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588 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Nonprismatic Beams

Problem 9.7-1 The cantilever beam ACB shown in the figure has moments
of inertia I2 and I1 in parts AC and CB, respectively. P
I2
(a) Using the method of superposition, determine the deflection B at the A C I1
free end due to the load P. B
(b) Determine the ratio r of the deflection B to the deflection 1 at the free L L
end of a prismatic cantilever with moment of inertia I1 carrying the same load. — —
2 2
(c) Plot a graph of the deflection ratio r versus the ratio I2 /I1 of the moments
of inertia. (Let I2 /I1 vary from 1 to 5.)

Solution 9.7-1 Cantilever beam (nonprismatic)


Use the method of superposition. (3) Total deflection at point B
PL3 7I1
(a) DEFLECTION B AT THE FREE END B  (B ) 1  (B ) 2  ¢1  ≤
24EI1 I2
(1) Part CB of the beam:
PL3
P (b) PRISMATIC BEAM 1 
C I1 3 EI1
B
B 1 7I1
L
— Ratio: r  ¢1  ≤
2 P L 3
PL 3 1 8 I2
(B ) 1  ¢ ≤ 
3EI1 2 24EI1
(c) GRAPH OF RATIO
(2) Part AC of the beam:

I2
P PL 1 r
I2 — I1
A 2 r
C
0.5
L 1 1.00

2 0 2 0.56
1 2 3 4 5 6 3 0.42
P(L 2) 3 (PL 2)(L 2) 2 5PL3 I2
— 4 0.34
C    I1 5 0.30
3EI2 2EI2 48EI2
P(L 2) 2
(PL 2)(L 2) 3PL2
uC   
2EI2 EI2 8EI2
L 7PL3
(B ) 2  C  uC ¢ ≤ 
2 24EI2

Problem 9.7-2 The cantilever beam ACB shown in the figure supports q
a uniform load of intensity q throughout its length. The beam has moments
of inertia I2 and I1 in parts AC and CB, respectively.
(a) Using the method of superposition, determine the deflection B
A C B
at the free end due to the uniform load.
(b) Determine the ratio r of the deflection B to the deflection 1 I1
I2
at the free end of a prismatic cantilever with moment of inertia I1 carrying
the same load. L L
— —
(c) Plot a graph of the deflection ratio r versus the ratio I2 /I1 of the 2 2
moments of inertia. (Let I2 /I1 vary from 1 to 5.)
SECTION 9.7 Nonprismatic Beams 589

Solution 9.7-2 Cantilever beam (nonprismatic)


Use the method of superposition (3) Total deflection at point B
qL4 15I1
(a) DEFLECTION B AT THE FREE END B  (B ) 1  (B ) 2  ¢1  ≤
128EI1 I2
(1) Part CB of the beam:
q qL4
(b) PRISMATIC BEAM 1 
8EI1
B B
C I1 q L 4 qL4 1 15I1
(B ) 1  ¢ ≤  Ratio: r  ¢1  ≤
L 8EI1 2 128EI1 1 16 I2
2
(2) Part AC of the beam: (c) GRAPH OF RATIO
qL qL2 L 2
¢ ≤ (L 2) 3 ¢ ≤¢ ≤
q(L 2) 4
2 8 2 17qL4
c    
8EI2 3EI2 2EI8 384EI2
1
qL
— r
2
q 0.5
qL2

8
C O I2
A I2 1 2 3 4 5
L I1

2
q(L 2) 3 (qL 2)(L 2) 2 (qL28)(L 2) I2
uC    I1
r
6EI2 2EI2 EI2
7qL3
 1 1.00
48EI2 2 0.53
L 15qL4 3 0.38
(B ) 2  C  uC ¢ ≤ 4 0.30
2 128EI2
5 0.25
q
Problem 9.7-3 A simple beam ABCD has moment of inertia I near
the supports and moment of inertia 2I in the middle region, as shown
in the figure. A uniform load of intensity q acts over the entire length A B C D
of the beam.
I I
Determine the equations of the deflection curve for the left-hand 2I
half of the beam. Also, find the angle of rotation A at the left-hand
L L
support and the deflection max at the midpoint. —
4

