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COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS VOLUME II FOURTH EDITION

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Klaus s: Hoffmann

Steve T.,Cbiang

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Fourth Edition

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYJ~AMICS VOLUME II

KLAUS A. HOFFMANN

STEVE T. CHIANG

ODTO KOTtJPH .. NESt1 1.,1. E. T. U. L1DRA RY

A Publication of Engineering Education System™, Wichita, Kansaa, 67208-1078, USA

www.EESbooks.com

Copyright @2000, 1998, 1993, 1989 by Engineering Education System. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying, recording, storage or retrieval system, without prior written permission from the publisher.

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ISBN 0-9623731-3-3 First Print: August 2000

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CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter Ten:

A Review

1

10.1 Introductory Remarks

10.2 Classification of Partial Differential Equations 10.2.1 Linear and Nonlinear PDEs

10.2.2 Classification Based on Characteristics 10.3 Boundary Conditions

10.4 Finite Difference Equations 10.4.1 Parabolic Equations

10.4.1.1 One-Space Dimension 10.4.1.2 Multi-Space Dimensions 10.4.2 Elliptic Equations

10.4.3 Hyperbolic Equations

10.4.3.1 Linear Equations

10.4.3.2 Nonlinear Equations 10.5 Stability Analysis

10.6 Error Analysis

10.7 Grid Generation - Structured Grids

to.8 Transformation of the Equations from the Physical Space to Computational Space

1 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 7 8

10 10 13 14 15 16

19

ii

Contents

Chapter Eleven:

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

from Physical Space to Computational Space 21

11.1 Introductory Remarks 21
11.2 Generalized Coordinate Transformation 22
11.2.1 Equations for the Metrics 23
11.3 Nondimensionalization of the Equations of Fluid Motion 25
11.4 N avier-Stokes Equations 28
11.4.1 Linearization 31
11.4.2 Inviscid and Viscous Jacobian Matrices 33
11.5 Thin-Layer Approximation 57
11.6 Parabolized N avier-Stokes Equations 60
11.7 Two-Dimensional Planar or Axisymmetric Formulation 69
11.8 Incompressible N avier-Stokes Equations 85
11.8.1 Inviscid and Viscous Jacobian Matrices 89
11.8.2 Two-Dimensional Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations 91
11.9 Problems 94 Chapter Twelve:

Euler Equations 97

12.1 Introductory Remarks 97

12.2 Euler Equations 98

12.3 Quasi One-Dimensional Euler Equations 99

12.3.1 Numerical Issues 100

12.3.2 Explicit Formulations 107

12.3.2.1 Steger and Warming Flux Vector Splitting 107

12.3.2.2 Van Leer Flux Vector Splitting 108

12.3.2.3 Modified Runge-Kutta Formulation 112

12.3.2.4 Second-Order TVD Formulation 112

Contents iii

12.3.2.4.1 Harten- Vee Upwind TVD 113

12.3.2.4.2 Roe-Sweby Upwind TVD 114

12.3.2.4.3 David-Yee Symmetric TVD 115

12.3.2.5 Modified Runge-Kutta Scheme with TVD 115

12.3.3 Implicit Formulations 115

12.3.3.1 Steger and Warming Flux Vector Splitting 116

12.4 Boundary Conditions 118

12.5 Application 1: Diverging Nozzle Configuration 121

12.5.1 Supersonic Inflow, Supersonic Outflow 124

12.5.1.1 Analytical Solution 124

12.5.2.2 Numerical Solutions 125

12.5.2 Supersonic Inflow, Subsonic Outflow 133

12.5.2.1 Analytical Solution 133

12.5.2.2 Numerical Solutions 134

12.6 Grid Clustering 144

12.7 Global Time Step and Local Time Step 146

12.8 Application 2: Shock Tube or Riemann Problem 152

12.8.1 Problem Description 152

12.8.2 Analytical Solution 153

12.8.3 Numerical Solution 157

12.9 Two-Dimensional Planar and Axisymmetric Euler Equations 162

12.9.1 Numerical Considerations 163

12.9.2 Explicit Formulations 170

12.9.2.1 Steger and Warming Flux Vector Splitting 170

12.9.2.1.1 Matrix Manipulations 171

12.9.2.1.2 Existence of Zero Metrics Within the Domain 175

12.9.2.1.3 Eigenvector Matrices 177

12.9.2.2 Van Leer Flux Vector Splitting 178

12.9.2.3 Modified Runge-Kutta Formulation 180

12.9.2.4 Second-Order TVD Formulation 181

12.9.2.4.1 Harten- Vee Upwind TVD 181

12.9.2.4.2 Roe Sweby Upwind TVD 183

12.9.2.4.3 David-Yee Symmetric TVD 185

12.9.2.5 Modified Runge-Kutta Scheme with TVD 185

12.9.3 Boundary Conditions 186

lV

Contents

12.9.3.1 Body Surface 12.9.3.2 Symmetry 12.9.3.3 Inflow 12.9.3.4 Outflow

12.9.3.5 Boundary Conditions Based on Characteristics 12.9.3.5.1 Inflow Boundary

12.9.3.5.2 Outflow Boundary

12.9.3.5.3 Determination of Flow Variables 12.9.4 Implicit Formulations

12.9.4.1 Steger and Warming Flux Vector Splitting 12.9.4.1.1 Computation of the Jacobian Matrices 12.9.4.1.2 Boundary Conditions

12.10 Application: Axisymmetric/Two-Dimensional Problems

12.10.1 Supersonic Channel Flow 12.10.1.1 Grid Generation 12.10.1.2 Numerical Scheme 12.10.1.3 Analytical Solution

12.10.1.4 The Physical Domain and Flow Conditions 12.10.1.5 Initial Conditions and Time Step

12.10.1.6 Results

12.10.2 Axisymmetric Blunt. Body 12.11 Concluding Remarks

12.12 Problems

186 189 190 190 191 192 192 192 193 194 197 197 200 200 201 203 204 205 206 206 210 215 216

Chapter Thirteen:

Parabolized Navier-Stokes Equations

218

13.1 Introductory Remarks 218
13.2 Governing Equations of Motion 221
13.3 Streamwise Pressure Gradient 223
13.4 Numerical Algorithm 225
13.5 Boundary Conditions 235
13.6 Extension to Three Dimensions 244 Contents

v

13.6.1 Numerical Algorithm 13.7 Numerical Damping Terms 13.8 Shock Fitting Procedure

13.8.1 Extension to Three-Dimensions 13.9 Application

13.10 Summary Objectives 13.11 Problems

244 249 250 257 261 264 265

Chapter Fourteen:

Navier-Stokes Equations

266

14.1 Introductory Remarks 266
14.2 Navier-Stokes Equations 267
14.3 Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes Equations 268
14.4 Numerical Algorithms 269
14.4.1 Explicit Formulations 269
14.4.1.1 MacCormack Explicit Formulation 270
14.4.1.2 Flux Vector Splitting 272
14.4.1.3 Modified Runge-Kutta Scheme 275
14.4.2 Boundary Conditions 276
14.4.3 Implicit Formulations 277
14.4.3.1 Flux Vector Splitting 279
14.4.3.2 Higher-Order Flux-Vector Splitting 288
14.4.3.3 Second-Order Accuracy in Time 290
14.4.3.4 L U Decomposition 291
14.5 Extension to Three-Dimensions 294
14.5.1 Explicit Flux Vector Splitting Scheme 295
14.5.2 Implicit Formulation 303
14.6 Concluding Remarks 304
14.7 Problems 306 Vl

Contents

Chapter Fifteen:

Boundary Conditions

307

15.1 Introductory Remarks 307
15.2 Classification of Schemes for Specification of Boundary Conditions 308
15.3 Category Two Boundary Conditions: Characteristics Based
Boundary Conditions 309
15.3.1 Mathematical Developments 309
15.3.2 Slip Wall Boundary Condition 321
15.3.2.1 Nonconservative (Primitive) Variables 322
15.3.2.2 Conservative Variables 323
15.3.3 No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition 323
15.3.3.1 Nonconservative (Primitive) Variables 323
15.3.2.2 Conservative Variables 325
15.3.4 Inflow /Outfiow Boundary Conditions 325
15.4 Category Three Boundary Conditions: Addition of Huffer Layer 327
15.5 Applications 328
15.5.1 Application 1: Moving Shock Wave 328
15.5.2 Application 2: Flow Over a Compression Corner 329
15.6 Concluding Remarks 334 Chapter Sixteen:

An Introduction to High Temperature Gases

336

16.1 Introductory Remarks 336
16.2 Fundamental Concepts 336
16.2.1 Real Gas and Perfect Gas 337
16.2.2 Partial Pressure 338
16.2.3 Frozen Flow 338
16.2.4 Equilibrium Flow 339
16.2.5 Nonequilibrium Flow 339 Contents

vii

16.2.6 Various Modes of Energy 16.2.7 Reaction Rates

16.2.8 Five-Species Model

339 341 343

16.3 Quasi One-Dimensional Flow/Equilibrium Chemistry 344

16.4 Quasi One-Dimensional Flow /Nonequilibrium Chemistry 345

16.4.1 Species Continuity Equation 346

16.4.2 Coupling Schemes 347

16.4.3 Numerical Procedure for the Loosely Coupled Scheme 347

16.5 Applications 350

16.5.1 Quasi One-Dimensional Flow 350

16.5.2 Two-Dimensional Axisymmetric Flow 352

16.6 Concluding Remarks 355

Chapter Seventeen:

Grid Generation-Unstructured Grids 356

17.1 Introductory Remarks 356
17.2 Domain Nodalization 357
17.3 Domain Triangulation 360
17.3.1 The Advancing Front Method 361
17.3.1.1 Simply-Connected Domain 361
17.3.1.2 Multiply-Connected Domain 365
17.3.2 The Delaunay Method 366
17.3.2.1 Geometrical Description 369
17.3.2.2 Outline of the Algorithm 370
15.3.2.3 An Illustrative Example 378
17.4 Concluding Remarks 382
17.6 Problems 383 viii

Contents

Chapter Eighteen:

Finite Volume Method

385

18.1 Introductory Remarks 385
18.2 General Description of the Finite Volume Method 387
18.2.1 Cell Centered Scheme 388
18.2.2 Nodal Point Scheme 389
18.3 Two-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation 390
18.3.1 Interior Triangles 391
18.3.2 Boundary Triangles 395
18.3.2.1 Dirichlet Type Boundary Condition 396
18.3.2.2 Neumann Type Boundary Condition 396
18.4 Flux Vector Splitting Scheme 402
18.4.1 Interior Triangles 403
18.4.2 Boundary Triangles 408
18.5 Concluding Remarks 410
18.6 Problems 411 Chapter Nineteen:

Finite Element Method

418

19.1 Introductory Remarks 418
19.2 Optimization Techniques 419
19.3 General Description and Development of the Finite Element Method 420
19.4 Two-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation 428
19.5 Construction of the Global Matrix 429
19.6 Boundary Conditions 432
19.7 Reduction of the Half-Bandwidth of the Global Matrix 433 Contents

ix

I Appendices

Appendix G: An Introduction to Theory of Characteristics: Euler Equations 435

Appendix H: Computation of Pressure at the Body Surface 452

Appendix I: Rate of Formation of Species 458

References

461

Index

PREFACE

The fundamental concepts of computational schemes established in the first volume are extended to the solution of Euler equations, Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations, and N avier-Stokes equations, along with treatment of boundary conditions. In addition, chemically reacting flows, unstructured grids, finite volume schemes, and finite element method at the introductory level are included.

This volume begins with a review of the basic concepts which is presented in Chapter 10. Subsequently, the transformation of the equations of fluid motion from physical space to computational space is provided in Chapter 11. This chapter also includes the linearization of the equations as well as the derivation of the Jacobian matrices. Chapter 12 presents numerical schemes for the solution of the Euler equations for inviscid flowfields. Specifications of the boundary conditions, along with illustrated examples, are provided in this chapter. Chapter 13 presents Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations and a numerical algorithm for solution. The shock fitting procedure is discussed in this chapter as well. The Navier-Stokes equations and various numerical schemes for solutions are discussed in Chapter 14. Specification of boundary conditions, derivation of governing equations, and comparison of several types of boundary conditions are provided in Chapter 15. An extension of the governing equations to include the effect of chemistry for hypersonic flowfield computations is included in Chapter 16. To familiarize the reader with unstructured grids which are used in conjunction with finite volume and finite element schemes, they are introduced in Chapter 17. It develops some fundamental concepts and explores two techniques for generation of unstructured grids in twodimensions. Finally, finite volume schemes and finite element method are developed at the introductory level in Chapters 18 and 19, respectively.

Several computer codes are developed based on the materials presented in this text. These codes, manuals, and additional examples are presented in the text, Student Guide to CF D- Volume II.

Finally, our sincere thanks and appreciation are extended to all individuals acknowledged in the preface of the first volume. Thank you all very much for your friendship and encouragement.

Klaus A. Hoffmann Steve T. Chiang

Chapter 10

A Review

10.1 Introductory Remarks

The fundamental concepts of computational fluid dynamics were introduced in the previous chapters. Various aspects of numerical schemes were explored with regard to simple partial differential equations. In all cases up to Chapter 8, the investigations were limited to a single equation. In the upcoming chapters the concepts are extended to systems of equations. Before proceeding further, however, it is beneficial to review and summarize the content of the previous chapters.

10.2 Classification of Partial Differential Equations

Partial differential equations (PDEs) can be classified into different categories, where within each category they may be classified further into subcategories. The numerical procedure used to solve a partial differential equation very much depends on the classification of the governing equation. A brief review of the classification of partial differential equations is provided in the following subsections.

10.2.1 Linear and Nonlinear PDEs

(a) Linear PDE: There is no product of the dependent variable and/or product of its derivatives within the equation.

