell, ABAQUS/CAE displays a vertical
construction line on the Y-axis of the sketch that serves as the axis of revolution. You can sketch
on either side of this construction line, but the sketch must not cross the construction line.
If you are creating an axisymmetric part, ABAQUS/CAE displays a vertical construction line on
the left side of the sketch that serves as the axis of revolution. You must sketch to the right of this
construction line.

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5. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the base feature. For more information,
see Chapter 22, "The Sketch module."
If you are constructing a swept part, you must first sketch the sweep path and exit the Sketcher.
The Sketch will then restart automatically, and you can sketch the profile to be swept.

6. When you have finished sketching the base feature, click mouse button 2 to exit the current
Sketch tool.

7. In the prompt area, click Done to exit the Sketcher. If the base feature is a three-dimensional solid
or shell extrusion, you must use the text field that appears in the prompt area to enter the distance
through which to extrude the profile. If the base feature is a three-dimensional revolved solid or
shell, you must enter the angle through which to rotate the profile.
ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and displays the new part in the current viewport.

8. If necessary, use the Part module tools to add additional features to the base feature. For more
information, see ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14

· ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files,'' Section 14.5.2

· ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

· ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1

14.14 Using the Create Part dialog box


This section describes the options in the Create Part dialog box. The following topics are covered:

· ``Using the Create Part dialog box to define the properties of a part, '' Section 14.14.1

· ``Choosing the modeling space of a new part,'' Section 14.14.2

· ``Choosing the type of a new part,'' Section 14.14.3

· ``Choosing the base feature of a new part,'' Section 14.14.4

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· ``Setting the approximate size of the new part,'' Section 14.14.5

14.14.1 Using the Create Part dialog box to define the properties
of a part
When you create a part, you first use the Create Part dialog box to define the properties of the part,
and then you use the Sketch to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the base feature. You use the
Create Part dialog box to define the following:

Name

Use the Name text field at the top of the Create Part dialog box to name the part you are
creating. To rename a part, select Part->Rename from the main menu bar. For information on
valid names, see ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1.
After you create a part, ABAQUS/CAE displays the name of the new part in title bar of the
current viewport.
Modeling Space

Use the Modeling Space radio buttons to choose the modeling space of the new part. You can
define a part to be either three-dimensional, two-dimensional (planar), or axisymmetric. If you
create an axisymmetric deformable part, the Create Part dialog box allows you to include a
twist degree of freedom in your model. You cannot change a part's modeling space after you
create it. For more information, see ``Choosing the modeling space of a new part,'' Section
14.14.2.
Type

Use the Type radio buttons to choose the type of the new part. You can define a part to be
either deformable, discrete rigid, or analytical rigid. You cannot change a part's type after you
create it. For more information, see ``Choosing the type of a new part,'' Section 14.14.3.
Base Feature

Use the Base Feature field to define the shape and the type of the new part's base feature. The
shape and the type options that ABAQUS/CAE displays depend on the part's modeling space
and type. You cannot change the type of a part's base feature after you create it. For more
information, see ``Choosing the base feature of a new part,'' Section 14.14.4.
Approximate size

Use the approximate size text field to enter the size of the part. The size that you enter is used
by ABAQUS/CAE to calculate the size of the Sketcher sheet and the spacing of its grid. For
more information, see ``Setting the approximate size of the new part,'' Section 14.14.5. After
you create the part and start sketching its profile, you can use the Sketch customization
options to increase the sheet size. To display the Sketcher customization options click the

tool at the bottom of the Sketcher toolbox.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2

· ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14

14.14.2 Choosing the modeling space of a new part


Use the Modeling Space radio buttons at the top of the Create Part dialog box to choose the
modeling space of the part you are creating. ABAQUS/CAE carries a part's modeling space through
the modeling process; for example, modeling space determines which tools are available in the Part
module and which elements are available in the Mesh module. You cannot change the modeling space
of a part after you create it. For more information, see ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1.
Modeling space refers to the space the part can inhabit, rather than to the part itself. Thus, you can
create a part in three-dimensional modeling space but construct it using topologically two-dimensional
shell or wire features. The new part's modeling space can be set to one of the following:

Three-dimensional
ABAQUS/CAE positions the part in three-dimensional space.

Two-dimensional planar
ABAQUS/CAE positions the part in planar, two-dimensional space.

