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“Fazer ou não fazer algo só depende de nossa vontade e perseverança.

Albert Einstein

MATERIAL DE APOIO DE INGLÊS INSTRUMENTAL

CURSOS: TECNOLOGIA EM REDES DE COMPUTADORES

Material organizado pelas professoras:

Adriana Soeiro Pino


Chafia Laszkiew
Silvana Vieira Elias Satyro
Verusca Praciano de Paula
Yara Marisol Contipelli

2008

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APRESENTAÇÃO DO CURSO

O que é inglês instrumental? Como surgiu?

“English for Specific Purposes” (E.S.P), que em português quer dizer: Inglês com
Objetivos Específicos, também chamado de inglês instrumental ou técnico, ou seja, é a
habilidade de entender textos em língua inglesa usando estratégias específicas de leitura.
Surgiu com a necessidade de comunicação rápida e eficaz em vários contextos
mundiais. Como por exemplo: durante a guerra, os soldados precisavam aprender o idioma
do inimigo para sobreviverem, este vocabulário básico era visto no avião, navio, nos campos
de batalha.
Com o passar do tempo, outros contextos sociais foram surgindo, como: a
necessidade de leitura de livros, revistas, catálogos, instruções operacionais, manuais
escritos em inglês que precisavam ser compreendidos pelos usuários, etc. Sendo assim,
torna-se necessário uma abordagem específica da língua Inglesa, que atenda as
necessidades profissionais dos estudantes, que são leitura e compreensão de livros.
E assim, o Inglês Instrumental possui o objetivo de desenvolver a habilidade de
leitura, isto é, de compreensão de textos de diversas áreas do conhecimento escritos em
língua inglesa, utilizando para isso estratégias de leitura, a fim de tornar o aluno capaz de
compreender um texto da sua área de estudo.
Nesse enfoque, a leitura conta com o conhecimento prévio dos leitores. O inglês
instrumental consiste no “treinamento instrumental” dessa língua, em que as habilidades
têm por objetivo extrair conhecimentos para áreas específicas de estudo.
Vale lembrar que o inglês instrumental ou técnico pode ou não visar a comunicação
oral em inglês, entretanto, para os cursos de WEB e REDES sua principal habilidade a ser
trebalhada será a leitura e o estudo de gramática, restringindo-a a um mínimo necessário,
ou seja, associando-a ao texto.

Método
Desenvolve a leitura ("reading") de forma limitada a um objetivo específico, através
da habilidade de manipular textos em língua inglesa, tentando assimilar a compreensão
geral e inferir informações específicas. A gramática é ensinada de forma contextualizada a
um objetivo específico.

Tradução os textos
Para nosso curso não há tradução, porém outros métodos são utilizados como, por
exemplo: dedução, contexto semântico, reconhecimento de afixos, cognatos e vocabulário
da área.

Como serão as aulas?


As aulas serão ministradas em português, pois no curso não serão trabalhadas as
habilidades da fala, de compreensão oral e de escrita.
Não haverá tradução literal, outras estratégias serão utilizadas como por exemplo,
dedução, cognatos, familiares, dicas tipográficas e outros.
Muitos exercícios de leitura e compreensão de textos, os quais vocês poderão aplicar
as estratégias de leitura que serão ensinadas.
O inglês instrumental poderá abrir seus horizontes de leitura e assim você se manterá mais
informado e próximo ao mundo globalizado

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TESTE: COMO ESTÁ O SEU INGLÊS?
Leia atentamente o texto abaixo e assinale a opção correta para cada questão.

1 A computer is a programmable machine that stores and retrieves data and


performs high-speed logical and mathematical operations. However, it is
not able to think. It accepts data and instructions as input, and after
processing them, it outputs the results.

4 When we talk about computers, we have to consider the hardware and the software.
The hardware consists of all the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a
computer system, and the software is the collection of data and programs needed to
solve problems with a computer.

QUESTÕES DE 1 A 11
1) O melhor título para o texto seria:
a) The history of Computers
b) What is a computer?
c) Hardware x Software

2) É uma idéia presente no texto:


a) o computador resolve problemas através do seu próprio raciocínio.
b) o hardware é mais importante para o computador do que o software.
c) o processamento de dados é composto de três etapas.

3) Do texto, podemos inferir que:


a) o computador se presta a diversas aplicações por causa da sua versatilidade.
b) o computador está se tornando cada dia menor e mais barato.
c) o computador é a invenção humana que mais evoluiu nas últimas décadas.

4) “(...) the software is the collection of data and programs needed to solve problems with a
computer.” A idéia contida na oração acima está associada a:
a) It basically consists of the systems analysts, the programmers, the operators and the
technical managers.
b) It is the collection of man-written solutions, as well as all documents to guide the
operation of a computer.
c) It consists of several units: the CPU, the main memory, and the peripherals known as
input and output devices.

5) No trecho selecionado para a questão 4, a palavra “programs” pode ser entendida


como:
a) canais
b) jogos
c) instruções

6) A pergunta que pode ser respondida com base nas informações contidas no texto é:
a) Quem inventou o computador?
b) O que significa software?
c) O que é um dispositivo de entrada?

7) A opção na qual a palavra computer exerce a função de modificador é:


a) computer (I. 1)
b) computers (I. 4)
c) computer (I. 5)

8) O melhor parágrafo para finalizar o texto seria:

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a) Fourth-generation computers are rather faster than third-generation computers and can
complete thousands of instructions at a time.
b) On the backside of the computer, there are several slots into which we can connect a
wide range of peripherals.
c) In only a short time, the computer has changed the way in which many jobs are done and
has become part of our everyday lives.

9) De acordo com o texto e com as informações abaixo faça a correspondência entre as


palavras (à esquerda) e as definições (à direita)
a) computer game ( ) The study and development of computer systems, hardware
and software.
b) computer graphics ( ) All of the hardware and software that can interact with a
particular computer.
c) computer science ( ) Charts, graphs, diagrams, or pictures produced with the aid of a
computer.
d) computer security ( ) A computer program designed for amusement or instruction.
e)computer system ( )The process of protecting a computer system from access by virus or
unauthorized persons.

10) Os fatos abaixo estão relacionados com a história do computador. Numere-os de 1 a 5,


partindo do mais antigo para o mais recente.

( ) In the 17th and 18th centuries, many ways of calculating were invented.
( ) The first analog computer was used in World War II.
( ) The primitive calculating device was the fingers of a man’s hands.
( ) Howard Aiken invented the first digital computer, called Mark 1.
( ) The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820.

11) Identifique as partes componentes do computador abaixo:

Monitor – Screen – Keyboard – Mouse – CD-Rom Drive – Disk Drive – Scanner – Printer – CD-Rom -
Floppy Disk/Diskette

12) Complete a coluna de exemplos da tabela com as partes identificadas na


figura:

Type Description Example


a)
Storage Provide permanent storage for data and
________________________
devices programs.
_
Input devices Enable data to go into the computer’s b)
memory. ________________________

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_
c)
________________________
_
d)
________________________
Output Enable users to extract information from the _
devices system. e)
________________________
_

13) A oração que melhor resume as idéias contidas no texto, na figura e na tabela é:
a) Most computers are equipped with data communication facilities.

b) Computers are also used in education and business.

c) A computer is not only a machine but also a system.

ABILITIES AND OTHER FACILITATORS

Cognates: são palavras de origem grega ou latina bem parecidas com as do português.
Ex. different – diferente, infection – infecção.
Obs.: Atenção com os falsos cognatos. Ex. pretend não significa pretender, mas sim,
fingir; é importante observar se a palavra se encaixa no contexto.

Repeated words: se uma palavra aparece várias vezes no texto, isto significa que ela é
importante para a compreensão do mesmo.

Typographical Evidences: são símbolos, letras maiúsculas, negrito, itálico, etc., que dão
dicas úteis sobre o texto.

Selectivity: leitura seletiva, isto é, selecionar os trechos onde se quer encontrar uma
determinada informação (parágrafos, por exemplo).

Dictionary: o dicionário deve ser utilizado como último recurso para se descobrir o
significado de uma palavra ou expressão desconhecida. Isso para que a leitura não seja
lenta demais, e para que o leitor não desanime tendo que parar toda vez que encontrar algo
desconhecido.

ESTRATÉGIAS DE LEITURA

Skimming: leitura rápida para ter-se uma idéia central do texto.

Scanning: leitura com objetivo de encontrar algumas informações específicas no texto.

Prediction: significa inferir o conteúdo de um texto através de seu conhecimento prévio


sobre o tema (background); através do contexto semântico (palavras de um mesmo grupo,
por exemplo: hospital, nurse, doctor, ambulance); contexto lingüístico (pistas gramaticais);
contexto não-lingüístico (gravuras, gráficos, tabelas, números, etc.); conhecimento sobre
estrutura do texto (lay out, título, subtítulo, divisão de parágrafos, etc.).
Vale ressaltar a importância do conhecimento prévio do leitor e das suas expectativas e
deduções em relação ao texto.

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COGNATOS

Muito comuns na Língua Inglesa, os cognatos são palavras de procedência grega ou


latina, bastantes parecidas com as da Língua Portuguesa, tanto na forma, como no
significado.

Os cognatos podem ser:

• Idênticos:
Exs.: radio, piano, hospital, hotel, sofa, nuclear, social, total, particular, chance, camera,
inventor, etc.

• Bastante parecidos:
Exs.: gasoline, banks, inflation, intelligent, population, revolution, commercial, attention,
different, products, secretary, billion, dramatic, deposits, distribution, automatic, television,
public, events, models, etc.

• Vagamente parecidos:
Exs.: electricity, responsible, explain, activity, impossible, lamp, company, etc.

PALAVRAS FAMILIARES (ESTRANGEIRISMOS)

Familiares são palavras conhecidas pela maioria das pessoas que vive em um país
altamente influenciado pela cultura dos países de Língua Inglesa. Não têm a mesma origem
das palavras da Língua Portuguesa.

Alguns exemplos de Familiares:

Software Windows Hot dog Diet


Fast food Video game Credit card Mouse
Delivery Dollar Marketing Light
Shows Moto/Office Boy Site Drive-thru
Hamburguer Play DVD / CD Record

COGNATOS
• Leia os segmentos abaixo e selecione todas as palavras que se pareçam com o
Português e aquelas que são usadas da mesma forma tanto na Língua Inglesa como na
Língua Portuguesa.

a. Computers are electronic machines that process information. They can perform
complex operations in a fraction of time. But, they can´t think.

b. Computers are divided into two parts: hardware and software. Hardware refers to
the actual equipment and software refers to the programs that control and
coordinate the activities of the computer.

c. The CPU is the part of a computer that executes the arithmetic and logic operations.
It controls all the computer activities.

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d. Memory is the storage area where a computer saves or retrieve data. It is expressed
as quantities of K. For example, each K is equal to 1,024 bytes and each byte is
equal to 8 bits.

e. A mouse is a device that has a ball underneath. It is used to point the cursor at
different parts of the screen or at specials symbols called icons.

f. There are many different high-level languages. Each one has its advantage or
disadvantage. COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, ALGOL and PASCAL are examples of high-
level languages.

g. Data put into a computer is INPUT. The input is processed according to the program
that is being used. The results of processing are called OUTPUT.

h. Film transparent de qualité supérieure. Faites de votre imprimante couleur HP


Deskjet une machine à fabriquer lãs transparents pour rétroprojecteur. (Hewlett
Packard)

SKIMMING
• Leia os segmentos abaixo e utilizando os cognatos e familiares identifique o
assunto abordado em cada um deles:

1) One of the most impressive sights in Paris, this construction was built in the second half
of the 19th century as an ornament, presumably to show the possibilities of steel, and to
allow Parisians to see their own city from above. Now a major tourist attraction for visitors
from all over the world and a site for TV and radio transmissions. It is linked in the world´s
mind with the image of France and Paris.
- ____________________________________________.
2) In computer science, a popular pointing input device, used mostly for playing computer
games but used for other tasks as well. It usually has a square or rectangular plastic base to
which is attached a vertical stem. Control buttons are located on the base and sometimes on
top of the stem. The stem can be moved to control the movement of an object on the
screen.
- ____________________________________________.

3) A computer peripheral that puts text or image on paper or on another medium, such as a
transparency. They can be categorized in any of several ways. The most common distinction
is impact x, non impact. Impact physically strike the paper and are exemplified by dot-
matrix; non impact include every other type of print mechanism including laser, ink-jet and
thermal.
- ____________________________________________.

4) Alcoholic drink produced originally in Scotland, Ireland and USA, by fermenting certain
cereal grains and then distilling to produce a light-colored liquid containing about 40%
alcohol. It is drunk with or without ice, soda or according to taste.
- ____________________________________________.
5) A common pointing device. Its basic features are a casing with a flat bottom, designed to
be gripped by one hand; one or more buttons on the top; a ball on the bottom; and a cable
connecting it to the computer. By moving it on a surface, the user typically controls a
cursor. To select items or choose commands on the screen, the user presses one of the
buttons, producing a “click”._________________________________.

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Scanning

• Complete the chart using the information from the texts below:

1. Czechoslovakia´s minister of Finance, 2. Last week Mexican poet


and
Vaclav Klaus, an advocate of free-market essayist Octavio Paz, 76, was
economic reforms, has emerged as his awarded this year´s Nobel
Prize
country´s fastest-rising politician. At a in Literature. A day after the
recent congress of the Civic Forum, the announcement, Paz met with
the coalition that toppled the Communist Newsweek´s Sarah Crichton
in
regime, Klaus was elected chairman, over- New York.
whelming the candidate supported by
President Vaclav Havel. Last week in
Prague, Klaus, 49, talked with News-
Week´s Andrew Nagorski about the
Significance of his upset victory.

3. Chilean novelist Isabel Allende, 48, a 4. Jean-Luc Godard, 60, is widely


niece of the late President Salvador considered one of the world´s
great
Allende, is one of the most celebrated film directors. A founder of the
authors writing in Spanish. While visiting French New Wave film movement,
Rome to promote the release of her latest along with François Truffaut and
book, “Stories of Eva Luna”, she talked to Eric Rohmer, Godard has directed
Newsweek´s Anne Whaley. such modern classics as
“Contempt”
Starring Brigitte Bardot and
others.
His latest film, “New Wave”
features
Alain Delon. Recently, Godard
spoke
with Newsweek´s Benjamin
Iury at
at his office in Rolle,
Switzerland.

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Name Age Nationality Occupation
Isabel Allende

76

Czech

Film Director

PREDICTION
• Correspondência
a) Suponhamos que você acaba de receber um cartão-postal de um amigo que
está viajando. O cartão pegou chuva e algumas palavras desapareceram.
Tente descobrir que palavra foi apagada em cada lacuna através da
previsibilidade fornecida pelo contexto.

Querido_________________________,
A viagem está sendo
__________________ .Tenho____ divertido
bastante por aqui. Há muitas ______________
para fazer durante a noite: vários bares,
restaurantes, cinemas e teatros e
_______________ variedade de shows. A cidade
é ________________ bonita, com uma geografia
encantadora. Ontem __________o Pão de Açúcar
com meus primos. A subida do bondinho dá um
__________na barriga, mas vale a pena vencer o
medo. A _________ lá do alto do morro é
fantástica!

Espero ________ tudo esteja bem aí com vocês.


Volto __________ uma semana. Um grande
abraço e até a ________________
b) Como você descobriu as palavras que faltavam?
______________________________________

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c) Apesar de o nome da cidade visitada pelo seu amigo não estar mencionada no
cartão, ela pode ser facilmente reconhecida. Que meios você utilizou para a
dedução? _____________________
d) De que modo seu conhecimento de mundo pode ajudá-lo a fazer inferências?
_______________
______________________________________________________________________

1- Quais os diferentes tipos de texto que você conhece?


______________________________________________________________________
2- Que estratégias você utiliza para deduzir o assunto de um texto nas seguintes
situações:
a) Você encontra um grupo de amigos conversando e descobre que perdeu metade da
conversa.
______________________________________________________________________
b) Você liga a televisão e ouve a notícia que lhe interessa pela metade.
______________________________________________________________________
c) Você chega atrasado ao cinema e perde os primeiros minutos do filme.
___________________________________________________________________

What is a browser, and what browsers


are available?

A browser is a software program used to access and display pages and files on the web.
Browsers require a connection to the Internet (e.g., through a cable modem, a direct
Ethernet connection, or a modem).

Popular web browsers include the following: Mozilla Firefox, Netscape, Internet Explorer,
and Safari

Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, and Safari are graphical web browsers that can
access text, graphics, sound, and other media. These browsers offer a graphical user
interface in which you use a mouse to navigate. Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Netscape are
available for both Windows and Macintosh computers; Safari is available only for Mac OS X.