(b) Nonlinear PDE: The equation contains a product of the dependent variable and/or a product of the derivatives.

2

Chapter 10

10.2.2 Classification Based on Characteristics

(I) First-order PDE: Almost all first-order PDEs have real characteristics, and therefore behave much like hyperbolic equations of second order.

(II) Second-order PDE: A second-order PDE in two independent variables, x and y, may be expressed. in a general form as

(10-1)

The equation is classified according to the expression (B2 - 4AC) as follows:

{ < 0 -+ elliptic equation (B2 - 4AC) = 0 -+ parabolic equation > 0 -+ hyperbolic equation

The following criteria may be stated with regard to each category defined above:

(a) Elliptic equations

• No real characteristic lines exist

• A disturbance propagates in all directions

• Domain of solution is a closed region

• Boundary conditions must be specified on the boundaries of the domain

(b) Parabolic equations

• Only one characteristic line exists

• A disturbance propagates along the characteristic line

• Domain of solution is an open region

• An initial condition and two boundary conditions are required

(c) Hyperbolic equations

• Two characteristic lines exist

• A disturbance propagates along the charact.eristic lines

• Domain of solution is an open region

• Two initial conditions along with two boundary conditions are required

(III) System of First-Order PDEs

A system of first-order PDEs may be expressed in a vector form as

l» 8~ l»

at + [A] ax + [B] 8y + W" = 0

(10-2)

A Review

3

where the vector ~ contains the dependent variables. The system is classified according to the eigenvalues of coefficient matrices [A] and [B]. If the eigenvalues of matrix [A] are all real and distinct, the system is classified as hyperbolic in t and x. If the eigenvalues of [A] are complex, the system is elliptic in t and x. Similarly, the system is classified with respect to the independent variables t and y based on the eigenvalues of matrix [B].

For a steady equivalent of (10-2), given by

8q, 8lp

[A] - + (B] -+w = 0

Bx By

(10-3)

the classification is as follows:

{ < 0 -+ elliptic

H = 0 -+ parabolic > 0 -+ hyperbolic

where

and

P=jAj, Q=IBI

For a system composed of two equations, R is given by

where

[A] = [~: ~ land [B] = [: ~

(IV) System of Second-Order PDEs

The classification of a system of second-order PDEs is facilitated if the secondorder PDEs are reduced to their equivalent first-order PDEs. Subsequently, the system is classified as previously seen. The procedure could be cumbersome. For specific details and examples, Section 1.9 should be reviewed.

10.3 Boundary Conditions

A set of specific information with regard to the dependent variable and/or its derivative must be specified along the boundaries of the domain. This set of information is known as the boundary condition and may be categorized as follows.

4

Chapter 10

(a) The Dirichlet boundary condition: The value of the dependent variable along the boundary is specified.

(b) The Neumann boundary condition: The normal gradient of the dependent variable along the boundary is specified.

(c) The Mixed boundary condition: A combination of the Dirichlet and the Neumann type boundary conditions is specified.

10.4 Finite Difference Equations

The partial derivatives appearing in the differential equations are replaced by approximate algebraic expressions to provide an equivalent algebraic equation known as the finite difference equation. Subsequently, the finite difference equation is solved within a domain which has been discretized into equally spaced grids. Finite difference equations commonly used for the solution of parabolic, elliptic, and hyperbolic equations are reviewed in this section.

10.4.1 Parabolic Equations

Various finite difference formulations are reviewed for the one-dimensional parabolic equations initially and, subsequently, extended to multi-dimensional problerns.

10.4.1.1 One-Space Dimension

The simple diffusion equation is used in this section to review various finite difference equations. The model equation is given by

where a is assumed to be a constant and hence a linear equation. To facilitate the review process, various aspects of each finite difference formulation such as the order of accuracy, amplification factor, stability requirement, and the corresponding modified equation are summarized. In the formulations to follow I the diffusion number is designated by d, which is defined by

A Review

5

Scheme:

Formulation:

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

Special Considerations:

FTCS explicit

n+ 1 _ n + d (n 2 n + n )

Ui - U. uHl - Ui u'_1

o [(t:J.t), (t:J.x) 2]

G = 1 + 2d( cos 0 - 1) 1

d<-

-2

{Ju = a{J2u + [-!a2(t:J.t) + _!_a(ll.x)2] a'u

1Jf {Jx2 2 12 {Jx·

[1 3 )2a'U 1 2( 2

+ '3a (t:J.t 8x' - 12a At) (t:J.x)

1 A )2] 86u

+ 360 a(ux {Jx5 + ...

None

Scheme:

Formulation:

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

Special Considerations:

DuFort-Frankel explicit

n+l _ 1 - 2d n-l 2d (n n )

U. - 1 + 2dui + 1 + 2d ui+! + Ui-l

o [(dt)', (dx)', (~) l

G = 1: 2d [2d cosO± (1- 4cfSin20)i] Unconditionally stable

8u = afJ2u + [_!_a(t:J.x2) _ ci (t:J.t) 2] a'u Ox 8x2 12 Ax 8x4

+ [-~a3(At)2 + 3!Oa(Ax)"

5 (ll.t )4]lIu

+20 ax 8x6 + ...

Requires two sets of data to proceed

6

Chapter 10

Scheme:

Formulation:

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

Special Considerations:

Laasonen implicit

dui!l - (1 + 2d)ui+ 1 + d1Li_l = U':

o [(L\t) , (L\X)2]

G= 1

1 + 2d(1 - CosO)

Unconditionally stable

8u 82u [1 2( ) 1 )2] ffu 1ft = 0 8x2 + '20 L\t -I- 120(L\x 8x4

[1 1

+ '30?(Llt)2 + 1202(At) (ax)2

1 ( )4] flu

+ 3600 ax 8x6 + ...

Requires solution of a tridiagonal system

Scheme:

Formulation:

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

Special Considerations:

Crank-Nicolson implicit

1 d n+ 1 ( d) n+ 1 1. d n+ lIn

'2 UHl - 1 + U, + 2 U,-l = -'2uH1

+ (d - 1)u~ - !du~ 1

s 2 s-

O [(At)2, (L\X)2]

G = 1 - d( 1 - CosB)

1 + d(1 - CosB)

Unconditionally stable

8u = ofl-u + [_!_0(AX)2] B'u 1Jx 8X2 12 8x'

+ [:203(At)2 + 3!00(AX)4] fxv + ... Requires solution of a tridiagonal system

A Review

10.4.1.2 Multi-Space Dimensions

The review of multi-dimensional problems will be limited to two-space dimensions. The procedure to three-space dimensions is similar. However, it is cautioned that the extension may not be trivial, and certain formulations which may have been unconditionally stable in two-space dimensions may become only conditionally stable in three-space dimensions. The model equation used is the diffusion equation in twa-space dimensions given by

au = (82u B2u) 8t Q 8x2 + 8y2

Scheme:

FTCS explicit

Formulation:

U'11 = ui.; + dz(u~+l'; - 2ui.; + U~l';) + d" (U~';+l -2u':'· + u~· 1)

'.:I '.:1-

Order:

1 Stability Requirement: (dz + c4) ~ '2

Scheme:

ADI

Formulation:

and

- (~d,) U~J21 + (1 + d,)U~l - (~d,) U~~l = (~dz) U~:lt.; + (1 - dz)u:;l + (~dz) ~~1~ o [(At)2, (AX)2, (Ay)2]

G = [1 - dz(l - CosOz)1 [1 - d,(1 - CosO,)1 [1 + lIz(1 - CosOz)] [1 + dy(1 - CosO,)] Unconditionally stable

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

7

8

Chapter 10

Scheme:

Fractional step

Formulation:

n+1 n+l n+1

~Ui+l~ - (1 + 2dz}u'J + dZU,_l'J,j

= -dzu~+lJ + (2d:z; - 1}1I,'.; - dzU~-lJ

and

Order:

o [(~t)2, (~X)2, (~y):~] Unconditionally stable

Stability Requirement:

10.4.2 Elliptic Equations

The model equation utilized to represent various finite difference equations is the Poisson equation expressed in two-space dimensions given by

Only iterative schemes which are usually the most efficient schemes to solve elliptic equations are reviewed in this section. In the formulations to follow, the ratio of

. . desi ed b f3' f3 ~x

stepsizes 18 esignat y, i.e., = fly'

I Scheme: Point Gauss-Seidel (PGS)

Formulation:

Order:

Scheme:

Line Gauss-Seidel (LGS)

Formulation: (x direction)

Order:

ffu lfu _ 1 (A _)2 &4u 1 (A )2 tru Modified Equation: 8x2 + 8y2 - - 12 LXI; 8x' - 12 uy 8y4 + ...

A Review

Scheme:

Point Successive Over-Relaxation (PSOR)

Formulation:

Special Considerations: The range of relaxation parameter is 1 ::; W < 2

Scheme: Line Successive Over-Relaxation (LSOR)

Formulation:

(x direction) wUf!lJ - 2 (1 + fJ2) Ufjl + wu.~:l,;

= -(1 - w) [2(1 + ,(2)] U~J - w,82 (U~';+1 + U~~l) Special Considerations: The range of relaxation parameter is 1 < w < 2

Scheme:

AD!

Formulation:

Hl ( 2) Hi k+i _ 2 ( k k+i )

U'-l,; - 2 1 + fJ Ui,; + Ui+l,j - -f3 Ui,;+l + Ui,j-l

and

/.12 J::+l 2(1 /-l2) k+1 + f-l2 k+l Hi HI

fJ Ui,j-l - + fJ Ui,; fJ Ui,j+l = -UHI,j - Ui-l,j

Scheme:

ADI with relaxation parameter

k+l 2(1 f-l2) k+i k+l

WUi-l,j - + fJ Ui,; + WUi+l,;

Formulation:

= -(1 - w) [2 (1 + {P)] u~,; - W {j2 ( U~,;+l + U:;.!l)

and W {j2u~j!.1 - 2(1 + ,B2)~t + W ,B2~:Ul

= - (1 - w) [2 (1 + fJ2)] u~;l - w (U~:l~ + uf!l,; )

9

10

Chapter 10

10.4.3 Hyperbolic Equations

Investigation of various finite difference equations is easily accomplished with regard to linear hyperbolic equations. Subsequently, the conclusions may be extended to nonlinear hyperbolic equations. With that in mind, the review of the formulations is performed sequentially in two parts.

10.4.3.1 Linear Equations

The wave equation given by au au

at = -a ax' a > 0

is used to review linear hyperbolic equations. Note that the speed of sound, a, in the equation above is assumed to be a constant and, hence, a linear equation. The parameter, at:J..t/ t:u, defined as the Courant number and designated bye, will be used in the formulations to follow.

Scheme:

Formulation:

First upwind differencing u~+1 = uf - e(ur - U;'_l)

Order:

o [(Llt), (Llx)]

G = 1- e(l - CosfJ) - i(cSinfJ)

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

Scheme:

Lax

n+l_I(n n) l(n n)

u, -"2 Ui+l + Ui-l - '2e Ui+l - Ui-l

o [CAt), (~;) 1

G = Cos fJ - i(eSin 8) e$1

au au 1 ( (I ) (fu 7ft = aFx + '2a Ax) c - e 8x2

1 2 lfiu

+ aa(Llx) (1 - c) ax"! + ...

Formulation:

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

A Review

11

Scheme:

Formulation:

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

Special Considerations:

Midpoint Leapfrog

Un+1 - Un-1 C (un Un)

i - i-HI - i-I

o [(6.t)2, (6.X)2 J

G = ± [1- c2Sin20]i - i(cSinO)

c:51

& au 1 ( )2( ~)&u

7Jf = -alJX - "6a ax 1 - c: 8x3 + ...

Requires two sets of data for the solution

to proceed

Scheme:

Formulation:

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

Lax- Wendroff

n+1 n l(n n)

u· = u· - -c U'+l - u· 1

, '2' ,-

+ ~c? (U~l - 2uf + Ui'-l) o [(6.t)2, (AX)2]

G = 1 - c? (1 - CosO) - i(c Sin 0)

12

Chapter 10

Scheme:

Formulation:

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

BTCS implicit

o [(~t) I (~X)2] G = 1 - i(cSinO) 1 + c2 (Sin2 0 )

None

Scheme:

Formulation:

Order:

Amplification Factor:

Stability Requirement:

Modified Equation:

Crank-Nicolson

!CU~++11 - U~+l - !CU~+ll = u~ - !C(U~+l - U~ 1)

4' , 4 ,- '4 1 1-

o [(At)2 , (Ax)2]

G = 1- O.Si(cSinlJ) 1 + O.Si (cSinlJ)

None

Scheme:

Formulation:

and

Order:

Stability Requirement:

Lax- Wendroff

1 ( n+l n+l)

u~+ = u~ - c U. J - U. J

, , ttl '-1

c<l

A Review

Scheme:

MacCormack

Formulation:

and

n+1 1 [ n +. (. .)] u· = - u· u· - c u· - u·

1 2 1 , ,.

Order:

Stability Requirement:

10.4.3.2 Nonlinear Equations

The inviscid Burgers equation is used to review various schemes for the solution of hyperbolic equations. Recall that the model equation is given by

81.1. 81.1. 8E

-=-1.1.-=--

8t 8x 8x

where E = ~U2. Now, the Courant number is defined as c = u6.t/6.x.

