Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

DIONISIO, Dannica Joy M.

BSN 3- the artistic and literary talents; Paciano –


A02 love of freedom; sisters – kindness to
women; Fr.Leoncio Lopez – scholarship
and intellectual honesty; GomBurZa in
1872 – spirit of patriotism; (3) Aid of
Ch. 2: CHILDHOOD YEARS IN Divine Providence – versatile gifts of a
CALAMBA genius, heart to sacrifice for a noble
2.1. Calamba, the Hero’s Town: a cause; destiny to be the pride and glory
hacienda town which belonged to the of his nation
Dominican order; to the South is Mt
Makiling (with Batangas beyond the
mountain), East is Laguna de Bay, North Ch. 3: EARLY EDUCATION IN
is Antipolo CALAMBA & BIÑAN
3.0. Four R’s – reading, writing,
2.2. Earliest Childhood Memories: had to arithmetic and religion
be given the tenderest care by his
parents for being frail, sickly and 3.1. Hero’s First Teacher: Mother, at 3,
undersized; daily Angelus prayer; happy taught alphabet and prayers; employed
moonlit nights at the azotea; being private tutors: (1) Maestro Celestino, (2)
threatened with asuang, nuno, tikbalang Lucas Padua, (3) Leon Monroy – his
or Bombay if he would not eat his supper father’s former classmate (Spanish &
Latin)
2.3. First Sorrow – death of Concha at 3.
3.2. Jose goes to Biñan: accompanied by
2.4. Devoted Son of the Church – taught Paciano via carromata; sightseeing with
Catholic prayers by Mom; read Spanish cousin Leandro
family Bible at 5; admired Filipino priest
Fr. Leoncio Lopez 3.3. First Day in Biñan School: tutored by
Justiniano Aquino Cruz; knew by heart
2.5. Pilgrimage to Antipolo – June 6, 1868 the grammars by Nebrija and Gainza;
with his father riding in a casco (barge) tall, thin, long-necked & wearing
2.6. Story of the Moth – fable about sinamay shirt
“being obedient to your mother or else
you may get burnt” 3.4. First School Brawl: challenged Pedro
to a fight (defeated the bigger boy coz of
2.7. Artistic Talents – sketching and clay his wrestling ability learned from Tio
molding (or sculpturing) Manuel); lost to Andres Salandanan in an
arm-wrestling match
2.8. First Poem – “Sa Aking Mga
Kababata” at 8 years old 3.5. Painting Lessons: tutored by old
painter Juancho; he and Jose Guevarra
2.9. First Drama – manuscript bought by became “the favorite painters of the
Paete gobernadorcillo for 2 pesos class”

2.10. Boy Magician – magic-lantern 3.6. Daily Life in Biñan: almost Spartan in
exhibitions and manipulating Simplicity: “studied at 4AM & heard
marionettes Mass… returned home & went to the
orchard to look for a mabolo to eat”…
2.11. Lakeshore Reveries – Guardia Civil took breakfast… went to class …
caning and injuring unarmed villages returned at 10AM… back to school at
2PM and returned home at 5PM…prayed
2.12. Influences on the hero’s Boyhood: with some cousins… study time…
(1) Hereditary – Malayan (love for supper…”
freedom); Chinese (serious nature,
frugality, patience and love for children); 3.7. Best Student in School: beat all
Spanish – elegance of bearing and Biñan boys
gallantry to ladies; (2) Environmental –
scenic beauties of Calamba stimulated
3.8. End of Biñan Schooling: before Rizal to Ateneo; refused admission by Fr.
Christmas of 1870, was instructed by Magin Ferrando, Registrar, coz (1) late
sister Saturnina to board the steamer registrant, and (2) sickly & undersized
Talim to go to Calamba; prayed in the for his age… but was eventually
town Church and collected pebbles in the admitted due to the intercession by
river for souvenirs; left Biñan on Dec. 17, Manuel Xerez Burgos; used “Rizal” as
1870; taken care of by Dad’s friend surname coz “Mercado” had come under
Arturo Camps, a French suspicion by Spanish authorities