Firefox is available to Indiana University users in all of the Student Technology Centers
(STCs). Netscape and Internet Explorer are available in the Windows STCs; Safari is
available in the Macintosh STCs. All are available via IUware at: http://iuware.iu.edu/

1) O que é um Browser e para que é usado? (Resposta em português)


_________________________________________________________________________
___________

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2) De acordo com o texto, quais são os Browsers mais populares? (Resposta em português)
_________________________________________________________________________
___________
3) O que estes browsers oferecem?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
______________________
4) Para onde o Firefox está disponível?
___________________________________________________
5) Para onde o Safari está disponível?
____________________________________________________
6) Qual é o tipo de texto?
_______________________________________________________________
7) Circule todas as palavras cognatas no texto.
8) Relacione todas as palavras familiares do texto e dê a tradução.
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________

FALSOS COGNATOS
Também chamados de falsos amigos, os falsos cognatos são palavras normalmente
derivadas do latim, que têm portanto a mesma origem e que aparecem em
diferentes idiomas com ortografia semelhante, mas que ao longo dos tempos
acabaram adquirindo significados diferentes.
Abaixo está a tabela de falsos cognatos.

SIGNIFICA EM QUE EM INGLÊS


EM INGLÊS PORTUGUÊS MAS PARECE SER É
ACTUAL REAL ATUAL PRESENT
NOWADAYS,
ACTUALLY NA VERDADE ATUALMENTE TODAY
ADVERTISE ANÚNCIO ADVERTIR WARN
ALUMNUS EX-ALUNO ALUNO PUPIL
WRINKLE, DENT,
AMASS ACUMULAR AMASSAR CRUSH
APPLICATION INSCRIÇÃO APLICAÇÃO INVESTMENT
APPOINTMENT HORA MARCADA APONTAMENTO NOTE
ARGUMENT DISCUSSÃO ARGUMENTO REASONING
ASSIST AJUDAR ASSISTIR ATTEND
ATTEND FREQUENTAR ATENDER ANSWER, SERVE
COURT
AUDIENCE PLATÉIA, PÚBLICO AUDIÊNCIA APPEARENCE
AVAILABLE DISPONÍVEL AVALIAR EVALUATE
BALCONY SACADA BALCÃO COUNTER
BARRACS QUARTEL BARRACA HUT, TENT

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BATON BATUTA, CACETETE BATOM LIPSTICK
BEEF CARNE DE GADO BIFE STEAK
STREERCAR,
BOND LAÇO, LIGAÇÃO BUNDE TRAM
CAFETERIA REFEITÓRIO CAFETERIA COFFEE SHOP
CAMERA MÁQ. FOTOGRÁFICA CÂMARA CHAMBER, TUBE
CARTON CAIXA DE PAPELÃO CARTÃO CARD
CASUALTY FATALIDADE CASUALIDADE CASUALLNESS
CIGAR CHARUTO CIGARRO CIGARETTE
COLLAR GOLA, COLARINHO COLAR NECKLACE
COLLEGE FACULDADE COLÉGIO HIGH SCHOOL
COMMODITY ARTIGO, MERCADORIA COMODIDADE COMFORT
A PAIR OF
COMPASS BÚSSOLA COMPASSO COMPASSES
COMPETITION CONCORRÊNCIA COMPETIÇÃO CONTEST
COMPREHENSIV
E COMPLETO, TOTAL COMPREENSIVO UNDERSTANDING
CONDUCTOR COBRADOR CONDUTOR DRIVER
COMPETIÇÃO,
CONTEST CONCURSO CONTEXTO CONTEXT
CONVENIENT PRÁTICO CONVENIENTE APPROPRIATE
CONVICT CONDENADO CONVICTO CERTAIN
COSTUME ROUPA, FANTASIA COSTUME CUSTOM, HABIT
DATA DADOS, INFORMAÇÕES DATA DATE
DECEPTION LOGRO, FRAUDE DECEPÇÃO DISAPPOINTMENT
DECORAR(ORNAMENTAR
DECORATE ) DECORAR(SABER DE COR) MEMORIZE
DEFENDANT RÉU DEFENDER DEFEND
PROJETO, CRIAÇÃO,
DESIGN ESTILO DESIGNAR APPOINT
DISGUST NÁUSEA DESGOSTO GRIEF
DIVERT DESVIAR DIVERTIR ENJOY
EDITOR REDATOR EDITOR PUBLISHER
EDUCATED INSTRUÍDO EDUCADO POLITE
EMISSION DESCARGA EMISSÃO ISSUE
ENROLL ALISTAR-SE ENROLLAR WIND, CURL
ESTATE PROPRIEDADE, IMÓVEL ESTADO STATE
EXCITING EMPOLGANTE EXCITANTE THRILLING
EXIT SAÍDA ÊXITO SUCCESS
EXPERT PERITO ESPERTO SMART
EXQUISITE APURADO ESQUISITO WEIRD
FABRIC TECIDO FÁBRICA FACTORY
MEMBER OF THE
FAMILIAR CONHECIDO FAMILIAR FAMILY
FILE ARQUIVO FILA LINE, QUEUE
GRIP AGARRAR FIRME GRIPE COLD
INCOME TAX DECLARAÇÃO DE DEVOLUÇÃO DE IMPOSTO INCOME TAX
RETURN IMPOSTO DE RENDA DE RENDA REFUND
INGENIOUS CRIATIVO, ENGENHOSO INGÊNUO NAIVE
INGENUITY ENGENHOSIDADE INGENUIDADE NAIVETY
INJURY FERIMENTO INJÚRIA INSULT
INJURY FERIMENTO INJURIA INSULT
INSCRIPTION RAVAÇÃO EM RELEVO INSCRIÇÃO APPLICATION
INTEND PRETENDER ENTENDER UNDERSTAND
INTOXICATION EMBRIAGUEZ INTOXICAÇÃO POISONING
INTRODUCE APRESENTAR INTRODUZIR INSERT

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JOURNAL PERIÓDICO JORNAL NEWSPAPER
NUM DADO MOMENTO, JUSTO(APERTADO - DE
JUST APENAS JUSTIÇA) TIGHT - FAIR
LAMP LUMINÁRIA LÂMPADA LIGHT BULB
LARGE GRANDE LARGO WIDE
LECTURE PALESTRA LEITURA READING
LEGEND LENDA LEGENDA SUBTITLE
LIBRARY BIBLIOTECA LIVRARIA BOOKSTORE
LUNCH ALMOÇO LANCHE SNACK
LUXURY LUXO LUXÚRIA LUST
DEPARTMENT
MAGAZINE REVISTA MAGAZINE STORE
ADMINISTRAR,
MANAGE CONSEGUIR MANEJAR HANDLE
MAYOR PREFEITO MAIOR BIGGER
MOISTURE UMIDADE MISTURE MIXTURE
MOROSE RABUGENTO MOROSO SLOW
NOTICE PERCEBER NOTÍCIA NEWS
NOVEL ROMANCE NOVELA SOAP OPERA
OFFICE ESCRITÓRIO OFICIAL OFFICIAL
ORDINARY COMUM ORDINÁRIO VULGAR
ORE MINÉRIO OURO GOLD
PARENTS PAIS PARENTES RELATIVES
PARTICULAR ESPECÍFICO PARTICULAR PRIVATE
PASTA MASSA PASTA FOLDER, PASTE
PHYSICIAN MÉDICO FÍSICO PHYSICAL
POLICY POLÍTICA, NORMA POLÍCIA POLICE
PORT PORTO PORTA DOOR
PORTER CARREGADOR PORTEIRO DOORMAN
PREJUDICE PRECONCEITO PREJUÍZO DAMAGE
PRESCRIBE RECEITAR PRESCREVER EXPIRE
PRESENTLY LOGO, EM BREVE PRESENTEMENTE NOW
PRETEND FINGIR PRETENDER INTEND
PREVENT IMPEDIR PREVENIR WARN
PROCURE CONSEGUIR, ADQUIRIR PROCURAR LOOK FOR
PROFESSOR DE
PROFESSOR UNIVERSIDADE PROFESSOR TEACHER
PROPAGANDA DIVULGAÇÃODE IDÉIAS PROPAGANDA ADVERTISEMENT
APROPRIADO,
PROPER ADEQUADO PRÓPRIO OWN
PULL PUXAR PULAR JUMP
PUSH EMPURRAR PUXAR PULL
CREAK, GUARDA
RANGE VARIAR, COBRIR RANGER FLORESTAL
REALIZE PERCEBER REALIZAR ACCOMPLISH
RECLAIM RECUPERAR RECLAMAR COMPLAIN
REMEMBER,
RECORD GRAVAR, DISCO RECORDAR RECALL
REPORT RELATÓRIO REPÓRTER REPORTER
REQUEST,
REQUIREMENT REQUISITO REQUERIMENTO PETITION
RESPITE INTERVALO, PAUSA RESPEITO RESPECT
RESUME RECOMEÇAR RESUMIR SUMMARIZE
RÉSUMÉ CURRÍCULO RESUMO SUMMARY
RETIRE APOSENTAR RETIRAR WITHDRAW
SCHOLAR ERUDITO, LETRADO ESCOLAR SCHOOLBOY

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SENSIBLE SENSATO SENSIVEL SENSITIVE
SORT ESPÉCIE, ESCOLHER SORTE LUCK
STABLE FIRME, ESTÁVEL ESTÁBULO BARN
STRANGER DESCONHECIDO ESTRANGEIRO FOREIGNER
STUPID BURRO ESTÚPIDO RUDE
BEAR, STAND,
SUPPORT SUSTENTAR, APOIAR SUPORTAR TOLERATE
COMPREENSIVO, NICE, PLEASANT,
SYMPATHETIC SOLIDÁRIO SIMPÁTICO FRIENDLY
TAX IMPOSTO TAXA FEE
TEMPER TEMPERAMENTO, GÊNIO TEMPERO CONDIMENT
TENANT INQUILINO TENENTE LIEUTENANT
TENTATIVE PROVISÓRIO TENTATIVA ATTEMPT, TRY
TURN VEZ, VOLTA TURNO SHIFT
PROFESSOR
TUTOR PARTICULAR TUTOR GUARDIAN
UNIQUE DIFERENTE, SEM IGUAL ÚNICO THE ONLY ONE
USE UTILIZAR, USAR USAR (VESTIR) WEAR
VEGETABLES VERDURAS, LEGUMES VEGETAIS PLANTS
VINE VINHA, VIDEIRA VINHO WINE
VIAGEM DE BARCO, JOURNEY, TRIP,
VOYAGE NAVE ESPACIAL VIAGEM TRAVEL

 Exercite no texto abaixo alguns falsos cognatos:

A DAY AT WORK

In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union


representatives. The discussion was very comprehensive, covering topics like
working hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an
agreement and ready to compromise. The secretary recorded everything in the
notes. Eventually, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the
agreement.
Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if I had realized that the
proposed agreement would be partially against the company policy not to accept
workers that have already retired. I pretended to be really busy and late for an
appointment, and left for the cafeteria. Actually, I didn't want to discuss the
matter at that particular moment because there were some strangers in the
office.
After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax
legislation and has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government
intends to assist welfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve
college education and build a public library, and establish tougher limits on vehicle
emissions because he assumes this is what the people expect from the
government.
• Escreva o verdadeiro significado das palavras em destaque:
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________

14
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
Texto e lista extraídos do site www.sk.com.br , autor Ricardo Schütz, 1999

USO DO DICIONÁRIO
O dicionário é uma fonte de muitos tipos de informações sobre palavras.
Veja o exemplo abaixo:
COMPUTER:
(KAM’PJULTER). An electronic machine that can be supplied with a program.

Você pode notar que podemos encontrar:


- A representação fonética das palavras
- Abreviaturas
- Significado das palavras
- Classe gramatical das palavras

Veja o exemplo seguinte e responda:


1. Qual é a representação fonética da palavra “look”?
2. Quantos significados ela pode ter como substantivo? E como verbo?
3. Qual é a primeira expressão mencionada?
4. Qual é o significado de “to look for?

Look (luk) s. 1. Olhar m., olhadela f. 2. Expressão f. aspecto m// v. 1 Olhar 2.


Contemplar, observar. 3. /considerar. 4. Prestar atenção. 5. Ter vista para. 6. Parecer. 7.
Inspecionar, examinar
Have a ~ at It dê uma olhada nisto. It ~s like rain está com aspecto de chuva, ameaça
chover. ~ out seja cuidadoso. To ~ after 1. Procurar 2. Cuidar de. To ~ down upon
Adaptado do dicionário Inglês/Português Michaellis
Verbos
Quando você procura um verbo no dicionário geralmente encontra a base do verbo, por
exemplo: look, work, teach. Mas, quando lemos textos encontramos os verbos sob
diferentes formas: looking, worked, teaches. Quando o verbo é irregular encontramos a
seguinte explicação no dicionário: Fell/fel/ v. passado de fall. Assim, terá que procurar o
verbo na sua forma base (fall), para encontrar a definição da palavra.

Observe os seguintes exemplos em Português e Inglês. Quais as semelhanças na forma de


utilização das palavras no Português e no Inglês?
1. Ele apagou as velas.
2. Tenho que limpar as velas do carro.
3. O marinheiro levantou as velas do barco.
4. Eu não vou ao cinema com eles porque detesto segurar vela.

É claro que o contexto é sempre importante para a compreensão das palavras que têm
vários significados diferentes. Em Inglês também o contexto é muito importante para a
interpretação adequada dos vocábulos.
1. The waiter fills their glasses with champagne.
2. She went to the optician for a new pair of glasses.
3. This window is made of glass.
4. I like computers.
5. OS2 operating system is like Ms DOS

15
Você precisa ter em mente que na leitura de textos técnicos você encontrará várias palavras
em inglês que talvez já façam parte de seu vocabulário, mas que nesse contexto irão
adquirir novos significados.

Qual é a tradução mais adequada para os vocábulos em negrito?


1. I will substitute my computer by a notebook.
2. I need a new notebook for my English classes
3. I need the key to open the door.
4. To enter the program, press any key.
5. I have to save money to by a new car.
6. Don’t forget to save the file before turning off the computer.

(Atividade adaptada da apostila elaborada pelas professoras Márcia C. Bonamim e Magali N.


de Paula)
Abreviaturas mais comuns encontradas nos dicionários
f. feminino
m. masculino
m. pl = masculino plural
p.p. = particípio passado
pl = plural
pop. = popular
pref. = prefixo
prep. = preposição
pret. = pretérito
pron. = pronome
s. substantivo
s.pl = plural
sg. = singular
sup. = superlativo
v. = verbo
var. = variante de

Símbolos Comuns:
║ separação da categoria morfológica
~ substitui a palavra de entrada (ou seja, a palavra que se está consultando)

Símbolos fonéticos: Formas de pronúncia


Vogais / Ditongos / Semivogais / Consoantes
Sinal ‘ que significa acentuação
Sinal : que significa prolongação

NOTA: Observar sempre a organização do dicionário (guia fonético)

DOUBLE SENSE WORDS

É comum a todas as línguas a ocorrência de palavras com significado ou função gramatical


múltiplos. Freqüentemente este múltiplo sentido em um idioma não tem correspondente em
outro. Quer dizer: os termos nem sempre cobrem as mesmas áreas de significado entre

16
diferentes idiomas. Este fenômeno, também chamado de polissemia, ocorre com qualquer
idioma; assim como o português, o inglês também tem inúmeras palavras de múltiplo
significado. É, entretanto a ocorrência do fenômeno na língua mãe do aluno que causa
maior dificuldade. Partir do geral para o particular é sempre mais difícil do que o inverso.

Portanto, sempre que diferentes idéias representadas pela mesma palavra na língua mãe do
aluno corresponderem a diferentes palavras na segunda língua, o mesmo terá dificuldades
em expressar-se corretamente. As diferentes palavras do inglês que correspondem aos
diferentes significados da palavra do português podem eventualmente funcionar como
sinônimos, portanto neutralizando o contraste entre os dois idiomas. O objetivo, entretanto,
é mostrar os contrastes nas ocorrências mais usuais do vocabulário inglês moderno.

