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# SOLUTION CHAPTER 2.

2
INTRODUCTION TO REAL ANALYSIS
BARTLE AND SHERBERT

## Absolute value of a real number ‘a’ is denoted by │a│ and is

defined as

-a if a≤ 0
│a│=
a if a ≥ 0
there are few properties of absolute value which can be proved
very easily here I’ll just write them I won’t prove them you can ask
me if you are not able to prove them you can mail me
sssshukla112@gmail.com

Property 1 Property 3

## │a│= max{ a, -a} sqr(│a│) = sqr(a)=sqr(-a)

Property 2 Property 4

## │a+ b│ ≤ │a│ + │b│ │a│ = │-a│

Now we have some basic idea about absolute value, we can now
solve the questions….
Geometrical meaning of│a│-:
│a│ is distance of real number ‘a’ from 0.

## Q1(a)-: To show that │a│ =√ sqr(a)

Proof-:
Case 1 when a ≥ 0 we have on the L H S │a│= a
 sqr( │a│) = sqr(a)

##  │a│ = √ sqr(a) (taking square root)

Case 2 a≤ 0 in that case we have │a│= -a
 sqr( │a│) = sqr(-a) = sqr(a)

Q1(b)-:
│a/b│=│a│/│b│

= sqr(a)/sqr(b)

= sqr(│a│/│b│)

## => │a/b│ = │a│/│b│ (taking +ve square root)

Q2 -:
│a+ b│ = │a│ + │b│ Iff ab ≥ 0

Proof-:

## First let us assume that │a+ b│ = │a│ + │b│

To show that-: ab ≥ 0
As │a+ b│ = │a│ + │b│

##  sqr(a+b) = sqr(│a│) + sqr(│b│) +2│a││b│

 sqr(a)+sqr(b)+2ab= sqr(a)+sqr(b)+2│ab│

2ab=2│ab│
 ab=│ab│
 ab ≥ 0

consider L H S

## We have sqr(│a+ b│)=sqr(a+b)=sqr(a)+sqr(b)+2ab

( as sqr(│a│) = sqr(a) )

## => sqr(│a+ b│)=sqr(│a│)+sqr(│b│)+2│ab│

( as ab ≥ 0 therefore ab=│ab│)
=> sqr((│a+ b│)= sqr(│a│)+sqr(│b│)+2│a││b│

x≤ y≤ z

proof-:

consider L H S

## => │x-y│+│y-z│=│x-z│ (“ ,“ │a│ = │-a│)

Conversely assume that -:│x-y│+│y-z│=│x-z│……………(1)

To show that -: x≤ y≤ z

## Therefore x-y ≤ 0 and y-z ≤ 0 is true => x ≤ y ≤ z

Now we’ll claim no other possibility is there.

## Then L H S of (1) becomes -x+y+y-z = 2y -x- z which is not equal

to R H S of (1)
Therefore this case is not possible

Similarlly you can check that other two cases are not possible too.

Proof-:

## │x-a│<b <=>max{ -x+a , x-a}< b

<=> -x+a < b and x-a < b
<=> x> a – b and x < a+b
<=> a-b < x < a+b

SOLUTIONS PREPARED BY

## SANJEEV KUMAR SHUKLA

MSc Mathematics(Delhi university)
Contact number-9718445143