4
L

Solution 9.7-3 Simple beam (nonprismatic)


qL qx 2 qL x qx 2
Use the bending-moment equation (Eq. 9-12a). RA  RB  M  Rx   
2 2 2 2
REACTIONS, BENDING MOMENT, AND DEFLECTION CURVE
q
y
L L L L
— — — —
A 4 B 4 E 4 C 4 D x
A B E C D
I I
2I

RA A max
x
RB
590 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

BENDING-MOMENT EQUATIONS FOR THE LEFT-HAND INTEGRATE EQS. (7) AND (8)
HALF OF THE BEAM
qL x3 qx4 7qL3 x L
2 EIv     C3 ¢0 x ≤ (9)
qL x qx L 12 24 256 4
EIv–  M   ¢0  x  ≤ (1)
2 2 4 qL x3 qx4 qL3 x L L
EIv     C4 ¢  x  ≤ (10)
qL x qx 2 L L 24 48 48 4 2
E(2I)v–  M   ¢ x ≤ (2)
2 2 4 2
B.C. 3 Deflection at support A
INTEGRATE EACH EQUATION
v(0)  0 From Eq. (9): C3  0
qL x2 qx3 L
EIv¿    C1 ¢0  x  ≤ (3)
4 6 4
DEFLECTION AT POINT B (FROM THE LEFT)
qL x2 qx3 L L
2EIv¿    C2 ¢ x ≤ (4) L
4 6 4 2 Substitute x  into Eq. (9) with C3  0:
4
L
B.C. 1 Symmetry: v¿ ¢ ≤0 35 qL4
2 EIvB   (11)
6144
3
qL
From Eq. (4): C2   B.C. 4 Continuity of deflections at point B
24
qL x2 qx3 qL3 L L (vB)  (vB)
Right Left
2EIv¿    ¢ x ≤ (5)
4 6 24 4 2
From Eqs. (10) and (11):
qL L 3 q L 4 qL3 L 35qL4
SLOPE AT POINT B (FROM THE RIGHT) ¢ ≤  ¢ ≤  ¢ ≤  C4  
24 4 48 4 48 4 6144
L
Substitute x  into Eq. (5): 13qL4
4 ∴ C4  
12,288
11 qL3
EIv¿B   (6)
768 DEFLECTIONS OF THE BEAM (FROM EQS. 9 AND 10)
qx
v (21L3  64Lx2  32x3 )
B.C. 2 CONTINUITY OF SLOPES AT POINT B 768EI
L
¢0  x  ≤
(v¿B ) Left  (v¿B ) Right 4
From Eqs. (3) and (6):
q
qL L 2 q L 3 11qL3 7qL3 v (13L4  256L3x  512Lx3  256x4 )
¢ ≤  ¢ ≤  C1   ∴ C1   12,288EI
4 4 6 4 768 256 L L
¢ x ≤
4 2
SLOPES OF THE BEAM (from Eqs. 3 and 5)
MAXIMUM DEFLECTION (AT THE MIDPOINT E)
qLx2 qx3 7qL3 L
EIv¿    ¢0 x ≤ (7) (From the preceding equation for v.)
4 6 256 4
L 31qL4
qLx2 qx3 qL3 L L max  v ¢ ≤  (positive downward)
EIv¿    ¢ x ≤ (8) 2 4096EI
8 12 48 4 2

ANGLE OF ROTATION A (FROM EQ. 7)

7qL3
uA  v¿(0)  (positive clockwise)
256EI
SECTION 9.7 Nonprismatic Beams 591

Problem 9.7-4 A beam ABC has a rigid segment from A to B and a P


flexible segment with moment of inertia I from B to C (see figure). Rigid
A concentrated load P acts at point B. I
C
Determine the angle of rotation A of the rigid segment, the A
B
deflection B at point B, and the maximum deflection max.
L 2L
— —
3 3