Scheme: Lax

I • n+l _ 1 ( n n) 1 6.t (DR DR)

Formu attorn 1.1., - '2 Ui+l + U,_1 - '2 6.x £.<H1 - £.<,_1

Order: 0 [(6.t) , (6.x) 2]

Amplification Factor: G = CosO - i(c Sin 0)

Stability Requirement: jumax !! I s 1

Scheme: Lax- Wendroff

n+l _ n 1 6.t (~ 1':'II'l) 1 (6.t) 2

Formulation: u, - Ui - '2 Ax £.<i+l - £'<i-1 + 4 Ax

[(u~+1 + u~) (Er+l - Er) - (u~ + U~-l) (Er - Ei'-1)] Amplification Factor: G = 1- 2c2(1- CosO) - 2i(cSinO)

Stability Requirement: lumax ~! I :5 1

13

14

Chapter 10

Scheme:

MacCormack

and

U: = ui - ~! (E;+1 - E;)

U~+1 = ~ [u'! + u~ - .t1t (e - E~ 1)J

' 2' , .t1x' ,-

o [(.t1t)2 , (.t1x) 2]

Formulation:

Order:

10.5 Stability Analysis

The error introduced in the finite difference equations due to the truncation of the higher order terms in the Taylor series expansion may grow unbounded, producing an unstable solution. The control of errors within the solution is of primary concern for any numerical scheme. To establish the necessary requirements, a stability analysis must be performed. Among various methods available for stability analysis are: (1) The discrete perturbation stability analysis, (2) The von Neumann (or Fourier) stability analysis, and (3) The matrix method. It should be noted that direct stability analysis of a nonlinear, multi-dimensional, coupled system of equations is usually cumbersome. In most cases, expressions are proposed which are based on the stability analysis of simple model equations complimented and reinforced by numerical experimentation. Thus, one encounters the suggested stability requirement for a particular scheme which resembles those of simple model equations, but includes some modifications based on numerical experimentations.

To review the limitations and conclusions provided from the von Neumann stability analysis, the summary stated in Chapter 4 is repeated at this point.

1. The von Neumann stability analysis can be applied to linear equations only.

2. The influence of the boundary conditions on the stability of the solution is not included.

3. For a scalar PDE which is approximated by a two-level FDE, the mathematical requirement is imposed on the amplification factor G as follows:

(a) if G is real, then IGI ~ 1

(b) if G is complex, then IGI2 < 1, where IGI2 = GO

4. For a scalar PDE which is approximated by a three-level FDE, the amplification factor is a matrix. In this case, the requirement is imposed on the eigenvalues of G as follows:

A Review

15

(a) if A is real, then IAI < 1

(b) if A is complex, then IAI2 :s 1

5. The method can be easily extended to multi-dimensional problems.

6. The procedure can be used for stability analysis of a system of linear PDEs.

The requirement is imposed on the largest eigenvalue of the amplification matrix.

7. Benchmark values for the stability of unsteady one-dimensional problems may be established as follows:

(a) For most explicit formulations:

I. Courant number, c s 1

II. Diffusion number, d < .!

-2

III. Cell Reynolds number, Ree::; (2/c)

(b) For implicit formulation, most are unconditionally stable.

8. For multi-dimensional problems with equal grid spacing in all spatial directions, the stated benchmark values are adjusted usually by dividing them by the number of spatial dimensions.

9. On occasions where the amplification factor is a difficult expression to analyze, graphical solution along with some numerical experimentation will facilitate the analysis.

10.6 Error Analysis

The truncation of terms in the approximation of a partial derivative could begin from an odd-order or an even-order derivative term. For example, one may approximate a first-order derivative by either

(10-4)

or

au 11,,+1 - Ui-l (6.X)2 (J3u

ax = 26.x + 3t ax! + ...

The approximation (10-4) may be truncated and expressed as

au = Ui+l - 11" + O(6.x)

ax 6.x

(10-5)

16

Chapter 10

where the dominant (or leading) error term includes a second-order derivative, i.e., even. The second expression given by (10-5) is written as

=: = u'+~~:-l + O(~X)2

where the dominant error term now includes an odd derivative. The behavior of error associated with finite difference equations is strongly influenced by the dominant error term. To clarify the types of error introduced to the finite difference equations, a convective dominated equation, where physical viscosity is absent, will be used. Thus, consider the wave equation and two different finite difference equations given by

U~+1 = u~ - c(u~ - u'! 1)

1 1 1 1-

(10-6)

and

Un+1 - un-1 C(un un)

, - i-HI - i-I

(10-7)

The FDEs are recognized as the first upwind differencing scheme and the midpoint leapfrog method. To identify the dominant error term of an FDE, the modified equation must be investigated. The corresponding modified equations for the FD Es given by (10-6) and (10-7) are, respectively:

au au 1 [J2u 1 2 ( ) [J3u

at = -a ax + 20(&;)(1- c) ax' - So(&;) 2e-- Sc-l- 1 ax3 + ...

(10-8)

and

(10-9)

Observe that the dominant error terms in Equations (10-8) and (10-9) include second-order derivative and third-order derivative, respectively. Recall that, from a physical point of view, a second-order derivative is associated with diffusion. Indeed, the coefficient of the second-order derivative in Equation (10-8) is known as the numerical viscosity. Thus, it is obvious that the error associated with Equation (10-8) is dissipative and, hence, it is called dissipation error, On the other hand, an FDE scheme, where its corresponding modified equation possesses an odd-order derivative as the lead term in error, is associated with oscUlations within the solution. Such an error is called dispersion error,

10.7 Grid Generation-Structured Grids

Finite difference equations are most efficiently solved in a rectangular domain (for 2-D applications and an equivalent hexahedral domain for 3-D applications)

A Review

17

with equal grid spacings. Unfortunately, the majority of physical domains encountered are nonrectangular in shape. Thus, it is necessary to transform the nonrectangular physical domain to a rectangular computational domain where grid points are distributed at equal spacings. It is also important to note that the transformation allows the alignment of one of the coordinates along the body, thus facilitating the implementation of the boundary conditions. The objective of grid generation is then to identify the location of the grid points in the computational domain and the location of the corresponding grid points in the physical space. Furthermore, the metrics and Jacobian of transformation which are required. for the solution of flow equations are computed within the grid generation routine.

Typically, grid generation schemes may be categorized as algebraic methods or differential methods. In the latter case, the scheme is based on the solution of a set of PDEs and may be subcategorized as either an elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic grid generation. Either category of grid generation scheme should include the following considerations.

1. A mapping which guarantees one-to-one correspondence ensuring grid lines of

the same family do not cross each other;

2. Smoothness of the grid distribution;

3. Orthogonality or near orthogonality of the grid lines;

4. Options for grid clustering.

A brief summary of the advantages and disadvantages of each method is provided below.

1. Algebraic grids

The ad vantages of this category of grid generators are:

(a) They are very fast computationally;

(b) Metrics may be evaluated analytically, thus avoiding numerical errors; (c) The ability to cluster grid points in different regions can be easily imple-

mented.

The disadvantages are:

(a) Discontinuities at a boundary may propagate into the interior region which could lead to errors due to sudden changes in the metrics;

(b) Smoothness and skewness may be difficult to control.

2. Elliptic grids

The advantages of this class of grid generators are:

18

Chapter 10

(a) Will provide smooth grid point distribution, i.e., if a boundary discontinuity point exists, it will be smoothed out in the interior domain;

(b) Numerous options for grid clustering and surface orthogonality are available;

(c) Method can be extended to 3-D problems.

The disadvantages of the method are:

(a) Computation time is large (compared to algebraic methods or hyperbolic grid generators);

(b) Specification of the forcing functions P and Q (or the constants used in these functions) is not easy;

(c) Metrics must be computed numerically.

3. Hyperbolic grids

The advantages of hyperbolic grid generators are:

(a) The grid system is orthogonal in two dimensions;

(b) Since a marching scheme is used for the solution of the system, computationally they are much faster compared to elliptic systems;

(c) Grid line spacing may be controlled by the cell area or arc-length functions.

The disadvantages are:

(a) Boundary discontinuity may be propagated into the interior domain; (b) Specifying the cell-area or arc-length functions must be handled carefully.

A bad selection of these functions easily leads to undesirable grid systems.

Finally, the metrics and Jacobian of tranformation are given by the following expressions.

1. Two dimensions

& = Jy" ~y = -JX'1 T}:z: = -JYe "hi = JXe

where

1 J=----

xeY" - Yex"

A Review

19

2. Three dimensions

ez = J(YfJz( - Y(ZfJ) ell = J(x(z" - xfJzt;} ~z = J(xfJY( - x(YJ]) TJz = J(y,ze - y{zc) T/y = J(x{z( - x,ze) TJ% = J(XCYe - xeyt;} ~ = J(Yez" - YfJze) (If = J(x'1ze - xez,,) (z - J(xeYfJ - x'1Ye)

e, = - (xr& + Vrell + z.,.ez) 1Jt = -(xrTJz + YrTJ,I + ZrTJz) (, = - (xr<"z + Yr(lI + z.,.(z)

where

J = 8(e, 11, () = 1

a(x, y, z) xe(Yflze - YCz,,) - x'I(Yeze - Veze) + xc(Yez" - Yflze)

10.8 Transformation of the Equations From the Physical Space to Computational Space

The partial derivatives expressed in the physical space are related to the partial

derivatives in the computational space by the following relations:

8t = Ir + €t-k + 1Jt~ + (t-&

-Ix = ez-& + TJz-lr, + t:z-k

-By = ell& + TJ'J-6r, + (,1&

Ix = ez& + 77z-8q + (%&

The Navier-Stokes equations in a flux vector form may be expressed in the physical space by

8Q BE er 8G es; 8Fv eo, at + 8x + 8y + 8z = 8x + By + 8z

can be transformed to the computational space and expressed by 8Q 8E 8F 8G 8Ev 8Fv 8Gv 8T + 8e + 8TJ + 8t; = 8e + 8TJ + 8t;

20

Chapter 10

where

- Q Q= J

E = ~(~tQ + ~l:E + ~yF + ~zG) - 1

F = J(f}tQ + 7Jl:E + 7JIIF + 7JzG)

- 1

G = J«tQ + (l:E + (yF + (zG)

- 1

Ev = J(~%Ev + {IIFv + {zGv}

- 1

r, = J(7Jl:Ev + 'lIlFv + 7JzGv)

- 1

Gu = J«(l:Ev + (IIFv + (zGv)

The inviscid and viscous Jacobian matrices which are produced in the process of linearization of the equations are given in Chapter 11 for the N avier-Stokes, Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes, Euler, and Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations.

Chapter 11

Transformation of the Equations

of Fluid Motion from Physical Space to Computational Space

11.1 Introductory Remarks

To enhance the efficiency and accuracy of a numerical scheme and to simplify implementation of boundary conditions, a transformation from physical space to computational space is performed. This transformation allows clustering of grid points in regions where flow variables undergo high gradients and grid point motion when required. The computational domain is a rectangular shape which is divided into an equally spaced grid system. In order to solve the governing equations of motion in the computational space, a transformation of the equations from physical space into computational space is required. Any assumption on the simplification of the equations of motion is imposed on the transformed equations. For example, to reduce computational time and required storage, the full Navier-Stokes equations may be simplified by neglecting the circumferential and streamwise gradient of stresses, while retaining only the normal gradient of the stresses. The resulting equations are known as the Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes equations. The reduction of equations is performed on the transformed equations.

This chapter investigates generalized coordinate transformation of the governing equations of fluid motion expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, z) from physical space to computational space (~, 1], (). Various formulations of the equations which are discussed include full N avier-Stokes (NS) I Euler, ThinLayer Navier-Stokes (TLNS), and Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. A summary of the assumptions which are imposed in the reduction process of the

22

Chapter 11

equations is presented. The formulations include three-dimensional flows as well as two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric flow fields.

In order to include the capability for shock capturing, the equations of motion are written in conservative form. Any set of equations is then approximated by finite difference formulation, which is solved in the rectangular grid system. Furthermore, in the linearization process Jacobian matrices are produced, which are included in this chapter.

This chapter summarizes the equations of fluid motion in computational space and presents them in concise and orderly manner. Thus, the objectives of this chapter are summarized as follows:

(1) Define the metrics and the Jacobian of transformation;

(2) Express the equations of fluid motion in a generalized coordinate system for NS, TLNS, Euler, and PNS equations; and

(3) Derive the Jacobian matrices for each set of equations which are used in various numerical algorithms.

