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Chapter 8

Interconnecting
Networks with
TCP/IP
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 8-1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-2
Objectives

Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to


perform the following tasks:
• Identify the IP protocol stack, its protocol layer functions, and
commonly used IP protocols
• Identify IP address classes, IP addresses, IP subnet masks, IP
network numbers, subnet numbers, and possible host numbers.
• Configure IP addresses and subnet masks on a router interface
and optionally configure a host table.
• Interconnect the VLANs with a layer three device such as a
router on a stick.

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-3


Introduction to TCP/IP
Host Host

Internet

TCP/IP

Early protocol suite


Universal

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-4


TCP/IP Protocol Stack

7 Application

6 Presentation 5
Application
5 Session
4
4 Transport Transport
3
3 Network Internet
2
2 Data Link Data Link
1
1 Physical Physical

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-5


Application Layer Overview

File
File Transfer
Transfer
-- TFTP
TFTP **
-- FTP
FTP **
-- NFS
NFS
E-Mail
E-Mail
Application -- SMTP
SMTP
Remote
Remote LoginLogin
-- Telnet
Telnet **
-- rlogin
rlogin **
Transport Network
Network Management
Management
-- SNMP
SNMP **
Internet Name
Name Management
Management
-- DNS*
DNS*
Data Link

*Used by the router


Physical

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-6


Transport Layer Overview

Transmission Control Connection-


Application Protocol (TCP) Oriented

Transport User Datagram Connectionless


Protocol (UDP)
Internet

Data Link

Physical

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-7


TCP Segment Format
Bit 0 Bit 15 Bit 16 Bit 31

Source port (16) Destination port (16)

Sequence number (32)

Acknowledgement number (32) 20


Bytes
Header
length (4) Reserved (6) Code bits (6) Window (16)

Checksum (16) Urgent (16)

Options (0 or 32 if any)

Data (varies)

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-8


Port Numbers

F T S D T S R
Application T E M N F N I
Layer P L T S T M P
N P P P
E
T

21 23 25 53 69 161 520 Port


Transport Numbers
Layer TCP UDP

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-9


TCP Port Numbers

Source Dest.

Port Port

Telnet Z
Host A Host Z

SP DP Dest. port = 23.


1028 23 … Send packet to my
Telnet
application.

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-10


TCP Three Way
Handshake/Open Connection
Host A Host B

Send SYN
1 (seq=100 ctl=SYN)
SYN received

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-11


TCP Three Way
Handshake/Open Connection
Host A Host B

Send SYN
1 (seq=100 ctl=SYN)
SYN received

Send SYN, ACK 2


SYN received (seq=300 ack=101 ctl=syn,ack)

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-12


TCP Three Way
Handshake/Open Connection
Host A Host B

Send SYN
1 (seq=100 ctl=SYN)
SYN received

Send SYN, ACK 2


SYN received (seq=300 ack=101 ctl=syn,ack)
Established
3 (seq=101 ack=301 ctl=ack)

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-13


TCP Simple Acknowledgment
Sender Receiver

Window size = 1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-14
TCP Simple Acknowledgment
Sender Receiver
Send 1
Receive 1

Window size = 1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-15
TCP Simple Acknowledgment
Sender Receiver
Send 1
Receive 1
Send ACK 2
Receive ACK 2

Window size = 1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-16
TCP Simple Acknowledgment
Sender Receiver
Send 1
Receive 1
Send ACK 2
Receive ACK 2

Send 2
Receive 2

Window size = 1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-17
TCP Simple Acknowledgment
Sender Receiver
Send 1
Receive 1
Send ACK 2
Receive ACK 2

Send 2
Receive 2
Send ACK 3
Receive ACK 3

Window size = 1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-18
TCP Simple Acknowledgment
Sender Receiver
Send 1
Receive 1
Send ACK 2
Receive ACK 2

Send 2
Receive 2
Send ACK 3
Receive ACK 3
Send 3
Receive 3

Window size = 1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-19
TCP Simple Acknowledgment
Sender Receiver
Send 1
Receive 1
Send ACK 2
Receive ACK 2

Send 2
Receive 2
Send ACK 3
Receive ACK 3
Send 3
Receive 3

Receive ACK 4 Send ACK 4

Window size = 1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-20
TCP Sequence and
Acknowledgment Numbers
Source Dest. Sequence Acknowledgement …
Port Port # #

I just
sent #10.