Axisymmetric
ABAQUS/CAE positions the part in axisymmetric two-dimensional space. If you create an
axisymmetric deformable part, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to include a twist degree of
freedom in your model.

Detailed instructions for selecting the modeling space of a new part:

1. From the top of the Create Part dialog box, choose the desired Modeling Space radio button.

2. When you have finished choosing options, click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box.
The Sketcher starts, and you sketch the profile of the new part's base feature.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1

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· ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2

14.14.3 Choosing the type of a new part


Use the Type radio buttons in the middle of the Create Part dialog box to choose the type of the part
you are creating. ABAQUS/CAE carries a part's type through the modeling process; for example, you
cannot assign section and material properties to a rigid part, and you cannot mesh an analytical rigid
part. You cannot change a part's type after you create it.
The new part's type can be set to one of the following:

Deformable
Any arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional part that you can
create or import can be specified as a deformable part. A deformable part represents a part that
can deform under load; the load can be mechanical, thermal, or electrical. By default,
ABAQUS/CAE creates parts that are deformable.

Discrete rigid
A discrete rigid part is similar to a deformable part in that it can be any arbitrary shape.
However, a discrete rigid part is assumed to be rigid and is used in contact analyses to model
bodies that cannot deform.

Analytical rigid
An analytical rigid part is similar to a discrete rigid part in that it is used to represent a rigid
surface in a contact analysis. However, the shape of an analytical rigid part is not arbitrary and
must be formed from a set of sketched lines, arcs, and parabolas.

After you create either a discrete rigid part or an analytical rigid part, you must also do the following:

· Assign the rigid body reference point. You apply constraints or prescribe motion to the rigid body
reference point in the Load/BC/IC module, and the same constraints or motion are applied to the
entire rigid part. For more information, see ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5.

· If the part is a discrete rigid part or an analytical rigid part, you must use the Surface toolset in the
Assembly module to choose which side of the part represents the outer surface. For more
information, see Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets."

If you create either a discrete rigid part or an analytical rigid part, you can toggle on Isothermal to
define an isothermal rigid part.
Detailed instructions for selecting the type of a new part:

1. From the middle of the Create Part dialog box, choose the desired Type radio button.

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2. When you have finished choosing options, click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box.
The Sketcher starts, and you sketch the profile of the new part's base feature.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Defining analytical rigid surfaces,'' Section 2.3.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and
the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

· ``Defining rigid bodies,'' Section 2.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual

· ``Part types,'' Section 14.4.2

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2

· ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14

· ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5

· Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets

14.14.4 Choosing the base feature of a new part


Use the radio buttons and the list within the Base Feature frame at the bottom of the Create Part
dialog box to describe the base feature of the part you are creating. The choices depend on both the
part's modeling space and the part's type; for example, an axisymmetric deformable body can have only
a planar shell or planar wire base feature. For detailed information about the different shapes and types
of base features that you can create, see ``The base feature,'' Section 14.3.2.
Your choice of the base feature's type is important because you cannot change the type after you create
the part. You can modify the base feature, but you should be aware that any features you subsequently
add to the part will be linked to the base feature. Consequently, if you modify the base feature, these
dependent (or child) features may move or fail to regenerate.
Detailed instructions for choosing the base feature:

1. From the bottom of the Create Part dialog box, choose the desired base feature shape (Solid,
Shell, or Wire). The available choices depend on the modeling space and the type of the part you
are creating.

2. If you are creating a three-dimensional part, you must also choose its Type (Extrusion,
Revolution, Sweep , or Planar).

3. When you have finished choosing options, click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box.
The Sketcher starts, and you sketch the profile of the new part's base feature.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

· ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2

· ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14

· ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2

· Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset"

14.14.5 Setting the approximate size of the new part


Use the Approximate size text field at the bottom of the Create Part dialog box to set the
approximate size of the new part. The size that you enter is used by ABAQUS/CAE to calculate the
size of the Sketcher sheet and the spacing of its grid. The approximate part size must be between
100000 (10 5) and 0.001 (10 -3) units. ABAQUS/CAE does not use specific units, but the units must be
consistent throughout the model.
When you exit the Create Part dialog box, ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher, and you sketch the
profile of the base feature. The Sketcher displays a square sheet with an overlaying grid and adjusts the
dimensions of the sheet to approximate the size of the part. As a result, the dimensions of the sketch
will have the same order of magnitude as the part you are creating.
If you subsequently edit the part, ABAQUS/CAE still determines the size of the Sketcher sheet from
the same dimensions that it used when you created the base feature. Consequently, you should set the
approximate size of the part to match the largest dimension of the finished part. If you find
subsequently that the part exceeds the size of the Sketcher sheet, use the Sketch customization options
to increase the sheet size.
Detailed instructions for setting the approximate size of the new part:

1. Type the approximate size of the new part in the Approximate size text field at the bottom of the
Create Part dialog box.