11.2 Generalized Coordinate Transformation

The equations of motion are transformed from the physical space (x, y, z) to the computational space (e, TI, () by the following relations:

( - (t,x,y,z)

(11-1) (11-2) (11-3) (11-4)

T - t

e - e(t,x,y,z)

TI - .,.,(t, x, y, z)

The chain rule of partial differentiation provides the following expressions for the Cartesian derivatives:

a a a a 8 (11-5)
at - aT + et a€ + Tft a.,., + (t 8e
8 a a a (11-6)
ax - e% 8€ + .,.,% 87] + (% 8(
8 8 8 8 (11-7)
8y - €" 8€ + 71y a7] + (" 8(
8 8 a a (11-8)
8z - €z ae + ""z 811 + (z 8( Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

23

11.2.1 Equations for the Metrics

From Equations (11-5) through (11-8), it is obvious that the value of the metrics ~t, TIt, (t, ~r, 1}:z:, (.:r, ~y, 1}y, (y, ~Ie' TIle, and (Ie must be provided in some fashion. In most cases the analytical determination of the metrics is not possible and, therefore, they must be computed numerically. Since the stepsizes in the computational domain are equally spaced, X6 XI'I' x" etc., can be computed by various finite difference approximations. Thus, if the metrics appearing in Equations (11-5) through (11-8) can be expressed in terms of these derivatives, the numerical computation of metrics is completed. To obtain such relations, the following differential expressions are considered:

8t 8t 8t 8t

dt = - dr + - de + - d1} + - d(

8r 8~ 877 8(

But according to (11-1), 8t

- 1 8r

8t af.

and

at aTl

8t

- 0 a(

thus

dt - dr

(11-9)

Similarly,

dx - xTdr + x~de + x'ld1} + x,d( dy - yTdr + y~de + Y'ld77 + y,d( dz - zTdr + zed{ + Zr,dTJ + z(d(

Equations (11-9) through (11-12) are expressed in a matrix form as

(11-10) (11-11) (11-12)

[ : ] = [~ :: :: :~] [~dr(TJ]

dz ZT ze Zr, z,

Reversing the role of the independent variables,

(11-13)

dr

dt

(11-14) (11-15) (11-16) (11-17)

df. - f.tdt + €:r:dx + €ydy + €zdz d77 - Tltdt + fJrdx + f}ydy + Tlzdz d( - (tdt + (rdx + (ydy + (zdz

24 Chapter 11
which are expressed as
[~]~[l~ 0 0 ~: ][ £ ]
& ell (11-18)
7]x 7]11
c, (II (1l dz
Comparing Equations (11-13) and (11-18), one concludes that
[ l~ 0 0 ~ ] ~ [ ~, 0 0 or
ex ell xE x" x,
7]% 1]y 7]z Yr Ye Y" l/(
(I (x (II (z z; ze z" z(
From which,
e% - J(y"z( - y(z,,) (11-19)
ell - J(x(Zr, - X'1Z,) (11-20)
ez - J(X'1Y( - xcV,,) (11-21)
7]% - J(y,ze - Yeze) (11-22)
1]y - J(xez( - x(ze) (11-23)
7]z - J(x(Ye - xeYd (11-24)
ex - J(Yez" - v"ze) (11-25)
(II - J(x"ze - xez'1) (11-26)
(z - J(xeY'1 - x"Ye) (11-27)
€t - -(xr& + Yrell + zrez) (11-28)
7]t - -(xr7]% + Yr7]y + Zr7]z) (11-29)
(I - -(xrCx + Yr(y + Zr(z) (11-30) After substitution of Equations (11-19) through (11-27) into Equations (11-28), (11-29), and (11-30),

et - J[xr(Y(z" - Y'1zd + Yr(x"z( - x(z,,) + zr(x,y" - x'1Vd1 (11-31)

T/t - J[Xr(Yez, - v,ze) + Yr(X(Ze - xezt;} + Zr(xeY( - X(Ye)] (11-32)

(t - J[xr(V'1Ze - Yez,,) + Yr(xez" - X"zE) + Zr(X"Ve - xeV'1)] (11-33)

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

25

where J is the Jacobian of transformation defined by

J = a(~, 17, () _ 1

a(x, y, z) xC(Y'f/Z( - Y(~) - x'f/(YeZ( - Y(Ze) + xdYe~ - Y'f/ze)

(11-34)

11.3 Nondimensionalization of the Equations of Fluid Motion

Equations of fluid motion may be nondimensionalized to achieve certain objectives. For one, it would provide conditions upon which dynamic and energetic similarity may be obtained for geometrically similar situations. Second, the solution of such equations would usually provide values within limits between zero and one. Generally a characteristic dimension, such as the chord of an airfoil or the length of a vehicle, is selected to nondimensionalize the independent spatial variables. Freestream conditions are used to nondimensionalize the dependent variables. Among many choices available, the following will be used in this and in the subsequent chapters:

e tuoo • x
- L x =-
L
/-t. /-t • u
- u =-
J.Loo Uoo Y· = I '

• z z =-

L

• v v =Uoo

* w w =-

Uco

p. = P T* = T p. = P 2

Poo T co Poouoo

The nondimensional parameters are defined as:

• et

e =t u2 00

Reynolds number:

Reoo = Poo uooL /-too J.LCp Pr=-

k

Prandtl number:

Using the nondimensional variables defined above, the equations of fluid motion in the Cartesian coordinate system are expressed as:

1. Continuity:

(11-35)

2. X-component of the momentum equation:

a a 2 a a

- (p·u·) + - (p·u· + p.) + - (p'u'v') + - (lu·w·) =

8t- ax· ay· az·

(11-36)

26

Chapter 11

For a Newtonian fluid,

• • _1_ [1t.(8U' + av'.)]
T:rll - Ty:r -
Reoo ay· ax·
• • 1 [ aw' au']
T:rz - rz:r - Reoo 11: (ox. + 0 Z'~ ) 3. V-component of the momentum equation:

where

and T~ is given by (11-38).

4. Z-component of the momentum equation:

{) (p·w·) + a (p·u·w·) + ~ (p.v.w.) +..!._ (p·w·2 + p.) =

Ot· ax· Oy· a z·

a~. (r;z) + a~. (T;z) + a~. (7·:z)

where

· - 1 [2 .aw· \. n· v~·l

T --- 11.-+", v'

%Z Reoo r: oz.

and r;% and r;% are given by Equations (11-39) and (11-42), respectively.

(11-37)

(11-38)

(11-39)

(11-40)

(11-41)

(11-42)

(11-43)

(11-44)

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

27

5. Energy:

(11-45)

where
q! J.L. aT· (11-46)
- ReooPr b - 1) M! 8x·
q; /1: aT· (11-47)
- ReooPr b - 1) M!, 8y·
q; /1" m: (11-48)
- ReooPr b - 1) M! 8z· The nondimensional equations of fluid motion may be expressed in a flux vector

form as:

8Q· 8E· 8p· 8a· 8E- 8F· 8a· __ + __ + __ + __ = __ v + __ v + __ v

8t· ox* oy· Bz' ox· oy· oz·

(11-49)

where

p. p·u· Q. = p·v· p·w· pte;

(11-50)

p·u· 2

p·u· + p.

E· = p·u·v· p·u·w*

(p* e~ + p·)u·

o

(11-52)

(II-51)

p·v· 0
p·v·u· •
TJI%
p.= 2 (11-53) F*= r.* (11-54)
p·v· + p. 11 YfI
p·v·w· •
TlIZ
(p·e~ + p·)v· u*r.· + v·r.* + w·r.* _ q*
7/% 1171 liZ 11 28

Chapter 11

C·=

p·W· p·W·U· p·W·V·

2

p·W· + p.

(p·e; + p*)W·

o

(11-55)

C·= "

T· =

(11-56)

T· Zl/

t;

U·T· + V·T· + W·T· - q*

Ii!% ZI/ Z% %

The notation "." which is used to designate nondimensional quantities will be dropped for the remainder of this chapter and those following. Thus, all the equations will be in nondimensional form unless otherwise specified.

11.4 Navier-Stokes Equations

The equations of fluid motion in complete form which include the conservation of mass, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy are referred to as the Navier-Stokes equations. The nondimensional Navier-Stokes equations given in the previous section in the Cartesian coordinate system are now transformed to the computational space by the following. Due to similarity of the left- and right-hand sides of Equation (11-49), the mathematical details are carried out for the left-hand side (LHS) of Equation (11-49) only. Equation (11-49), which is repeated here for convenience, is:

BQ BE BF BC BE" 8Fu 8C" -+-+-+-=-+-+-

at 8x 8y 8z ox 8y oz

The Cartesian derivatives are replaced by Equations (11-5) through (11-8) to yield:

LHS

8Q 8Q 8Q 8Q BE BE

- 8T + ~t 8~ + 7Jt 811 + (t 8( + & -8~ + 11% 81] +

{11-57}

It is recognized that this equation is no longer in a conservative form. To recast the equation in a conservative form, some manipulation must be performed. To do so, Equation (11-57) is first divided by J, and then a combination of terms which sums up to zero is added. In the following, only four terms are considered to show the required mathematical steps. The conclusion is then extended to the remaining terms. The first four terms of Equation (11-57) divided by J and with the added zeros shown as the brackets are

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

29

1 8Q 1 8Q 1 8Q 1 8Q [ 8 1 8 1]

J 8T + J ~t 8~ + J 1Jt 81J + J (t 8( + Q 8T (J) - Q aT ( J)

which may be rearranged. as

+ [1Jt 8Q + Q!!"_ (1Jt)] + [(t 8Q + Q i_ «(t)]

J 817 87] J J 8( 8( J

[ 8 1 8 ~t a fit a (t]

- Q 8T (J) + 8~ (J) + 817 (J) + 8( (J)

(11-58)

The terms in the first four brackets may be combined, and by substitution of expressions (11-31) through (11-34) into the last bracket, it can be shown that it is zero. Therefore, expression (11-58) is combined as

Extending this conclusion to the remaining terms of Equation {11-57) results in the following expression:

LHS =

8Q 8 Q 8 Q 8 Q

8T ( J) + 8~ (~t J) + 817 (T}t J) + 8( «(t J) +

8 E 8 E 8 E 8 F 8 F

ae (~3: J) + 87] (T}:z: J) + 8( «(:z: J) + 8~ (~y J) + 87] (7]!I J) +

a F 8 G 8 G 8 G

8( «(lI J) + 8e (ez J) + 871 (7]1: J) + 8( «(z J) (11-59)

The RHS of Equation (11-49) is reformulated in a similar fashion, and therefore

30

Chapter 11

(11-49) is written as

e Q 0 [1 ]

Or (J) + O€ J (€tQ + €xE + €yF + f,G) +

:fI [~ (7]tQ + fixE + 11yF + 7]zG)] + :( [~ «tQ + (xE + (!IF + (zO)] - :€ [~ (€xE" + €yFlI + €zG,,)] + :7] [~ (flxElI + f/yF" + 7]zG,,)] +

:( [~ «». + (yFv + (zGv)]

The terms in this equation are redefined such that it may be written as

8Q aE 8E' oc aE" 8F" oo, (11-60)
8T + B€ + 87] + 8( = 8€ + 8f1 -+- 8(
where
- Q (11-61)
Q=-
J
- 1 (11-62)
E = J (€,Q+&E+€yF+€zG)
- 1 (11-63)
F = J (7],Q + 7]xE + '1yF + '1zG)
- 1 (11-64)
G = J «tQ + CzE + (yF + (zG)
- 1 (11-65)
E" = J {€xEv + €yF" + €zGu}
- 1 (11-66)
Fu = J {fixE" + '1yFv + f1zGv}
- 1 {11-67}
G; = J «xEv + (yFv + (zG,,) The viscous shear stresses given by Equations (11-37), (11-38), (11-39), (11- 41), (11-42) and (11-44) with Stoke's hypothesis {,\ = -iJ.l.} in the transformed

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

31

computational space are:

J.l [4 2

Tzz = Reoo 3(&U{ + T7z~ + (zud - 3(~YV{ + T7!1v" + (yv()

- ~(eZW{ + T7zwfj + (zwd]

J.l [4 2

Tzz = Reoo 3(ezwe + T7zWfj + (zwd - 3(~%ue + T7xu" + (zud

- ~({!lVe + 1]yv'I + (!lvd]

where the heat conduction terms in the computational space are:

11.4.1 Linearization

(11-68)

(11-69)

(11-70)

(11-71)

(11-72)

(11-73)

(11-74)

(11-75)

(11-76)

In order to numerically solve Equation (11-60), a linearization procedure is introduced, and all flux vectors are expressed in terms of the flux vector Q. The procedure was previously described in Chapter 8; however, due to its importance, it is reemphasized in this section.

32

Chapter 11

Consider the following Taylor series expansion:

- 1 - 8E 2

E"+ = E" + 8T 6.T + G(6.T)

(11-77)

In order to rewrite 8E/lh in terms of the gradient of flux vector Q, recall that E = f{Q,€t!€x'€lI'€z)

The chain-rule of differentiation yields the following relation:

8E = ~ 8tj + 8E 8et + 8E 8e:z: + 8E 8ey + ,aE aez 8r 8Q 8r 8et ar o~ ar 8e" aT aez or

(11-78)

For many applications, the grid is independent of time, and therefore time gradients of the metrics are zero. Hence, for a time independent grid system, Equation (l1w78) is reduced to

aE aE ao 8r = 8Q 8T

(11-79)

This equation is substituted into Equation (11-77) to yield: - +1 - oE 80 :2 E" = E" + --- -.6.r + G{ar)' 8Q Br

(11-80)

The partial derivative aQ / Br is approximated by a first-order backward difference

expression as

8Q on+! - Q" 6.Q

aT = aT + D{Ar) = AT + D(Ar)

Substitution of this equation into Equation (11-80) yields:

E;n+1 = E;n + ~~ [~~ + O(l!.r)] l!.r + O(l!.r)'

or

- 1 - aE - 2

E"+ = E" + --- 6.Q + D{Ar) 8Q

(11-81)

If a time dependent grid system is used, the additiona.l terms which appeared in Equation (11-78) would be included in Equation (11-81) as well. In either case, terms such as aE / oQ and similar terms related to flux vectors F, G, Ev, Fv, and Gv will always appear in the linearization process. They are defined as the Jacobian matrices, which are the focus of the next section.

For steady-state problems such as Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations, the linearization process is similar. In that case, the Taylor series is expanded with respect to the streamwise space coordinate (marching direction). A detailed mathematical approach is shown in Chapter 13.

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

33

11.4.2 Inviscid and Viscous Jacobian Matrices

To linearize Equation (11-60), the following and similar approximations are employed:

En+l = F;n + 8E D.Q + O(D.r)2

8Q

where 8E/8Q is defined as the flux Jacobian matrix. The remaining flux Jacobian matrices are 8F /8Q and 80/8Q. The viscous Jacobian matrices are 8BIJ/8Q, 8FIJ/8Q, and 8G,J8Q. Since flux vectors Q and E are 5 x 1 vectors, each one of the Jacobian matrices are 5 x 5 (for three-dimensional problems). The derivations of the Jacobians are considered next. In the following derivations we will assume perfect gas; therefore, the equation of state is expressed as

p = pe(-y - 1).