Inglês Primeiro significado Segundo significado


Abstract Abstrato Resumo
Determinar
Affiliate Filiar-se
Paternidade
Affluent Afluente Rico
Paciente de
Ambulant Capaz de Caminhar
Ambulatório
Apology Apologia Desculpas
Application Aplicação Requerimento
Apply Aplicar Inscrever-se
Argument Argumento Discussão
Arm Arma Braço
Bachelor Bacharel Solteiro
Balance Balança Equilíbrio
Ball Bola Baile, Bala (projétil)
Bar Bar Barra
Bat Bastão de beisebol Morcego
Cancel Cancelar Carimbar
Capital Capital Maiúscula
Case Caso Estojo
Cell Célula Cela
Personagem,
Character Caráter
caractere
China China Porcelana
Class Classe Aula
Classified Classificado Confidencial
Club Clube Taco de golfe
Coll Fresco Legal
Collect Colecionar Cobrar, coletar
Compass Compasso Bússola
Confirmed Confirmado Inveterado
Consistent Consistente Compatível
Content Contente Conteúdo
Date Date Tâmara, Encontro
Directory Diretoria Lista telefônica
Easy Fácil Em Paz / Confortável
Effective Efetivo Verdadeiro
Entertain Entreter Receber visitas

17
Faculty Faculdade (mental) Corpo Docente
Figure Figura Número
Fix Fixar Consertar
General General Geral
Individual Individual Indivíduo
Interest Interesse Juros
Just Justo Apenas
Legend Legenda Lenda
Letter Letra Carta
Match Ligar (Relacionar) Partida (Jogo)
Major Major Principal
Manifest Manifesto Óbvio
Mark Marca Nota
Mass Massa Missa
Matter Matéria Assunto
Medicine Medicina Remédio
Move Mover Mudar
Observe Observar Celebrar
Official Oficial Autoridade
Oil Óleo Petróleo
Operator Operador Telefonista
Order Ordem Pedido
Park Parque Estacionar
Period Período Menstruação
Plant Planta Fábrica
Principal Principal Diretor da escola
Pupil Pupila Aluno
Race Raça Corrida
Rare Raro Mal passado (carne)
Record Recorde Gravar
Rest Resto Descansar
Retire Retirar Aposentar
Roll Rolo Lista
Save Salvar Economizar
Scale Escala Balança
Sequel Sequela Sequencia
Spectacles Espetáculos Óculos
Spirits Espíritos Bebida alcóolica
Story Estória Pavimento, andar
Subject Sujeito Assunto
To Play Jogar/ Brincar Tocar / Imitar
Turkey Turquia Peru
Vice Vice Vício

EXERCÍCIOS
A) Assinale o significado correto das palavras em destaque nas sentenças:

1) I need to cancel your documents.


( ) cancelar ( ) carimbar

18
2) She is the principal of the school.
( ) diretora ( ) principal

3) His mark was terrible.


( ) marca ( ) nota

4) The operator (a) gave me the wrong number of the plant (b).
a- ( ) operador ( ) telefonista
b- ( ) planta ( ) fábrica

5) We are lost. We need a compass now.


( ) bússola ( ) compasso

6) He is the most famous bachelor of the party.


( ) bacharel ( ) solteirão

7) Do you know the capital (a) of China (b)?


a- ( ) capital ( ) principal
b- ( ) porcelana ( ) China

8) Brasilia is the capital of Brazil.


( ) capital ( ) maiúscula

9) I use capital letter to write my name.


( ) capital ( )maiúscula

10) I appreciate Chinese china.


( ) porcelana ( ) China

11) John collects caps.


( ) coleciona ( ) cobrou

B) Dê os respectivos significados das palavras repetidas em cada segmento:


1) a) Mike is not married. He is a bachelor.
b) He finished the college last year. Now, he is a bachelor in Biology.

2) We have a directory in order to look for the telephone numbers of the students. This
directory is in the directory of the school.

3) The character of this film has a bad character.

4) You have to write the names of the capitals with capital letters.

MOUSE MEMORIES
In 1968 Douglas Engelbart demo’ed a strange device called a mouse. Last week 1.500
people gathered at Stanford University to honor him. Speakers stressed that Engelbart’s
contributions went beyond the mouse.
His Stanford computer was the second one to hook up to ARPAnet, the Internet’s
predecessor, and he developed the first use of multiple “windows”. More important,
Engelbart strove to enhance human intelligence, thus improving our ability to solve
problems.
We’ll click to that.
(Newsweek, December 28, 1998)

19
(SCANNING) Responda as questões abaixo:

1) O que aconteceu:
a) em 1968?
_________________________________________________________________________
_____

b) durante a semana anterior a 28 de dezembro de 1998?


_________________________________________________________________________
_____

2) Na frase: “We’ll click to that”, o termo em destaque passa a idéia de:


a) discordar
b) aprovar
c) rejeitar
d) aplaudir

3) Verdadeiro ou Falso:
Segundo os oradores, o trabalho de Engelbart restringiu-se à criação do mouse. (cite a linha
do texto em que se encontra essa informação)
______________________________________________________________________

4) De onde foi retirado o texto lido?


a) de um jornal
b) da internet
c) de um livro
d) de uma revista
5) Faça, em português, um breve resumo sobre o texto.

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______________________

A HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER: NETWORK

Timesharing, the concept of linking a large numbers of users to a single computer via
remote terminals, is developed at MIT in the late 50s and early 60s.
1962: Paul Baran of RAND develops the idea of distributed, packet-switching networks.
ARPANET goes online in 1969.
Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf develop the basic ideas of the Internet in 1973.

20
In 1974 BBN opens the first public packet-switched network - Telenet.
A UUCP link between the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University
establishes USENET in 1979. The first MUD is also developed in 1979, at the University of
Essex.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol) is established as the standard
for ARPANET in 1982.
1987: the number of network hosts breaks 10,000.
1989: the number of hosts breaks 100,000.
Tim Berners-Lee develops the World Wide Web. CERN releases the first Web server in 1991.
1992: the number of hosts breaks 1,000,000.
The World Wide Web sports a growth rate of 341,634% in service traffic in its third year,
1993.
The main U.S. Internet backbone traffic begins routing through commercial providers as
NSFNET reverts to a research network in 1994.
The Internet 1996 World Exposition is the first World's Fair to be held on the internet.

1) Quando a ARPANET foi ao ar?


________________________________________________________

2) O que fizeram Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf?


_________________________________________________

3) Escreva um parágrafo informando o assunto tratado no texto.

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
______________________

4) O que é TCP/IP em inglês? (traduza para o português)

5) Qual é o significado do termo World Wide Web?

CONECTORES

1. ADIÇÃO:
- and : e
- in addition, furthermore, besides, moreover: além disso
- as well as: assim como
- also: também
- apart from: com exceção de
- both....and: ambos; tanto como
- not only ... but also: não apenas...mas também
2. CONTRASTE/CONCESSÃO/ADVERSATIVA:
- but: mas
- however, neverthless: entretanto

21
- yet: entretanto, ainda
- although, even though, though: embora
- nonetheless, notwithstanding: não obstante
- despite that, in spite of: apesar de
- rather than, instead of: em vez de
- whereas: enquanto

3. PROPÓSITO: - in order to: a fim de


- so as to: de modo que

4. CONSEQUÊNCIA/CONCLUSÃO:
- therefore: portanto
- consequently, as a result: consequentemente
- accordingly: de acordo, adequadamente
- hence: pois, então, daí
- thus: assim
- thereby: assim, desse modo
- then: então
- so: então, pois
- finally: finalmente

5. ALTERNATIVA - otherwise: por outro lado


- or: ou
- or else: ou então, ou ainda
- either ... or: ou... ou
- while, whereas: enquanto

6. REITERAÇÃO:
- that is: isto é
- in other words: em outras palavras
- in short, in brief: em resumo
- i.e. : (do latim) isto é
- that is to say: quer dizer

7. COMPARAÇÃO:
- like, as: como
- than: do que

8. ILUSTRAÇÃO:
- e.g. : (do latim) por exemplo
- for instance, for example: por exemplo
- such as: tal como
- namely: a saber
- viz: (do latim) quer dizer

9. CONDIÇÃO:
- if: se
- unless: se não, a menos que
- provided that: uma vez que
- on condition that: desde que
- as long as: uma vez que
- subject to: sujeito a
- wether: se

10. CAUSA:
- because: porque
- due to: devido a

22
- as: porque
- since: uma vez que

11. DÚVIDA OU HIPÓTESE: - perhaps, maybe: talvez


- possibly: possivelmente

12. TEMPORAL: - when: quando while: enquanto

GRUPOS NOMINAIS

São grupos de palavras, compostos por duas ou mais palavras que estão relacionadas
entre si, sendo que uma é a palavra principal; o substantivo (núcleo), e as outras são os
modificadores; palavras que caracterizam o substantivo.

Exs.: Electric Energy = Energia Elétrica


Private Investors = Investidores Privados
State Government = Governo Estadual

Observe que nos grupos nominais em Inglês a palavra principal, ou seja, o substantivo
(núcleo) é sempre a última palavra do grupo, ao passo que em português nós começamos o
grupo com ela. Assim, temos:

United Kingdom Parliamentary Vote


Reino Unido Voto Parlamentar

Os grupos nominais podem ter mais de um modificador:

Red Cross Emblem = Emblema da Cruz Vermelha

Várias siglas são iniciais de Grupo Nominais:


VIP = Very Important Person =
________________________________________________
WTC = World Trade Center = _________________________________________________
WHO = World Health Organization =
___________________________________________
NASA = National Air and Space Administration =
_________________________________
USAF = United States Air Force =
______________________________________________
USA = United States of
America________________________________________________
FBI = Federal Bureau of Investigation_______________________________________________

Outros Exemplos:
Modern computer = Computador moderno
Central processor = Processador central
Laser printer = Impressora à laser
Personal computer = Computador pessoal

Incredible speed = velocidade incrível


(núcleo)

Hard disk = disco rígido


(núcleo)

Input devices = dispositivos de entrada


23
• Confirma-se então que a ordem dos grupos nominais em Inglês é INVERSA à ordem
em Português:

Data Processing = Processamento de dados

Central Processing Unit = Unidade Central de Processamento

Arithmetic and Logic Operations = Operações lógicas e aritméticas


Operações aritméticas e lógicas
Electronic machine = Máquina eletrônica
Pense nas seguintes estruturas: Como elas seriam traduzidas para o Português?

Car race = ________________________


Exercícios
Race car = ________________________

1) Qual o significado das siglas e as suas respectivas traduções:


a. IMF (International Monetary Fund):
______________________________________
b. NATO (North-Atlantic Treat Organization):
_________________________________
c. EEC (European Economic Community):
____________________________________
d. UNO (United Nations Organization):
______________________________________
e. USA (United States of America):
__________________________________________
f. CPU
(____________________________________________________________
__):
_____________________________________________________________
___
g.RAM(_______________________________________________________
_____________):_______________________________________________
__________________

24
h.ROM(_______________________________________________________
_____________):_______________________________________________
_________________
i. CD
(____________________________________________________________
____):
_____________________________________________________________
_________
j.ALU(________________________________________________________
____________):________________________________________________
__________________
k. ALGOL
(____________________________________________________________)
:
_____________________________________________________________
_________
l.BASIC(______________________________________________________
______________)
m.COBOL(_____________________________________________________
________________)____________________________________________
_________________
n. CRT
(____________________________________________________________
__):
_____________________________________________________________
________
o. DDD
(____________________________________________________________
__):
_____________________________________________________________
_________

25
p. DOS
(____________________________________________________________
__):
_____________________________________________________________
_________
q. IBM
(____________________________________________________________
__):
_____________________________________________________________
_________
r.I/ODevices(__________________________________________________
__________________):__________________________________________
__________________
s. MVS
(____________________________________________________________
__):
_____________________________________________________________
_________
t. PC
(____________________________________________________________
____):
_____________________________________________________________
________
u.HTML(______________________________________________________
______________):______________________________________________
__________________
v.WWW(______________________________________________________
_______________)_____________________________________________
__________________

2) Analisando a tela a seguir, indique todos os grupos nominais encontrados, determinando


o Modifier e Head Word. Dê a tradução de cada um deles:

26
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________

3) Passe os seguintes grupos nominais para o Português:

a. Data Communication Processor - ____________________________________________


b. Artificial Intelligence - ____________________________________________________
c. Backup System - _________________________________________________________
d. Secondary Memory - _____________________________________________________

27
e. Control Structure - _______________________________________________________
f. Central Processing Unit - __________________________________________________
g. Magnetic Tape - _________________________________________________________
h. Operating System - ______________________________________________________
i. Access Control - _________________________________________________________
j. Data Processing Department - _______________________________________________
k. Auxiliary Equipment - ____________________________________________________
l. Control Circuits - _________________________________________________________
m. Automatic electronic devices -______________________________________________
n. Last generation program -
________________________________________________________
o. correctly programmed data -
________________________________________________________
p. Computer integrated circuits. -
______________________________________________________

OBS: Os exemplos dados nas atividades a seguir foram adaptados do livro: Infotech English
for Computer Users.

I) Os grupos nominais a seguir são bastante simples. São formados pelo


núcleo (head word = HW) que é o substantivo e um modificador = Modifier (M),
que pode ser adjetivo ou substantivo. Grife o núcleo (HW) e faça a tradução.

1) Disabled worker = trabalhador incapacitado


2) Rehabilitation engineer =
3) Employ’s abilities =
4) Pointing device =
5) Speech synthesizer =
6) Disk controller =

II) Nesta segunda atividade temos: o núcleo e dois modificadores (um artigo e um adjetivo
ou substantivo):
1. the major informations = as informações principais
2. a brief introduction = uma breve introdução (ou uma introdução breve)
3. the English language =
4. the principal program =
5. the file areas =
III) Agora vamos trabalhar com grupos um pouco maiores, compostos de um núcleo mais
dois, três ou mais adjetivos e/ou substantivos. Esses grupos podem ou não vir precedidos
de artigos.
1. ARP -- (Advanced Research Projects) =
2. ASP -- (Application Service Provider) =
3. AT&T – American Telephone & Telegraph Company =
4. CDMA -- (Code Division Multiple Access) =

28
5. CRM - - (Customer Relationship Management) =
6. DHCP -- (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) =
7. DHTML -- (Dynamic HyperText Markup Language) =
8. DNS – (Domain Name System) =
9. DSL -- (Digital Subscriber Line) =
10. Email -- (Electronic Mail) =
11. ERP - - (Enterprise Resource Planning) =
12. FAQ -- (Frequently Asked Questions) =
13. FTP -- (File Transfer Protocol) =
14. HDD – Hard Disk Drive =
15. HTML -- (HyperText Markup Language) =
16. HTTP -- (HyperText Transfer Protocol) =
17. IMAP -- (Internet Message Access Protocol) =
18. IP – Internet Protocol =
19. ISP -- (Internet Service Provider) =
20. IT -- (Information Technology) =
21. JPEG -- (Joint Photographic Experts Group) =
22. LAN – Local Area Network =
23. MAC Address – (Media Access Control Address) =
24. MUD -- (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension) =
25. OCR – Optical Character Recognition =
26. OSI – (Open Source Initiative) =
27. PDF -- (Portable Document Format) =
28. PPP -- (Point to Point Protocol) =
29. SEO -- (Search Engine Optimization) =
30. SMTP -- (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) =
31. SQL -- (Structured Query Language) =
32. Sysop -- (System Operator) =
33. TCP – Transmission Control Protocol =
34. URI -- (Uniform Resource Identifier) =
35. URL – Uniform Resource Locator =
36. URN -- (Uniform Resource Name) =
37. VOIP -- (Voice Over IP) =
38. VPN -- (Virtual Private Network) =
39. WAN -- (Wide Area Network) =
40. Wi-Fi -- (Wireless Fidelity) =
IV) Há também os grupos nominais com a palavra “of”, onde a ordem das palavras
continua igual em português. Observe que o núcleo do grupo nominal vem antes
da preposição “of”.

29
1. The performance of program = a performance de programa
2. A long history of personal computers = uma longa história de computadores pessoais
3. An essential part of a printer =
4. A important group of personal files =
5. Different languages of the same families =
6. POP = Point of Presence =

Storing data in computer programs

For those new to computer programming, data and code go hand in hand. You cannot write
a program of any real value without lines of code, or without data. A Word Processor
program has logic that takes what the user types and stores it in data. It also uses data to
control how it stores and formats what the user types and clicks.

Data is stored in the memory of the computer when the program runs (it can also be stored
in a file, but that is another matter beyond the scope of this tutorial). Each memory 'slot' is
identified by a name that the programmer chooses. For example LineTotal might be used
to name a memory slot that holds the total number of lines in a Word Processor document.

The program can freely read from and write to this memory slot. This kind of data is called a
Variable. It can contain data such as a number or text. Sometimes, we may have data that
we do not want to change. For example, the maximum number of lines that the Word
Processor can handle. When we give a name to such data, we also give it its permanent
value. These are called constants.

Leia o texto acima e responda:

1) Retire do texto todos os grupos nominais que conseguir identificar. (traduza-os)

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
______________________

2) Explique o que tem um programa processador de palavras e o que ele faz..

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
______________________

3) Que nome é dado ao tipo de dado que o programa pode ler livremente e escrever para a
memória slot? __________________________________________________________

4) Explique como pode ser usada a LineTotal.

_________________________________________________________________________
____

30
_________________________________________________________________________
_____
5) Qual é a correta tradução do título do texto?
a) Dados armazenados em programas de computador
b) Armazenamento de dados em programas de computador.
c) Programas de computador em armazenamento de dados

6) Complete a tradução da frase. “Data is stored in the memory of the computer when the
program runs”
Dado é ______________ na ___________ do computador ___________o programa
_________.

FORMAÇÃO DE PALAVRAS – AFIXOS

(Material extraído do livro: Técnicas de Leitura em Inglês. Eiter Otavio Guandalini. p. 37-
39.)