Solution 9.7-4 Simple beam with a rigid segment

P PL3
Rigid B.C. 2 v(L)  0 ∴ C2    3EIB
54
I
C
A PLx2 Px3 5PL2x 3EIBx
B
EIv    
6 18 54 L
L 2L 2
— — PL L
3 3   3EIB ¢  x  L ≤ (5)
54 3
y L
B.C. 3 At x  , (vB)  (vB) (Eqs. 1 and 5)
B C 3 Left Right
A x
8PL3
∴ B 
B B max 729EI
B 8PL2
uA  
FROM A TO B L3 243EI
3B x L Substitute for B in Eq. (5) and simplify:
v ¢0 x ≤ (1) P
L 3 v (7L3  61L2x  81Lx2  27x3 )
3B L 486EI
v¿   ¢0  x  ≤ (2) L
L 3 ¢  x  L≤ (6)
3
Also,
FROM B TO C P
v¿  (61L2  162Lx  81x2 )
PL Px 486EI
EIv–  M   (3) L
3 3 ¢  x  L≤ (7)
PLx Px2 3
EIv¿    C1
3 6
MAXIMUM DEFLECTION
3B L
B.C. 1 At x  L/3, v¿   v¿  0 gives x1  (9  215)  0.5031L
L 9

5PL2 3EIB Substitute x1 in Eq. (6) and simplify:


∴ C1    4015PL3
54 L vmax  
PLx Px2 5PL2 3EIB 6561EI
EIv¿     40 15PL3 PL3
3 6 54 L max  vmax   0.01363
L 6561EI EI
¢  x  L≤ (4)
3
2 3
PLx Px 5PL2x 3EIBx
EIv      C2
6 18 54 L
L
¢  x  L≤
3
592 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.7-5 A simple beam ABC has moment of inertia 1.5I from A P
to B and I from B to C (see figure). A concentrated load P acts at point B. 1.5I I
C
Obtain the equations of the deflection curves for both parts of the A
B
beam. From the equations, determine the angles of rotation A and C
at the supports and the deflection B at point B. L 2L
— —
3 3

Solution 9.7-5 Simple beam (nonprismatic)


B.C. 4 Continuity of deflections at point B
Use the bending-moment equation (Eq. 9-12a).
(vB)  (vB)
Left Right
DEFLECTION CURVE
From Eqs. (6), (8), and (7):
y P
4P L 3 L PL L 2 P L 3 L
1.5I ¢ ≤  C1¢ ≤  ¢ ≤  ¢ ≤  C2 ¢ ≤  C4
A B I C x 54 3 3 6 3 18 3 3
10PL3
C1L   C2L  3C4 (10)
A B B 243

SOLVE EQS (5), (8), (9), AND (10)