The inviscid Jacobian 8E/8Q is
8E 8(El, E21 Ea, B", Es)
----- - 8(Q1, Q2, Qa, Q41 Qs)
8Q
8EI 8EI 8EI 8El 8El
8Ql --- 8Q3 8Q4 8Qs
8Q2
8E2 8E2 8E2 8E2 8E2
---- 8Q2 8Qa 8Q4 8Qs
8Ql
8Ea 8E3 8Ea 8E3 8E3 (11-82)
8Ql -- -- --- --
8Q2 8Q3 8Q" 8Qs
8E4 8E, 8E4 8E, 8E,
---=- ---- ----.:- --=- 8Qs
8Ql 8Q2 8Qa 8Q4
8Es 8Es 8Es 8Es 8Es
8Ql 8Q2 8Q3 -- 8Qs
8Q, In order to determine the elements of matrix (11-82), the flux vectors E, F, and G are expressed in terms of the components of vector Q according to

34

Chapter 11

Q2
pu Q' [lQ' Q' Q']
_2 + (1' - 1) Qs __ (_2 + _1. + __!)
fYU2 + P a. 2 a. a. o.
Q2Q3
E= {lUv - Ql (1l-83a)
puw Q2Q4
Q1
(pet + p)u ['YQ, - 'Y - 1 (Ql + Qf + ~n)] Q,
2 a. a. a, a. Q3
pv Q2Q3
Ql
puv Q' [1 Q' Q' Q']
F= pv2+p _2 + (1' - 1) Qs __ (_2 + _1. + __!) (1l-83b)
- o. 2 o. o. a.
pvw Q3Q4
Ql
(pet + p)v ['YQ. - 'Y - 1 (Q~ + til + 91)] Q3
2 a, a. o, a. Q4
pw Q2Q4
Ql
pwu Q3Q4
G= pwv - Ql (11-83c)
pw2+p Q' [1 Q' Q' Q']
__! + (-y _ 1) Qs - _(_2 -I- _1. + ___!)
Ql 2 Ql Ql Ql
(pet + p)w ['YQ' - 'Y - 1 (Q~ + Qf + 9!)] Q,
2 a. a. Ql Ql Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

35

Recall that, from Equation (11-62),

(11-84)

With the components EI, Pl, and Gl from Equations (1l-83a), (1l-83b), and (11- 83c) , (11-84) may be written as

- 1

El = J [€tQl + €xQ2 + €"Q3 + €zQ4J

(11-85)

Now the first element of (11-82) is determined as

8El 8{ ~ [etQ} + €xQ2 + €"Q3 + €zQ41}

8Ql = 8{~}

= a(etQ} + exQ2 + €"Q3 + ezQ4) = €t 8Q}

(11-86)

The remaining elements of the first row are

8El

and ---- = O. 8Qs

The elements of the second, third, fourth, and fifth rows are determined in a similar fashion. The resulting inviscid Jacobians are:

36

Chapter 11

-.....

..... I

00 -..t

--

+ I + + I

~s ~<:! ~.£.. I

,.-----, ~ ,.-----, ~ .... ---. ~ ,

I"',J..;-' ~ 1"'1 ...... ~ t-.~ ~ I

~ + ~+ ~ + ,

I ~ I ~ ~ c- I

~! ~! ? ~ I ~

+ e- +.., """ +.., """ I

S s S I

<:!..,- <:! .. - <:..,"-' 1

+ + + 1

1

1 S.. I S.., S.., I

I"":::::::"" I....:::::::.... ... ~ I

---------------r-------~-------i---------~----·

+ I.-~ I ~I ~ I +~ ,I

'C" ~'" ~ 1 S 1 e 1 -- + ,

--.; + -< 1 I 1 I 1 ~ ~ 1

& I ~ 1 "-"'1 ~ 1 ~-. 1

~ 0 e.., 1"':.... I ~ I I I t 7' 1

~+~ I ""1 .... 1 e~ 110

~ S ... 1 _.. XI +'-'

+ '-' I ~ 1 '<! ~ 1

'__' .... I ~ 1 ~ I.,... 1

"" -r 1 1 I 1; 1

------~-------~------~-------i--~-----+------

+I"-"'~I ~1+'f:!>1 ~I

~~+~ .. ~II s 1 ~+ I ~ 1

& ~ I I ~~ I .', I

e ~ e.. I 1 ~ + (:3' I ~ 1

;;: + I"'..J....- 1 I 1 ~ I I I 1 ~

"S .. ~ 1 ...... 1 e ~ 1 ~ I

~..::=:.J 1 ~I +e I ~ 1

+ .... I 'e 1 ,..... <: 1

~ YI I'E; I I

------:-------1-----+--:::------1--,-------t------

+1?~I+'f:!>1 """I ~I

'(;'"' --- "'~ 1 .- + e 1 ~ I

~ +1> 1 0'(;'"'1 I I I I

.s, I e I ~~I :? I :? 1

S .... +'" I + I 1 I I I 1

'" 1"'1 .... I ~ , 1 1 I ""

o <>", :? 1 e -... 1 .... I ...... 1

~~II+¥I ~I ~I

+ ,_. I"'" 1 SIS I

~ Y 1 S I 1 1

------~-------~--~----~--------~-------~-----

~ o- I ~I ::r-I :? I

~ + I I I I I I I

~ I .... 1 .... I ,_. 1

~ I ~ I ~ I ~! 0

e I I 1 I

+ I I I I

~ 1 1 1 I

& I ,I

+

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

37

1 I I I ~

I I I I ~

I I I I +

I I 1 I ~'"

I... I '" I.. I ~

I;;:_ IA IA I +

1'-< ...... I ....... I os

1 I 1 I r I ....

II r Ir I r I to.£:

- I ~ I - I ~ ~

·------~--------~-------r-------r-------------·

! I ~ I ~ ~

} I ~ I s ~ I ,-.. +

_, I,-.._ I --;::: ~ I ~ "'::, <t

.-< I ...... , I__.....£:

I I 1 I 1 ~ I ...... I~ + ..-...

~ ~ I~ + 11 .... _ .... ;3

'-"' 1- f't;' os 1.0'" s

1 II I ~~ I ~+ ~ ..

os I ~ I + '-" I...___..... '--" ~

~ I~ r ~+ I ~~ 1+

------,--------t-------+-------+--------------

I ~', I ~

I .. I. ~

0:> e- I 0:> I ~

I ~ ,.:_+ I~ 'I~~

I -;:;- ~ 0:>;:, I.... ,.!; s ~

~ I I 1 ~ I 1 I ...... I~ + ::::::

I r 1;'1+ I r I' "' ...... 0:>

I - ~ ~ '-"' '0:> 1 ~

I I ~~ 'I I 1.0+ r~

1;:5 +- S I~ .... -~

I ~ ~+ I ~ I ~~ 1+

-------r-------tr------~-------1--------------

I ~ I I 1..-... ~

" +~';:5 l;s 1 ...... 1 -::=:' +

~ I~ I~ I .... ;s

...!:! I ~;J I ~ I...... I ~ s ~

.... I I ~ I I I .... ,1;'1 + -

I e+ I~ I r I I .... .,~;::!

I ~ 't I I I 'I l.u + """§'

I + 8 I;J 1;3 I ~ "'os ~ ~

I ~+ I~ I ~ I ~'-" 1+

------1----~--t---~-+I---~-+I----~---------

I a: I a: I a:

I ;3 I S I ;3 I

I + I + I + I

I "'0:> I "'0:> I ~ "'0:> I f-.

I ~ + I S + I .., + I ..L

I ~ I ~ I ~ I

I + ~ I + ~ I + <'<;s I S .... ;J

~ I;J--- '0:>'-" I 0:> X I ~+ I ~.... I.~...... I ~...... I + ~

I + ,_ I + ,_ I + ,_ I 0:> .-

I ~ I ~ I ;::! ~ I ~ ......

I ;s .... 1C'l ;s .... 1C'l I ....... 1C'l I I

I ~..___. I ~..___. I ~.........._, I +

I ';( ~ I ';5' ~ I 13 ~ I ;s ~

I I + II + I + l..t+

I I I

o

38

Chapter 11

I + I + +

I ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~

" ~'0 ~0 ~~'€'

of'> ..-.. s: I=! ....

~~ I ~ + ~ + ~+

"2+ I I"" I ~ lor,

w010~ 0c ~~

+ E ' ~ + ..-.. + ..-.. +

"\., .._.. I s:!... """" I=!.., """".. =.. """" ..

~'+" + E +

:J I ~...!, ~... -- ~.. .!,

I + + +

1 E E E

1 w .. w

I ~ ._.. t- '-" ....

---~--~-~-0--T----~-r----~-I--~-~-l------·

~ ~ =".-.:r-' lEI ~ 1 r:; + 1

.s, I + ~ 1 I 1 I I '::! ;:: I

=~~ .. I I ~II ~I +t..:> 1

+ t..:>1 ..... I I 1 I 1 10 I 1 10

'0 E.. '4 1 .... 1 ~ 1 ~ ~ 1

~~I 1 01 ~I +'ir' I

.... 1 = 1 = 1 0-

10 y 1 liE 1

e II.._.. 1

--------------+------.L--------t---------L------

+ 1 - ~ I 0 I + ~ 1 0 I

~~: .. ~! ~ 10;'1 7 I

~ .!.. ~.. r 1 ~ I ~ t:; I ~ 1

.._.. + t..:>1 ..... 1 I I r 1 r 1 0

0E~1 ..... I~~I .... 1

=~II 01~~1 01

+ .... 1 e 1.,-.. 1 ~ I

~ y 1 I 1; 1 ,

.-----..:-------l-------I--::------~----.----+------

+ I ? 0 1 + ~ I 0 1 0,

""~ .......... 1..-..+, e 1 ~ I

-< +:ib 10 1 I I II

.§..I ~ I I I=!:£:, --I ..-.. 1

E ~ +w 1 + t..:> 1 ~ 1 ~ 1

t..:>1 ..... 1 ~ I, I 1 I 1 0

0'E ~ 1 e ~ 1 .... 1 ..... 1

S:~II+~I 0101

+ ..... I "" I S lEI

~ '-' I.!, I I I

-------------J..-------T--------'----------;-------

~ ot:'..l ----I -1 ..-.. I

0+ I ~ 1 ~ I ~ I

s:! 1 ..... I ..... 1 ..... I

~ I ~ I 0 I 0 I 0

e I I I 1

+, I I I

~ I 1 1 1

.E. I 1 I I

- I I I I

+

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

39

Some of the terms appearing in the Jacobian matrices may be defined such that they are expressed in a compact form. For example,

(1l-90a) (1l-90b) (1l-9Oc)

are known as the contravariant velocity components. They represent velocity components which are perpendicular to planes of constant e, T/, and (, respectively. FUrthermore, define

(11-91)

Before attempting to determine the viscous J acobians, the viscous flux vectors must be rearranged by substituting expressions for shear stress and heat conduction terms. For example, consider the second component of E1J, which from Equation (11-65) is given by

- 1

E112 = J (~XE112 + eyFlI2 + ~zGlI2)

From Equations (11-52), (11-54) and (11-56), the following is observed:

(11-92)

Hence, Equation (11-92) may be expressed as

(11-93)

Now, using the expressions for the shear stresses given by Equations (11-68), (11-71) and (11-72), Equation (11-93) is rearranged as

+ (yVd - ~J1.(eZW{ + T/.zw'I + (zwd] + ey [J1.(eyUe + 1]y~ + + (yU, + &ve + T/xV,., + (xV.:)] + €z [JL{€zUe + T/z~ +

+ (zu, + exwe + T/xWfI + (xw.:)] }

40

Chapter 11

1 4 2

(3~z€z)we + (3€zl1z + €IITiIl + €zTiZ)1lr] + (€II7JZ - 3&7JII)V'1 +

2 4

(~zl1z - 3&7Jz)w" + (3€z(z + ~II(II + €z(z)u( +

All the components of flux vector El1 are reformulated accordingly. In addition, viscous flux vectors Fv and 011 are modified in a similar fa.shion, resulting in the following form of the viscous flux vectors:

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

41

o

where, for a perfect gas,

1 'Y [ 1( 2 2 2]

Pr{"t - l)M! T = Pr et - 2 u + v + w )

(11-94)

(11-95)

42

Chapter 11

o

(11-96)

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

43

o

.