2. When you have finished choosing options, click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box.
The Sketcher starts with a sheet size and grid spacing based on the approximate size of the new
part, and you sketch the profile of the new part's base feature.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

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· ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14

· ``The Sketcher sheet and grid,'' Section 22.4.2

· ``Customizing the Sketcher,'' Section 22.8

14.15 Adding a feature to a part


Use the Shape menu to add a feature to the current part. You can do the following:

· Use the Solid tools to add a solid feature to a to a three-dimensional solid part.

· Use the Shell tools to add a shell feature to a part.

· Use the Wire tools to add a wire feature to a part.

· Use the Cut tools to add a cut feature to a part.

· Use the Blend tools to add a blend feature to a three-dimensional solid part.

14.16 Adding a solid feature


This section describes the Part module tools used to add a solid feature to the three-dimensional solid
part in the current viewport. The following topics are covered:

· ``Adding an extruded solid feature,'' Section 14.16.1

· ``Adding a revolved solid feature,'' Section 14.16.2

· ``Adding a swept solid feature,'' Section 14.16.3

14.16.1 Adding an extruded solid feature


Select Shape->Solid->Extrude from the main menu bar to add an extruded solid feature to the part in
the current viewport. You can add an extruded solid feature only to three-dimensional parts.
You add an extruded solid feature by sketching a two-dimensional cross-section and defining the
distance over which to extrude it. A sketch and the resulting extruded solid feature are illustrated in the
following figure:

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You can also define the distance over which to extrude by selecting a single face to extrude to. The
selected face does not have to be parallel to the sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face.
ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch until it meets the selected face.
Detailed instructions for adding an extruded solid feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Solid->Extrude.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add an extruded solid feature using the tool, located with the solid
tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see
``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select the face from which the solid will be extruded. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle
through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.
An arrow appears, indicating the extrusion direction.

3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to
accept the indicated extrusion direction.
If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part.

4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be
perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the
plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines.
Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum
axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to
appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from

the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view.

5. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the extrusion. In the prompt area, click
Done to indicate that you have finished sketching the profile.

6. From the buttons in the prompt area, select one of the following:

· Blind

a. A default extrusion depth appears in the prompt area.

b. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new extrusion depth.

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ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module. The part is displayed in
its original orientation with the solid extruded from the sketch plane through the desired
distance.

· Up to Face

a. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module with the part displayed
in its original orientation.

b. Select the face to which to extrude. The selected face does not have to be parallel to the
sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. You cannot select a datum plane.
ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the solid from the sketch plane to the selected face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset"

· ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.16.2 Adding a revolved solid feature


Select Shape->Solid->Revolve from the main menu bar to add a revolved solid feature to the part in
the current viewport. You can add a revolved solid feature only to three-dimensional parts.
You add a revolved solid feature by sketching a two-dimensional cross-section and a construction line
on a selected face. The construction line serves as an axis of revolution, and ABAQUS/CAE creates
the solid feature by rotating the cross-section about the axis using a specified angle of revolution. A
sketch and the resulting feature, revolved through an angle of 180°, are illustrated in the following
figure:

The rotation angle as well as the sketch of the profile and the axis define the revolved solid feature;
both can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset.

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Detailed instructions for adding a revolved solid feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Solid->Revolve.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add a revolved solid feature using the tool, located with the solid
tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see
``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select the face from which the solid will be revolved. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle
through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.
An arrow appears, indicating the normal to the axis of revolution and the initial direction of the
revolution.

3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to
accept the indicated direction.
If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part.

4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be
perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the
plane of the Sketcher grid, and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines.
Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum
axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to
appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from

the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view.

5. Use the horizontal , vertical , angle , or oblique construction line tools to


sketch the axis of rotation. You can position the construction line by selecting a datum axis from
the underlying part. You cannot select the datum axis directly; you must select a point from either
end of the datum axis.

6. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the revolved feature; the sketch must not
cross the axis of revolution.

7. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the profile and the axis. If
the sketch contains more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the
construction line that will serve as the axis of rotation.

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A default revolve angle appears in the prompt area.

8. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new revolve angle.
The part returns to its original orientation with the sketched profile revolved around the axis of
revolution.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Creating construction geometry,'' Section 22.10

· ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16

· ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.16.3 Adding a swept solid feature


Select Shape->Solid->Sweep from the main menu bar to add a swept solid feature to the part in the
current viewport. You can add a swept solid feature only to three-dimensional parts.
You add a swept solid feature by sketching a sweep path on a selected face and sketching a sweep
profile. The sweep profile is always perpendicular to the beginning of the path, and the profile always
remains normal to the path as it is swept along its length. The sweep path, the sweep profile, and the
resulting solid feature are illustrated in the following figures:

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The sketch of the sweep path and the sketch of the sweep profile define the swept solid feature; both
can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset.
Detailed instructions for adding a swept solid feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Solid->Sweep .


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add a swept solid feature using the tool, located with the solid tools
in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using
the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select the face on which to sketch the sweep path. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle
through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.

3. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be
perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the
plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from

the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view.

4. Sketch the sweep path. The sweep path must meet the following guidelines:

· The path can be closed, but the ends must meet smoothly; for example, the ends should not
meet at a corner. For examples of valid sweep paths, see ``Defining the sweep path and the
sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3.

· The path must be continuous; for example, it must not branch.

· The resulting solid cannot intersect with itself.

In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep path.

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ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and restores the original view of the part. A highlighted line
indicates the sweep path and its direction. You are now ready to sketch the sweep profile.

5. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the Sketcher grid.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher again and rotates the part so that the Sketcher grid lies on a
plane normal to the beginning of the sweep path. In addition, the selected edge aligns with the
vertical grid lines. The intersection of two dashed lines indicates the origin of the sweep path.

6. Sketch the sweep profile. The sweep profile must meet the following guidelines:

· The profile must be closed.

· The resulting solid cannot intersect with itself.

You can sketch the profile anywhere on the Sketcher grid; ABAQUS/CAE sweeps the profile
along a path parallel to the sweep path. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have
finished sketching the sweep profile.
ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher, restores the original view of the part, and creates the new swept
solid.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16

· ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17 Adding a shell feature


This section describes the Part module tools used to add a shell feature to the part in the current
viewport. The following topics are covered:

· ``Adding an extruded shell feature,'' Section 14.17.1

· ``Adding a revolved shell feature,'' Section 14.17.2

· ``Adding a swept shell feature,'' Section 14.17.3

· ``Adding a planar shell feature,'' Section 14.17.4

· ``Adding a shell-from-solid feature,'' Section 14.17.5

· ``Adding a remove-face shell feature,'' Section 14.17.6

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14.17.1 Adding an extruded shell feature


Select Shape->Shell->Extrude from the main menu bar to add an extruded shell feature to the part in
the current viewport. You can add an extruded shell feature only to three-dimensional parts.
You add an extruded shell feature by sketching on a selected face and extending the profile a specified
distance in a direction normal to the face. A sketch and the resulting extruded shell feature are
illustrated in the following figure:

You can also define the distance over which to extrude by selecting a single face to extrude to. The
selected face does not have to be parallel to the sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face.
ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch until it meets the selected face.
Detailed instructions for adding an extruded shell feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Extrude.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add an extruded shell feature using the tool, located with the shell
tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see
``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select the face from which the shell will be extruded. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle
through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.
An arrow appears, indicating the extrusion direction.

3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to
accept the indicated extrusion direction.
If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part.

4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be
perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the
plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines.
Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum

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axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to
appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from

the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view.

5. Use the Sketcher to sketch the profile of the line to be extruded. In the prompt area, click Done to
indicate you have finished sketching the profile.

6. From the buttons in the prompt area, select one of the following:

· Blind

a. A default extrusion depth appears in the prompt area.

b. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new extrusion depth.
ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module. The part is displayed in
its original orientation with the shell extruded from the sketch plane through the desired
distance.