BENDING-MOMENT EQUATIONS
38PL2 175PL2
3I 2Px L C1   C2   C3  0
E ¢ ≤ v–  M  ¢0  x  ≤ (1) 729 1458
2 3 3
13PL3
PL Px L C4 
EIv–  M   ¢  x  L≤ (2) 1458
3 3 3
SLOPES OF THE BEAM (FROM EQS. 3 AND 4)
INTEGRATE EACH EQUATION
2P L
4Px2 L v¿   (19L2  81x2 ) ¢ 0  x  ≤ (11)
EIv¿   C1 ¢ 0  x  ≤ (3) 729EI 3
18 3
P
PLx Px 2
L v¿   (175L  486Lx  243x )
2 2
EIv¿    C2 ¢  x  L ≤ (4) 1458EI
3 6 3 L
¢  x  L≤ (12)
3
B.C. 1 Continuity of slopes at point B
(v¿B ) Left  (v¿B ) Right ANGLE OF ROTATION A (FROM EQ. 11)
From Eqs. (3) and (4):
38PL2
4P L 2 PL L P L 2 uA  v¿(0)  (positive clockwise)
¢ ≤  C1  ¢ ≤  ¢ ≤  C2 729EI
18 3 3 3 6 3
11PL 2 ANGLE OF ROTATION C (FROM EQ. 12)
C2  C1  (5) 34PL2
162 uC  v¿(L)  (positive counterclockwise)
729EI
INTEGRATE EQS. (3) AND (4)
DEFLECTIONS OF THE BEAM
4Px3 L
EIv   C1x  C3 ¢ 0  x  ≤ (6) Substitute C1, C2, C3, and C4 into Eqs. (6) and (7):
54 3
2Px L
PLx2 Px3 L v (19L2  27x2 ) ¢ 0  x  ≤
EIv    C2 x  C4 ¢  x  L ≤ (7) 729EI 3
6 18 3 P
v (13L3  175L2x  243Lx2  81x3 )
B.C. 2 Deflection at support A 1458EI
L
v(0)  0 From Eq. (6): C3  0 (8) ¢  x  L≤
3
B.C. 3 Deflection at support C L
PL3 DEFLECTION AT POINT B ¢ x  ≤
v(L)  0 From Eq. (7): C4    C2L (9) 3
9 L 32PL3
B  v ¢ ≤ (positive downward)
3 2187 EI
SECTION 9.7 Nonprismatic Beams 593

Problem 9.7-6 The tapered cantilever beam AB shown in


the figure has thin-walled, hollow circular cross sections of
constant thickness t. The diameters at the ends A and B are dA
and dB  2dA, respectively. Thus, the diameter d and moment
of inertia I at distance x from the free end are, respectively,
dA P
d  (L  x) B
L A t
t d 3  t d 3A I dA dB = 2dA
I     3
(L  x)3  A3 (L  x)3
8 8L L d
x
in which IA is the moment of inertia at end A of the beam. L
Determine the equation of the deflection curve and the
deflection A at the free end of the beam due to the load P.

Solution 9.7-6 Tapered cantilever beam


IA PL3 L 1 PL3 L
M  Px EIv–  Px I (L  x) 3 v ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤ B  ln(L  x) R
L3 EIA 2 Lx EIA L  x
Px PL3 x 3PL2
v–    B R (1)  x  C2
EI EIA (L  x) 3 8EIA
PL3 L 3x
INTEGRATE EQ. (1)  B  ln(L  x)  R  C2 (3)
EIA 2(L  x) 8L
L  2x
 (L  x)
xdx
From Appendix C: 
3
2(L  x) 2
PL3 L  2x PL3 1
v¿  B R  C1 B.C. 2 v(L)  0 ∴ C2  B  ln(2L) R
EIA 2 (L  x) 2 EIA 8

3PL2
B.C. 1 v¿(L)  0 ∴ C1   DEFLECTION OF THE BEAM
8EIA
Substitute C2 into Eq. (3).
PL3 L  2x 3PL2
v¿  B R  PL3 L 3x 1 Lx
EIA 2 (L  x) 2 8EIA v B    ln ¢ ≤R
EIA 2(L  x) 8L 8 2L
or
PL3 PL3 3PL2
(2) DEFLECTION A AT END A OF THE BEAM
L x
v¿  B R  B R 
EIA 2 (L  x) 2 EIA (L  x) 2 8EIA
PL3 PL3
A  v(0)  (8 ln2  5)  0.06815
INTEGRATE EQ. (2) 8EIA EIA
From Appendix C: (positive downward)


dx 1
2
1
(L  x) Lx NOTE: ln  ln 2
2

 (L  x)
xdx L
  ln(L  x)
2
Lx
594 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.7-7 The tapered cantilever beam AB shown in the figure has
a solid circular cross section. The diameters at the ends A and B are dA and
dB  2dA, respectively. Thus, the diameter d and moment of inertia I at
distance x from the free end are, respectively, P
dA B
d   (L  x) A
L dA dB = 2dA
d 4  d 4A I
I    (L  x)4  A4 (L  x)4 x
64 64L4 L
L
in which IA is the moment of inertia at end A of the beam.
Determine the equation of the deflection curve and the deflection A
at the free end of the beam due to the load P.