+ ~h(v2)'1 + ~!a(W2)'1 + fsuv'l + fsuw'l + frv~ + fsvw'l

(11-97)

44 Chapter 11

where
a = 1e+e+F,_2 (11-98) a =e+ 1F,_2+e (11-99)
1 3 z ~ % 2 % 3 ~ %
es = €; + €; + ~€: (11-100) a =€2 +e+t2 (11-101)
4 % ~ .• %
as = l€z€t (11-102) tl6 = i€v€% (11-103)
a7 = i€z€1I (11-104)
b = 1T]2 + "12 + "12 (11-105) b2 = ,tz + ~11~ + 11~ (11-106)
1 3% Y II
ba = r& + T/: + ~11: (11-107) b4 = f1~ + 11: + '11: (11-108)
bs = ll1z'hr (11-109) be = l11117J% (11-110)
b-r = il1%7J% (11-111)
C = 1(2 + (.2 + (2 (11-112) C = (2 + 1(.2 + (2 (11-113)
1 3 % ~ z 2 % 3 11 z
_ (2 (.2 + 4(2 (11-114) C4 = (~ + (; + (; (11-115)
C3-%+y 3Z
Cs = l(z(v (11-116) C6 = l(1f(z (11-117)
C7 = l(%(% (11-118)
d1 = t€z11z + €1f1'11l + €%7J% (11-119) ~ = €%T}r + ~€y1/1I + €%T/z (11-120)
d3 = €z7J:J: + €1fT}1f + ~€zT}z (11-121) d4 = €rf"J% + €yTI" + €zT/z (11-122)
ds = €%77y - i€y7Jz (11-123) ck = €r7Jz - j€x1/z (11-124)
d7 = €y7Jz - i€r1'11l (11-125) d8 = €1f1]z - 1€1l1'11l (11-126)
dg = €zT/% - i€zT/z (11-127) dlO = €%1]y - i(y1/% (11-128) Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

45

el = ~~xCr + ~y(y + ~;{z (11-129) e2 = ~x(x + ~~1I(1I + ~z(z (11-130)
e3 = ~r(x + ~Y(lI + ~~z(z (11-131) e4 = ~%(x + ~1I(1I + ~z(z (11-132)
es = ~x(lI - i~lI(x (11-133) ~ = ex(z - iez(r (11-134)
er = ~yCx - ~~x(y (11-135) es = ey(z - i~z(y (11-136)
eg = ~z(x - ~ex(z (11-137) elO = ~z(y - ~~11(% (11-138)
11 = ~17r(x + 17y(y + 1721(% (11-139) h = 17x(% + ~17Y(Y + 1721(% (11-140)
fa = 17r(,: + 17y(y + ~17z(% (11-141) 14 = 1]x(x + TJy(y + 17%(% (11-142)
/s = 17x(y - ~17y(x (11-143) /6 = 17r(z - ~17%(x (11-144)
h = 17yCx -i17x(y (11-145) fs = 1]y(% - ~ 17%(y (11-146)
fg = 17%(. - ~17x(z (11-147) flO = 17%(11 - ~ 1711(% (11-148) The derivation of viscous Jacobian matrices must be handled with special care, due to the fact that the components of the viscous flux vectors involve gradients of the dependent variable and the Jacobian of transformation, which is itself a function of the independent variables. Thus, J remains embedded inside the viscous Jacobians, unlike the inviscid Jacobians where the Js were cancelled. In order to generalize the mathematical procedure, it is recognized that all of the terms in the viscous flux vector may be expressed as

- 1

Et = (Factor) J(¢J",) ,

(11-149)

where ¢ represents the dependent variable such as u, or a combination of dependent variables such as u2 and 'If; represent an independent variable such as ~, 17, or (. For example, the first term of the second component of s; (from Equation (11-94)) is

- IJ. 1

Ev2,1st term = Reoo Ja1(ue)

which may be expressed as

46

Chapter 11

or, in the general formulation of (11-149),

- 1

Eu2,lT = (Factor) JtP¢

To obtain the viscous Jacobian 8Eu/8Q, it is necessary to compute each of the terms in 8(Eub EIJ2, Eu31 EtJ41 EfJs)/8(Qll Q2, Q31 Q4J.JS)' In a similar fashion, the Ja.cobians associated with flux vectors Fu and Gu may be determined. In order to perform this differentiation, the general expression (11-149) will be used to illustrate the procedure. Consider the determination of

1 8 84> - (Factor) ( J) 8Q 8'1j;

At this point the order of differentiation is interchanged to yield:

(11-150)

Recall that Q = Q/ J. Hence, after substituting into (11-150), one obtains

(11-151)

This formulation is used to obtain the viscous Jacobians given by Equations (11-152), (11-153), and (11-154):

0 0 0 0 0
EQ2,1 EQ2,2 EQ2,3 EQ2,4 0
8Ev J-L EQ3,1 EQ3,2 EQ3,3 EQ3,4 0 (11-152)
~=
8Q ReooJ
EQ4,1 EQ4,2 EQ4,3 EQ4,4 0
EQS,I EQS,2 EQS,3 EQS,4 BQs,s Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

47

0 0 0 0 0
FQ2,1 FQ2,2 FQ2;3 FQ2,4 0
8ft!) J.L FQ3,l FQ3,2 FQa,3 FQ34 0 (11-153)
---...- -
8Q ReooJ ,
FQ4,l FQ4,2 FQ4,3 FQ4,4 0
FQS,1 FQS,2 FQs,3 FQS,4 FQs,s 0 0 0 0 0
GQ2,1 GQ2,2 GQ2,3 GQ2,4 0
8C!) It GQ3,1 GQ3,2 GQ3,3 GQ3,4 0 (11-154)
8Q = ReooJ
GQ4,l GQ4,2 GQ4,3 GQ4,4 0
GQS,l GQS,2 GQS,3 GQS,4 CQs,s
where
[u v w 1
EQ2,1 - - a}(J-)e + as(J-)e + a1(J-)e
p p p
[u v w 1
- d1(J-)fl + dr(J-)fl + dg(J-)fl
P P P
[u v w 1
- e}(J-k+er(J-)(+eg(J-k
p p p 48

Chapter 11

[ u v w 1

- es(J-k+e2(J-k+e1O(J-)c

p p p

J J J
EQa,2 - as(-)e + ds(-)'1 + es(-k
p p P
J J J
EQ3,3 - ~(-)E + d2(-)'1 + e2(-)'
p p P
J J J
EQ3,4 - Cl6( -)e + dlO( -)'1 + e1O( -),
p p p [u v w 1

a1(J -)e + l16(J -)e + a3(J -)e

p p p

[u v w 1

- rk(J-)'1 + ds(J-)'1 + d3(J-)'1

p P P

[u v w 1

- es(J-k + es(J-k + ea(J-)c

p p p

Transformation of the Eq uations of Fluid Motion

49

J J J

- ~(-)e + ds( -)'1 + es(-k

p p p

EQS,l

v w J

+ (d7u + dsw)(J-)" + (~u + dlOV)(J-)f} + -(d5v + c4;w)uf}

P P P

J J } { l'e4 u2

+ -(d7u + dsw)v'I + -(dgu + dlOV)W'I - (e, - -p )(J-)c;

p p r p

u v w

+ (esv + e6W) (J-)c; + (e7u + esw)(J-k + (egu + elOV) (J-k

p p p

J J J }

+ -(esv + ~w)u, + -(e7u + esw)v, + -(egU + elOv)w,

p p p

50

Chapter 11

EQs,2

EQS,3

EQS,4

EQs,s

[ 'Y u J J J 1

+ (d1 - -p d..)(J-)f) + (dsv + t4w)(-)f) + d7(--)vf) + dg(-)Wf)

r p p p p

[ '"Y u J J J 1

+ (el - -p e4)(J -),; + (eSv + t%W)( -)c + e7( - )v( + eg( - )W(

r p p p p

[ '"Y v J J J 1

+ (d2 - -p d..)(J-)f) + (d7u + dlOW)(-)'1 + ds(-)~ + dlO(-)W'1

r p p p p

[ f v J J J 1

+ (e2 - -p e4)(J-)" + (e7U + esw) (-), + eS('-)U( + etO( -)W(

r p p p p

[ '"Y w J J J 1

+ (d3 - -p d..)(J -)" + (dgu + dtov)( -)'1 + lis ( -)~ + ds( - )v"

r p p p p

.. --

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

51

J J J
FQ2,2 - d, ( - h· + b1 ( -)'1 + 11 ( - Ic
p p P
FQ2,3 J J. J
- d5( -)€ + b5( -)'1 + h( -),
p p P
FQ2,4 J J J
- ds( -)e + b-,( -)" + jg( -),
p p p J J J

- d7(-)e+b5(-)'1+/5(-),

p p p

J J J

- ds( -)e + bti( -)" + llO( -),

p p p

--.

ODTO KOTi)PHANESl M. E. T. U. LIBRARY

52

Chapter 11

FQS,l

[ U v w 1

- br(J-)" + b6(J-)" + b:J(J-)"

p p p

[u v w 1

- f6(J-), + fs(J-k+ h(J-),

p p p

J J J

- dlO(-)e+b6(-),,+!s(-k

p p p

I V2 I W2 I e

+ (~- -b4)(J-) + (b:J - -b4)(J-) + -b4(J~)

Pr p " Pr p" Pr p "

uv VW UW } { I U2

+ 2bs(J-)" + 2bs(J-)" + 2b7(J-)" - (/1 - -p f4)(J-), +

p p p r p

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

53

FQS,2

FQS,3

FQs,4

[ 1 v U w 1

+ (b2--p b4)(J-)'l+bs(J-)'l+b6(J-)'l

r p p p

[ 1 v J J J 1

+ (12 - -p f4)(J -), + (!1u + fsw)( - k + Is( - )u( + ito ( - )w(

r p p p p

J 1 [ 1 w u vl

+ dlO(-)V~ + (b:i--p b.)(J-)'1+br(J-)'1+bs(J-)'1

p r p p p

[ 1 w J J J]

+ (fs- -p f4)(J-)(+ (fgU+ftoV)(-),+/6(-)U,+ fs(-)v,

r p p p p

54

Chapter 11

FQs,s

[u v w 1
GQ2,l - - el(J -)e + e5(J-)e + Cf;(J-)e
p p p
[u v w 1
- h(J-)" + fs(J-)'1 + f6(J-)"
p p p
[u v w 1
- Cl(J-),;+es(J-),+C7(J-),;
p p P
J J J
GQ2,2 - el(-)e + ft(-)'1 + Cl(-),
p p P
J J J
GQ2,3 - es( -)e + fs( -)'1 + C5( - k
p p P
J J J
GQ2,4 - e6( -)e + f6( -)'1 + C7( - k
p p p [u v w 1

- h(J -)'1 + h(J -)'1 + Is(J -)'1

P P P

[u v w 1

- es(J-),; + c2(J-k + Ct3(J- k

p p p

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

55

[ u v w 1

eg(J-)e + eIO(J-)e· + e3(J-)e

p p p

J J J
GQ4,2 - e9(-)e + 19(-)" + C7(-),
p p P
GQ4,3 J J J
- elO( -)e + floe -)" + (1)( -),
p p P
J J J
GQ4,4 - e3( -)e + h(-)" + C3(-)'
p p p GQS,l

, .

56

Chapter 11

GQs,2

GQs,3

GQs, ..

u v W

+ (/7v + fgW)(J-)'1 + (fsu + !lOW)(J-)'1 + (fsu + JsV)(J-)'1

P P P

J J J }

+ -(/7v + hW)14J + -(fsu + !lOW)V'l + -(f6U + fsv)w'1

P P P

J 1 [ 'Y u J J

+ es( - )we + (It - -p h)(J -)" + (/Tv + fgw)( -)" + Js( - )v'1

p r p p p

[ 'Y v J J J 1

+ (f2 - -p ! .. )(J -)'/ + (fsu + JlOW) ( -)" + h( -)~ + !s( - )w,/

r p p p p

Transformation of the Eq uations of Fluid Motion

57

11.5 Thin-Layer Approximation

The Navier-Stokes equations are reduced rather drastically by assuming thinlayer approximation. Under this assumption the gradients of the viscous stresses in the direction parallel to the surface (~ and ( directions) "are neglected. The Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes equations are expressed as

B(j BE BF Be BFVT aT + B~ + B." + B( = 7frI

(11-155)

where flux vectors Q, E, F, and G are given by (11-61), (11-62), (11-63), (11-64) and

lb1(U2)'1 + ~~(V2)'1 + lb:J(w2)'1 + bs(uv)'1 + b6(vw)'1 + lrr(uw}'1 + prh~l)M!, b4T'I

(11-156)

o

The viscous flux vector FUT is obtained from the viscous flux vector Fv given as Equation (11-96) by omitting all the mixed partial derivatives. To illustrate this

58

Chapter 11

point, consider for example the second component of the flux vector FIJI where

The partial differential equation (11-155) includes the 11 gradient of the viscous terms. Therefore, this gradient will include terms such as 82u/8118e, 82v/8118e, ... and so on. These and similar mixed partial derivatives are omitted. As a result, only 11 derivatives of the flow variables remain, which ha.ve been redefined as the flux vector PVT' The reason these terms are dropped will be discussed in Chapter 14 where the numerical solution techniques for thin-layer and Navier-Stokes equations are considered. The elimination of these terms is not necessary; however, this reduction does simplify the equations and reduces computer storage and time requirements.

The inviscid Jacobian matrices are the same as those of the Navier-Stokes equations, and the Jacobian matrix 8FvT/8Q is

·.~ .

. "-~.-

Transformation of the Equations of FLuid Motion

59

I "" "" ~ ;:II
I ,-., ...--. ..........
""(<::1. ""(<::1. ""(<::1.
'-" -- --
0 ~ .s ~
;:II
.,. .,. ~ rl
.......... ..-.. ...--. I
""1<::1. '"')1<::1. ""1<::1.
._ '-' ..__.
0 .$ .s .s
----- -
~.~ .-----.
~
~I<::I.I ~I<::I. ..-...
s I <::I.
..., '"') ...,
._ ._ '-'
..li I .s .e
+ + +
~ "" s-
..-.. ..-.. ;;I<=l.. I "';:II
;:.1 <=l.. ;:.1 <=l..
..., '"') ...,
'-'" -- .__.
~ ..s .2
+ + + rl
I ~ I .,. ..-f:
;:11<::1.1 --
I ;:I I <=l.. ;:II <=l.. I
I i I_.....!::

I I I """:.1 <::I.

I , I '-"

I I ~

= ] 0 I 0 I 0 I rlct

-----l------',------t-----r----- _.....!::

I I I I ~~<=l..

I I I I ':i

I I I I ..-f: rid:

I ~ I .,. I, .,. I .s; ;:.1<::1. I

I .......... I.......... .......... I ;:II <=l.. ...,

I '"':.!..-<=l..1 ~<::I.l~<=l..I::, ~ e

01 ..li1.4IJfI...o + +

·-----r---r----t--+-------------------,------

I I I A

I I I ;:.1 <=l..

I I I ...,

I I I ;:::::

I I I "

I I I ..Q

II I I rltt ..-f:

, ..-f: 1 ~I<=l..

<::I. ""-:.

