Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Centre for Foundation Studies of

International Islamic University Malaysia,



Group Members:


Nadra Fatima binti Mannan 085789
Nur Jamila binti Jamil 085670
Noor Farhanim binti Rosli 085657
Dayangku Amal Nadiah binti Panglima Haji Mohamed 084362
Introduction of Al-Akhlaq

Akhlaq (Arabic: ‫ )أق‬is an Arabic term referring to the practice of virtue, morality and
manners in Islamic theology and falsafah (philosophy). It is most commonly translated in
English dictionaries as; disposition, nature, temper, ethics, morals or character (of a


Akhlaq is the plural of the word khulq which means disposition. "Disposition" is a faculty
(malakah)[2] of the soul (nafs) which unconsciously inspires activities. Malakah comes into
existence through repetitive practice and is not easily destroyed. A particular malakah may
appear because of one of the following reasons:

1. Fitrah (natural state): The original state in which humans are created by Allah.
Muslims believe Allah determined certain aspects of their lives for which they are
not accountable (e.g., their place of birth and physical appearance)[3]
2. 'āda (Habit): Formed by continual repetition of certain acts and creates a certain
3. Practice and conscious effort: This if persistent will eventually produce a disposition.

Although fitra produces certain dispositions, man can surpass nature through free will and
effort. While dispositions caused by mental faculties (i.e., intelligence, memory, mental
agility etc.) are not alterable, all others can change. When we speak of man's capacity to
change his dispositions, we do not mean he should destroy instincts of reproduction or self-
preservation. Instead, he should avoid extremes so they perform their functions properly.

Abu Hurairah narrated that Prophet Muhammad has said:

"Indeed I have been sent to complete the best of character (akhlaq)."[4]

Anas, the brother of Abu Dharr is narrated as saying:

"I saw him (the Prophet), he would enjoin the people to good character and conduct." The Prophet
also said, "The most complete of believers in iman (faith) are those who are best in character."[5]
'Ilm Al-Akhlaq

The level of human perfection is determined by discipline and effort. Man stands between
two extremes, the lowest is below beasts and the highest surpasses even the angels. The
movement between these extremes is discussed by `ilm al-akhlaq or the science of ethics.
Traditional Muslim philosophers believed that without ethics and purification (tazkiyah),
mastery over other sciences is not only devoid of value, but would obstruct insight. That is
why it has been said that, `knowledge is the thickest of veils', which prevents man from
seeing reality (haqiqah).
The Freedom of Will
Al-Ghazzali holds that the fact that human character can be changed and improved certainly
implies that man possesses some degree of free will.

There are three aspects of this problem based on Al-Ghazzali’s ethical philosophy;

1) The efficacy of will in changing and improving character is a necessary postulate of

2) That will is determined by knowledge.
3) Man’s freedom is determined as freedom consists in the acceptance or rejection by
Reason of one or the other alternatives that are presented to it. But this acceptance
or rejection is not wholly undetermined. On the contrary it is caused by the Divine

Thus, man’s freedom is determined. Al-Ghazzali admits the limit beyond which human
effort cannot change a person’s character. Now there are two things that stand oddly in the
way remoulding of character:

1) The greater inherent strength of the passions in certain individuals.

2) The greater habitual gratification of the passions in the past.

In fact in Holy Al-Quran verse has said that;

[11] For each (such person) there are

(angels) in succession. Before and behind
him: they guard him by command of Allah.
Verily never will Allah change the condition
of a people until they change it themselves
(with their own souls). But when (once)
Allah willeth a people's punishment, there
can be no turning it back, nor will they find,
besides Him, any to protect.
- Surah [13] Al-Ra’d, 11 -
Mujahada (Struggle against vice)
It is like the medical treatment of the self for purging it of impurities. Based on Al-Ghazzali’s
ethical philosophy;

“True knowledge is achieved by means of the struggling of the self”

“You shall reach your aim by means of Mujahada an-Nafs”

“When God opens the doors of His mercy, none can close them. This is only a gift and grant
out of the generosity of God. None has any say in it. But in order to deserve this gift one has
to make oneself capable of receiving it by cleansing the self and making it free from
uncleanliness and contamination”

Jihad against the self is even stated in Holy Quran;

[69] And those who strive in Our (Cause), We

will certainly guide them to Our Paths: for
verily Allah is with those who do right.
- Surah [29] Al-Ankabut, 69 -

Narrated Abdullah bin Masud:

I asked Allah's Apostle, "O Allah's Apostle! What is the best deed?" He replied, "To offer the
prayers at their early stated fixed times." I asked, "What is next in goodness?" He replied,
"To be good and dutiful to your parents." I further asked, what is next in goodness?" He
replied, "To participate in Jihad in Allah's Cause." I did not ask Allah's Apostle anymore and if
I had asked him more, he would have told me more.

- Volume 4, Book 52, Number 41, Sahih Bukhari -

Towards the achievement of the knowledge of God (Sa’adat)

They are 4 kinds of Sa’adat which is helpful in the realization of the ideal;

1. Fada’il al-Tawfiqiya (Excellences Ingrained in Human Nature)

2. Fada’il al-Mutifiya (Excellences Born of Environment)
3. Fada’il al-Badaniya (Excellences of The Body)
4. Fada’il al-Nafsiya (Excellences of The Soul)

However, all of them are not directly connected with human volition.
Qudwah Hasanah (A good role model)
In Islam, the personality of Prophet Muhammad becomes the most excellent to be followed
by all Muslims.

