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PRE COMMISSIONING TESTS ON EQUIPMENT AT

33/11 KV SUB STATIONS

TESTS ON TRANSFORMERS

1. IR Values
This is measured to measure the Insulation Resistance of the whole
transformer.
a) For 33/11 KV Power Transformer 2500 V megger is to be need.
b) Power Transformer neutral Earthing is to be disconnected.
c) Line terminal of the megger is to be connected to one of the HV Bushings of
Power transformer and Earth terminal of megger is to be connected to Power
transformer Body Earth Point.

IR Values are to be read on the megger by meggering the Power transformer

i) The above Value is to be noted as HV to Body or Earth.


ii) Then IR Value between LV terminal and body of Power transformer is to be
measured & noted.
ii) IR Values between HV & LV terminals are to be measured & noted.
iv) The temperature of transformer oil at which the IR Values are measured is
also to be noted.
v) Particulars of megger is also to be noted.

The maximum value shall be 60MΩ at 600C temperature for transformer which
are in service. For new transformer the value obtained shall be tallied with
manufactures test results.
Example: - HV – E ---- 5000 Mega Ohm OR INFINITE
LV – E ---- 5000 Mega Ohm OR INFINITE
HV – LV ---- 5000 Mega Ohm OR INFINITE
2. Continuity test :-
Checking of continuity of HV windings and LV windings with megger or
multimeter. To know the continuity of windings of the transformer.
Example: - On HV side – RY-YB-BR- Zero Megaohm or continuity
On LV side – ry-yb-br- Zero Megaohm or continuity

3. D.C. Resistance or Winding Resistance


The Resistance of HV winding LV winding between their terminals are to be
measured with precision milliohm meter/ micro ohm meter OR Wheatstone Bridge or
DC resistance meter. To know the resistance of windings.
Example :- For 100 KVA 11/0.4 KV trf.
HV side in ohms RY= 120 to 160 YB= 120 to 160 BR=120 to 160
LV side in milliohms ry = 125 to 180 yb = 125 to 180 br =125 to 180
rn = 60 to 90 yn= 60 to 90 bn =60 to 90

Similarly for 5 MVA power trf.


HV side in ohms RY= 1 to 2 YB=1 to 2 BR=1 to 2
LV side in milliohms ry = 30 to 100 yb =30 to 100 br =30 to 100
rn = 15 to 50 yn= 15 to 50 bn =15 to 50

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The values shall be compared with original test results which varies with the
transformer ratings.

4. Turns Ratio Test


With turns Ratio meter, turns Ratio between HV & LV windings at various taps to be
measured & recorded.
At normal tap for 33/11 KV Delta/Star transformer the turns turns ratio is 5.196. At
other taps values will be as per the percentage raise or lower at the respective tap
positions.
In case of Delta/Star transformers of 33/11 KV rating the ratio measure between
RY-rn, YB-yn and BR-bn.
Being Delta/Star transformers the voltage ratio between HV winding and LV winding
in each phase limb at normal tap is
33 KV OR 33 √3 = 5.196
11 KV / √3 11
At higher taps (i-e high voltage steps) less number of turns are in circuit than normal.
Hence ratio values increase by a value equal to.

5.196 + {5.196 x (no. of steps above normal) x (% rise per each tap)}
100
Similarly for lower taps than normal the ratio is equal to
5.196 - {5.196 x (no. of steps above normal) x (% rise per each tap)}
100

5.Voltage Ratio Test :-


When “Turns Ratio meter” is not available, Voltage Ratio Test is done at Various tap
position by applying 3 phase LT (415V) supply on 33 KV side of Power transformer.
At Various taps applied voltage and Resultant voltages LV side between various
Phases and phases& neutral measured with precision voltmeter & noted.
Example :- For any 33/11 KV power trf.
Tap position VRY VYB VBR Vry Vyb Vbr Vrn Vyn Vbn
1 420 413 419 131 130 131 75 74 75
2(normal) 418 412 418 132 131 133 76 75 75
.
.

This test is done to check both the transformer voltage ratio and tap changer.