'"') ..8 ._, .__. '-' .J§

~ + +

-----_._---

,---------

.,.
.-.,
.,. .,. ~ I <=l..
"';:.Ic:..."'~Tc:... ::,
.2
~ """:. C'-l
._ .._, +
.--._ .--.. .,.
~ ~ ..-.. .,. ..-f:
rl~ rl~ .rl<=l.. --- S I <=l..
..., EI<=l..
.._. ;:I,
I I ~ '"') '"')
.__. .._.
'" Jf <-Id: ~ .£
~ ._ C'-l C'-l
+ + + + + ~Id

II

1~llg

60 Chapter 11

11.6 Parabolized Navier-Stokes Equations

For steady supersonic flow fields, PNS equations provide an efficient method of solution. It is assumed that the streamwise gradient of viscous stress is small compared to the gradients of stresses in the 1] and (directions. Therefore, the streamwise gradient of viscous stress is dropped. In addition, the streamwise pressure gradient within the subsonic portion of the boundary layer must be approximated to prevent a departure solution. This approximation may employ anyone of the following methods:

a. Neglect the pressure gradient completely.

b. Treat the pressure gradient explicitly.

c. Impose the pressure from the first supersonic point-this method is known as the sublayer approximation.

d. Retain a fraction w of the pressure gradient.

The PNS approximations will exclude streamwise flow separation; however, cross flow separation is predicted. In the following formulation of the PNS equation, the streamwise pressure gradient within the subsonic portion is approximated by method d. The PNS equations are expressed as

aEp aEpp of oc aFtJP aGIJP (11-157)
a~ + --ar- + a1] + ae = 8T1 + 8(
where
Ep 1 (11-158)
- J [€~Ep + €JlFp + €zGp]
Epp 1 (11-159)
- J [~~Epp + ~JlFpp + ~zGpp]
F 1 (11-160)
- J [1]~E + 1JyF + 1JzG]
G 1 (11-161)
- J [(~E + (yF + (zG]
Fup 1 (11-162)
- J [1]:z;Eu + 1JyFtJ + 1]zGtJ]
GIJp 1 (11-163)
- J [(:z;EtJ + (yFtJ + (.,Gu) Transformation of the Eq uations of Fluid Motion

61

and flux vectors are defined as

pu
pu2+wp
Ep= puv (11-165)
puw
{pet + p)u pv pvu

Fp = pv2 +wp

pvw

(pet + p)v

(11-166)

pw 0
pwu (1- w)p
Gp= pwv (11-167) Epp= 0 (11-168)
pw2+Wp 0
{pet + p}w 0 0 0
0 0
Fpp= {1- w)p (11-169) Gpp= 0 (11-170)
0 (1-w)p
0 0 62

Chapter 11

The flux vectors E, F, and G are the same as Ep, Fp, and Gp with w = 1. The parameter w, introduced in Equations (11-165) through (11-170), is determined by stability analysis. The viscous flux vectors Fup and CuP are

where

o

~bl(U2)" + ~~(V2)" + ~~(W2)" + bs(uv)" + ~(uw)'1 1

+br(uw)" + Pr(,,( _ l)M~ b.T"

o

(11-171)

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

63

b - 4 2 2 2 (11-173)
1 - "317% + 17" + 17%
b - 2+ 2+42 (11-175)
3 - 17r 171/ 3"'1/
bs = ~17%171/ (11-177)
b7 = ~17x17% (11-179)
_ 4(2 (2 (2 (11-180)
Cl - 3" % + 1/ + %
C = (2 + (2 + 1(2 (11-182)
3 % 1/ 3%
Cs = k(:r;(y (11-184)
C7 = i(:r;(% (11-186) b = 1]2 + i'J12 + 'J12

2 % 3'111 '1%

(11-174)

(11-176)

(11-178)

(11-181)

(11-183)

(11-185)

Note that the viscous flux vectors Fup and Gup are obtained from relations (11- 96) and (11-97) by omitting all the mixed partial derivatives, as was illustrated previously for the Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes equations,

The inviscid and viscous Jacobian matrices for the PNS equations are as follows:

64

Chapter 11

-. .... .... I

-

00

.....,J

--

+

+

+

+ ~

+ e

..,

+

o

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

65

,-.. 00 00

.......

I ....... ....... '-'

" .

66

Chapter 11

, , + I

I '0 s +

I ....--.'--' ~ ~

I' t-:l,....... €" ,-...

~ ... ~0

1 ,+ ::;-" ~

, ....... ~ I I + ~

17<1 ~'\;' I

~

.--. if'" , ---,---L~''''': .. - I ~

," ,_ L_~ I

., ; ~ I ';,' c- .-

....... <.:!'" _ I 1 II ~ 1 ! -E:::--t-I, --

" + ""_ 1::;- 1 " '" ,

• ~_::;- I ::;- I' ~ I I

+ = I - I ~ ,

_ " 0' ",. 1

'" " ",I < ,"

___ ' __ I I =: I + I

.--. ~ ,------ 1 t '0 '

• • ,__ - I

...----.' ~ ----- ~ ,

+ ->,' -

e ~ I ~ + 0 I -------

• I I r;:; -., '"

+ "" - ::;-'" I "

s_ ::;- I ! + -> I

= I - ' '" ¥ ::;-

....... __ I e I

'7" ~ +

--:___

-----'\;' -> --~-1

0'

=:

+ :0

~ I

+ I

'" I

___ --=r;~

+

'0 ...--..
.§_ 4
I
~ .....
0'
i'!
+
~
<.:! + ---
'0 ,.--. ~
.§... 4 ..,
I +
s ....... <::
.__.. ..
0' + t-:ll .....
t! ~ .--.
.. 4
+ ...::::::... I -. .....

..... I .....

OQ

$

+

+

o

+

e ...

+ S

...

...::::::...

'-'"

-L----~ +

---

----~--.

'0 ~

I

::?

I

..... ._,

c-

o

" '

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

67

I i ~

I I I _...--..._.

II I I I '";) I <=l...

I I I ..__....

I I I I ~~

o I 0 I 0 I 0 I ?-Io...

---1-----~-----~----,-------------------------

~ _...--..._.

s I Q.. ...., ..__....

-.. o 0'1

-

I

..... ..... .._,

" .

68

Chapter 11

Q)~ ~I
<0:;,
II
tl~
0
? ("I ~;---' ("I
... ...
..---.. ......--..... ~
I <, t ... ~
:PI~ "l;) I ~ "l;) I ~ "l;) I ~
....___,., ....___... ....___,.,
,.. ..... '"
i! + + +
...._... s s s
~
~ ~ ......--..... ~
"l;) I~.., to.,. c ... to.,.
"l;) I~ "l;) I~ "l;) I e
....___,., ....___,., ....___... ....___,.,
,.. .... .... ,..
+ -I- + ..---.. ~

I "l;) IS

l~

+ --~--r-~-

~ ... 1......--.....

I I"l;) I to.,.

I ....___,.,

~I~ I '"

~ 1

...._... I

......--..... 1 (.., I

-------------------------~ _l______ TI~

~I~ 1;;--I

2 I

~II

"l;) I ~ I ....___,., I

------------------------------: ~

,..---... I 8 1

I

+

~

+ ,..---... ("I

..,

+ Q

+ ~

+ s

+ S!

+

("I ...

_... -

-

I

-

\0

-

--

-------------------------+-

J~ I !l

I~I~ I

~~ I'~ -t-~--·

,.. ...

-:;-~ II ~ I

....___..., ....___,.,

.... I ,.. I

! I

I I

I I

I I

I I

I I

---,:;--t---;---i,-~--

•• ... I

;:"j":::' ~ I

---- ....___... I

,.. "" I

I

I

,

I I

I I

I I

I I

----I-.---t----_J_--

8 ,I{ I ~ 10

~~SIf31 I

I

I

1+1

~-;;-- ~ a

I \

" .

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

69

11.7 Two-Dimensional Planar or Axisymmetric Formulation

For a two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric flow field, the nondimensionalized Navier-Stokes equation may be expressed in a combined form as

8Q 8E 8F 8E" 8F"

- + - + - + aH = - + - + aH"

at ax ay ax ay

(11-192)

where a = 0 represents two-dimensional planar flow and a = 1 represents twodimensional axisymmetric flow. The flux vectors in Equation (11-192) are

p pu
Q= pu (1l-193a) E= pu2+p (1l-193b)
fYV puv
pet (pet + p)u
fYV pv
puv (1l-193c) 1 puv (1l-193d)
F= H=-
fYV2 + p Y pv2
(pet + p)v (pet + p)v
0 0
E,,= Tzxp (11-193e) Fv = Tzy (11-193f)
Tzy TWp
UTxxp + VTxy - qx UTxy + VT!/lIp - qy
0 2 Y a v T - - - - ("'- ) xy 3 ne; 8x y

1 2 '" v y 2 a v

H" = - TyllP - TOO - 3" Reoo (li) - Reoo 3" ay ("'1)

y ---------------------

2 '" v2 y a 2 v2

ur + VT. - q - - - - - - - (-"'-)

xy YW 11 3 Reoo u ne; ay 3 y

u 8 2 uv

- Reoo 8x (3"'y)

(1l-193g)

70

Chapter 11

where

(11-194)

TlIlIP = .E: (~ {}v _ ~ au) ne; 3 {}y 3 ax

(11-195)

(11-196)

J1. [ 2 Bu {}v 4 v 1

TOO = - -- (- + -) + - -

se; 3 {}x {}y 3 y

(11-197)

J1. 8T

ReooPrb - I)M;" ox

(11-198)

J.L {}T

ReooPr('Y - I)M! lJy

(11-199)

The Navier-Stokes equations given by Equation (11-192) are transformed to 'the computational space by relations (11-6) and (11-7), resulting in

(11-200)

where

- Q Q=J

(11-201)

(11-202)

(11-203)

- H H=J

(11-204)

(11-205)

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

71

- HI)

H=I) J

(11-206)

(11-207)

Substitution of viscous shear stresses into expressions (11-205) and (11-206) provides

o

~al(U2)e + ~a2(v2)e + aa(UV)e + pr('Y~l)Ml a,Te

+~Cl (u2)'1 + ~C2( v2)'1 + cauv'I + C4Vu,., + Pr(-y~l)M! csTfJ

and

o

~Cl (u2)e + ~C2( v2)e + C3VUe + C4UVe + Pr('Y~l)M!. csTe +kbl(U2)'1 + 4b2(V2)'1 + b3(uv)" + Pr('Y~l)M!' b,T'I

where
-4e+e (11-21Oa) a2 = ~~ + t~; (1l-210b)
al - 3 x y
a3 = i~x~y (11-21Oc) a, =~; + ~~ (1l-210d)
b = 1.fJ2 + fJ2 (1l-211a) b - 2 +' 2 (1l-211b)
1 3 x 11 2 - fJx 3"1y
bs = IfJx1Jy (11-211c) b4 = fJ~ + 17; (ll-211d)
Cl = ~1Jx~x + ~yfJy (11-212a) C2 = {x1Jx + ~~uTN (1l-212b)
Ca = 1Jx~y - j~xl7l1 (11-212c) C!.i = ~zl1l1 - ~~ul1z (1l-212d)
Cs = ~z1Jz + ~yT}y (11-212e) (11-208)

(11-209)

72

Chapter 11

The inviscid and viscous Jacobian matrices are:

t-.:), ...... ".....
'<:
--- ~
~
I
.....
..._,
~
~
IW
+
~
IW .-

-

I

tv

......

w

--

..._,

-----~-1------~-------~----

"""'1 -I -10

- 1 ~ I ~ 1

-t: I I I I 1

-< I ...... I ..... 1

~ I ~ 1 ~ 1

~ I 1 1

+ I I 1

o I 1 I

~ I I 1

-- I I

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

73

74

Chapter 11

C) 11

2)~ ~I

I

+

..........

~ I I

!. c:t, g I 0

:::: I

~w I

+ I

~ I

...:: I

._. I

-------r-----L-----t---.----

I I 'I I

.......... I I

~ I I I

I I 0 I ~ I 0

. - I I

-- I I I

~ I I

____ ~ __ ! + .L . _

~
C1l
...
.,..--....
~I! ~
<c::» ~
.--..
~
~
W + I

~ I

W I

---2:""--...1-----+-----+---.----

I I I

I I I

I I I

I I I

I 0 I 0 I

I I I

I I I

I I I

I I I

c.

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

75

I~

I ~

I I t!

I I ?-II-..

--~---~---------f---~-------~---'---~ ---------------------------------------------

I ~

II ~

I ~

I~~~~~ ;

I "":> I ~.....__, ..., I ~ .._____.,. I ......:::._,

I-"__""..., -..__.... ... I ...,

1 .... u co \) 1:1

01 1:1 + 1:1 + L..--....l

~------------__1_------------~-

i I I

I I I

I I I

! !