· Up to Face

a. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module with the part displayed
in its original orientation.

b. Select the face to which to extrude. The selected face does not have to be parallel to the
sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. You cannot select a datum plane.
ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the shell from the sketch plane to the selected face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.2 Adding a revolved shell feature


Select Shape->Shell->Revolve from the main menu bar to add a revolved shell feature to the part in
the current viewport. You can add a revolved shell feature only to three-dimensional parts.
You add a revolved shell feature by sketching a profile and a construction line on a selected face. The

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construction line serves as an axis of revolution, and ABAQUS/CAE creates the solid feature by
rotating the profile about the axis using a specified angle of revolution. A sketch and the resulting
feature, rotated about the axis of revolution through an angle of 90°, are illustrated in the following
figure:

The sketch and the rotation angle define the revolved shell feature; both can be modified using the
Feature Manipulation toolset.
Detailed instructions for adding a revolved shell feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Revolve.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add a revolved shell feature using the tool, located with the shell
tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see
``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select the face from which the shell will be revolved. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle
through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.
An arrow appears, indicating the normal to the axis of revolution and the initial direction of the
revolution.

3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to
accept the indicated direction.
If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part.

4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be
perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the
plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines.
Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum
axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to
appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid.

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If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from

the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view.

5. Use the horizontal , vertical , angle , or oblique construction line tools to


sketch the axis of rotation. You can position the construction line by selecting a datum axis from
the underlying part. You cannot select the datum axis directly; you must select a point from either
end of the datum axis.

6. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the revolved feature; the sketch must not
cross the axis of revolution.

7. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the profile and the axis. If
the sketch contains more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the
construction line that will serve as the axis of rotation.
A default revolve angle appears in the prompt area.

8. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new revolve angle.
The part returns to its original orientation with the sketched profile revolved about the axis of
revolution.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17

· ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.3 Adding a swept shell feature


Select Shape->Shell->Sweep from the main menu bar to add a swept shell feature to the part in the
current viewport. You can add a swept shell feature only to three-dimensional parts.
You add a swept shell feature by sketching a sweep path on a selected face and sketching a sweep
profile. The sweep profile is always perpendicular to the beginning of the path, and the profile always
remains normal to the path as it is swept along its length. The sweep path (a spline) and the sweep
profile are shown in the following figure:

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The resulting swept shell feature is shown in the following figure:

The sketch of the sweep path and the sketch of the sweep profile combine to define the swept shell
feature, and both can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset.
Detailed instructions for adding a swept shell feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Sweep .


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add a swept shell feature using the tool, located with the shell tools
in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using
the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select the face on which to sketch the sweep path. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle
through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.

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3. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be
perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the
plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from

the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view.

4. Sketch the sweep path. The sweep path must meet the following guidelines:

· The path can be closed, but the ends must meet smoothly; for example, the ends should not
meet at a corner. For examples of valid sweep paths, see ``Defining the sweep path and the
sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3.

· The path must be continuous; for example, it must not branch.

· The resulting shell cannot intersect with itself.

In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep path.
ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and restores the original view of the part. A highlighted line
indicates the sweep path and its direction. You are now ready to sketch the sweep profile.

5. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the Sketcher grid.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher again and rotates the part so that the Sketcher grid lies on a
plane normal to the beginning of the sweep path. In addition, the selected edge aligns with the
vertical grid lines. The intersection of two dashed lines indicates the origin of the sweep path.

6. Sketch the sweep profile. The sweep profile must meet the following guidelines:

· The profile must be closed.

· The resulting shell cannot intersect with itself.

You can sketch the profile anywhere on the Sketch grid; ABAQUS/CAE sweeps the profile along
a path parallel to the sweep path. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished
sketching the sweep profile.

7. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher, restores the original view of the part, and creates the new swept
shell. The resulting shell cannot intersect with itself.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3

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· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.4 Adding a planar shell feature


Select Shape->Shell->Planar from the main menu bar to add a planar shell feature to the part in the
current viewport. The planar shell tool is always available, regardless of the modeling space of the part
in the current viewport.
You add a planar shell feature by sketching the feature on a selected face. A sketch and the resulting
planar shell feature are illustrated in the following figure:

The sketch defines a planar shell feature and can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset.
Detailed instructions for adding a planar shell feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Planar.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add a planar shell feature using the tool, located with the shell tools
in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using
the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. If the modeling space of the part is two-dimensional or axisymmetric, ABAQUS/CAE enters the
Sketcher and aligns the X- and Y-axes of the part and the sketch.
If the modeling space of the part is three-dimensional, do the following:

a. Select the face on which the shell will be positioned. If the selection is ambiguous, you
can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.

b. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge
must not be perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns
with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid
lines.
Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a
datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum
axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool

from the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original
view.