6. Short Circuit Test


The four terminals on LV side of Power transformer are shorted with 50 sq. mm.
copper cable. Three phase LT supply is applied on HV side of power transformer at
normal tap and currents measured in all the phases on HV side and phases & neutral
on LV side values noted.
In transformer factory the above test is done to measure full load transformer loss.
In this case the the four terminals on LV side of Power transformer are shorted with
50 sq. mm. copper cable. Three phase LT supply is applied on HV side of power
transformer at normal tap with rated current on HV side. Measure the loss in all the
three phases with the help of 3 watt meter method. Total no load loss or iron loss of
the trf = W1 + W2 W3
The loss varies from trf to trf.
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Example :- For any 33/11 KV power trf.
Short circuit current = Rated primary current of the trf X applied voltage X100
Rated primary voltage of the trf percentage Imp of trf

The Resultant HV & LV currents are as follows:-

HV side current in all Phases =


Rated HV current of PTR X LT Voltage applied on 33 KV side of PTR X100
Rated primary voltage i-e 33000 X Percentage Impedance Volts

LV side phase Current in all phases =


Rated LV current of PTR XLT Voltage applied on 33 KV side of PTR X 100
Rated primary voltage i-e 33000 X Percentage Impedance Volts

LV side neutral current shall be zero or less than 1.0 amp. For example in a 1.6 MVA
trf. the results are:-
VRY VYB VBR IR IY IB Ir Iy Ib In
417 406 412 5.83 5.75 5.50 17.61 17.05 17.50 0.45

Short circuit current = 28 x 417 x100 = 5.75 A similarly for LT side


On HT side 33000 x 6.25
7. Open Circuit Test
Three phase LT Voltage of 415 V applied on HV side of Power transformer
keeping LT open. Measure the loss in all the three phases with the help of 3 watt
meter method. Total no load loss or iron loss of the trf = W1 + W2 +W3
The loss varies from trf to trf.
Tap position VRY VYB VBR Vry Vyb Vbr Vrn Vyn Vbn
2(normal) 418 412 418 132 131 133 76 75 75

For a new 63 KVA trf. no load loss <=160watt


For a new 63 KVA trf. full load loss <=1235watt

8. Magnetic Balance Test


415V, Two phase supply is to be applied to any two phases terminals on HV side of
Power transformer and voltages in other two phase combination are to be measured
with LT open. Sum of the Resultant two values shall be equal to the voltage applied.

RY YB BR Result
a) V (415 V) V1 V2 V= V1+ V2
b V1 V (415 V) V2 V= V1+ V2
)
c) V1 V2 V (415 V) V= V1+ V2
Example :- For any 33/11 KV power trf.
Given VRY VYB VBR Vry Vyb Vbr Vrn Vyn Vbn
(RY) 407 311 99 138 41 94 76 59 17
(YB) 189 390 198 111 112 02 35 74 37
(BR) 106 302 404 39 134 96 19 56 76

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9. Vector Group Test
Connect HV side ‘R’ Phase terminal to LV side ‘r Phase terminal of Power
transformer. Apply 3Phase 415 V supply to HV side of Power transformer.
Measure Voltages between various terminals as follows.
R,r

n y

B Y

Voltages between Rn; Yn; RY VRY = V Rn + VYn


Voltages between Yb; Yy; VYb = VYy
Voltages between Bb; By; VY b > VBb
VRY VRn VYn VYb VYy VBb
414 78 334 300 302 293

For YY0 vector group ry=yb=br and Yy=Bb


10. BDV Test of Oil
Oil samples from top oil & bottom oil of Power transformer main tank as well
as OLTC tank are to be collected and tested. Across 2.5 mm gap test Kit, The oil shall
stand for 60 KV For/ minute. And 4 mm gap for distribution trf. oil.
Power trf. oil is called as EHV GRADE POWER TRF. OIL OR ASCAREL OIL.
Note :- To improve the BDV value the oil is filtered and to remove moisture from
winding it is kept in heat chamber.
11. Crickel Test of Oil
This test is performed to test the presence of moisture or water content in the
trf oil. In this method take a one side closed steel pipe then heat the closed side of the
pipe. Put the closed side of the pipe inside the oil and hear the sound from the other
open side. You will hear hissing sound if there is no moisture inside the oil and you
will hear boiling side if there is moisture.
12. Magnetization Current
Three phase LT Voltage of 415 V applied on HV side of Power transformer keeping
LT open .Measure the currents of HT side in three phases with milli ammeter.