Source Dest. Seq. Ack.


1028 23 10 1

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-21


TCP Sequence and
Acknowledgment Numbers
Source Dest. Sequence Acknowledgement

Port Port # #

I just
sent #10.
I just got #10,
now I need #11.
Source Dest. Seq. Ack.

Source Dest. Seq. Ack.


1028 23 10 1

23 1028 1 11
11

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-22


TCP Sequence and
Acknowledgment Numbers
Source Dest. Sequence Acknowledgement

Port Port # #

I just
sent #11.
I just got #10,
now I need #11.
Source
Source Dest.
Dest. Seq.
Seq. Ack.
Ack.

Source Dest. Seq. Ack.


1028 23 10 1

23 1028 1 11
11

1028 23 11 2

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-23


TCP Sequence and
Acknowledgment Numbers
Source Dest. Sequence Acknowledgement

Port Port # #

I just
sent #11.
I just got #11,
now I need #12.
Source
Source Dest.
Dest. Seq.
Seq. Ack.
Ack.

Source Dest. Seq. Ack.


1028 23 10 1

23 1028 1 11
11

1028 23 11 2 Source Dest. Seq. Ack.

23 1028 2 12
12
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-24
TCP Windowing

Sender Receiver

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-25


TCP Windowing

Window size = 3
Sender Send 1 Receiver
Window size = 3
Send 2
Window size = 3
Send 3

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-26


TCP Windowing

Window size = 3
Sender Send 1 Receiver
Window size = 3
Send 2
Window size = 3
Send 3
ACK 3 Packet 3 is
Window size = 2
Dropped

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-27


TCP Windowing

Window size = 3
Sender Send 1 Receiver
Window size = 3
Send 2
Window size = 3
Send 3
ACK 3 Packet 3 is
Window size = 2
Dropped
Window size = 3
Send 3
Window size = 3
Send 4

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-28


TCP Windowing

Window size = 3
Sender Send 1 Receiver
Window size = 3
Send 2
Window size = 3
Send 3
ACK 3 Packet 3 is
Window size = 2 Dropped
Window size = 3
Send 3
Window size = 3
Send 4
ACK 5
Window size = 2

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-29


UDP Segment Format
Bit
1 0 Bit 15 Bit 16 Bit 31

Source port (16) Destination port (16)


8
Bytes
Length (16) Checksum (16)

Data (if any)

No sequence or acknowledgment fields

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-30


Internet Layer Overview

Internet Protocol (IP)


Application
Internet Control Message
Transport Protocol (ICMP)

Internet Address Resolution


Protocol (ARP)
Data Link
Reverse Address
Physical Resolution Protocol (RARP)

OSI network layer corresponds to the


TCP/IP internet layer
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-31
IP Datagram
Bit
1 0 Bit 15 Bit 16 Bit 31
Version Header Priority & Type
(4) Length (4) Total Length (16)
of Service (8)
Flags
Identification (16) (3) Fragment offset (13)

Time to live (8) Protocol (8) Header checksum (16) 20


Bytes
Source IP Address (32)

Destination IP Address (32)

Options (0 or 32 if any)

Data (varies if any)

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-32


Protocol Field

Transport
TCP UDP
Layer

6 17 Protocol
Numbers
Internet
Layer IP

Determines destination upper-layer protocol

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-33


Internet Control Message
Protocol

Application

Transport Destination
1 Unreachable
ICMP
Echo (Ping)
Internet
Other
Data Link

Physical

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-34


Address Resolution Protocol

I need the
Ethernet
address of
176.16.3.2.