3.9. Martyrdom of Gom-Bur-Za: Cavite 4.2. Jesuit System of Ed: … more


mutiny of 200+ soldiers on Jan. 20, advanced than other colleges; rigid
1872was suppressed and Fathers discipline and religious instruction;
Mariano, Jose and Jacinto Zamora were promoted physical culture, humanities
executed on Feb. 17, 1872 by the order and scientific studies; Mass before daily
of Gov. Gen. Rafael de Izquierdo despite class; students in 2 groups: (1) Roman
archbishop’s plea for clemency; mourned Empire (internos – boarders) and
by Rizal family and other patriotic Carthaginian Empire (externos – non-
families; Paciano, enraged by the boarders); best – emperor; 2nd best –
execution of Burgos, quit his studies at tribune; 3rd – decurion; 4th – centurion; 5th
the College of San Jose; GomBurZa – standard bearer; anybody can become
martyrdom inspired Rizal to fight the an emperor (3 mistakes); Romans (red)
evils of Spanish tyranny; Mariano Ponce & Carthaginian (blue); uniform of “hemp-
(Paris, Apr.18, 1889): “Without 1872 fabric trousers” and “striped cotton coat
there would not be now either a Plaridel made of rayadillo”
or Jaena or Sanciangco, nor would there
exist brave and generous Filipino 4.3. First year in Ateneo (1872-73):
colonies in Europe; without 1872 Rizal heard Mass at college chapel and prayed
would be a Jesuit now and, instead of fervently to God for guidance and
writing Noli Me Tangere, would have success; first professor was Fr. Jose
written the opposite” Bech, SJ; became emperor of
Carthaginians at the end of the month
3.10. Injustice to Hero’s Mother: Doña
Teodora and her brother Jose Alberto, a 4.4. Summer vacation (1873): didn’t
rich Biñan ilustrado, were charged by the enjoy it coz mother was in prison
latter’s evil wife (in connivance of a
Spanish Guardia Civil lieutenant) of 4.5. Second year in Ateneo (1873-74):
attempting to poison her. There was received excellent grades in all subjects
hard feeling due to Don Francisco’s and a gold medal; returned to Calamba
refusal to give him fodder for his horse. in March 1874
Teodora was arrested and forced to walk
from Calamba to Santa Cruz (50 kms) 4.6. Prophecy of Mother’s Release: TAR
and languished in jail for 2&1/2 years told her son of her dream the previous
until the Manila Royal Audiencia (SC) night and he interpreted it that she could
acquitted her after lawyers Francisco de be released in two month’s time; it came
Marcaida and Manuel Marzan defended true; likened her son to the Biblical
her. Joseph (the dreamer)