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3. Use the Sketcher to sketch the planar shell. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have
finished sketching.
The part returns to its original orientation with the planar shell positioned on the selected face. The
shell feature is created only where it extends beyond the faces of the part; a shell feature cannot
overlap a face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.5 Adding a shell-from-solid feature


Select Shape->Shell->From Solid from the main menu bar to create a shell feature from the faces of a
solid feature. You can add a shell-from-solid feature only to three-dimensional parts.
You add a shell-from-solid feature by selecting the cells to remove from the part; ABAQUS/CAE
converts any remaining faces to shells.
The From Solid tool is an easy way to create shells with curved edges, as shown in the following
figure. The curved edges of the solid were created by filleting the edges using the round tool.

Detailed instructions for adding a shell-from-solid feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->From Solid.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add a shell-from-solid feature using the tool, located with the shell

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tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see
``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select one or more cells to convert to shells. [Shift]+[Click] additional cells to add them to your
selection and [Ctrl]+[Click] a selected cell to unselect it. Click mouse button 2 to indicate you
have finished selecting cells to convert.
ABAQUS/CAE converts the selected cells to shells.

Tip: Use the backup button ( ) to undo one or more steps; use the cancel button ( ) to
abort the creation of the shell from solid.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.6 Adding a remove-face shell feature


Select Shape->Shell->Remove Face from the main menu bar to create a shell feature from the faces
of a solid feature. You add a remove-face shell feature by selecting the faces to remove from the part;
ABAQUS/CAE converts any remaining faces to shells. You must remove at least one face from a solid
feature of the part.
The From Solid tool is an easy way to create shells with curved edges, as shown in the following
figure. The curved edges of the solid were created by filleting the edges using the round tool.

Tip: You should use the remove-face tool only to create features that could not be created using
the other Shape tools. For example, you should not create a solid cylinder and then remove the
faces at each end to create a cylindrical shell. You should create the cylindrical shell directly using
the extruded or revolved shell tools.

Detailed instructions for adding a remove-face shell feature:

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1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Remove Face.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add a remove-face shell feature using the tool, located with the shell
tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see
``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select one or more faces to remove from a solid feature. [Shift]+[Click] additional faces to add
them to your selection and [Ctrl]+[Click] a selected face to unselect it. Click mouse button 2 to
indicate you have finished selecting faces to remove. You must remove at least one face from a
solid feature of the part.
ABAQUS/CAE removes the selected faces and converts all remaining faces to shells.

Tip: Use the backup button ( ) to undo one or more steps; use the cancel button ( ) to
abort the creation of the shell from solid.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.18 Adding a wire feature


This section describes the Part module tools used to add a wire feature to the part in the current
viewport. The following topics are covered:

· ``Adding a sketched wire feature,'' Section 14.18.1

· ``Adding a wire feature connecting two points,'' Section 14.18.2

14.18.1 Adding a sketched wire feature


Select Shape->Wire->Sketch from the main menu bar to add a sketched planar wire feature to the part
in the current viewport. The planar wire tool is always available, regardless of the modeling space of
the part in the current viewport.
You add a planar wire feature by sketching the feature on a selected plane. ABAQUS/CAE removes
any portion of the wire that overlaps an existing face. A sketch and the resulting planar wires are
illustrated in the following figure:

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The Part module

The sketch fully defines a planar wire feature and can be modified using the Feature Manipulation
toolset.
Detailed instructions for adding a sketched wire feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Wire->Sketch.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add a sketched wire feature using the tool, located with the wire
tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see
``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. If the modeling space of the part is two-dimensional or axisymmetric, ABAQUS/CAE enters the
Sketcher and aligns the X- and Y-axes of the part and the sketch.
If the part is three-dimensional, do the following:

a. Select the face on which the wire will be positioned. If the selection is ambiguous, you can
cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.

b. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge
must not be perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns
with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid
lines.
Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a
datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum
axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool

from the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original
view.

3. Use the Sketcher to sketch the planar wire. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have
finished sketching.