[21] Ye have indeed in the Messenger of

Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any
one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day,
and who engages much in the praise of
- Surah [33] Al-Ahzab, 21 -

Futhermore, good Akhlaq leads to be nearest and dearest to the prophet. There is a reliable
hadith said so;

“On the day of Judgement, the dearest and the closest to me, among my companions will be
those who possess the best Akhlaq.”

In Islam, Sunnah has come to denote the way Prophet Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah,
lived his life. The Sunnah is the second source of Islamic jurisprudence, the first being the
Qur'an. Both sources are indispensable; one cannot practice Islam without consulting both
of them. Thus, it is necessary to look up Prophet Mohammad as our role model as he is a
guidance to live our life to the fullest with adab and manners.

[7] What Allah has bestowed on His

Messenger (and taken away) from the
people of the townships, belongs to Allah, to
His Messenger and to kindred and orphans,
the needy and the wayfarer; in order that it
may not (merely) make a circuit between the
wealthy among you. So take what the
Messenger assigns to you, and deny
yourselves that which he withholds from you.
And fear Allah; for Allah is strict in
- Surah [59] Al-Hashr, 7 -

It is undeniable that we cannot be so perfect that have excellent Akhlaq like Prophet
Muhammad but we must try to develop it as practice make perfect.
Observing Good People and Associating Ourselves with Them
To observe and mix with people who have good characters that can guide us to the right
path. As the result, by spending a lot of time with them may actually affect us to be a good
person. This is because they will correct and advise when we commit any kind of sin. That
show they really love, care and accept who you are imperfectly. This kind of friendship that
always looks up for each other is great as one of the 7 groups that are guaranteed to have
place in heaven is two friends always together because of Allah.

In fact, Holy Quran has stated this related matter;

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most

[1] By (the Token of) Time (through the
[2] Verily Man is in loss,
[3] Except such as have Faith, and do
righteous deeds, and (join together) in the
mutual teaching of Truth, and of Patience
and Constancy.
- Surah [103] Al-‘Asr, 1-3 -

Plus, we must live in an Islamic, conductive and good environment in order to instil Al –
Akhlaq Al-Karimah which means impose Islamic rules and regulations as to enjoin good and
forbid evil as to create a peaceful and harmony life. Consequently, a good community will
encourage man to acquire a good character as they adapted to it time by time.

Besides that, a man can slowly follow the good manners and attitudes which are being
practiced in the community. Moreover, a man will feel embarrass and remorse to do sin
when living in the good community.

For example, when we friends with someone who perfectly cover their aurah, day by day,
we also could get the hidayah to cover our own aurah.
Open Critics & Readiness for Change
Readiness for change means one person must be willing and open-minded for a good
change in his or her life. Although honest truth about our weaknesses can be hurtful but yet
that is the fact that cannot be denied unless we make changes. A person should always look
to the bright side and everything happen for a reason with Allah willing. Allah always knows
what its best for his creations. Thus, we should be grateful to be still given chances to repent
and change our negative side to positive. Plus, something we think is bad for us turns out to
be the best thing in our life and vice versa.

Allah has said it so in Holy Quran;

[216] Fighting is prescribed upon you, and ye

dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a
thing which is good for you, and that ye love
a thing which is bad for you. But Allah
knoweth, and ye know not.

- Surah [2] Al-Baqarah, 216 -

However, a person must have strong determination and always be patient when undergo
the process of changing ourselves to have good akhlaq. The person also should also be open
to critics by other people and dare to face a lot of challenges to get Allah’s blessings as the
Satan has its promise to seduce humans towards evil and to be burnt in hell with them.
However, people should trust Allah’s rewards and promise for those who are patient and
constant with the good changes he or she had made.

Again, Allah has said so in Holy Quran;

[200] O ye who believe! Persevere in

patience and constancy; vie in such
perseverance; strengthen each other; and
fear Allah; that ye may prosper.

- Surah [3] Ali Imran, 200 -

Al-Islam. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.al-islam.com/Eng/.

CRCC: Centre For Muslim-Jewish Engagement Resources: Religious Texts. (n.d.). Retrieved

Prophet Muhammad. (n.d.). Retrieved from islambyquestions.net/Prophet/Prophet.htm.

Quran explorer.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://quranexplorer.com/Hadith/Default.aspx.

THE HOLY QURAN TEXT AND TRANSLATION. (2007). Shah Alam, Selangor: Islamic Book Trust.

Umaruddin, P. M. (March 1962). The Ethical Philosophy of Al-Ghazzali. Lahore: SH.

Muhammad Ashraf.

Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from



1. ^ J. Cowan p. 299
2. ^ J. Cowen p.1082 - malaka (pl. -at) trait of character, faculty, talent
3. ^ J. Esposito p. 89
4. ^ Sahih Muslim, 6017
5. ^ Sahih al-Tirmidhi, 2003


• J.M. Cowan (1994), The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic
• John Esposito (2003), The Oxford Dictionary of Islam