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Active Voice, Passive Voice Water is drunk by everyone.

100 are employed by this


people company.
There are two special forms for verbs called voice: I am paid in euro.
We are no paid in dollars.
t
1. Active voice
Are they paid in yen?
2. Passive voice
Use of the Passive Voice
The active voice is the "normal" voice. This is the voice that we use most of the time. You are probably already familiar with the active
voice. In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb: We use the passive when:

• we want to make the active object more important


active subjec verb object
t
> • we do not know the active subject
Cats eat fish. subject verb object
give importance to active object President Ke was killed by Lee Harvey Os
(President Kennedy) nnedy wald.
The passive voice is less usual. In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb:
active subject unknown My wallet has been sto ?
len.
passiv subjec verb object
e t Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats).
<
Fish are eaten by cats.
Look at this sentence: He was killed with a gun. Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. But the
gun is not the active subject. The gun did not kill him. He was killed by somebody with a gun. In the active
The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb:
voice, it would be: Somebody killed him with a gun. The gun is the instrument. Somebody is the "agent" or
"doer".
subject verb object
active Everybody drinks water. Conjugation for the Passive Voice: We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation
passiv Water is by everybody.
e drunk of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always in past participle form and
the auxiliary verb is always be. To form the required tense, we conjugate the auxiliary verb. So, for
example:
Passive Voice
present simple: It is made
The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The active voice is the "normal" voice. But sometimes we need the passive voice. In
present continuous: It is being made
this lesson we look at how to construct the passive voice, when to use it and how to conjugate it.

present perfect: It has been made


Construction of the Passive Voice

Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses:


The structure of the passive voice is very simple:

infinitive to be washed
subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)
simple present It is washed.
past It was washed.
The main verb is always in its past participle form.
future It will be washed.
conditio It would be washed.
Look at these examples: nal

subject auxiliary verb main verb (past


(to be) participle)
continuous present It is being washed. 2. People must not leave bicycles in the driveway.
past It was being washed.
future It will be being washed. Bicycles _______________________________ in the driveway.
conditio It would be being washed.
nal 3. They built that skyscraper in 1934.
perfect simple present It has been washed.
past It had been washed. That skyscraper ______________________ in 1934.
future It will have been washed.
conditio It would have been
4. The students will finish the course by July.
nal washed.
perfect present It has been being washed.
continuous past It had been being
The course____________________________ by July.
washed.
future It will have been being 5. They are repairing the streets this month.
washed.
conditio It would have been being The streets ____________________________this month.
nal washed.
6. They make these tools of plastic.

Active or Passive Quiz These tools ______________________________of plastic.

1 I ate a piece of chocolate cake. 7. They have finished the new product design.

2 The librarian read the book to the students. The new product design______________________________ .

3 The money was stolen. 8. They were cooking dinner when I arrived.

4 They are paid on Fridays. Dinner____________________________________________ when I arrived.

5 The movie is being made in Hollywood. 9. Smithers painted 'Red Sunset' in 1986.

6 I washed my car three weeks ago. 'Red Sunset' _______________________________________in 1986 by Smithers.

7 His hair was cut by a professional. 10.Did the plan interest you?

8 I will introduce you to my boss this week. ___________________________________ in the plan?

9 It would have been fixed on the weekend. 11.They had finished the preparations by the time the guests arrived.

10 The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time. The preparations ________________________________by the time the guests
arrived.

12.You should take care when working on electrical equipment.


Active to passive Transformations
Care _________________________________when working on electrical
1. They make shoes in that factory. equipment.

Shoes ____________________in that factory. 13.They are going to perform Beethoven's Fifth Symphony next weekend.
Beethoven's Fifth Symphony ____________________________________________
next weekend.

14.Someone will speak Japanese at the meeting.

Japanese_________________________ at the meeting.

15.Karen is going to prepare the refreshments.

The refreshments ___________________________________ by Karen.