Algumas palavras que aparecem nos textos demandam um pouco mais de atenção para
inferi-las e reconhecê-las durante a leitura. São as chamadas palavras derivadas, ou seja,
palavras que apresentam componentes denominados genericamente de afixos – que podem
ser prefixos ou sufixos. O conhecimento da formação das palavras é muito útil, sem dúvida,
para sua compreensão. Isto significa que é necessário reconhecer os afixos mais
comumente usados na língua que se que aprender e, naturalmente, seu significado.

Sufixos e prefixos podem ser acrescentados às palavras dando-lhes novos significados e,


quase sempre, alternando sua classe gramatical. Portanto, atenção: habitue-se a descobrir
ou reconhecer o significado de palavras e expressões através de prefixos e sufixos, da nova
posição que ocupam na frase, como também na alteração da classe gramatical.

A fim de facilitar sua identificação, colocamos a seguir uma lista com os afixos mais usados
na língua inglesa.

Prefixação – o prefixo muda o significado da palavra primitiva, mas não muda a classe
gramatical.

a (sem) Amoral apolitical asexual


anti (contra) Anti-clockwise anti-nuclear Antichrist
dis (oposto) Disagree dishonest disloyal
il, ir, im, in (não) Illegal irregular imperfect /incomplete
mis (errado) Misunderstand misdirect misaddress
non (não) Nonsense non-fiction non-programable
un (não) Unmagnetized uncommon unprofessional
over (excesso, Overdose overeat
além)
pre (antes) Premarital prefix prehistory
Mini, micro Minicomputer Microcomputer
Macro, mega Macroeconomics Megabyte
Inter (entre) Interface Interactive

31
Sufixação – o sufixo pode mudar a classe gramatical da palavra sem mudar-lhe o
sentido primitivo.

Formação de verbos:
- en Freshen blacken Harden
- ify Simplify solidify
- ize Centralize modernize computerize

Formação de advérbios

- ly (mente) Logically comparably Yearly annually


- ward (em Downward homeward Inward
direção)

Formação de substantivos:

- ance / ence Tolerance Preference Performance


- or Operator Accumulator
- er Trainer Employer programmer
- ee Trainee Employee
- ist Economist Scientist Dentist
- ion Education Collision Compilation
- ment Investment development
- ity Sincerity Generosity
- ism Modernism Buddhism Magnetism
- ness Happiness Darkness
- dom Freedom Kingdom
- hood Childhood Brotherhood
- ship Friendship Partnership relationship

Formação de adjetivos:

- able, ible Programmable Admirable Divisible


- an, ian American Sagitarian suburban
- ful Powerful Hopeful wonderful/beautiful
- y Tasty Healthy
- ic Poetic Democratic
- ical/al Sociological Magical
- less Homeless Childless Wireless

Ex.: COMFORT = Substantivo = Conforto


UNCOMFORT = Substantivo = Desconforto
CONFORTABLE = Adjetivo = Confortável
Selecione no texto as palavras que são formadas por sufixos:

CAREERS IN THE COMPUTERS FIELD

Computer specialists include System Analysts, Programmers and Operators. Systems


Analysts develop methods for computerizing business. They also improve the efficiency of
systems in use. Application Programmers write commercial programs to be used by
business, science center and home. System Programmers write the complex programs that
control the inner working of the computer. Computer operators handle several types of
computers.
Other people who work in the computer field include Computer Scientists, who conduct
research and teach at universities; Hardware Designers and Engineers, who work in areas
such as microchip and peripheral equipment design; Information Center Administrators or

32
Data Base Administrators, who manage the information collections of business or data
banks.

Excerpted from Compton´s Interactive Encyclopedia – 1993, 1994.

Agora, escreva em Português as especialidades que são mencionadas no texto:

____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________

A PRÉ-HISTÓRIA DOS COMPUTADORES

AQUECIMENTO
Junte-se a um colega e, em cinco minutos, procure no texto da próxima página as respostas
para as seguintes perguntas. A dupla que acabar primeiro e apresentar todas as respostas
corretas vence a competição.

a) O que Lady Ada Lovelace inventou para a máquina de Babbage?


__________________________

b) Quanto pesava o ENIAC, o primeiro computador a válvula?


_______________________________

c) Onde Charles Babbage exibiu “The Difference Engine” em 1855?


__________________________

d) Qual foi o primeiro dispositivo de cálculo utilizado pelo homem?


___________________________

e) Até que século o ábaco foi utilizado como dispositivo de cálculo?


__________________________

f) Quem inventou, em 1804, o tear “programado”?


________________________________________

g) O que Blaise Pascal inventou em 1642?


_____________________________________________

h) Quando ficou pronto o primeiro computador digital, o MARK 1?


____________________________

i) Quando Vannevar Bush construiu o primeiro computador analógico?


________________________

LEITURA E INTERPRETAÇÃO

a) Junte-se a outros colegas e discutam o que vocês sabem acerca da história do


computador e dos métodos de cálculo.

33
b) Depois da discussão, organize os parágrafos abaixo numerando os parênteses em
ordem crescente, conforme a cronologia. O título do texto já está marcado.

(A: _____) It was during the Second World War that the modern age of computers began.
In 1930, Vannevar Bush built the first analog computer, which was used to help aim guns in
World War II. In the period between 1938-1942, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry
designed and built the first electronic digital computer, the ABC, which provided the basis
for the development of the ENIAC.

(B:_____) After that, in 1822, Charles Babbage built a machine called “The Difference
Engine,” which he showed at The Paris Exhibition in 1855. Next, Babbage envisioned and
designed “The Analytical Engine”, a machine which could complete programmed arithmetic
operations. Unfortunately, Babbage never finished his work, but many of his ideas were
used as the basis for the modern computer.

(C: _____) The modern computer as we know it today is a result of lots of research and
inventions of the past. The following paragraphs will show you the evolution of this
miraculous machine.

(D: _____) In the period called the Scientific Revolution, which began circa 1540 and lasted
until 1687, many scientists tried to find ways of calculating. As a consequence, other
computational devices were invented. In 1642, Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical
calculator. In 1673, Gottfried von Leibniz invented another calculating device.

(E: _____) The Scientific Revolution was followed by the Industrial Revolution, which
started in England and brought many advances in technology. Several machines were
developed in this period, and these machines later had a great impact on the development
of computers.

(F: _____) During the same period that Babbage was working on his machines, Lady Ada
Lovelace invented an arithmetic code for Babbage’s machine based on a binary system
similar to the one used with modern computers. For this reason, she is considered to be
the first programmer.

(G: _____) The first calculating device used by man was the ten fingers of his hands. This
explains why we still count in tens and multiples of tens. Then the abacus was invented, a
device which uses small beads or stones to make calculations. This tool was used until the
16th century. It is still used today in some parts of the world to make arithmetical
calculations.

(H: _____) In 1804, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a weaving loom which was
“programmed” to make certain patterns on cloth. This “program” was a series of holes
punched in paper cards according to a code, and it is very similar to the process used in
punched cards of the first modern computers.

(I: 1 ) The Pre-History of Computers

(J: _____) Between 1943 and 1946, funded by the U.S. Army, John Mauchly and J. Eckert
built the first major eletronic digital computer using vacuum tubes. The ENIAC (Electronic
Numerical Integrator and Computer) was huge and weighed about 30 tons.

(K: _____) The developments which took place during World War II led to the advances
made in the period that followed the war. The period after the war led to the
subsequent generations of computers, which may be described as the modern age of
computers.

34
(L: _____) In 1944, Howard Aiken and some engineers from IBM completed MARK 1, an
electro-mechanical calculating device controlled by punched cards. This first digital computer
could figure out long lists of mathematical problems and was used military ballistics.

c) Responda as seguintes perguntas:


1) Das informações apresentadas no texto, quais você já conhecia?
______________________________________________________________________
___________

2) Que informação nova sobre a história do computador você achou mais interessante?
______________________________________________________________________
___________

3) Sabemos que o computador é uma máquina moderna. Por que o autor intitulou o texto
The Pre-History of Computers?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________

4) Das orações abaixo, qual você considera a idéia principal do texto? Por quê?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________

a) Os avanços tecnológicos da 2ª Guerra Mundial levaram a era moderna do


computador.
b) MARK 1, o primeiro computador digital, possuía sistema de cartões perfurados e foi
fabricado pela IBM para fins militares.
c) Lady Lovelace é considerada a primeira programadora do mundo por ter inventado o
código binário.
d) As idéias de Charles Babbage foram usadas como base para os computadores
modernos, o que o torna o pai do computador.
e) A Revolução Industrial teve um grande impacto na tecnologia usada para o
desenvolvimento dos computadores.
f) Antes da invenção do ábaco, o dispositivo de cálculo eram os dedos das mãos.
g) O primeiro computador digital a válvula foi o ENIAC.
h) A era moderna do computador nasce em 1930 com o primeiro computador digital, de
Vannevar Bush, usado para fins militares na 2ª Guerra Mundial.
i) O tear “programado”, inventado por Jacquard em 1804, tem o mesmo princípio dos
cartões perfurados dos primeiros computadores.
j) O computador atual é o resultado de várias pesquisas e invenções do passado.
k) A Revolução Científica (1540-1687) levou a invenção de vários dispositivos de cálculo.

5) A partir do exercício anterior, como você definiria o que deve ser a idéia principal de um
texto?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________

LEITURA E INTERPRETAÇÃO – SKIMMING

a) Utilizando essa técnica, procure no texto What is a Computer? as seguintes informações.


Nos espaços em branco, escreva os números das linhas em que elas se encontram:

1) ________ O computador processa dados e fornece os resultados em forma de


informação.
2) ________ É um erro acreditar que todo mundo hoje em dia saiba usar o computador.
3) ________ O processo de computação envolve três etapas básicas.

35
4) ________ O mundo da computação criou uma linguagem própria.
5) ________ Hoje em dia quase todo mundo tem uma idéia do que seja um computador.
6) ________ Algumas dessas palavras vêm sendo usadas pelo mundo afora, pois foram
tomadas de empréstimo da língua inglesa por várias outras línguas.
7) ________ Algumas sociedades contemporâneas desconhecem o computador.
8) ________ A etapa final permite ao usuário ver os resultados do processamento.
9) ________ Mesmo nos países ditos desenvolvidos, existem pessoas que não sabem o que
é um computador e não se importam em saber.

WHAT’S IS A COMPUTER?

1 Nowadays, in most modern societies, almost everybody has an idea about what a
computer is. We depend on computers in every aspect of our lives whether we know
how to use one or not. But does everyone really know how a computer works
inside?
A computer is an electronic machine which processes data and provides the results
5 of the processing as information. There are three basic steps in the computing
process. The first one is input, which consists of feeding data into the computer’s
memory. Then comes the processing: the program is run and the computer
processes the data by performing a set of instructions. The third and final step is
the output furnished by the computer, which allows the user to see the results
either in printed from or on the screen.
10 The world of computers has created a specific language of its own. English words
such as software and hardware are used worldwide and have been borrowed by
many different languages. Software is information in the form of data and
programs, and hardware refers to the electronic and mechanical parts that make
up a computer system.
Despite the constant presence of computers in most modern societies, it is a great
15 mistake to believe that everybody in the world is computer-literate, i.e., is familiar
with computers and knows how to use them properly. In some contemporary
societies, many people still have no idea about the existence of computers, and
even in the so-called developed countries, there are lots of people who do not know
or do not care about what a computer is.

b) O autor conclui o texto afirmando que algumas sociedades contemporâneas e muitas


pessoas dos países desenvolvidos desconhecem o computador ou não ligam para ele, sem
dar exemplos. Em sua opinião, quais seriam essas sociedades e essas pessoas?

_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
c) Escreva na primeira coluna os números correspondentes às palavras definidas na
segunda.

a) ________ computer 1) Data fed into the computer’s memory.


b)_________ input 2) Information.
c) _________ processing 3) Machine that processes data.
d) _________ output 4) Electronic and mechanical parts of a computer.
e) _________ screen 5) Device that shows the results of the processing.
f) _________ software 6) The results shown on the screen or in printed form.

36
g) _________ hardware 7) Programs.
h) _________ data 8) Series of actions that a computer performs to arrive at a

OS USOS DO ING

Palavras cuja formação é composta por ING podem apresentar diferentes classes
gramaticais:
LEARNING = Pode significar aprendendo; aprender ou aprendizagem, dependendo de
como é apresentada na sentença.

(gerúndio)
They are learning how to get more information. = (após o verbo to be)
Eles estão aprendendo como conseguir mais informações.

(verbo/infin.)
This is a way of learning about management. = (após preposições)
Esta é uma maneira de aprender sobre gerenciamento.

(Adjetivo)
This is part of the learning process. = (parte de um grupo nominal)
Isto é parte do processo de aprendizagem.

(Substantivo)
Learning is essencial to life.
Aprendizagem é essencial à vida.

EXERCÍCIOS

Classifique em cada frase as palavras formadas por ING como:


(substantivo, gerúndio, adjetivo ou verbo infinitivo)

a. They are learning Computer Science.


__________________________.
b. Teleprocessing is the use of a telecommunication system by a computer.
__________________________.
c. The calculating machine was invented many years ago.
__________________________.
d. The recording surface of a disk has concentric circles called tracks.
__________________________.
e. He works 10 hours without stopping.
__________________________.
f. The printer is printing documents.
__________________________.
g. I prefer typing to writing.

__________________________.

37
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EXERCÍCIOS

Grife todas as palavras cognatas encontradas no texto, circule as familiares e


responda:

1) Sobre o que trata o texto?


__________________________________________________________

2) Qual é o produto em questão?


_____________________________________________________

3) Após baixar o arquivo com sucesso, o que acontecerá com seu Número de Licença?

_________________________________________________________________________

4) Qual produto é oferecido caso você esteja procurando mais características,


funcionalidade e flexibilidade?
____________________________________________________________

38
_________________________________________________________________________
__

5) Quando a empresa recebeu o Boletim de Vírus?__________________________________

6) Em qual programa o Boletim foi recebido? _____________________________________

7) Qual é o percentual do padrão de detecção do Sistema anti-vírus?___________________

MARCADORES DE SUBSTANTIVOS

Substantivo é a palavra que designa pessoa, lugar, objeto, evento, substância.

É possível localiza-la no texto prestando atenção em certas palavras que acompanham


substantivo.

Emprega-se antes de substantivo:


Artigos:

a, an = um, uma

the = o, a, os, as

Pronomes Possessivos adjetivos

MY Meu, minha, meus, minhas

Your seu, sua, seus, suas

His dele (para pessoa)

Her dela (para pessoa)

Its dele, dela (para coisas ou animais

Our nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas

Their deles, delas


Emprega-se geralmente antes de substantivos:

Numerais Cardinais:
One, two, three, etc.

Pronomes Demonstrativos:
This este, esta, isto

These estes, estas

That esse, essa, isso, aquele, aquela, aquilo

Those esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas

QUANTIDADES
Many muitos, muitas

39
(a) few poucos, poucas

much muito, muita

(a) little pouco, pouca

some algum, alguns, alguma, algumas

any qualquer, quaisquer

every todo, toda, todos, todas, cada

a lot of muito (a), muitos (as)

REFERÊNCIA CONTEXTUAL

A referência contextual também representa um recurso auxiliar na compreensão das idéias


de um texto. As chamadas palavras de referência substituem palavras que estão no texto
(ou fora dele) e podem classificar-se da seguinte maneira:
• pronomes (pessoais, possessivos, demonstrativos, relativos e indefinidos);

• numerais ordinais;

• palavras que indicam ordem e exemplificação.

Quando queremos nos referir a alguma coisa (ou idéia) que já foi mencionada, ou ainda vai
ser mencionada numa determinada sentença, geralmente utilizamos recursos lingüísticos
para não tornar a sentença repetitiva.

Exemplos:
The magazine which is on the desk is old.
A revista que está sobre a mesa é velha.

Paul and Sue are good friends. They always help us.
Paul and Sue são bons amigos. Eles sempre nos ajudam.

John works in my office. We like him very much.


John trabalha em meu escritório. Nós gostamos muito dele.

• Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idéia anterior ou posterior
utilizando diferentes PRONOMES;

Exercícios

John works in my office. We like him very much.


John trabalha em meu escritório. Nós gostamos muito dele.

• Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idéia anterior ou posterior
utilizando diferentes PRONOMES.

Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Adjectives Possessive


I Me My Mine
You You Your Yours
He Him His His
She Her Her Hers
It It Its Its

40
We Us Our Ours
You You Your Yours
They Them Their Theirs

Subject Object

I know Ann. Ann knows me.


You know Ann. Ann knows you.
He knows Ann. Ann knows him.
She knows Ann. Ann knows her.
We know Ann. Ann knows us.
They know Ann. Ann knows them.

Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns

It´s my money. It´s


mine.
It´s your money. It´s
yours.
It´s his money. It´s his.
It´s her money. It´s hers.
It´s our money. It´s ours.
It´s their money. It´s theirs.
Exercícios

A) Finish the sentences with mine/yours/ours/theirs/hers/his:

1. It´s your money. It´s _______________ 5. It´s their house. It´s


_______________
2. It´s my bag. It´s ________________. 6. They´re your books. They´re
________.
3. It´s our car. It´s ________________. 7. They´re my glasses. They´re
________.
4. They´re her shoes. They´re ____________. 8. It´s his coat. It´s ______________.

B) Classifique os pronomes grifados e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se


referem:

1. Most people are happy in their jobs.

_________________________________________________________________________.

2) Mr. Baker lives in London. His son lives in Australia.


_________________________________________________________________________.

3) Where are the tickets? I can´t find them.


_________________________________________________________________________.

4) We are going out. You can come with us.


_________________________________________________________________________.
5) Margaret likes music. She plays the piano.
_________________________________________________________________________.

6) Ann is going out with her friends tonight.


_________________________________________________________________________.

41
7) I like tennis. It is my favorite sport.
_________________________________________________________________________.

8) I am talking to you. Please, listen to me.


_________________________________________________________________________.

PRONOMES RELATIVOS (Who / Which / That)

• Who is for people (not things)

A Programmer is a person who writes programs.

The man who phoned will call you later again.

I know everybody who work in my company.

• Which is for things (not people)

This is the printer which you asked me.

I don´t have the CD-Rom which you need.

Is this the new computer which you bought?

• That is for things or people:

I know everybody that work in my company.


(You can use that for people, but who is more usual)

This is the printer that you asked me.

• Portanto, temos:
(Para pessoas)
Who
He is the system analyst who/that prepares instructions.
That (pessoa)

(Para coisas)
Which
This is the manual which/that you need.
That (coisa)

EXERCÍCIOS

1. Complete com who ou which:

a. I met a woman who can speak six languages.


b. What´s the name of the man ________ lives next door?
c. What´s the name of the river ________ flows through the town?
d. Where is the picture ________ was hanging on the wall?

42
e. Do you know anybody _______ wants to buy a car?
f. You always ask questions _______ are difficult to answer.
g. I have a friend _________ is very good at repairing cars.
h. I think everybody ________ went to the party enjoyed it a lot.

2. Volte ao texto “Virtual Reality” e retire 1 pronome relativo do 1º parágrafo, 1 pronome


relativo do 2º parágrafo e 3 pronomes do 3º parágrafo, e indique as respectivas palavras a
que eles se referem:

1º parágrafo: pronome: _____________


refere-se a: _______________

2º parágrafo: pronome: _____________


refere-se a: _______________

3º parágrafo: pronome refere-se a


_________ _____________
_________ _____________
_________ _____________

THE POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS

 Quando o substantivo/possuidor designa um ser vivo (pessoa ou animal, as


expressões possessivas (caso possessivo ou genitivo) são formadas do seguinte
modo:
a) Acrescentando-se ‘s ao substantivo/possuidor, quando ele estiver no singular.
The body of the man. The man’s body. (O corpo do homem)
b) Acrescentando-se ‘s também no caso em que o substantivo/possuidor estiver no
plural mas não terminar em s.
The family of the children. The children’s family. (A família das crianças)
c) Acrescentando-se apenas um apóstrofo ao substantivo/ possuidor, quando ele estiver
no plural terminado em s.
The school of the girls. The girls’ school. (A escola das garotas)
 Quando o substantivo/ possuidor designa um ser inanimado, não se usa a expressão
com ‘s mas sim a que é feita com de (of) como em português:
The door of the car, the trees of the garden, etc.
No entanto, a expressão com ‘s pode ser usada (assim com o of) quando o
substantivo/ possuidor tiver um sentido nobre, caso principalmente dos nomes
geográficos, como a Terra, o Sol, o mar, nomes de países, cidades, etc.
f.e. The population of the world = The world population

43
Complete as frases com a forma possessiva dos substantivos entre parênteses,
conforme o modelo:
Exemplo:
Richard is the boss of John. Richard is John’s boss.
Geralmente usamos -´s para pessoas:
- Mary´s computer – O computador da Mary.
- Mary´s personal computer – O PC da Mary.
- John´s laser printer – A impressora do John.
- The manager´s equipment – O equipamento do gerente.

• Friend´s or Friends´ :
A casa do meu amigo = My friend´s house.
A casa dos meus amigos = My friends´ house.

Portanto, temos: My mother´s car My parents´ car


My father´s car

• Usamos of para coisas, lugares, etc.


The high technology of Brazil. – Tecnologia de ponta do Brasil.
What´s the name of this village? – Qual é o nome desta vila?
Madrid is the Capital of Spain. – Madrid é a Capital da Espanha.
The memory of the computer. – (not – the computer´s memory)

Drill – Faça a correção da sentença quando necessário:


1. I stayed at the house of my sister. - my sister house
2. What is the name of this village? - Ok__________
3. Do you like the color of this coat? - _____________________
4. Do you know the phone number of Bill? - ________________________
5. The job of my brother is very interesting. - _______________________
6. Write your name at the top of the page. - _________________________
7. When is the birthday of your mother? - _________________________
8. The house of my parents isn´t very big. - ________________________
9. The walls of this house are very thin. - __________________________
10. The manager of the hotel is on holiday. - _______________________

• Passe as sentenças para o Caso Genitivo:

The laptop of my sister.


______________________________________.
The computer of my secretary.
______________________________________.
The printer of my boss.
______________________________________.

TEXTO PARA LEITURA, COMPREENSÃO E EXERCÍCIOS DE VOCABULÁRIO

44
HARDWARE

The central processing unit, or CPU, is the heart of a computer. In addition to performing
arithmetic and logic operations on data, it controls the rest of the system.
Most CPU chips and microprocessors have four functional sections:
(1) the arithmetic/logic unit;
(2) temporary storage locations;
(3) the control section;
(4) the internal bus.
Input devices let the users enter commands, data, or programs. Computer keyboards are
the most common input devices. Another common input device, the mouse, is a mechanical
device with buttons on the top and a rolling ball in its base. Other input devices include
joysticks and trackballs. Light pens can be used to draw or to point to items or areas on the
display screen. A digitizer pad translates images drawn on it with an electronic pen. Touch
screens allow users to point to items or areas on the screen. Optical scanners “read”
characters on a printed page and translate them into binary numbers that the CPU can use.
Voice-recognition circuitry digitizes spoken words and enters them into the computer.
Memory-storage devices. Most digital computers store data both internally (main
memory) and externally (auxiliary storage units). A computer temporarily stores information
internally on silicon random-access memory, or RAM, chips. Another type of internal
memory consists of a series of read-only memory, or ROM, chips. Some auxiliary storage
devices floppy disks, hard disks and magnetic tape store data by magnetically rearranging
metal particles on disks and tapes.
Output devices let the user see the results of the computer´s data processing. The most
common output device is the video display terminal (VDT), or monitor, which uses a
cathode-ray tube (CRT) to display characters and graphics on a screen. Modems
(modulator-demodulators) and disk drives are input/output devices. Printers generate hard
copy, a printedversion of information stored in one of the computer´s memory systems.
Excerpted from Compton´s Interactive Encyclopedia – 1993, 1994.

SCANNING

• Encontre no texto acima as informações que completam o diagrama.

CPU DISPOSITIVO DE ENTRADA


____________________ _________________
_________________
____________________ _________________
Funções _________________
____________________
45
I/O
_______________
_______________

HARDWARE
ARMAZENAMENTO DISPOSITIVO DE SAÍDA
DE MEMÓRIA
_____________________
Interno __________ou_______
_____________________
___________________
_____________________
Externo _____________________
_____________________

NETWORK LAST MODIFIED: THURSDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2002

A group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of
computer networks, including:
 local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together
(that is, in the same building).
 wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected
by telephone lines or radio waves.
 campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic
area, such as a campus or military base.
 metropolitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city.
 home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that
connects a person's digital devices.

In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize
different types of networks:
 topology : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies
include a bus, star, and ring. See the Network topology diagrams in the Quick Reference
section of Webopedia.
 protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on
the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called
Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network .

46
 architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or
client/server architecture.
Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that
allocate resources for a network are called servers.

Questões sobre o texto e estudo do vocabulário:

1. Encontre no texto os seguintes Grupos Nominais em Inglês:

a. Sistema de computador - ______________________________


b. Rede de computadores - ______________________________
c. Linhas telefônicas - __________________________________
d. posição geométrica - _________________________________
e. As seguintes características - __________________________

2. Retire do texto as duas expressões que estão no Caso Genitivo e dê as suas


traduções:
a. __________________________ - _________________________
b. __________________________ - _________________________

3. De acordo com o texto, o que é “Network” e quais são os tipos de redes de


computadores?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
______________________

4. O que é a “Local-area Network” e “Campus-area Network”?


_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
______________________

5. Cite as três características que categorizam diferentes tipos de Rede?


___________________ - ____________________ - __________________

6. Em que consiste o “Protocol”?


_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
__________

7. Traduza: Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called
“servers”.
_________________________________________________________________________
__________

47
PESQUISA DE VOCABULÁRIO

DISK DRIVE – DISPLAY UNIT – FLOPPY DISK – HARD COPY


HARDWARE - SOFTWARE - KEYBOARD – MACHINE LANGUAGE
MONITOR – PRINTER – PROGRAM – PROGRAMMER – SCREEN
SOFT COPY – STORAGE MIDIA – WORK STATION
WORD PROCESSING - WINCHESTER

1. The part of a computer system that carries the instructions and programs; the opposite of
hardware: ______________________.

2. All the physical part of a computer such as monitor, CPU, drives, keyboard, printer, the
opposite of software: ______________________.

3. Language that programmers use to give the computer its basic instructions:
________________________.

4. A step-by-step series of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task:
________________________.

5. The object that prints out the paper copies of documents: ________________________.

6. It is an input device similar to a typewriter: _________________________.

7. It is similar to a TV and displays information: _______________________________,


__________________________ or ___________________________.

8. Consist of monitors, keyboards and printer divided by two or more people:


________________________.

9. Collective term for hard disk, floopy disk, tapes, cards on which computers store
information: _________________________.

10. A thin flexible disk that stores data magnetically: ______________________________.

11. Storage midia located into the CPU: _____________________or _________________.

12. A person who writes the software programs: ____________________________.

13. An automated means of creating and editing texts:


_____________________________.

14. Refers to printed copies on paper: ____________________________.

15. The information that appears on the screen before it is printed out: ________________.

16. The place where you insert the floopy disk or CD-ROM: ________________________.

PRINTING CONCEPTS
When users print, the computer completes several steps that involve a set of components
including executable files, drivers, device interfaces, and dynamic-link libraries, which work
together to create the printed output. Understanding how this process works helps you

48
understand what happens when you print a document and how to solve printing problems.
Printing has two parts: printing process and the print components. The two parts make the
printing process possible. When printing to an Internet print server, the print server adds to
the standard print process by creating an interface for users.

VOCABULARY

To print = imprimir
Print = impressão
Printer = impressora
Set = jogo, conjunto, grupo,
To set up = iniciar, instalar, estabelecer-se
Drive = unidade de disco
Standar = padrão
Device = dispositivo

Leia o texto “PRINTING CONCEPTS” e responda as questões a seguir:

a) Sobre o que trata o texto?


________________________________________________________
b) Quais são as duas partes da impressora?
____________________________________________
c) O que estas partes possibilitam?
___________________________________________________
d) Qual e o conjunto de componentes citados no texto?
___________________________________
e) O que o servidor de impressão adiciona quando imprime para um servidor de
impressão de Internet?
_________________________________________________________________________
___________
2) Localize as palavras familiares no texto acima e dê a tradução.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________
3) Circule todas as palavras cognatas.

What´s an Algorithm?

An algorithm is a sequence of instructions that tells how to solve a particular problem. Once
the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it. If
the problem is a familiar one, standardized algorithms may be available from program
libraries. But if standard algorithms are not available or suitable, a new algorithm must be
written and then added to the program library. An algorithm must be specified exactly, so

49
there can be no doubt about what to do next, and it must have a finite number of steps. A
computer program is an algorithm that is written in a language that a computer can
understand, but the same algorithm could be written in several different languages.

• Observe a sentença: “Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to
select the best method for solving it”.

1) A classificação da palavra “solving” é:

a) substantivo (solução)
b) gerúndio (resolvendo)
c) particípio (resolvido)
d) verbo/infinitivo (resolver)

2) O pronome “it” (última palavra) refere-se a:

a) problem
b) identified
c) select
d) method

3) Observando o uso do verbo modal “must” a tradução apropriada da sentença a


seguir é: “it must have a finite number of steps”.
a) ele (algoritmo) poderia ter um número finito de passos.
b) ele (algoritmo) não precisa ter um número finito de passos.
c) ele (algoritmo) deve ter um número finito de passos.
d) ele (algoritmo) não pode ter um número finito de passos.
e) ele (algoritmo) talvez tenha um número finito de passos.

Mainframe, Minicomputer and Microcomputer

A mainframe is a large computer system comprised of a large central processing unit,


separate memory banks, multiple data-storage devices and peripherals. It is found in
computer installations which process immense amounts of data. This powerful machine has
a larger repertoire of more complex instructions which can be executed more quickly.

A minicomputer is much smaller than the mainframe computer. It was developed to


perform limited functions in scientific environments with less computing capacity. It became
possible to reduce the size of the computer with the replacement of vacuum tubes by
transistors and the development of multicircuit `chips´.

A microcomputer is the smallest of the three sizes of computers. The central processor of
a micro, called the microprocessor, is built as a single semiconductor device, that is, the
elements necessary to perform all the logical and arithmetic functions are manufactured as
a single chip. The microprocessor literally contains a computer on a chip that can pass
through the eye of a needle.

4) Complete as sentences com mainframe/minicomputer/microcomputer:

a) _________________________ is the smallest of all.


b) _________________________ has less computing capacity.
c) _________________________ performs limited functions.
d) _________________________ is a large computer system.

50
e) _________________________ executes instructions more quickly.

5) Retire do texto dois pronomes relativos (um da definição de mainframe, e outro da


definição de microcomputer) e indique as respectivas palavras a que se referem:

a) ______________ -- ________________________
b) ______________ -- ________________________

6) Assinale a alternativa em que há um Grupo Nominal:

a) executed more quickly


b) multiple data-storage devices
c) perform limited
d) tubes by transistors
e) called the microprocessor

51
Magnetic Tape and Magnetic Disk

Magnetic tape – it is one of the principal input/output recording media used with
computers and is mainly used for storing intermediate results of computations and for
compact storing of large amounts of data, in an ordered sequence. It is much cheaper to
store information on tape than in the computer main memory or on a disk memory device,
but it takes longer to locate a particular data item if it is stored on tape: data must be
stored and accessed sequentially.

Magnetic disk – it consists of a series of concentric paths or tracks each capable of storing
data in magnetically coded form. It looks like a phonograph record and a series of disks is
mounted on a vertical shaft. One or more access arms move into the disk to read or write
the data stored on it. Disks may be hard (made out of aluminum) or floppy (made out of
plastic). Disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit or they may be made up as
removable disk packs. Disks may be made even more efficient by using laser beam to read
and write data.

As questões 7 e 8 devem ser respondidas em Português.

7) Qual é a definição, conforme o texto, de Disco Magnético?


_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________.

8) Quais são os dois principais usos das Fitas Magnéticas?


_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________.

9) Indique a ordem em que essas idéias ocorrem no texto: Magnetic Disk

( ) disks may be hard or floppy.


( ) disks may be more efficient.
(1 ) disks consists of a series of concentric paths.
( ) disks may be made up as removable disk packs.
( ) disks may be mounted on a vertical shaft.
( ) disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit.

10) Indique se as afirmações são verdadeiras (V) ou falsas (F):

a) Magnetic tape is the only way for inputting data. ( )


b) It is used for storing data sequentially. ( )
c) It is much cheaper to store data on disks. ( )
d) It takes longer to locate data stored on tapes. ( )
e) Data on tape is stored in an ordered sequence. ( )

11) Indique os dois erros do Presente Simples com círculos e dê as formas verbais
corretas:

“Some mail systems uses a large disk space, but they doesn´t determine any amount
before its use.”

52
Formas corretas: a) _________________
b) ___________________

12) Destaque das frases abaixo, os verbos na Voz Passiva:

“Disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit and they may be made up as
removable disk packs.”
_____________________________ - _____________________________
13) Circule na sentença a palavra que se encontra no Comparativo e dê o seu significado
em Português:

“It is much cheaper to store information on tapes than in the computer main memory”
_________________ = ____________________________

14) Observe o segmento abaixo:

“Magnetic Tape is mainly used for storing(1) intermediate results of computations and for
compact storing(2) of large amounts of data.”