1 to 2 percent of rated full load Applied


The value shall be = current of PTR X Voltage
33000
Example: - let for 1.6 MVA trf. full load current is 28/84 A.
VRY VYB VBR Vry Vyb Vbr Vrn Vyn Vbn
401 385 391 128 126 131 75 72 73

Magnetising current
IR = 0.0033 A or 3.39 A
IY = 0.0033 A or 3.39 A
IB = 0.0033 A or 3.39 A

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TESTS ON TRANSFORMERS AT FACTORY

In transformer factory some more tests are conducted to know the healthy
condition of a transformer they are as follows:-

1) High voltage test or source voltage test:-


This test is done to check the insulation level between HV to LV, HV
to Earth, LV to earth .This test is done through single phase high voltage testing
set.
(a)For distribution trf. HV winding testing:-
11/0.4 KV distribution trf. for 11 KV side 28 KV voltage is applied on HT side
for 1 minute by shorting all HV windings and then connect it to the LV winding
of testing set lead. Again short all LV windings with transformer tank then
connect it to the LV winding of testing set lead.
For a repair transformer 21 KV is applied on HV side i-e 75% of 28 KV.
(b)For a new trf. LV winding testing:-
Similarly same procedure is applied but 2.5 KV is applied on LV side for mew
trf. and 1.87 KV for repair trf. i-e 75% of 2.5 KV.
(c)For power trf. HV winding testing:-
33/ 11 KV power trf. for 33 KV side 68 KV voltage is applied on HT side to one
phase PT and shorting all three phases for 1 minute by shorting all LV windings
and then connect it to earth.
For a repair transformer 21 KV is applied on HV side i-e 75% of 51 KV.
(d)For power trf. LV winding testing:-
28 KV is applied on LV side for new trf. and KV for repair trf. i-e 75% of 21
KV keeping HT open.

2) Double voltage and double frequency test or induced over


voltage test:-
This test is done to check the insulation strength between inter turn of coils or
windings. In this test double the rate of voltage and double rate of frequency is
applied to the secondary side of the trf. for one minute keeping HV open.
For a 11/0.4 KV distribution trf. 866 volt and 100 HZ is applied on LV side of the trf.
for 1 minute keeping HV open..
For a 33/11 KV power trf. 22 KV and 100 HZ is applied on LV side of all the three
phases of the trf. through a auxiliary transformer for 1 minute keeping HV open..
Auxiliary trf. is a 11/0.4 KV trf. to whom 800 volt is applied on LT side so that 22
KV will come on HT side that 22 KV is applied to the LT side of power trf. and 100
HZ through a synchronous motor.

12. Phase sequence test :-


This test is done to check the proper phase sequence of trf. i-e R-Y-B and r-y-b-
n with the help of phase sequence indicator.

PRE COMMISSIONING CHECKS ON POWER


TRANSFORMERS
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Check that
1) Top & Bottom valves of radiators are in open position
2) All drain valves are in closed position with dummy plates in position duly fitted
with bolts & nuts
3) All filler valves in closed position with dummy plates in position duly fitted with
bolts & nuts
4) No oil leakages from radiators, valves, dummies, top cover, inspection covers, oil
level gauges etc.
5) Silica gel breather is in position with silica gel filled & oil in oil cup
6) The air path of silica gel breather is free with out any seals to holes of the oil cup
7) Equalizing valve of the interconnecting pipe of vent pipe to conservator tank is in
open position
8) Top oil filling point of conservator tank is in closed position with cover duly
bolted.
9) The valves on either side of Bucholtz relay are in open position.
10) Thermometer pockets on main tank top cover are having oil inside &
Thermometer sensing bulbs are in position duly nuts fixed properly.
11) The double earthing of neutral of Power transformer is done as per standards.
12) The double earthing of body of Power transformer is done as per standards.
13) The oil levels in conservator tank, OLTC Conservator tank.
14) The operation of main Bucholtz relay & OLTC Bucholtz relay ( Trips &alarms to
be checked)
15) Operation of Transformer alarms.
16) The operation of PRV to trip the breakers or operation of alarms
17) The vent pipe diaphragm is intact.
18) The lock pieces are provided, duly welded to base channels, for the support
wheels of transformers (If wheels are provided)
19) Tightness of all bolts, nuts, clamps, jumpers etc.
20) Testing of earth resistance by earth megger
Generally earth resistance of a s/s is measured with the help of earth megger or
earth tester. A earth megger is like a insulation megger. It has five point terminals
i-e C1,P1,G,P2,C2 and three earth spikes with wires. First put the first spike inside
the ground then connect the spike wire to the point C1 making C1 and P1 short in
the megger. Again put another spike inside the ground at a distance of 12.5 mt
from the first spike in a straight line and connect the wire to P2 similarly put
another spike at a distance of 12.5 mt from the second spike in a straight line and
connect it to point C2 in the megger. The move the handle of the megger to
measure the earth resistance it should be in-between 1 to 3. (<1 is good)