Ch. 4: SCHOLASTIC TRIUMPHS AT 4.7. Teenage Interest in Reading: first


ATENEO DE MANILA (1872-1877) favorite novel was Alexander Dumas’
4.0. Ateneo Municipal, an Escuela Pia “The Count of Monte Cristo” (about
(charity school) for poor boys in 1817, Edmond Dantes’ sufferings in prison and
became Ateneo de Manila in 1859 under revenge; Cesar Cantu’s Universal History
the Jesuits, who were splendid and Jagor’s Travels in the Philippines
educators… causing Ateneo de Manila to (along with his observation of the defects
become excellent school for boys of Spanish colonization and that
someday Spain would lose the
4.1. Rizal enters the Ateneo: passed CSJL Philippines and Amercia would come to
entrance; but Francisco decided to send succeed her as colonizer)
4.8. Third year in Ateneo (1874-75): 4.15. Dramatic Work: San Eustacio,
grades remained excellent but won only Martir
1 medal in Latin
4.16. First romance of Rizal: at 16 years
4.9. Fourth year in Ateneo (1875-76): old (1) Segunda Katigbak, 14, Lipa, made
became an interno on June 16, 1875; pencil sketch of her, “from time to time
Inspired by Fr. Francisco de Paula she looked at me, and I blushed” (but
Sanchez, SJ; described Sanchez as already engaged to marry Manuel Luz)
“model of uprightness, earnestness, and
love for the advancement of his pupils”;
won 5 medals Ch. 5: MEDICAL STUDIES AT U.S.T.
(1877-1882)
4.10. Last year in Ateneo (1876-77): 5.0. Remained loyal to Ateneo even
excelled in all subjects; most brilliant; when he was already a Thomasian
“the pride of the Jesuits”; finished in a
blaze of glory; highest grades in all 5.1. Mother’s opposition to higher
subjects – philosophy, physics, biology, education: coz of Gom-Bur-Za
chemistry, languages, mineralogy, etc.; experience
received B.A. on March 23, 1887 with
highest honors; last day, he prayed to 5.2. Rizal enters university: April 1877,
the Virgin so that “when I should step first term, took Philosophy and Letters;
into that world, which inspired me with 2nd term, took Medicine (1) at the advice
so much terror, she would protect me” of Ateneo’s Rector Fr. Pablo Ramon and
(2) to cure mother’s growing blindness
4.11. Extra-curricular Activities:
“emperor”; member of Marian 5.3. Cross-enrolled in Ateneo with title
Congregation, Academy of Span. Lit., perito agrimensor (expert surveyor);
Academy of Nat. Sci. Pres. of Span. Lit., Sec. of Nat. Sc. and
Sec of Marian Cong.
4.12. Sculptural Works in Ateneo: carved
an image of the Virgin Mary on a piece of 5.4. Romances with Other Girls: (1) “Miss
batikuling; carved an image of the L” – “fair with seductive and attractive
Sacred Heart for Fr. Lleonart eyes”; (2) Leonor “Orang” Valenzuela –
tall girl with a regal bearing; (3) Leonor
4.13. Anecdotes on Rizal, the Atenean: Rivera, daughter of landlord-uncle
“has resignation to pain and Antonio Rivera from Camiling Tarlac and
forgiveness” (by Felix Ramos… in were engaged; exchanging letters with
Manzano vs. Lesaca); “has predilection Leonor using “Taimis” as pen name
to help the helpless at the risk of his own 5.5. Victim of Spanish officer’s brutality:
life” (by Manuel Xerez Burgos: case of his back was slashed with a sword by the
Julio Meliza from Iloilo) Guardia Civil lieutenant for failure to
salute; to Blumentritt (March 21, 1887) “I
4.14. Poems written in Ateneo: Mi went to the Captain General but I could
Primera Inspiracion (for Mom’s birthday) not obtain justice; my wound lasted 2
in 1874; In 1875, inspired by Fr. weeks”.
Sanchez, he wrote (1) Felicitacion, (2) El
Embarque: Himno a la Flota de 5.6. A La Juventud Filipino won 1st Prize
Magallanes, (3) E Es Español, El Primero in 1879 Liceo Astistico-Literario
En Dar Vuelta Al Mundo, (4) El Combate:
Urbiztondo, Terror de Jolo; in 1876: (1) 5.7. 1880: 4th Centennial of Cervantes
Un Recuerdo a Mi Pueblo; (2) Alianza (author of Don Quixote): El Consejo de
Intima Entre la Religion y la Buena los Dioses was #1 over Spanish entries
Educacion; in 1877: El Heroismo de
Colon 5.8. Other Literary Works: zarzuela
“Junto al Pasig” (Beside the Pasig);
4.14. To the Child Jesus; To the Virgin sonnet “A Filipinas”
Mary
5.9. Rizal’s Visit to Pakil and Pagsanjan: 6.5. First Trip through Suez Canal: Cape
at the house of Manuel Regalado in Pakil, of Guardafui, Africa → Aden → Suez Canal
he was infatuated by Vicenta Ybardolaza (5 days to traverse) built by Ferdinand
de Lesseps → Port Said
5.10. Champion of Filipino Students:
founded Compañerismo (comradeship) 6.6. Naples and Marseilles: June 11,
as a secret society in UST (Companions Naples; June 12, Marseilles; June 16,
of Jehu) Barcelona (the greatest city of Cataluña,
2nd biggest in Spain); people were open-
5.11. Unhappy Days at the UST: (1) hearted, hospitable and courageous and
Dominican professors were hostile to there was atmosphere of freedom &
him, (2) Filipino students were racially liberalism; welcomed by Ateneo
discriminated against by the Span,(3) schoolmates with a party in Plaza de
method of instruction was obsolete and Cataluña
repressive
6.7. Wrote “Amor Patrio” to Diariong
5.12. Decision to Study Abroad: brothers Tagalog publisher Basilio Teodoro Moran
and sisters were supportive; did not seek using pen-name “Laong Laan” … “we
his parent’s permission and blessings love her (patria) always just as the child
because he knew that they would loves its mother in the midst of hunger
disapprove it; to continue MD studies in and misery”
Spain where professors were more
liberal 6.8. Rizal Moves to Madrid: Fall of 1882
at the advice of Paciano