A palavra storing (1) significa: A palavra storing (2) significa:

a) armazenar a) armazenar
b) armazenando b) armazenando
c) armazenamento c) armazenamento
d) armazenado d) armazenado

Third-Generation-1964-1971:Integrated-Circuits

The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of
computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors,
which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers
through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the
device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored
the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because
they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

Fourth-Generation-1971-Present:Microprocessors
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated
circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room
could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all
the components of the computer - from the central processing unit and memory to
input/output controls - on a single chip.

In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced
the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into
many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.

As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form
networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation
computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.
Exercícios sobre o texto

53
1) Na 3º geração de computadores; o que aconteceu com os “Transistors”?
_________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

2) O que o Sistema Operacional permitia fazer nos computadores da 3º geração?


_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_____________

3) Na sentença: “Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience
because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.”; destaque as palavras que
estão no Comparativo e dê os seus significados na frase: ____________________ =
_____________________
____________________ = _____________________

4) No segmento “ The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as


thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.”; transcreva um verbo
no Passado Simples e um na Voz Passiva e dê os seus significados:

Passado Simples: __________________ = __________________________.


Voz Passiva: ______________________ = __________________________.

5) O que fazia o chip Intel 4004, desenvolvido em 1971?


_________________________________________________________________________
__________

6) Retire do segmento abaixo: uma expressão no Comparativo e uma na Voz Passiva:


“As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form
networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet.”

_____________________ = _____________________________
_____________________ = ____________________________

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Last modified: Wednesday, September 25, 2002

A collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from
a database. There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that
run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. The following are
examples of database applications:

• computerized library systems


• automated teller machines
• flight reservation systems
• computerized parts inventory systems

From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, network,
flat, and hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The
internal organization can affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information.

Requests for information from a database are made in the form of a query, which is a
stylized question. For example, the query
SELECT ALL WHERE NAME = "SMITH" AND AGE > 35
requests all records in which the NAME field is SMITH and the AGE field is greater than
35.

54
The set of rules for constructing queries is known as a query language. Different DBMSs
support different query languages, although there is a semi-standardized query
language called SQL (structured query language). Sophisticated languages for managing
database systems are called fourth-generation languages, or 4GLs for short.

The information from a database can be presented in a variety of formats. Most DBMSs
include a report writer program that enables you to output data in the form of a report.
Many DBMSs also include a graphics component that enables you to output information
in the form of graphs and charts.

Exercícios sobre o texto

1) De acordo com o texto, o que é o “Sistema de Gerenciamento de Banco de Dados” ?


_________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________.

2) Cite, em Português, os 4 exemplos de Aplicativos de Banco de Dados mencionados no


texto:
• ____________________________________________
• ____________________________________________
• ____________________________________________
• ____________________________________________

3) No trecho abaixo:
“From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, network, flat,
and hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The internal
organization can affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information.”;
Identifique o verbo modal que aparece 3 vezes e dê os seus respectivos sujeitos.
________ = ____________________
________ = ____________________
________ = ____________________

4) O que é a query language e qual o significado em Português?


_________________________________________________________________________
__________

5) No segmento “Sophisticated languages for managing database systems are called fourth-
generation languages”; a palavra managing significa:
a) gerenciando
b) gerenciar
c) gerenciamento
d) gerenciado

6) Passe a sentença do exercício acima para o Português:


_________________________________________________________________________
___________

ABOUT CHIPS

“Does anybody here know anything about chips?”

55
Nobody expected such a question during an art class. Not from an old teacher of music. And
he added, “ I must confess that I know nothing about chips. I really don´t know anything at
all. Sometimes I feel like a Jurassic teacher.

A quiet girl with curly hair asked shyly, “What do you want to know, professor? I have some
information about it.”

Lucy was her name. Everybody remained silent. No one sang. Nobody played. Lucy stood up
and spoke up; “A computer consists of hundreds of parts, including a monitor, a mouse, disk
drives and a keyboard. Inside the computer is a circuit board. It houses all sorts of
microchips, including those for ROM (read-only memory) and RAM (random-access
memory). Mounted on the circuit board is a microprocessor, which is housed n a protective
container and connected to rows of gold-plated pins. Inside the microprocessor package is
the chip itself. This tiny square of silicon is packed with transistors that process instructions
and data for the computer. A chip can process 500 million instructions every second and it
has the size of a fingernail.

After this explanation everybody clapped their hands. The teacher said. Where have you
learned all this, Lucy, my dear?

“Well”, she said, I´ve read it from an old magazine at the library.

VOCABULARY

to remain = permanecer
to house = conter/armazenar
gold-plated = coberto com ouro
tiny = muito pequeno

Questões

1) Assinale a alternativa correta:


a) Os alunos ficaram surpresos com a pergunta da menina.
b) O professor não sabia nada sobre tecnologia.
c) A menina ficou decepcionada com o professor.
d) O antigo professor gostaria de deixar a escola.

2) O professor se considera:
a) ignorante sobre computação
b) um especialista em computação
c) muito antiquado sobre música
d) um grande leitor de revista de informática

3) Lucy ensinou seu professor sobre chips provavelmente porque ela:


a) Lê muito livros na biblioteca
b) Tem algum interesse em computadores
c) studou o assunto em outra escola
d) queria se “aparecer”

4) O material básico do chip é:


a) silicone
b) transistor
c) silicon
d) gold-plated pin
e) data

5) Na sentença: “A chip can process 500 million instructions every second and it has the
size of a fingernail”.; o pronome “it” refere-se a:

56
a) million
b) second
c) instructions
d) chip
e) fingernail

6) Na sentença: “Does anybody here lnow anything about chips?”


destaque os pronomes indefinidos e dê os seus significados:

________________________ = __________________________________
________________________ = __________________________________

7) Destaque os verbos modais das sentenças abaixo e passe-as para o Português:

“I must confess that I know nothing about chips.”


_______________________________________________________________

“A chip can processo 500 million instructions every second.”


_______________________________________________________________

8) Relacione as informações numerando as colunas:

a) The list on the screen which shows the ( ) e-mail


things that you can do.

b) A small sign on a computer screen which ( ) virus


shows your position in a text

c) A system for sending written messages by ( ) menu


computer

d) A number of computers connected together ( ) cursor


in a larger system

e) Instructions that are put into a computer in ( ) network


order to cause mistakes and destroy information

MODAL VERBS (VERBOS MODAIS)


Há uma série de verbos em inglês que expressam idéias gerais. Já que o objetivo do inglês
instrumental é diferente (estratégias de leitura), atenha-se às regras e traduções abaixo,
pois elas serão suficientes para nosso propósito.

57
CAN: Usamos CAN (do) para dizer que alguma coisa é possível ou que alguém tem a
habilidade/capacidade para fazer algo. Podemos usar com a forma negativa (CAN NOT /
CANNOT ou CAN’T).
Exemplo: Can you swim very fast? No I can’t, but I can play chess.
COULD: algumas vezes o COULD é o passado do CAN. Nós usamos Could para dizer que
alguém tinha habilidade geral para fazer alguma coisa. Podemos usar com a forma
negativa (COULD NOT ou COULDN’T). Usamos Could especialmente com os seguintes
verbos:

TO SEE TO HEAR TO SMELL TO TO FEEL TO REMEMBER TO UNDERSTAND


TASTE

Exemplo: My grandfather could speak five languages.

MUST / MUSTN’T: Usamos MUST para dizer que nós temos certeza que alguma coisa é
certa.
Exemplos: 1. Fish must live in water. (necessidade)
2. Everybody must uphold laws. (obrigação)
3. He must be your father. (Dedução forte)
4. You mustn’t tell anyone what I said. (proibição)
MAY: Usamos MAY e MIGHT para dizer que alguma coisa é possível ou seja, com 50% de
certeza.. Também usamos para pedir permissão (de algo incerto, com baixa probabilidade
ou mais formal). Não existe diferença importante entre MAY e MIGHT. Podemos dizer, por
exemplo:
“Paul may be in his office.” OU “Paul might be in his office.” (probabilidade)
May I dance with your girlfriend? No, you may not. (permissão com baixa probabilidade)
SHOULD / SHOULDN’T: Geralmente usamos SHOULD quando pedimos ou damos uma
opinião sobre alguma coisa. (frequentemente usamos I think/I don’t think/do you
think).
Exemplos:
I don’t think you should work so hard.
Mike shouldn’t drive really. He is too tired.

EXERCISES:
Traduza as seguintes sentenças para o português e escreva nos parênteses a idéia
expressada pelos verbos modais em destaque.
1. We might have several problems in case inflation rises sharply. (_________________)
_______________________________________________________________________
2.They can manufacturer high-tech equipment, but they may have problems to ship it.
(_________________) (___________________)

58
_________________________________________________________________________
_
3.How much should we purchase from that supplier?
(_________________)
_______________________________________________________________________
___
4.A foreign company can encourage its employments to study languages.
(_________________)
_______________________________________________________________________
___
5.We mustn`t do this because it`s against the laws.
(_________________)
_______________________________________________________________________
___
6.Some terms may be included in such exemptions.
(_________________)
_______________________________________________________________________
___

7.She must be in trouble in the traffic because she never comes to work late.
(_________________)_______________________________________________________
___________________
8.People should be in contact with a foreign language more often, otherwise they won`t
memorize new vocabulary and structures.
(_________________) ____________________________________________________
9.Companies should develop equipment, processes and goods that are “ecologically clean”.
(_________________)
_______________________________________________________________________
___

59
PUZZLE

Existem dezessete palavras no quadro abaixo. Encontre-as e indique a tradução de cada


uma delas, relacionando as colunas (as que não souber deixe em branco).
Comece localizando os cognatos.

E A T O P E R F O R M T T I S

N O T E L A R R Q B A R O Y I

G P D D U X C F D R T B O T N

I R E B T T O S T O R E T M C

N I V M A B M V I D R A H A E

E C E E R V P C E S A D E R T

N E L W M A U U U S L S D E H

T C O S D A T A E S F S W S E

R A P P A C E A C M E D H O N

I R E M G P R O G R A M E U M

E R D K V F O R E I T N E R L

S I A D E V I C E S U G L C O

V E R Y M U C H S E R U S E I

M S R T O H A N D L E N T S F

O E N V I R O N M E D I G I T

60
VOCABULARY

1) COMPUTER ( ) rodas dentadas; engrenagens


2) DATA ( ) contas (pequenas bolas com orifício
3) FEATURE ( ) características; traço
4) TO STORE ( ) dados
5) TO PERFORM ( ) muito; bastante
6) BEADS ( ) máquina; motor; mecanismo
7) RODS ( ) computador
8) DEVICES ( ) guardar; armazenar
9) TOOTHED WHEELS ( ) desenvolvido
10)TO HANDLE ( ) dígito; qualquer numeral de 0 a 9
11)CARRIES ( ) manipular; lidar com
12)DIGIT ( ) desempenhar
13)ENGINE ( ) varetas; hastes
14)PROGRAM ( ) desde essa época
15)SINCE THEN ( ) programa (série de instruções)
16)DEVELOPED ( ) transportes; transferências
17)VERY MUCH ( ) dispositivos

COMPUTERS: START POINT

A computer is a machine capable of executing computations on data. The distinguishing


feature of a computer is its ability to store its own instructions and to performance
thousands of operations each second.
The Abacus, on which information is stored by moving beads along rods, was one of the
earliest calculating devices. Blaise Pascal developed an adding machine in 1642 that used
toothed wheel to handle carries from on digit to the next. Charles Babbage developed the
concept of a stored program computer when he designed a calculating engine in 1833.
The first electronic digital computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Calculator), which was built for the U.S. Army in 1945. In the same year John Von Neumann
introduced the modern concept of a stores program computer, in which the computer
memory can store both programs and data.
Since then computer technology has developed very much.
(Adaptado de Galante, Inglês básico para informática,1992, p.9)

Responda às questões de acordo com o texto:


1) Quem desenhou uma máquina calculadora e em que ano?
________________________________
2) Qual foi o primeiro computador eletrônico digital e em que ano foi construído?
_________________
3) Ligue as colunas de acordo com a tradução.
Dados ( ) Hard disk
Teclado ( ) Floppy disk
Disquete ( ) Data
Disco rígido ( ) Memory
Memória ( ) Keyboard
4) Coloque verdadeiro (V) ou falso (F): No grupo nominal “electronic digital computer”
podemos afirmar que:
a) computer e digital são modificadores ( )
b) electronic e digital são modificadores ( )
c) electronic e computer são modificadores ( )

61
d) computer é o núcleo ( )
e) electronic é o núcleo ( )
5) Escreva um breve resumo relatando sobre o que trata o texto.
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________

6) Retire do texto cinco (05) palavras cognatas com tradução:


_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
7) Retire do texto um (01) falso cognato e sua tradução.___________________________
8) Assinale abaixo, o único facilitador e/ou estratégia que NÃO foi utilizada na leitura do texto. Justifique sua
resposta.
Dicas tipográficas;
Cognatos e palavras familiares;
Scanning;
Skimming;
Conhecimento de mundo.

9) Dê a tradução da sigla ENIAC.


__________________________________________________________

1) Relacione os cognatos e falsos cognatos encontrados no texto:


COGNATOS FALSOS

2) Qual o assunto principal abordado no texto?


_____________________________________________
3) Qual é a definição de computador?
_____________________________________________________
4) Cite as siglas existentes no
texto.______________________________________________________
5) Em que ano Charles Babbage desenhou uma máquina calculadora?
__________________________
6) Qual foi um dos primeiros dispositivos de calcular e como funcionava?
_________________________________________________________________________
___________7) Qual foi o primeiro computador eletrônico digital?-
______________________________
8) Em que ano foi construído?________________________________________________

62
IMPERATIVO

A forma imperativa, utilizada para ordenar ou pedir algo, possui a mesma forma do infinitivo
do verbo, sem to:

To repair: consertar Repair the terminal.


Please repair the equipment.
Repair the engine, please.

Para formar o imperativo negativo, coloca-se do not (don’t) antes do verbo:

To press: pressionar Don’t press this button.


Please don’t press the button.
Don’t press this button, please

Com Let us (Let’s) = vamos:


Usado antes do infinitivo do verbo, sem to, para sugerir ou convidar alguém para uma ação
conjunta.

Let’s load the peripherals.


Let’s stop.
Let’s go.
EXERCISES:
Relacione as colunas de acordo com a tradução:
1) DRAG ( ) INCLUA
2) PRESS ( ) MUDE
3) CLICK ( ) PRESSIONE
4) CLOSE ( ) APAGUE
5) MOVE ( ) ARRASTE
6) GRAB ( ) PUXE
7) SELECT ( ) ABRA
8) OPEN ( ) CLIQUE
9) PUSH ( ) EXECUTE
10) PULL ( ) CANCELE
11) DELETE ( ) FECHE
12) RUN ( ) MOVA
13) INSTALL ( ) INSIRA
14) INSERT ( ) EMPURRE
15) INCLUDE ( ) SELECIONE
16) CHANGE ( ) PEGUE
17) CANCEL ( ) INSTALE

WHAT IS DESKLOOP?

63
Imagine yourself at the center of a virtual loop where all the windows you use are spread
out around you. Whichever window you need to view can be centered in front of you with a
click of a button.

Take this idea and zoom into your pc environment. With Deskloops, all the windows you
have open are aligned side by side in a loop-like order. No more countless windows
arranged one on top of the other in a confusing manner. You can access all the information
you need and navigate through it easily.

The loop can be rotated clockwise and counterclockwise simply by moving the cursor to
the edge of the screen and using right click.

Think of the loop as a dynamic rubber band; with each newly opened window the loop
automatically grows. With every closed or minimized window, the loop becomes smaller.

Anytime you want to return to the desktop, double click on Deskloops tray icon and the
windows will shift aside in one swift motion.

http://www.xilokit.com/deskloops/deskloops.html

http://www.xilokit.com/deskloops/Deskloops_UserGuide.pdf

64
EXERCISE

Leia o texto acima e faça os exercícios a seguir:

a) Circule todos os verbos na forma imperativa.

b) De a tradução de todas as palavras em negrito, inclusive o titulo.

c) Relacione os cognatos e familiares encontrados no texto.

SOFTWARE

SOFTWARE (Computer), computer program; instructions that cause the hardware (machine)
to do work. Software can be divided into a number of categories based on the types of work
done by programs. The two primary software categories are operating system which control
the workings of the computer, and application software which addresses the multitude of
tasks for which people use computers. Operating System includes programming languages
and utility programs. Application Software includes software that executes accounting, word
processing, data management, communications and graphics. Two additional categories are
network software which enable groups of computers to communicate and language software

Fonte: Sistema Operacional Windows Server 2000.


which provide programmers the tools they need to write programs. See also OPERATING
SYSTEM; PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE.

Excerpted from “Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia


1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Complete o diagrama com informações retiradas do texto:

SOFTWARE
CATEGORIAS

SISTEMA SOFTWARE DE
LINGUAGEM
65
OPERACIONAL
CARACTERÍSTICAS
________________
________________
________________ COMUNICAÇÃO _____________
________________ ________________
________________

SOFTWARE PIRACY
Software piracy is the unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted computer
software. The most common forms include copying for personal use, for use among
employees of a company, and for resale. The latter includes manufacturing of counterfeit
packages that pretend to be originals.