~I ~I ~

'"" ,..---.... '" .....---... I ;:. I ~

e-
~
""I~
-..__....
Cf
?-I~
+
.... .-..
~ ;:-
--- ., ,..---....
;:>1 ~ .._, ;:>1 ~
..., ""I~ ...,
-..__.... J .._____.,.
,.--..... + ,.--.....
... -s
1:1 ;:-
?-I~ ..--... t-I~
""I~
I ...____... I
'" ., '"
1:1 (j ~
"--'"
+ + +
------- --- ""I~ ..--... ..." ~ I ..., ;:.
""I~ .....__, "":>I~ ...____... I ....__...., rr J ~
....__...., .... ..__... J ..., "--'"
1 \) ..., t! + +
~---; + 1:1 + +
--- -------------------- -
'""
---
sl e,
...,
""-""
...,
1:1
C'-l ;:-
.----., '"" .... + ;:- ;I
.... ;:- ~ ;:- ..--...
,,--...., .-----.. --- --- --- .... ~ ~ ~I ~ ---
., 1 ~ ., I ~ ~I e, ~I ~ "';II e, ..-... "'.,1 ~ .-----.. "":> "'I~
..., ..., ..., ..., ..., 04;:.1 ~ ..., "';:>1 ~ --- ...,
....__..... --- --- --- ....__....,
..__... ..., --- ..., ;:>
'" {J '" J ____.... ____.....__ --- ... J ____.....__
" 1:1 ,.--..... .---.... u
+ + + + ... ".--.... .... .., + ;:-
t! --- t.l .---.... + ---
?-Id: ... ?-jd: -s
.... ~ '"" ~ t! U-I<=I. ;:- ;:- .sl<=l.
--- --- --- --- ?-Id: ?-Id: --- ;:>
;II ~ ~ 1 <=I. P I <=I. ;:>I~ ..., ., I <=I. ..-... "":>
, I --- I ---
..., ~ ..., ~ ~ ;I I <=I.
--- --- .... I ... ~ I ..., is
... ~ ... t! 8 ....__...., t-I~
ej ... e ?-Id: ;:l
~ t! t!
---.....-- '-_.;' ...____.. '--"" {J {J
0 I I I I I + + I +. + + + r-----I ....

..-...

= I <=I.

~

...--...

J

rid:

I

76

Chapter 11

+ + + + +
:P14 ....-"--0. ~14 n ...---...
...---... ....
s: ...---... ~ n
..,
s: 1 :r s "..-..._, 1
t.....
"..-..._, :P14 I "..-..._, ~le :P14
<:..... :P14 t..... ....___"
~I.t' 2" ~I~ ..... n
..._., -...__:....- + ...
'---" s: --
.;i ,..
'--v--' ",.---..... '---" ......_.,...._. & "..--....,
t..... "..-..._, "..-..._, <:.....
~I<::'" t..... <:..... ~Io:t.
__... ~ I~.., ~ I~ ..._.,
.;i __... __... ......
+ '" ~ +
.....
t-:) + &
3" ~
",.---..... ~ "..--....,
<:..... ....---... t.....
~ I§ t..... ~ I~
~ I~ __...
__... __... .....
.;i
e
..... I
1 I 1 0
....-"--0.1 3" r-n--' s: S'
71 (ol
"..-..._, ,.....--..... ....---... "..-..._,
1 I t..... <:..... t..... c....
~ I>:: ~, I>:: ~ I>:: ~ I~
~14 I __... ...... __... ......__., ..._.,
.;i ,., .:s
~ + + + +
-- s: s s: ~
...---.. I "..-..._, ..... --..... ...---.. "..-..._,
e..... I
~I;:: I c.... <:..... <..... <.....
~ Ie "l::. Ie ~Ie ~ t e
...__:; I ......__., ...... __... '-' '-'
,., .:::I ..... .:::I ,.,
L-----I .--------------------------t--

I

I I

----~-----------I---

o

+
...---...
s:
1
~14
s:
'---"
"..-..._,
t.....
~I;::
......__.,
'"

+
...---...
0-
.,
.- I
- :P14
-
I
tv 2"
- '---"
-..,J
-- ....---...
t.....
""=:lIe
....___.....
.:::I + +
s: ...---...
~
...---.. 1
<:.....
"I::> t e ::.014
......__.,
.:::I ~
-- + ~ + S'
s: 0-
.... ---... ... ....---...
"..--...., "1:) 1<..... --- "1::>11'......
~I<..... "_"- ~I<..... ..._.,
......__., ..... ......_... ....
.:::I .:::I +

I I

I I

------------------t------·---f-----------+--

+ + o I + :J I + ~ 0

...---... (ol y- .... -...... I {f .----...

s: :J ~1t.....1""-"'_' "1:)1<:.....1.----... ~It.....

.----... I ~ I ~ It..... ,_....,. I "I::> It..... ......_...

I'...... I......__... I ......__... ....

~ ::.014 t I _" I .:::I

.:::I s ;:: I I

-- .----... I I

~~I I

·--"tl~I_, - 4'1:--tl-------·-~--11-----0 -To-

"'I s I

r "..--...., I

~~I I I

" .

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

77

0 0 0 0
HQ2,1 HQ2,2 HQ2,3 0
1
GI}= (11-218)
ReooJy
HQa,l HQ3,2 HQ3,3 0
HQ4,1 HQ42 HQ4,3 HQ44
I ,
where J 2 [J J.t] J 2 [J J.t]

HQ2,3 = ~x( -)e - -3Y(.z (-)( -) + J.tTJz( -)" - -3YTJz (-)(-)

P PYe P PYl1

[V] 2 [J.t V] [ v J V]

HQ31 =211 -(.!/J-)e +-3Y(.Y (-)(J-) +211 -rh .. (J-)l1+-(-)

, P Y pe P YP

2 [J.L V]

+ -Y17 (-)(J-)

3 Y Y p"

HQa,2 = 0

78

Chapter 11

"'t I-' [ et ( J 2 J 2)] (U ) [ ]

+ P e, - J- + -1.£ + -v -I-' J- T1z;V" + TIsr~

r P P PeP

2 [ v U] 4 J.L v2 4 [J.L V2]

+-J.Lv -2n(J-) +T1z;(J-) +--(J-)+-YTl (-)(J-)

3 "IJI o" p" 3 Y P 3' Y p"

4 [ J.L UV] "'ttt [ et J 2 J 2 ]

+ -YT1:e (-)(J-) + -1]y - J- + (-u + -v )

3 'II p" Pr P p P "

J J 2 J "'tJ.L u

+ J.L(-)(fkV" + 17yu,,) + ttu1]y(-)" - -3J.LvTl:e(--)" - -P ey(J-)e

p P P r P

2 [ J.L V] Itt u

- -YTJz; (-)(J-) - -rt (J-)

3 Y os« Pr 1/ o"

4 [J.L V] 2 [tt U] Itt v J

--3yell (-)(J-) --3ye:r (-)(J-) --P ey(J-)e+J.LUrtz;(-)"

P Pe 'II Pe r P P

2J 4 J 4J.L.v 4 [J.L V]

+-J.L-(2n-v -17:e7l·-)+-ILV'Yl.-(-) ---(J-)--YTl (-)(J-) +

3 P "IJI" --'1 3 ·IJI o" 3 y P 3' Y as«

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

79

2 [J.i U] 'J.i v

- -Y11x (-)(J-) - -Y (J-)

3 Y P TI Pr TI p '1

The Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes equation for two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric flow is reduced to

8Q 8E of - 8FlIT -

8T + 8~ + 811 +aH=~+aHlI

where flux vectors Q, E, and F are given by (11-201), (11-202) and (11-203), and

(11-219)

- J.i -------------------

FliT = ReooJ

b3U'l + ~v'l

(11-220)

o

The Jacobian matrices aE/aQ and 8F/at;} are given by (11-213) and (11-214), and

80

Chapter 11

-..

-

-

I

N N

- '-"

~~,
~
II
tl~
+ + + 0
t-.:> ~I~ ",--.... ----
0- :r s: 0-
(0) ",--.... ....
_,...--...." ~ I 0- _,...--...." _,...--...."
...
~ --- I ~ ~
~ Ig ~ ~I~ "l::ll~ "l::ll ~
~I.t' :PI~ '---"" '---""
...._.... ~ .:s .:s
.:s ....___... ......__" s: + +
...__." .:s
.....--.... '---'" S'" 8'
t...., ..----...
~ I~N ~ _,...--...." ,..---.....
~ I~N ~ ~
...._.... ~I~ ~I~
.:s ....___... .......___.,., ....___...
.:s .:s .:s ----------------------.------t------+----

+ ",--.... s: s: I 0

(%" .9" ..---..... ..---..... I

I ~I~ '1:I1~ I

I '---"".......___.,., I

~~..:s .:s I

? I

'---'" I

..---..... I

~ I

~I~ I

'---"" I

.:s I

----------------------i------ ... ~-----~----

+ ~ l:r s: 0

",--.... ..----... 1"---"'" ..---.....

S'" t...., I "t:ll~ ~It....,

I ~I ~ ;----

:P1~.:s I

? I

'---'" I

~ I

~Ic::! I

'---"" I

. .: ~-----l.-----_I----

I I I

::PI~ I 0 I 0 I 0

• I I I

s: I I I

..---..... I I I

"I:l I t...., I I I

......___.... I I I

.:s I I

I I

Transformation of the Eq uations of Fluid M otion

81

The Parabolized N avier-Stokes equations under the assumptions stated previously are formulated as

8Ep oEpp of fI _ BF"p fi

Be + Be + 01J + Q - 01J + a II

(11-222)

where

(11-223)

(11-224)

and

pu

pu2 +wp Ep=

puv

(pet + p)u

(1l-225a)

pv puv

Fp = (1l-225b)

pv2 +wp

(pet + p)v

o

(1 - w}p

Epp=

o

o

(1l-226a)

o o

Fpp = (1l-226b)

(1- w)p

o

and the viscous flux vector Fvp is

(11-227)

o

The inviscid and viscous Jacobian matrices are:

82

Chapter 11

--

-

-

~

00 '--'

Q)IQ)
..o1~1
II
I I
~ ~~
-- ,.- ....
"" c-
s:: e
+ +
"..,.. :f?'
0:
e o:::~
......... ..... ....
+ +
s: "'" +

~ I

I

I I

I I

il

..,

..:::::::.1

I

---------t------------~--- ... -----+----

I I I

,-., ~ I "" I "....

-.'! I... I Ii

~ I '- I .- ....

I ? ~ I I I + ~ ..

~ ; ~I- I ~ IrE:

s:: e .-. I ~ .....

+~~ ~ ~Ll

~ - ~ ~~ I

.s:...._.. s:: ~: I

s:: I ,

---------t------ -------+---

I "..,.. I

I~~ ~r +i,1

0' + ~t - +.-... ~ I I ~

s:: .:::..--. -.'! s::...... I

+ ~ -.'! ~ I I

~ ~I':::~t ~~I

---~--- ~--1-------~-- ------;----~I .

tI""Yot ,-... ,,- ......

~ ~ -.'!

+ I I I 0

- ..

......... ....

~ "'"

~ I

- .........

.....

..... ....

+

+

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

83

I

I I

I 11 I,;>, I

I ~ I::'- I

I:=:;-- I ~ I

',I I I I ~

~ I ~ I '-"

o ,..._.. I "--' I ~

----1---------T--------~-----------

I

+

(:3 ~

~ ~ Ii .<-: ~

;>,"'_" ..._.. ~ ---;;;..._..

e- I -$ + (::- I

·----r--------~---------r-----------

I~

I ~

I + I '"

~ , ~

~ I .....

+ ,

~ (:3 I ~

~ ~:£.. , ~IC'-l

~ + ~ ,I

I (:3 I Q)

~ ~ J:.: I.i::. J:.:

~ ~ + I I ~ I

----~---------~--------4------------

I ~

I ~

I ~

I + +

I ;;-- "'(:3

J ~ ::=:::

I + ~

I ;:l

I ~ ~

I '-' ~~ I ;:l

o I I

I

+

-...

~

+

84

Chapter 11

.-

-

I

N \,oJ

o

--

I

+ 1 I

__ ~ I

':l"" ,...- "I

1 7' I

1 II

~I~

~ ::PI~ I

...___" 2"' 1

...___" I

I I I I I

I

----------------------r------t-------+----

+ ...---... :i"' S' 0

il" S" ",---....---..

...---... 1 "'1;:)1c...., "'1;:)1c....,

c...., I ....__..,.,......___...

"I::l I <:! :P ~.:I .:I

....__..,.,

.:I ~

'--"

o

+ s:

+ S

-----------------------f------.J-.------J.----

+ s: s: I s: 0

...---......---... ...---... I .---..

:l"' c...., "I::l I c...., I "'1;:) I c....,

1 ~ ;-'1;-'

~I~ .:I I

~ I

<c::« I

...---... I

c...., I

"I::l lei -..___..- I

'------------...:--------j-----t------1----

"'VI~ I 0 I 0 I c>

'"'I I I I

~ I I

.---..1 I

"'1;:) I c...., II I I

;-' I I

I I I

Transformation of the Equations of Fluid Motion

85

11.8 Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

As introduced in Chapter 8, a common scheme to solve numerically the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is the modification of the continuity equation to include an artificial compresibility term. If T is used to denote this artificial compressibility and fJ is used to represent its inverse, then the incompressible NavierStokes equations in dimensional form are given by

8Q 8E 8F eo 8Ev 8Fv eo; -+-+-+-=-+-+-

at 8x 8y Bz 8x . 8y Bz

(11-231)

where

(11-232)

(11-233)

s; = [~:l

T,;z

(11-234)

[f3V

F- vu

- v2+p

VW

(11-235)

(11-236)

[f3W 1

G= wu

:~+p

(11-237)

Gil = [~%%l

Tz!/

Tu

(11-238)

and

2v8u 8x

T., - T .. = V (~ + ~:)

_ 2v8u

T!/1I ay

86

Chapter 11

TIZ - TZI = II (8W + 811.)

8x {Jz

_ 2118w

Tu 8z

Equation (11-231) may be expressed in a nondimensional form if the variables are nondimensionalized according to nondimensional terms defined previously in Section 8.2.1. The nondimensional form of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in a flux vector form is:

where
Q' = [i~l
[~'u' I E' = [~~ I
E. = u·2 + p. (11-240)
u·v· v r..
%11
u·w· •
T:u
[~.v. I F: = [~l
v·u· (11-242)
F·-
- v· + p.
v·w· TIIZ
[~w. I c: = [~~ I
w·u· (11-244)
C·=
w·v· v T.
w·2 + p. zy

Tn
where
2 Bu:

T = ----
II Reoo 8x. (11-239)

(11-241)

(11-243)

(11-245)

(11-246)