Ch. 6: IN SUNNY SPAIN (1882-1885) 6.9. Life in Madrid: Nov. 3, 1882, enrolled
6.1. Rizal’s Secret Mission: with in UCM Medicine and Philosophy &
Paciano’s approval… “to alleviate the Letters, took lessons in French, German
sufferings of my fellowmen. I realize that and English; he rigidly budgeted his
all this means sacrifices, and terrible money and time; attended Fil reunions at
ones.. I shall strive with fate, and I shall the house of Paterno brothers and visited
win or lose… God’s will be done” (quoted the home of former Manila mayor Don
by Austin Coates); to observe keenly the Pablo Ortiga y Rey on Sat evenings
life and culture, languages and customs,
industries and commerce, and 6.10. Romance with Consuelo Ortiga y
governments and laws of European Perez: A la Señorita C. O. y P.
nations… to prepare to liberate the
oppressed people from Spanish tyranny 6.11. Joined Circulo Hispano-Filipino in
Madrid and wrote “Me Piden Versos”
6.2. Secret Departure for Spain: Jesuit (They Ask Me for Verses) on Dec 31,
priests gave him letters of 1882; collected books
recommendation to the Society in
Barcelona; used the name “Jose 6.12. First Visit to Paris (June 17-Aug 20,
Mercado”, a cousin from Biñan; boarded 1883): visited famous sites: mistaken as
Spanish steamer Salvadora, May 3, 1882 a Japanese; “costliest capital in Europe”

6.3. Singapore: 16 passengers – the only 6.13. Rizal As a Mason: met prominent
Filipino; befriended by ship captain personalities, e.g., Miguel Morayta, Pi y
Donato Lecha of Asturias; saw statue of Margal, et al; joined Lodge Acacia in
Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles (founder of March 1883 “to secure Freemasonry’s
Singapore) aid in his fight against the friars in the
Philippines”; transferred to Lodge
6.4. From Singapore to Colombo: French Solidaridad (Madrid) as Master Mason
steamer Djemnah left Singapore (with Mr on Nov. 15, 1890; also of Le Grand
and Mrs Salazar, Vicente Pardo and Rizal; Orient de France in Paris on Feb. 15,
reached Point Galle then Colombo 1892
6.14. Financial Worries: drought and Tell (champion of Swiss Independence);
increased rentals in Calamba at Dresden, met Dr. Adolph B. Meyer and
heard Mass in a Catholic Church
6.15. Rizal’s Salute to Luna and Hidalgo:
1st Prize – Luna’s Spoliarium & 2nd – 7.9. Welcomed in Berlin’s Scientific
Hidalgo’s Christian Virgins Exposed to Circles: met Dr. Feodor Jagor, author of
the Populace Travels in the Philippines, and worked in
the clinic of Dr. Karl Ernest Schweigger;
6.16. Involved in Student delivered Tagalische Verkunst (Tagalog
Demonstrations: “Viva Morayta! Down Metrical Art) to the Ethnographic Society
with Bishops!” – freedom of science and of Berlin
the teacher
7.10. Life in Berlin: (1) to master
6.17. Studies completed in Spain: ophthalmology, (2) further study
conferred Licentiate in Medicine by UCM sciences and languages, (3) observe
on June 21, 1884; studied Doctor of economic and political conditions, (4)
Medicine but did not present thesis nor associate with scientists and scholars,
paid corresponding fees, so no diploma; and (5) publish “Noli”; private lessons on
finished Licentiate in Philo and Letters on French idioms under Madame Lucie
June 19, 1885 (24th birthday) Cerdole