172.16.3.1 172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-35


Address Resolution Protocol

I need the
I heard that broadcast.
Ethernet
The message is for me.
address of
Here is my Ethernet
176.16.3.2.
address.

172.16.3.1 172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-36


Address Resolution Protocol

I need the
I heard that broadcast.
Ethernet
The message is for me.
address of
Here is my Ethernet
176.16.3.2.
address.

172.16.3.1 172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???

IP: 172.16.3.2
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-37


Address Resolution Protocol

I need the
I heard that broadcast.
Ethernet
The message is for me.
address of
Here is my Ethernet
176.16.3.2.
address.

172.16.3.1 172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???

IP: 172.16.3.2
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111

Map IP Ethernet
Local ARP
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-38
Reverse ARP

What is
my IP
address?

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-39


Reverse ARP

I heard that
broadcast.
What is
Your IP
my IP
address is
address?
172.16.3.25.

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-40


Reverse ARP

I heard that
broadcast.
What is
Your IP
my IP
address is
address?
172.16.3.25.

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111
IP: 172.16.3.25

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-41


Reverse ARP

I heard that
broadcast.
What is
Your IP
my IP
address is
address?
172.16.3.25.

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111
IP: 172.16.3.25

Map Ethernet IP

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-42


Introduction to TCP/IP
Addresses

172.18.0.1 172.16.0.1

172.18.0.2 172.16.0.2
HDR SADA DATA
10.13.0.0 192.168.1.0
10.13.0.1 172.17.0.1 172.17.0.2 192.168.1.1

• Unique addressing allows communication


between end stations
• Path choice is based on location
Location is represented by an address
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-43
IP Addressing
32 bits
otted
ecimal Network Host

Maximum 255 255 255 255

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-44


IP Addressing
32 bits
otted
ecimal Network Host

Maximum 255 255 255 255


1 8 9 16 17 24 25 32

Binary 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111

8
4
2
1
128

16
64
32
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

8
4
2
1
32
16

64
128
64

128
32
16

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-45


IP Addressing
32 bits
Dotted
Decimal Network Host

Maximum 255 255 255 255


1 8 9 16 17 24 25 32

Binary 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111

8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16

128
64
32
16

Example
Decimal 172 16 122 204
Example 10101100 00010000 01111010 11001100
Binary
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-46
IP Address Classes

8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits

Class A: Network Host Host Host

Class B: Network Network Host Host

Class C: Network Network Network Host

Class D: Multicast
Class E: Research

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-47


IP Address Classes

Bits: 1 8 9 16 17 24 25 32
0NNNNNNN Host Host Host
Class A:
Range (1-126)

Bits: 1 8 9 16 17 24 25 32
10NNNNNN Network Host Host
Class B:
Range (128-191)
1 8 9 16 17 24 25 32
Bits:
110NNNNN Network Network Host
Class C:
Range (192-223)
1 8 9 16 17 24 25 32
Bits:
1110MMMM Multicast Group Multicast Group Multicast Group
Class D:
Range (224-239)
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-48
Host Addresses

172.16.2.1 10.1.1.1
10.6.24.2
E1
172.16.3.10 E0 10.250.8.11
172.16.2.1

172.16.12.12 10.180.30.118

Routing Table
172.16 . 12 . 12 Network Interface
Network Host 172.16.0.0 E0
10.0.0.0 E1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-49
Determining Available Host
Addresses
Network Host
172 16 0 0

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
12
11
10
9
16
15
14
13
N
10101100 00010000 00000000 00000000 1
00000000 00000001 2
00000000 00000011 3

...
...

...
11111111 1111110165534
11111111 1111111065535
11111111 1111111165536
- 2
2N-2 = 216 -2 = 65534 65534
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-50
IP Address Classes Exercise

Address Class Network Host

10.2.1.1

128.63.2.100

201.222.5.64

192.6.141.2

130.113.64.16

256.241.201.10

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-51


IP Address Classes Exercise
Answers

Address Class Network Host

10.2.1.1 A 10.0.0.0 0.2.1.1

128.63.2.100 B 128.63.0.0 0.0.2.100

201.222.5.64 C 201.222.5.0 0.0.0.64

192.6.141.2 C 192.6.141.0 0.0.0.2

130.113.64.16 B 130.113.0.0 0.0.64.16

256.241.201.10 Nonexistent

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-52


Addressing without Subnets

172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.0.3 172.16.255.253 172.16.255.254

…...