Piracy is the most widespread computer crime. The Software Publishers Association (SPA),
the principal trade group of the personal computing software industry, estimated that in
1994 the industry lost $8.08 billion worldwide due to illegal copying of operating systems,
education, entertainment, or personal productivity software.

Excerpted from The 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia.


1995 Grolier Incorporated. All rights reserved.

Questões sobre o texto:

1. Quais foram todos os tipos de pirataria mencionados no texto?


_______________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
___________

2. De acordo com o texto, a pirataria é considerada um crime? Retire do texto a sentença


que afirma ou nega isso?
_________________________________________________________________________
__
_________________________________________________________________________
___________

3) O que é a SPA? O que esta sigla significa?


_______________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
___________

4) Observe a palavra grifada: “The latter includes the manufacturing of counterfeit packages
that pretend to be originals.” Ela é um cognato ou um falso-cognato? Qual o seu real
significado? ________________
______________________________________________________________.
Text:

66
VIRTUAL REALITY

Researchers in computer imaging technology are developing systems by which users can
experience a simulated three-dimensional reality (3D). This simulated reality is known as
virtual reality (VR). Sometimes the term cyberspace is used as synonym with VR.
Since the 1970s, technologists have learned how to produce animated computer images
of objects that exhibit colors, textures and special changings. The images can also be
subjected to changing light conditions and to simulated effects of gravity and other forces.
The results can look as real as actual motion pictures.
The further aim of technologists is to make it for person t “enter” and actually
manipulate VR. This is being achieved by having an observer who wears a headgear through
which computer images are displayed on small screens in front of the eyes. At the same
time, gloves that are equipped with sensors are transmitting apparent changes of body
orientation in VR. A simpler form of these VR techniques is seen in the flight simulators used
for training pilots.
Adapted from: Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc.,
1996

• Questões sobre o texto: (Compreensão)

1) O que os pesquisadores da área de tecnologia de imagem computacional estão


desenvolvendo?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________.

2) O que é Realidade Virtual? Qual é a sua sigla (em Inglês)?


_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________.

3) Dê um sinônimo de “Virtual Reality”?


_____________________________________

4) Quando iniciaram-se as pesquisas com VR? Como eram feitas?


______________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
___________

5) O que pretendiam as pesquisas posteriores?


_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
__________

Vocabulário Técnico

6) Encontre no texto as palavras ou expressões que se referem às seguintes definições:

67
a. People who work in technology area: ____________________________

b. Three-dimensional reality: ____________________________________

c. Another name for monitor or display: ___________________________

Gramática Contextualizada ING

7) Classifique os INGs encontrados no texto em gerúndio, substantivo ou verbo:

a. Researchers in computer imaging technology are developing systems…


_____________________________ __________________________

b. … images of objects that exhibit colors, textures and special changings…


__________________________
c. This is being achieved by having an observer who…
____________________ ______________________

d. … gloves that are equipped with sensors are transmitting changes…


____________________
e. …flight simulators used for training pilots.
_______________________

68
OPERATING SYSTEM

The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer
must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic
tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display
screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral
devices such as disk drives and printers.
For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It
is like a traffic cop -- it makes sure that different programs and users running at the
same time do not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for
security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system.

Operating systems can be classified as follows:


 multi-user : Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some
operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users.
 multiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU.
 multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently.
 multithreading : Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently.
 real time: Responds to input instantly. General-purpose operating systems, such as
DOS and UNIX, are not real-time.
Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called
application programs, can run. The application programs must be written to run on top
of a particular operating system. Your choice of operating system, therefore, determines
to a great extent the applications you can run. For PCs, the most popular operating
systems are DOS, OS/2, and Windows, but others are available, such as Linux. As a
user, you normally interact with the operating system through a set of commands. For
example, the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME for
copying files and changing the names of files, respectively. The commands are accepted
and executed by a part of the operating system called the command processor or
command line interpreter. Graphical user interfaces allow you to enter commands by
pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen.
Vocabulário
1. Passe para o Português as expressões abaixo retiradas do texto:

a. General-purpose computer - ___________________________________


b. Operating system - __________________________________________
c. Basic tasks - ________________________________________________
d. Peripheral devices - __________________________________________
e. Different programs and users - _________________________________

69
2. Encontre no texto as seguintes palavras em Inglês:

a. Teclado - _______________ e. Segurança - ______________


b. Tela - __________________ f. Acessar - ________________
c. Usuários - _______________ g. Aplicativos - _____________
d. Diretórios - ______________ h. Processador - _____________

70
3. O que é um Sistema Operacional, de acordo com a definição do texto?
___________________________________________________________________________
_________

4. Quais são as funções do Sistema Operacional?


- ___________________________________________________________
- ___________________________________________________________
- ___________________________________________________________
- ___________________________________________________________

5. Como ele pode ser classificado?


- ________________________________
- ________________________________
- ________________________________
- ________________________________

6. O que faz o multi-user?


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____.

7. Quais são os mais populares Sistemas Operacionais para PCs?


8. Como são aceitos e executados os comandos do Sistema Operacional?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
______

9. Passe a seguinte sentença do texto para o Português: “The Operating System is also
responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system”.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
______

10) O que possui o Sistema Operacional DOS e para que serve?


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

_____ FILME: PIRATES OF SILICON VALLEY

Vamos falar um pouco da história de grandes empresas como a Microsoft e Apple, que
estão relacionadas a sua área de estudo. Para isso, faremos uma análise e comentaremos as
partes principais do filme “Pirates of Silicon Valley”. Posteriormente, você o assistirá !
Os Piratas do Vale de Silício (1999) é um “docudrama” dirigido por Martyn Burke, baseado no
livro: “Fogo no Vale”, que documenta a ascensão do computador doméstico ou PERSONAL
COMPUTER. Mostra a rivalidade entre os computadores da Apple (Apple II e o Apple
Macintosh) e os da Microsoft (Altair de MITS, DOS, PC da IBM, e Windows).

A história central do filme começa nos anos 70, no campus de Berkeley UC durante o
período do movimento livre do discurso e as atribulações do estudante Bill Gates, dos
trabalhos de Steve, dos amigos de infância (Noah Wyle) e do Steve Wozniak (Joey Slotnick),
que daria forma ao computador da Apple, o do amigo Paul Allen (Josh Hopkins), que iniciaria
a Microsoft.
Na primeira cena, Steve Jobs e Steve Wosniak aparecem nos preparativos da produção de
um comercial que ficou muito famoso nos EUA. Trata-se do lançamento do Machintosh. Esse
comercial foi exibido uma única vez, num evento de visibilidade muito grande (uma final de
campeonato esportivo); o equivalente no Brasil seria uma final de campeonato nacional de
futebol.
Steve Jobs , vivido pelo ator Noah Wyle, olha para a câmera com um ar maníaco e diz:
“Não quero que você pense nisso só como um filme. Nós estamos reescrevendo a história da
humanidade.”
Pirates of Silicon Valley, de 1999, conta a história do computador pessoal de um jeito
muito divertido, apesar de conter exageros. Retrata com precisão as diferenças entre os
grandes inventores do computador pessoal: Jobs, Bill Gates e a IBM.

Assista agora ao filme e anote os aspectos relevantes da história. Posteriormente,


você responderá algumas questões sobre ele; portanto, fique atento!

1) Qual foi o primeiro microcomputador comercialmente lançado?Por qual empresa? Esse


computador teve sucesso? Por quê?
2) Cite uma cena empreendedora do filme que para ser descrita use-se o termo
capitalismo de risco.
3) Cite duas cenas em que empresas grandes observaram tecnologias inovadoras e não lhes
deram valor (cite a empresa e a tecnologia). Por que essas empresas foram incapazes de
reconhecer o potencial dessas tecnologias?
4) Quem disse a frase “O lucro está no hardware, e não no software? Descreva a cena em
que isso foi dito.Comente essa frase.
5) Por que a mudança de percepção de valor que o mercado dava para hardware e software
mudou tanto do momento em que essa frase foi dita para o momento atual?
6) Cite cenas do filme que para serem descritas use-se o termo
inteligência competitiva.
7) Cite alguns comentários feitos por Bill Gates sobre estratégias comerciais. O que você
acha delas?
8) Descreva as expectativas de Paul Alen e do dono da Seatle Computers no momento em
que ele pretendia comprar DOS dele.
9)Qual era o risco de Paul Alen no caso de não conseguir comprar o produto? Qual era a
percepção de valor que o dono da Seatle Computers tinha sobre o DOS?
10) Quem era o autor da frase:”Bons artistas copiam, grandes artistas roubam?” Comente
essa frase.
11) Com relação à Direito e Ética, o que podemos concluir sobre o filme?
12) No decorrer do filme apareceram vários grupos nominais, escreva cinco deles.
13) Justifique a frase: “ O grande sucesso de Bill Gates e Steve Jobs se deu através de suas
habilidades comunicativas.”

Programming Languages

Just as there are many human languages, so there are many computer languages. In the
early days, people programmed using the computer´s binary code, or what we call `machine
language´. When this became difficult, mnemonics were used to make life easier. This is
called `assembly language´ programming. Finally, there are the high-level languages like
BASIC, FORTRAN, and ALGOL. These are much more similar to everyday language, and are
translated directly or indirectly into the computer´s machine code using the computer´s
firmware.
BASIC is the language most often used to introduce programming.

• Some help

just as = assim como


in the early days = no princípio, no início
mnemonics = arte de desenvolver a memória mediante processos auxiliares como a
associação.
to make easier = tornar mais fácil
high-level = alto nível
firmware = ´software` armazenado em ROM em vez de disco

1) Sabendo-se que a expressão “computer´s binary code” está no Caso Genitivo; a


correspondente em Português é:

a) computador de código binário


b) computação binária de código
c) código de computação binária
d) código binário do computador
2) Retire do texto outras duas expressões que estejam no Caso Genitivo:

a) _________________________________________________.

b) _________________________________________________.

Machine Language

This is the language which the computer actually understands inside itself. Machine
language statements are written in a binary code, and each statement corresponds to one
machine action.
A program written in high-level language is often called a `source program´, and it cannot
be directly processed by the computer until it has been compiled, which means interpreted
into machine code. Usually a single instruction written in a high-level language, when
transformed into machine code, results in several instructions. But some computers can be
programmed directly in machine code.

• Some help

statements = programas são compostos por `statements´, isto é, instruções, comandos.


compiled = traduzido em linguagem de máquina; compilado.
a single = um única

3) Transcreva da sentença o Grupo Nominal nela existente e passe toda a sentença


para o Português:

“But some computers can be programmed directly in machine code”.

Grupo Nominal:
___________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

De acordo com o texto, um programa escrito em linguagem de alto nível é freqüentemente


chamado de:

a) machine code
b) machine language
c) source program
d) several instructions

4) Assinale a alternativa que preenche a afirmação de acordo com o texto:

“ Cada comando corresponde a _____________________________.


a) um programa fonte
b) um código binário
c) um código de máquina
d) um ação da máquina
Assembly Languages

Assembly language is a programming language that talks fairly directly to the computer.
Unlike machine language, which is what the computer understands, assembly language is
mnemonic, so that it can be understood and remembered more easily by a human being; in
fact, assembly language is really just machine language in mnemonic form.
Assembly languages are specific to a given CPU chip and are named after it (8080
assembly language, 6809 assembly language, etc.) They are harder to program than a
high-level language, but they produce programs that are more efficient and run faster.

• Some help
fairly = quase are named = recebem o nome
unlike = ao contrário de, diferente de after it de acordo com ele (chip
just = apenas, justamente
CPU = Central Processing Unit
5) Na sentença do texto que está sublinhada, o pronome “They” refere-se à palavra:

a) languages c) programs
b) CPU d) chip

6) Assinale a alternativa em que há um Grupo Nominal:

a) directly to the computer c) more easily


b) machine language d) the computer understand
7) Complete as sentences com some ou any:

a) There are ______________ complex Mathematical problems.


a) I can´t find ______________ texts on `Time-sharing`.
b) There isn´t ______________ time for transmitting new data.
c) Do you have _____________ good marks?
d) There are ______________ printers in this room.

High-Level Languages

A high-level languages is a computer programming language designed to allow people to


write programs without having to understand the inner workings of the computer.
They are fairly close to natural languages like English and most have been written for one
particular type of application or another. For example, ALGOL has been written for general
applications, COBOL for business applications, FORTRAN for mathematics work and BASIC for
general purpose introductory programming.
High-level languages are easier to program than assembly languages, but generally
produce programs that are less efficient and run slower.

• Some help

designed to = planned to = planejada, projetada


inner workings = trabalhos internos, o que se passa dentro.
close to = near = perto de, parecidas
most = a maioria
general-purpose = objetivo geral

8) Na expressão “computer programming language” a palavra em destaque é:

a) gerúndio (programando)
b) verbo (programar)
c) substantivo (programação)
d) particípio(programado)

9) Assinale a alternativa correta, de acordo com o texto:

a) Linguagens de alto nível são _______________________ de programar do que linguagem


assembly.
1) mais difíceis
2)mais fáceis

b) Linguagens de alto nível produzem programas que são _________________________ do


que linguagem assembly.
1-menos eficientes
2-mais eficientes
c) Programas em linguagem de alto nível `rodam´ ________________________.
1-mais rápido
2-mais lento
Internet

Internet started in 1969, in a military project in which 21 computers were linked. This means
that a person in one oh those computers could read the files of any other computer in the
same network. This project was called ARPANET. During the 70´s and 80´s, computer
technology developed vary fast. Networks were developed, like the ARPANET.You will do
everything through Internet: shopping, electronic forums, debates etc. The Internet will be
the necessary basis for our everyday life. (Adapted from Sun, Amos)

Questions
Leia o texto acima, aplique as estratégias de leitura e responda:

1) O que o texto afirma sobre a Internet? Escolha apenas uma alternativa correta e
traduza na linha abaixo.
a) will be a military reality in the future
b) will be important for everyone
c) is made of 21 computers
d) can be used to develop technology very fast
e) teachers computer skills
tradução:
___________________________________________________________________________
____

2) Explique o que é ARPANET. Resposta em português.


___________________________________________________________________________
_________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________

3) De acordo com o texto a frase “computers were linked” pode ser traduzida como:
a) computadores estão ligados
b) computadores eram desligados
c) computadores não eram conectados
d) computadores estão conectados
e) computadores estavam conectados

4) Explique o que aconteceu entre os anos 70 e 80?


________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
____________________________________
5) traduza a frase: “a person in one of those computers could read the files of any other
computer in the same network.”
_______________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________

JAVA

Who is the champion in the world about plataforms! If you said windows, you’re
wrong. The champion in technology is Java. It was created by “sun” to work in receptors of
cable TV, adapted for Internet and later to PDAs, cell phones and similars.
Java is a program language. Softwares that are writen in this “language” can be
executed in any dispositive, since it has the operational system.
This independence is possible due to the fact that this technology is based in a
complex software that permits to execute any order.
The name arose from a conversation among programmers in a coffee shop – Java is
one kind of coffee from Java island. From the name, others have arisen at the same time:
Java beans – Hot Java- only to exemplify. The stylistic cup is the famous reference. And there
is one thing that only programmers know. The first four bytes of any file class are in
hexadecimal, OXCAFEBABE.
Finally, about micro Edition, we have Java me, more known as Jame.

Java logo (created by sun)


(adapted from Internet Magazine, by Niuza Barone Peres, June, 2006)

Comprehension questions.

1. Who is the champion in technology?


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________
2. What is Java?
______________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________
3. Como surgiu a marca e aonde?
___________________________________________________________________________
__________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________
4. Em que esta tecnologia é baseada?
___________________________________________________________________________
__________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________
5. Circule os Cognatos e relacione as familiares encontradas no texto.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
______________________________
6. Qual empresa criou a tecnologia mencionada no texto?
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

HOW IS COMPUTER USED?


A computer is used first as a number processor, to continue to perform accurate and quick
computations. Second, as data processor, to handle, process, and print huge quantities of
data. Third, as an information analyzer, to aid and improve decision-making. And finally, as a
knowledge processor, to make available to the public vast banks as information through
electronic channels called networks.

Examples of these four major users are:


• Adding up the daily transactions at a bank (number processing)
• Printing the charge account statements of a major department store (data processing)
• Projecting sales for an industrial manufacturer (information analyzing);
• Planning a vacation schedule (knowledge processing).

Source: (Galante, Inglês para informática.)