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The part returns to its original orientation with the planar wire positioned on the selected face. The
wire feature is created only where it extends beyond the faces of the part; a wire feature cannot
overlap a face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.18.2 Adding a wire feature connecting two points


Select Shape->Wire->2 points from the main menu bar to add a wire feature connecting two points
from the part in the current viewport. The tool to connect two points with a wire is always available,
regardless of the modeling space of the part in the current viewport.
You add a wire feature connecting two points by picking the two points to connect. ABAQUS/CAE
removes any portion of the wire that overlaps an existing face. A wire feature connecting two points is
illustrated in the following example:

A wire feature connecting two points cannot be modified directly. In general, if you want to change
which points are connected, you must delete the wire and create a new wire connecting the desired
points. However, if the points you select are datum points that you created by specifying coordinates,
you can edit the datum points and change their location using the Feature Manipulation toolset.
Detailed instructions for adding a wire feature connecting two points:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Wire->2 points.


ABAQUS/CAE highlights all the points on the part that you can pick. The possible choices are:

· Vertices

· The midpoints of lines and arcs

· The centers of circles and arcs

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The Part module

· Datum points

ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also add a wire feature connecting two points using the tool, located
with the wire tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module
toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select the points that will locate the two ends of the wire. If the selections are ambiguous, you can
cycle through the candidate points using the buttons in the prompt area.
ABAQUS/CAE draws a wire connecting the two selected points. The wire feature is created only
where it extends beyond the faces of the part; a wire feature cannot overlap a face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.19 Adding a cut feature


This section describes the Part module tools used to add a cut feature to the part in the current
viewport. The following topics are covered:

· ``Creating an extruded cut,'' Section 14.19.1

· ``Creating a revolved cut,'' Section 14.19.2

· ``Creating a swept cut,'' Section 14.19.3

· ``Cutting a circular hole,'' Section 14.19.4

14.19.1 Creating an extruded cut


Select Shape->Cut->Extrude from the main menu bar to create an extruded cut through the part in the
current viewport. The extruded cut tool is always available, regardless of the modeling space of the
part in the current viewport.
You create an extruded cut into a three-dimensional part by sketching the two-dimensional
cross-section of the cut on a selected face and defining the distance through which ABAQUS/CAE
extrudes the cut. You can select one of the following methods to define the distance through which the
cut is extruded:

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The Part module

· Blind extends the cut from the sketch plane in a selected direction but only to a specified depth.

· Up to Face extends the cut from the sketch plane to a selected face.

· Through All extends the cut from the sketch plane in a selected direction through the part.

The three methods are illustrated in the following figure:

You create an extruded cut in a two-dimensional or axisymmetric planar part by sketching the
two-dimensional cross-section of the cut directly on the plane of the part. The cut always passes
completely through the part.
Detailed instructions for cutting an extruded cut:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Cut->Extrude.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also create an extruded cut using the tool, located with the cut tools in
the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the
Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. If the current viewport contains a two-dimensional or axisymmetric planar part, ABAQUS/CAE


enters the Sketcher and you sketch the profile of the extruded cut on the plane of the part.
If the current viewport contains a three-dimensional part, you must do the following:

a. Select the face from which the cut will be extruded. If the selection is ambiguous, you can
cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.

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The Part module

An arrow appears, indicating the extrusion direction.

b. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click
OK to accept the indicated extrusion direction.

If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the
part.

c. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge
must not be perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns
with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid
lines.
Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a
datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum
axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool

from the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original
view.

d. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the extruded cut.

3. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the profile.

4. If the current viewport contains a two-dimensional or axisymmetric planar part, the part returns to
its original orientation, and ABAQUS/CAE cuts the plane with the sketched profile.
If the current viewport contains a three-dimensional part, select one of the following from the
buttons in the prompt area:

· Blind

a. A default extrusion depth appears in the prompt area.

b. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new extrusion depth.
ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module. The part is displayed in
its original orientation with the cut extruded from the sketch plane through the desired
distance.

· Up to Face

a. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module with the part displayed
in its original orientation.

b. Select the face to which to extrude. The selected face does not have to be parallel to the

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The Part module

sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. You cannot select a datum plane.
ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the cut from the sketch plane to the selected face.