172.16.0.0

Network 172.16.0.0
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-53
Addressing with Subnets

172.16.3.0

172.16.4.0

172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0

Network 172.16.0.0
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-54
Subnet Addressing

172.16.2.200 172.16.3.5
172.16.3.1
E1
172.16.2.2 E0 172.16.3.100
172.16.2.1

172.16.2.160 172.16.3.150

New Routing Table


172.16 . 2 . 160 Network Interface
Network Host 172.16.0.0 E0
172.16.0.0 E1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-55
Subnet Addressing

172.16.2.200 172.16.3.5
172.16.3.1
E1
172.16.2.2 E0 172.16.3.100
172.16.2.1

172.16.2.160 172.16.3.150

New Routing Table


172.16 . 2 . 160 Network Interface
Network Subnet Host 172.16.2.0 E0
172.16.3.0 E1
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-56
Subnet Mask
Network Host

IP
Address
172 16 0 0
Network Host
Default
Subnet
Mask
255 255 0 0
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
Also written as “/16” where 16 represents the number of 1s
in the mask.
Network Subnet Host
8-bit
Subnet 255 255 255 0
Mask
Also written as “/24” where 24 represents the number of 1s
in the mask.
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-57
Decimal Equivalents of Bit
Patterns
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 128
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 192
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 = 224
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 = 240
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 = 248
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 = 252
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 = 254
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 255

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-58


Subnet Mask without Subnets

Network Host

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000

255.255.0.0 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

10101100 00010000 00000000 00000000

Network 172 16 0 0
Number

Subnets not in use—the default

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-59


Subnet Mask with Subnets

Network Subnet Host

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000

255.255.255.0 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000

10101100 00010000 00000010 00000000

192
224
240
248
252
255
128

254
Network
Number 172 16 2 0

Network number extended by eight bits


© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-60
Subnet Mask with Subnets
(cont.)
Network Subnet Host

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000

255.255.255.192 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000

10101100 00010000 00000010 10000000

192
224
240
248
252
255
128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255
128

254
Network
Number 172 16 2 128

Network number extended by ten bits


© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-61
Subnet Mask Exercise

Address Subnet Mask Class Subnet

172.16.2.10 255.255.255.0

10.6.24.20 255.255.240.0

10.30.36.12 255.255.255.0

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-62


Subnet Mask Exercise
Answers

Address Subnet Mask Class Subnet

172.16.2.10 255.255.255.0 B 172.16.2.0

10.6.24.20 255.255.240.0 A 10.6.16.0

10.30.36.12 255.255.255.0 A 10.30.36.0

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-63


Broadcast Addresses

172.16.3.0

172.16.4.0

172.16.1.0

172.16.3.255 172.16.2.0
(Directed broadcast)

255.255.255.255
(Local network broadcast)
X
172.16.255.255
(All subnets broadcast)
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-64
Addressing Summary
Example
172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000 Host 1

255.255.255.192 Mask

Subnet 4

Broadcast

First

Last

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-65


Addressing Summary
Example
172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000 Host 1

255.255.255.192 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000 Mask 2

Subnet

Broadcast

First

Last

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-66


Addressing Summary
Example
172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000 Host 1

255.255.255.192 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000 Mask 2

Subnet

Broadcast

First

Last 7

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-67


Addressing Summary
Example
172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000 Host 1

255.255.255.192 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000 Mask 2

10000000 Subnet 4

Broadcast

First

Last

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-68


Addressing Summary
Example
172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000 Host 1

255.255.255.192 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000 Mask 2

10000000 Subnet 4

10111111 Broadcast
5
First 6

Last

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-69


Addressing Summary
Example
172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000 Host 1