VOCABULARY
Accurate = careful and exact = precisas, certeiras.
Quick = speedy, rapid = velozes, rápidas.
Huge = immense, enormous = enormes, colossais, imenso, vasto.
Decision-making = tomada de posição / tomada de decisão.
Available = acessible = disponíveis, acessíveis.
Networks = redes (de comunicação).
Adding up = achar a soma de
Charge account statements = relatórios de contas de crédito e débito.
Vacation schedule = escala ou programação de férias.
Aid = auxiliar.
Major = principal
To handle = manipular

EXERCISES
1) Escreva abaixo os principais usos de um computador.
First as___________________________________________________________________
Second as_________________________________________________________________
Third as__________________________________________________________________
Finally as_________________________________________________________________
2) Ligue os exemplos e os usos.
(a) planning a vacation schedule ( ) data processing
(b) printing the charge account statements ( ) number processing
(c) projecting sales for an industrial manufacturer ( ) knowledge processing
(d) Adding up the daily transactions at a bank ( ) information analyzing

3) Escreva as palavras familiares encontradas no texto e suas traduções.

FAMILIAR TRADUÇÃO

4) Siga o exemplo. (to process, processor, processing)

a) to analyse,_______________________________________________________________
b) to project, ______________________________________________________________
c) to print, ________________________________________________________________
d) to plan, ________________________________________________________________
5) Dê a tradução das palavras do exercício anterior.

6) Qual é a fonte do texto?

1) Escreva um breve parágrafo explicando o que você entendeu sobre o texto.

How to remove malicious software from your computer? Published: August 30, 2005

Finding and extracting unwanted program

Despite your best efforts, you may occasionally download a program you don't want.
Here are some ways to remove it. (Note that you may not be able to remove some
programs.)

Run the Malicious Software Removal Tool


Make sure your anti-spyware software is current, and then scan your system, following the
instructions on your screen.
If you've downloaded something that's wreaking havoc on your system—slowing it to a crawl,
causing it to crash frequently, etc.—try using the Malicious Software Removal Tool. This tool
checks computers using Windows XP, Windows 2000, and Windows Server 2003 for specific
malicious software and helps you remove it.

Disable a program by using Add-On Manager (Windows XP Service Pack 2 only)


If your anti-spyware program and the Malicious Software Removal Tool don't solve the
problem, you may be able to disable the troublemaker through Add-On Manager.
1.Open Internet Explorer.
2.On the Tools menu, click Manage Add-ons.
3.In the list of add-ons, click to select the one you want to disable, and then click Disable in the
Settings section in the bottom half of the Manage Add-ons box. Look for add-ons you didn't
accept or don't recognize.
4.Click OK.
Tip: Add-ons are programs that extend the capabilities of Internet Explorer, for example,
toolbars or programs that let you accomplish tasks such as making hotel reservations or
searching the Internet. But there are also add-ons you wouldn't want, such as those that
redirect your search to their own Web site or change your homepage.
© 2005
Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved

1) Aplicando a técnica de “skimming” responda sobre que o texto trata?


___________________________________________________________________________
__________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

2) O que é: Malicious Software Removal Tool? Responda em português.

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
______________________________

3) De acordo com o texto, o que é Add-ons: responda em português.


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________

4) Por quais dois motivos um usuário pode não querer algum tipo de Add-ons? Em português.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________
5) Quais as sugestões que o texto apresenta para solucionar o problema? Cite todos.
Responda em português.

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________

COBOL

COBOL is a third-generation programming language, and one of the oldest programming


languages still in active use. Its name is an acronym for COmmon Business-Oriented
Language, it´s defining its primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems
for companies and governments. The COBOL 2002 standard includes support for object-
oriented programming and other modern language features.

History and specification

In a meeting held at the Pentagon on May 28 and 29, 1959, organized by Charles
Phillips, COBOL was initially created in 1947 by The Short Range Committee, that was
formed to recommend a short range approach to a common business language.

It was made up of members representing six computer manufacturers and three


government agencies. In particular, the six computer manufacturers were Burroughs
Corporation, IBM, Minneapolis-Honeywell (Honeywell Labs), RCA, Sperry Rand, and Sylvania
Electric Products. The three government agencies were the US Air Force, the David Taylor
Model Basin, and the National Bureau of Standards (Now NIST).

This committee was chaired by a member of the NBS. An Intermediate-Range Committee


and a Long-Range Committee were proposed at the Pentagon meeting as well. However
although the Intermediate Range Committee was formed, it was never operational; and the
Long-Range Committee was never even formed. In the end a sub-committee of the Short
Range Committee developed the specifications of the COBOL language.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COBOL
Leia o texto acima, aplique as estratégias de leitura e responda:
1) Segundo o texto, qual é o conceito de COBOL? Responda em português.

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________
2) Observe a frase: “…recommend a short range approach to a common business
language.”

Qual é tradução de common business language?


___________________________________________________________________________
__________

___________________________________________________________________________
__________

3) O que ocorreu em 28 e 29 de maio de 1959:


________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________
__________

3) O que inclui o Padrão COBOL 2002? Responda em português.


___________________________________________________________________________
__________

___________________________________________________________________________
__________

5) A que se define o domínio primário do COBOL?

__________________________________________________________________________
___________

___________________________________________________________________________
__________

6) Quais são os seis fabricantes de computadores mencionados no texto?

___________________________________________________________________________
__________

___________________________________________________________________________
__________

LOADING THE DOCUMENT

Up to 20 pages can be placed in the feeder at one time. The pages will be automatically fed
into the fax starting from the page on the bottom.

• If you need to send or copy more than 20 pages, place the additional pages gently and
carefully in the feeder just before the last page is scanned. Do not try to force them in,
as this may cause double-feeding or jamming.
• If your document consists of several large or thick pages which must be loaded one at
a time, insert each page into the feeder as the previous page is being scanned. Insert
gently to prevent double-feeding.
1 Adjust the document guide on the
right side of the feeder to the width

of your document.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
2 Place the document face down and
push it gently into the document
feeder. The top edge of the docu-
ment should enter the fax first.

The feeder will draw the leading


edge of the document into the fax.
READY TO SEND will appear in
the display.
3 You can now make resolution and/
or contrast settings as described in
the following section, or dial the
other party as described in the sec-
tion, “ Dialing and transmission”.

Important
If you need to remove the document from the feeder before the transmission or copying, first
open the operation panel by pulling the front edge up and then remove the document. If you
try to pull out the document without opening the operation panel, you may damage the
feeder mechanism.

Source: FACSIMILE OPERATION


MANUAL / SHARP
• Questões sobre o texto:

1) Como você deve proceder se precisar enviar ou copiar mais de 20 páginas?


___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________.
2) Qual deve ser o primeiro passo para se carregar o aparelho?
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________.
3) Qual é o segundo passo?
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________.
4) O que pode acontecer se você abrir puxar o documento sem abrir o painel de operação?
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________.
5) Grife no texto a seguir 5 verbos modais e os seus verbos principais.

Wireless Networking
The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or more computers to
communicate using standard network protocols, but without network cabling. Strictly
speaking, any technology that does this could be called wireless networking. The current
buzzword however generally refers to wireless LANs. This technology, fuelled by the
emergence of cross-vendor industry standards such as IEEE 802.11, has produced a number
of affordable wireless solutions that are growing in popularity with business and schools as
well as sophisticated applications where network wiring is impossible, such as in warehousing
or point-of-sale handheld equipment.

There are two kinds of wireless networks:

a. An Hoc or Peer-to Peer wireless network consists of a number of computers


each equipped with a wireless networking interface card. Each computer can
communicate directly with all of the other wireless enabled computers. They
can share files and printers this way, but may not be able to access wired LAN
resources, unless one of the computers acts as a bridge to the wired LAN using
special software. (This is called "bridging")

Figure 1: Ad-Hoc or Peer-to Peer Networking.


Each computer with a wireless interface can communicate directly with all of the others.

b. A wireless network can also use an access point, or base station. In this type of
network the access point works like a hub, providing connectivity for the
wireless computers. It can connect (or "bridge") the wireless LAN to a wired
LAN, allowing wireless computer access to LAN resources, such as file servers
or existing Internet Connectivity.
There are two types of access points:

i. Dedicated hardware access points (HAP) such as Lucent's WaveLAN,


Apple's Airport Base Station or WebGear's AviatorPRO. (See Figure 2). Hardware access
points offer comprehensive support of most wireless features, but check your requirements
carefully.

ii. Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a


wireless network interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network. (See
Figure 3) The Vicomsoft InterGate suites are software routers that can be used as a basic
Software Access Point, and include features not commonly found in hardware solutions, such
as Direct PPPoE support and extensive configuration flexibility, but may not offer the full
range of wireless features defined in the 802.11 standard.

With appropriate networking software support, users on the wireless LAN can share files and
printers located on the wired LAN and vice versa. Vicomsoft's solutions support file sharing
using TCP/IP.

Figure 2: Hardware Access Point.


Wireless connected computers using a Hardware Access Point.

Figure 3: Software Access Point.


Wireless connected computers using a Software Access Point.
Leia o texto e responda:
1) O que é uma rede de trabalho sem fio?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________

2) Em que consiste a rede de trabalho sem fio Hoc ou Peer – to peer?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________

3) Uma rede de trabalho sem fio pode também usar um ponto de acesso, ou uma estação
base. Como este ponto de acesso trabalha?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________

4) Quantos tipos de rede de trabalho sem fio existem, de acordo com o texto?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________
5) Escreva o que as figuras 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente representam?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

6) Retire do texto dez 10 cognatas e 10 familiares.

7) Circule abaixo todos os facilitadores e/ou estratégias utilizados na análise e


interpretação do texto.
a) Dicas tipográficas d) Skimming
b) Cognatos e palavras familiares e) Conhecimento de mundo
c) Scanning
9) Com base no texto, circule a alternativa em que todas as palavras são falsos cognatos.
a) refers, term
b) more, file
c) using, interface
a) directly, generally
e) business, wireless

10)Retire do texto cinco (05) afixos (prefixos ou sufixos) com tradução.

AFIXO TRADUÇÃO

11)Retire do texto cinco (05) grupos nominais com tradução.

GRUPO NOMINAL TRADUÇÃO

12)De acordo com o texto, a quem os pronomes em destaque se referem?


That:___________________________________________________________________
___
They:___________________________________________________________________
___
Which:_________________________________________________________________
____
13) Dê a tradução das palavras abaixo
1. To change 2. To connect
____________________________ ___________________________
3. To develop 4. To
___________________________ feed___________________________
___
5. To handle 6. To have
____________________________ ______________________________
7. To improve 8. To perform
___________________________ ___________________________

9. To plan 10. To run


______________________________ _______________________________
11. To save 12. To set up
______________________________ _____________________________
13. To supply 14. Tool
____________________________ _______________________________
_
15. User 16. Very much
_______________________________ ___________________________
_
17. Way 18. Wireless
_______________________________ _____________________________
_
19. Wizard 20. Workgroup
______________________________ ___________________________

Photo

Your CV

Example:

NAME: Gavin H Alvarez


___________________________________________________________________________
__________

ADDRESS: 26 Dryfield Road


Cambridge CB2 2DS
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

TELEPHONE NUMBER: 01223 3268452


___________________________________________________________________________
__________

E-MAIL ADDRESS: gavinhalvarez@btinternet.com


___________________________________________________________________________
__________

DATE OF BIRTH: 14 June 1984


___________________________________________________________________________
__________

EDUCATION
1995 – 2000 Graves High School for Boys
Graves Avenue
Cambridge CB3 4RG
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

2000- 2002 Cam College of Engineering and Technology


Birch Road
Cambridge CB6 7YT
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

QUALIFICATIONS

2000 GCSEs: English, Maths, General Science, Design and Technology, French, Spanish, Art,
and History
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

2001 Level 1 Engineering and Technology foundation course


___________________________________________________________________________
__________

2002 Level 2 Computing course specializing in software development


___________________________________________________________________________
__________

WORK EXPERIENCE

AUGUST – SEPTEMBER 2000 Temporary job as IT assistant


at Norris´s Aeronautics, Cambridge.
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

OCTOBER 2000 – JUNE 2002 Saturday and holiday job testing computer games at
Silicompany, Cambridge.
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

OTHER INFORMATION Bi-lingual in Spanish and English; clean driving licence

INTERESTS Developing computer games, member of college football


team, photography, and playing the guitar
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

REFEREE Ms Daisy Valentine (course tutor)


Cam College of Engineering and Technology Birch Road - Cambridge CB6 7YT
___________________________________________________________________________
__________

Before you start

1 – Have you ever had a part-time or work experience job? Tell your class:

• what your job was


• how you got it

Reading

2- Read the curriculum vitae (CV) quickly and choose the correct answers to the questions
below.

1 What is a CV?

a) A description of someone´s family, education, likes and dislikes.


b) A description of someone´s education, work experience, and skills.

2 How is a CV arranged?
a) under headings
b) like a letter

3 Read the CV again and decide if the sentences (1-7) below are true (T) or false (F).

1 Gavin Alvarez lives in Cambridge. ( )


2 He is a student at Cam College. ( )
3 He passed his GCSEs in 2001. ( )
4 He has had Saturday and holiday jobs since 2000. ( )
5 He left Cam College in 2000. ( )
6 He is quite good at languages. ( )
7 He isn´t interested in technology. ( )

Writing

4 Write your own CV in English using qualifications you already have, or ones that you think
you might get in the future. Use Gavin´s CV as a model for your writing.

Name
Address

Telephone number
e-mail address
Date of birth
Education

Qualifications

Work experience

Other information

Interests

Referee

VOCABULARY APPROACH: KEYBOARD SYMBOLS AND PUNCTUATION MARKS

A) Look at the keys across the top of the computer keyboard and complete the sentences.
1. ~ This is called a ______________________________________
2. ` This is called a ______________________________________
3. ! This is called an ______________________________________
4. @ This symbol means a______________________________________
5. # This symbol means ______________________________________
6. $ This is called a ______________________________________
7. % This symbol means ______________________________________
8. ^ This symbol is called a ______________________________________
9. & This symbol is called an _____________________ and means -
_______________
10. * This symbol is called an ______________________________________
11. ( ) These two marks are called ______________________________________
12. - This is called a ______________________________________
13. + This symbol is called a ______________________________________
14. = This symbol is called an ______________________________________

B) Look around the computer keyboard and complete the sentences.


15. { } These marks are called ______________________________________
16. [ ] These marks are called ______________________________________
17. : This is called a ______________________________________
18. ; This is called a ______________________________________
19. " " These marks are called ______________________________________
20. " " In British English, these marks are called
______________________________________
21. ' This is called an ______________________________________
22. , This is called a ______________________________________
23. . This is called a period ______________________________________
24. . In British English, this is called a
______________________________________
25. ... Three periods together are called an
______________________________________
26. ? This is called a ______________________________________
27. / This is called a ______________________________________
28. \ This is called a ______________________________________
29. < > These marks are called ______________________________________

CROSSWORD
VERTICAIS HORIZONTAIS
1) ampersand 2) and
3) angle brackets 4) apostrophe
5) asterisks 6) at
7) back slash 8) braces
9) brackets 10)circumflex
11)colon 12)comma
13)dollar sign 14)ellipsis
15)equal sign 16)exclamation mark
17)forward slash or virgule 18)full stop
19)grave or grave accent 20)hyphen
21)inverted commas 22)number
23)parentheses 24)per cent
25)period 26)plus sign
27)question mark 28)quotation marks or quotes
29)semicolon 30)tilde
Complete com as palavras da tabela acima(1/5/11/21/23/29 e 4/8/10/15/28)
Complete as lacunas com as palavras abaixo:

BLOGGER / COMPUTER / CHAT / USER / END USER / BLOG

A _______________ is a website in which items are posted on a regular basis and displayed
in reverse chronological order. This term is a shortened form of weblog. It comprises text,
hypertext, images, and links (to other web pages and to video, audio and other files). It uses
a conversational style of documentation. A person who posts these entries is called a
___________.

_____________is a real-time communication between two users via computer. Once has
been initiated, either user can enter text by typing on the keyboard and the entered text will
appear on the other user's monitor. Most networks and online services offer its feature.

___________ is an individual who uses a computer. This includes expert programmers as well
as novices. An _________is any individual who runs na application program.

A programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a ___________________ are:


• It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner.
• It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program)

Referências

BOECKNER, Keith & BROWN, P. Charles. Oxford English for Computing.Oxford:Oxford University Press,
1996.
CASTLEMAN, R. K. Digital Image Processing. USA: Prentice Hall, 2000.
CRUZ, Décio Torres & SILVA, Alba Valéria & ROSAS, Marta. Inglês.com.textos para informática.
Salvador: O Autor , 2001.
GALANTE, T. P. Inglês para Processamento de Dados. São Paulo: Atlas, 1996.
MARTINS, Elisabeth P. & PASQUALIN, Ernesto & AMOS, Eduardo. Graded English. São Paulo:
Moderna,1993.
MUNHOZ, Rosângela. Inglês Instrumental – Estratégias de Leitura. Módulo I. São Paulo: TEXTO NOVO,
2000.
________.Inglês Instrumental – Estratégias de Leitura. Módulo II. São Paulo: TEXTO NOVO, 2001.
Internet: sites diversos