· Through All

a. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module. The part is displayed in
its original orientation with the cut extruded from the sketch plane passing completely
through the part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a cut feature,'' Section 14.19

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.19.2 Creating a revolved cut


Select Shape->Cut->Revolve from the main menu bar to create a revolved cut through the part in the
current viewport. You can cut a revolved cut through only three-dimensional parts.
You add a revolved cut by sketching a two-dimensional cross-section and a construction line on a
selected face. The construction line serves as an axis of revolution, and ABAQUS/CAE creates the
revolved cut by rotating the cross-section about the axis using a specified angle of revolution. A sketch
and the resulting revolved cut are illustrated in the following figure:

The sketch and the rotation angle combine to define the revolved cut, and both can be modified using
the Feature Manipulation toolset.
Detailed instructions for cutting a revolved cut:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Cut->Revolve.


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

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Tip: You can also create a revolved cut using the tool, located with the cut tools in the
Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the
Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select the face from which the cut will be revolved. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle
through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.
An arrow appears, indicating the normal to the axis of revolution and the initial direction of the
revolution.

3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to
accept the indicated direction.
If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part.

4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be
perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the
plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines.
Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum
axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to
appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from

the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view.

5. Use the horizontal , vertical , angle , or oblique construction line tools to


sketch the axis of rotation. You can position the construction line by selecting a datum axis from
the underlying part. You cannot select the datum axis directly; you must select a point from either
end of the datum axis.

6. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the revolved cut; the sketch must not
cross the axis of revolution.

7. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the cross--section and the
axis. If the sketch contains more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select
the construction line that will serve as the axis of rotation.
A default revolve angle appears in the prompt area.

8. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new revolve angle.
The part returns to its original orientation with the sketched profile revolved around the axis of

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revolution and cutting any part of the model that it intersects.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Adding a cut feature,'' Section 14.19

· ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.19.3 Creating a swept cut


Select Shape->Cut->Sweep from the main menu bar to create a swept shell cut through the part in the
current viewport. You can create a swept cut through only three-dimensional parts.
You create a swept cut by sketching a sweep path on a selected face and sketching a sweep profile, as
shown in the following figure:

The sweep profile is always perpendicular to the beginning of the path, and the profile always remains
normal to the path as it is swept along its length. The sketch of the sweep path and the sketch of the
sweep profile define the swept cut feature; both can be modified using the Feature Manipulation
toolset.
Detailed instructions for creating a swept cut feature:

1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Cut->Sweep .


ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

Tip: You can also create a swept cut using the tool, located with the cut tools in the
Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the
Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12.

2. Select the face on which to sketch the sweep path. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle
through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.

3. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be
perpendicular to the selected face.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the

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plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines.

If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from

the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view.

4. Sketch the sweep path. The sweep path must meet the following guidelines:

· The path can be closed, but the ends must meet smoothly; for example, the ends should not
meet at a corner. For examples of valid sweep paths, see ``Defining the sweep path and the
sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3.

· The path must be continuous; for example, it must not branch.

· The resulting cut cannot intersect with itself.

In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep path.
ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and restores the original view of the part. A highlighted line
indicates the sweep path and its direction. You are now ready to sketch the sweep profile.

5. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the Sketcher grid.
ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher again and rotates the part so that the Sketcher grid lies on a
plane normal to the beginning of the sweep path. In addition, the selected edge aligns with the
vertical grid lines. The intersection of two dashed lines indicates the origin of the sweep path.

6. Sketch the sweep profile. The sweep profile must meet the following guidelines:

· The profile must be closed.

· The resulting cut cannot intersect with itself.

You can sketch the profile anywhere on the Sketch grid; ABAQUS/CAE sweeps the profile along
a path parallel to the sweep path. Click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep
profile.
ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher, restores the original view of the part, and creates the swept cut
through the part. The resulting cut cannot intersect with itself.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

· ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3

· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

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14.19.4 Cutting a circular hole


Select Shape->Cut->Circular Hole from the main menu bar to cut a circular hole through the part in
the current viewport. The circular hole tool is always available, regardless of the modeling space of the
part in the current viewport.
You cut a circular hole by specifying the distance from two selected straight edges and specifying the
diameter of the hole, as shown in the following figure:

The part must contain at least two straight edges; for example, you cannot use this tool to cut a hole
through a circular part.
If the current viewport contains a two-dimensional or axisymmetric planar part, the hole always passes
through all of the part. However, if the current viewport contains a three-dimensional part,
ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the type of cut. You can select one of the following types of
cut:
The distance from the hole to each edge, the diameter of the hole, and the depth of a blind hole are the
features that define a circular hole, and all three can be modified using the Feature Manipulation
toolset. You cannot c