21)Before charging the “PTR” air is to be released from air releasing points of main
tank cover of PTR, OLTC top cover, Bucholtz relays, radiators, bushings, (All
releasing bolts, screws, valves shall be kept in position fully tightened after releasing
air from respective points).
Tests on Breakers
A) I) Status of Breaker “Open”
Measure IR values between “IN” & “Out” terminals Each limb of breaker
shall be more than 3000 MΩ

II) Status of Breaker “Close”


Measure resistant of each limb by connecting “IN” & “Out” terminals to a
precision Micro ohm meter it should be zero.

The values shall tally with manufacturer’s test report.


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III) Status of Breaker “Close”
Measure IR values between phase & Body ground terminal of breaker for all
limbs the values shall be more than 3000 MΩ

B) Opening time & closing time tests to be done on all limbs. The values shall tally
with test results of the Manufacturer.
C) Test mechanical ON and OFF of VCB and indication of VCB and breaker.
D) Similarly electrical ON and OFF of VCB and indication of VCB and breaker on
both remote and local.

E) As follows:

a) IR values of current Transformers are to be measured.


b) Polarity check on current transformers is to be made.
c) Primary injection test on current transformer is to be done to check operation of
relays functioning of meters and CT accuracy.
Let CT ratio is 400-200-100/1-1 A then test the ct in different current ratings in all
the three adopted ratios like 400/1 and 200/1 or 100/1 A by injecting currents like
25,50,100,150,200,250,300,400 etc. testing is done at different PSM.
d) Secondary Injection test on relays is to be done.
e) DC tests on breakers panel are to be done.
f) Calibration of meters is to be done.
g) D.C. interlock are to be tested.
h) Check that all Jumpers, clamps etc. are in to CT
i) Clean all the bushings.
j) Ensure no leakages from the CTs.
k) check proper earthing of CT’s, Panel and breaker with flat separate earth.
l) before wiring study carefully the Ckt. Diagram of VCB.

Tests on Potential Transformers

A) IR value are to be checked with megger.


B) Ratio test is to be done.
C) Polarity check is to be done.
D) Check that there are no oil leakages
E) Clamps & Jumpers properly tightened.
Tests on CURRENT Transformers

A) IR value are to be checked with megger.


B) Ratio test is to be done through primary injection CT injection.
C) Polarity check is to be done.
D) Check that there are no oil leakages
E) Clamps & Jumpers properly tightened
Tests on protective relays

A) Current injection of Relay through secondary injection kit.


B) tripping time test through secondary injection kit..

Tests on Lightening Arrestors

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a) IR value are to be checked.
b) Jumper connection to be checked

Other tests in a Sub Station

a) Battery charger & Battery to be checked for proper operation


b) Earth Resistance is to be measured & noted.
c) Meggering of Bus Bars is to be done.
d) Check the entire earthing system in the Sub Station is as per standards.

FUSE RATING CALCULATION OF DISTRIBUTION


AND POWER TRF.

For 100 KVA 11/0.4 KVA distribution trf.

H.V. side line current = Rating of trf. in KVA


√3 X Voltage on HV side in KV
= 100/1.73X11 =5.24 A

L.V. side line current = Rating of trf. in KVA


√3 X Voltage on LV side in KV
= 100/1.73X0.4 =133.34 A

Or H.V. side line current =KVA/20 =100/20=5 A


L.V. side line current =KVA + 1/3 rd of KVA= 100 + 33.33=133.33 A

For 1000 KVA 33/11 KV power trf.


H.V. side line current = Rating of trf. in KVA
√3 X Voltage on HV side in KV
L.V. side line current = Rating of trf. in KVA
√3 X Voltage on LV side in KV
L.V. side line current =KVA/20 =1000/20=50A
H.V. side line current = L.V. side line current /3=17 A

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