255.255.255.192 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000 Mask 2

10000000 Subnet 4

10111111 Broadcast
5
10000001 First 6

Last

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-70


Addressing Summary
Example
172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000 Host 1

255.255.255.192 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000 Mask 2

10000000 Subnet 4

10111111 Broadcast
5
10000001 First 6

10111110 Last 7

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-71


Addressing Summary
Example
172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000 Host 1

255.255.255.192 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000 Mask 2


8
10101100 00010000 00000010 10000000 Subnet 4

10101100 00010000 00000010 10111111 Broadcast


5
10101100 00010000 00000010 10000001 First 6

10101100 00010000 00000010 10111110 Last 7

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-72


Addressing Summary
Example
172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 10101100 00010000 00000010 10100000 Host 1

255.255.255.192 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000 Mask 2


9 8
172.16.2.128 10101100 00010000 00000010 10000000 Subnet 4

172.16.2.191 10101100 00010000 00000010 10111111 Broadcast


5
172.16.2.129 10101100 00010000 00000010 10000001 First 6

172.16.2.190 10101100 00010000 00000010 10111110 Last 7

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-73


Class B Subnet Example
IP Host Address: 172.16.2.121
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Network Network Subnet Host

172.16.2.121: 10101100 00010000 00000010 01111001


255.255.255.0: 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000

Subnet: 10101100 00010000 00000010 00000000


Broadcast: 10101100 00010000 00000010 11111111

Subnet Address = 172.16.2.0


Host Addresses = 172.16.2.1–172.16.2.254
Broadcast Address = 172.16.2.255
Eight bits of subnetting
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-74
Subnet Planning

20 subnets
5 hosts per subnet
Class C address:
192.168.5.0

192.168.5.16
Other
subnets

192.168.5.32 192.168.5.48

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-75


Class C Subnet Planning
Example
IP Host Address: 192.168.5.121
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.248
Network Network Network Subnet Host

192.168.5.121: 11000000 10101000 00000101 01111001


255.255.255.248: 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111000

Subnet: 11000000 10101000 00000101 01111000


Broadcast: 11000000 10101000 00000101 01111111

Subnet Address = 192.168.5.120


Host Addresses = 192.168.5.121–192.168.5.126
Broadcast Address = 192.168.5.127
Five Bits of Subnetting

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-76


Broadcast Addresses Exercise

Address Subnet Mask Class Subnet Broadcast

201.222.10.60 255.255.255.248

15.16.193.6 255.255.248.0

128.16.32.13 255.255.255.252

153.50.6.27 255.255.255.128

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-77


Broadcast Addresses Exercise
Answers

Address Subnet Mask Class Subnet Broadcast

201.222.10.60 255.255.255.248 C 201.222.10.56 201.222.10.63


15.16.193.6 255.255.248.0 A 15.16.192.0 15.16.199.255

128.16.32.13 255.255.255.252 B 128.16.32.12 128.16.32.15

153.50.6.27 255.255.255.128 B 153.50.6.0 153.50.6.127

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-78


Switch IP Address
Configuration

Switch(config)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask

• Assigns an address and subnet mask


• Starts IP processing on a switch

Switch(config)#ip default-gateway ip-address

• Specifies a default gateway

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-79


Router IP Address
Configuration

Router(config-if)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask

• Assigns an address and subnet mask


• Starts IP processing on a router interface

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-80


Router IP Address
Configuration
Router#term ip netmask-format {bitcount|
decimal | hexadecimal}
• Sets display format of network mask for
current session

Router(config-line)#ip netmask-format
{bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal}

• Sets format of network mask for a


specific line
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-81
Router IP Host Names

Router(config)#ip host name [tcp-port-number]


address [address]

• Defines static host name to IP address mapping

ip host Norine 172.16.3.1 192.168.3.1


ip host Roger 172.16.4.3

• Hosts/interfaces selectable by name or IP address

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-82


Router Name Server
Configuration
DNS Server

Router(config)#ip name-server server-address1


[[server-address2]...[server-address6]]