7.11. On German Women: “they are


Ch. 7: PARIS TO BERLIN (1885-87) serious, diligent, educated and friendly;
7.1. In Gay Paris (1885-86): to acquire not gossipy, frivolous and quarrelsome
more knowledge in ophthalmology; like Spanish women” (letter to Trinidad);
worked as an assistant to Dr. Louis d Rizal regretted that “in the Philippines
Weckert (Nov 1885-Feb 1886); posed as women are more interested in how they
an Egyptian priest in “The Death of dress than in how much they know”
Cleopatra” and as Sikatuna in “The Blood
Compact” by Luna 7.12. German customs: self-introduction
to strangers in a social gathering
7.2. Rizal as Musician: he told Enrique 7.13. Darkest winter: 1886 in Berlin, he
Lete: “I learned piano and voice culture”; was flat broke; had to scrimp, eating
also played flute; composed “Alin Mang only 1 meal a day… bread and water or
Lahi” (Any Race) cheap vegetable soup; ravages of the
locusts in Calamba
7.3. In Historic Heidelberg: joined chess
games and beer drinking with Germans;
worked at the University Eye Hospital Ch. 8: NOLI ME TANGERE PUBLISHED
under Dr. Otto Becker in Heidelberg IN BERLIN (1887)
8.0. Noli came off the press in March
7.4. Spring of 1886 (April 22): wrote a 1887; Dr. Maximo Viola (from Bulacan)
poem “A Las Flores de Heidelberg” loaned him the funds to publish
8.1. Idea of Writing on the Philippines:
7.5. Spent vacation at the house of while at UCM, he read Harriet Beecher
pastor Dr. Karl Ullmer at Wilhelmsfeld Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (portrays
brutalities of American slave-owners);
7.6. July 31, 1886: wrote to Prof. proposed during the reunion at the
Ferdinand Blumentritt, Director of the Paterno residence and was unanimously
Ateneo of Leitmeritz, Austria; first approved; compatriots failed to write
German friend in Austria anything, so he did it alone

7.7. Attended the 5th Centenary of the 8.2. Viola, savior of the Noli; deleted the
Heidelberg University (Aug 6, 1886) chapter on “Elias and Salome” to cut
7.8. In Leipzig & Dresden: befriended cost
Prof. Friedrich Ratzel, historian, and Dr.
Hans Meyer, anthropologist at Leipzig;
translated into Tagalog Schiller’s William
8.3. Rizal suspected as a Frenchy Spy –
coz entered from Paris to Berlin and
visited rural folks

8.4. Printing Finished: March 21, 1887;


sent first copies to Blumentritt, Dr.
Regidor, Lopez Jaena, Ponce & Hidalgo;
Viola – “the first to read and
appreciate…”

8.5. Title of the Novel: “Touch me not”


(John 20:13-17, First Easter)

8.6. Dedicated “to My Fatherland”

8.7. Synopsis… (c/o Another document)

8.8.The “Noli” based on Truth: places,


characters and situations really existed;
Maria Clara – Leonor Rivera (reality:
unfaithful and married an Englishman);
Ibarra and Elias – Rizal; Tasio – Paciano;
Padre Salvi – Fr. Antonio Piernavieja;
Capitan Hilario Sunico; Doña Victorina –
Doña Agustina Medel; Basilio & Crispin –
Crisostomo brothers of Hagonoy; Padre
Damaso – typical arrogant, immoral &
anti-Filipino priest

8.8. Missing Chapter: “Elias and Salome”


– cut cost (cf. Entire story)

8.9. Friends Praise the Noli: “cordial


congratulations” from Blumentritt; “your
work has exceeded my hopes”; London:
exiled Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor was
impressed: reader will “be inspired and
will regard your book as the masterpiece
of a Filipino…”