• Specifies one or more hosts that supply


host name to logical address resolution

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-83


Router Name System

Router(config)#ip domain-lookup
Router(config)#end
Router#pat
Translating ”pat"...domain server (255.255.255.255)
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address
Router#config t
Router(config)#no ip domain-lookup
Router(config)#end
Router#pat
Translating ”pat"
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address
Router#

DNS enabled by default


© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-84
Router Display Host Names

Router#show hosts
Default domain is not set
Name/address lookup uses domain service
Name servers are 255.255.255.255

Host Flags Age Type Address(es)


Norine (perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.100.100
Roger (perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.100.101
Frank (perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.200.200
Bob (perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.200.201

Shows the host table

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-85


VLAN to VLAN Overview
Fast
E0/0 Router on
ISL a stick

VLAN 1 VLAN 2

Application

TCP
IP
10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2
ISL
Ethernet

Network layer devices combine multiple broadcast domains

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-86


Dividing a Physical Interface
into Subinterfaces

FastEthernet 0/0
FastEthernet 0/0.1
FastEthernet 0/0.2
FastEthernet 0/0.3

Physical interfaces can be divided into multiple


subinterfaces

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-87


ISL Encapsulation

Router(config-subif)#encapsulation isl domain

Enables ISL on a subinterface

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-88


Routing Between VLANs
Fast
E0/0
ISL

VLAN 1 VLAN 2

interface fastethernet 0/0


no ip address
!
interface fastethernet 0/0.1
10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation isl 1
interface fastethernet 0/0.2
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation isl 2

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-89


Routing Between WANS

ISL S0

172.16.1.1
172.16.1.2
VLAN 1 VLAN 2

10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 Application

TCP
interface Serial0 IP
ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 HDLC
Serial

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-90


Visual Objective
SUBNET VLAN POD
10.1.1.0 1 wg_ro_x, wg_sw_x, core_sw_a, core_sw_b
10.2.2.0 2 wg_pc_a, core_server, core_ro VLAN2 wg_pc_a
10.3.3.0 3 wg_pc_b, core_server, core_ro 10.2.2.12
10.4.4.0 4 wg_pc_c, core_server, core_ro
10.5.5.0 5 wg_pc_d, core_server, core_ro fa0/26 fa0/27
10.6.6.0 6 wg_pc_e, core_server, core_ro e0/1
(port A) (port B)
10.7.7.0 7 wg_pc_f, core_server, core_ro
10.8.8.0 8 wg_pc_g, core_server, core_ro wg_sw_a
10.9.9.0 9 wg_pc_h, core_server, core_ro 10.1.1.10
10.10.10.0 10 wg_pc_i, core_server, core_ro
10.11.11.0 11 wg_pc_j, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_l
10.12.12.0 12 wg_pc_k, core_server, core_ro VLAN13 10.13.13.12
10.13.13.0 13 wg_pc_l, core_server, core_ro
fa0/26 e0/1 fa0/27
(port A) (port B)
wg_sw_l
fa0/0 10.1.1.120
Core_ro

fa0/23 ...
fa0/1 fa0/12 fa0/12 fa0/1
fa0/24 fa0/13 fa0/13

core_ server core_sw_a fa0/14 fa0/14 core_sw_b


10.1.1.2 10.1.1.4
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-91
Summary

After completing this chapter, you should be able to


perform the following tasks:
• Identify the TCP/IP protocol stack and the functions of each
layer
• Separate an IP address into its subcomponents: the network,
subnet, and host portions
• Configure IP addresses on Cisco router and switch interfaces
• Interconnect VLANs using a layer three device such as a
“router on a stick”

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-92


Review Questions

1. What is the difference between the TCP


and UDP transport layer protocols?
2. Given a host with IP address,
192.168.20.1 255.255.255.240, how many
other hosts can you have in that
network?
3. What is required to interconnect
separate VLANs?
© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-93
Do not delete

© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-94