Solution 9.7-7 Tapered cantilever beam

IA
M  Px EIv–  Px I (L  x) 4 INTEGRATE EQ. (2)
L4
 (L  x)  2(L  x)
dx 1
From Appendix C:
Px PL4 x 3 2
v–     B R (1)
EI EIA (L  x) 4 (L  2x)
 (L  x)  2(L  x)
xdx
3 2

INTEGRATE EQ. (1) PL4 L 1 1 2 PL4 1


v ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤  ¢ ≤
EIA 6 2 Lx EIA 2
L  3x
 (L  x)
xdx
From Appendix C:  L  2x PL2
4
6(L  x) 3 B 2 R x  C2
2(L  x) 12EIA
PL4 L  3x
v¿  B R  C1 PL3 L2 L(L  2x) x
EIA 6 (L  x) 3  B   R  C2 (3)
EIA 12(L  x) 2 4(L  x) 2 12L
PL2
B.C. 1 v¿(L)  0 ∴ C1   PL3 7
12EIA B.C. 2 v(L)  0 ∴ C2  ¢ ≤
EIA 24
PL4 L  3x PL2
v¿  B 3R  DEFLECTION OF THE BEAM
EIA 6 (L  x) 12EIA
or Substitute C2 into Eq. (3).

PL4 L PL4 x PL3 4L(2L  3x) 2x


v¿  B R  B R v B7   R
EIA 6 (L  x) 3
EIA 2(L  x) 3 24EIA (L  x) 2 L

PL2 DEFLECTION A AT END A OF THE BEAM


 (2)
12EIA
PL3
A  v(0)  (positive downward)
24EIA
SECTION 9.7 Nonprismatic Beams 595

Problem 9.7-8 A tapered cantilever beam AB supports


a concentrated load P at the free end (see figure). The
cross sections of the beam are rectangular with constant
width b, depth dA at support A, and depth dB  3dA /2 at
the support. Thus, the depth d and moment of inertia I
at distance x from the free end are, respectively, P
A B
dA
d   (2L  x) dA
3dA
dB = —
2L d
2
bd 3 bd A3 I x
I     3
(2L  x)3  A(2L  x)3 b
12 96L 8L3
L
in which IA is the moment of inertia at end A of the beam.
Determine the equation of the deflection curve and the
deflection A at the free end of the beam due to the load P.

Solution 9.7-8 Tapered cantilever beam

IA 8PL3 L 8PL3 2L
M  Px EIv–  Px I (2L  x) 3 v ¢ ≤ B
8L3 EIA 2L  x EIA 2L  x
Px 8PL3 x 16PL2
v–    B R (1)  ln(2L  x) R  x  C2
EI EIA (2L  x) 3 9EIA
PL3 8L 16x
INTEGRATE EQ. (1)  B  8ln(2L  x)  R  C2 (3)
EIA 2L  x 9L
2L  2x
 (2L  x)
xdx 8PL3 1
From Appendix C:  B.C. 2 v(L)  0 ∴ C2   B  ln(3L) R
3
2(2L  x) 2 EIA 9
8PL3 Lx
v¿  B R  C1
EIA (2L  x) 2 DEFLECTION OF THE BEAM
2 Substitute C2 into EQ. (3).
16PL
B.C. 1 v¿(L)  0 ∴ C1  
9EIA
8PL3 L 2x 1
v B  
8PL3 Lx 16PL2 EIA 2L  x 9L 9
v¿  B 2R 
EIA (2L  x) 9EIA 2L  x
 ln ¢ ≤]
or 3L

8PL3 L 8PL3 x
v¿  B R  B R DEFLECTION A AT END A OF THE BEAM
EIA (2L  x) 2
EIA (2L  x) 2

????
16PL2
 (2) 2 3
9EIA NOTE: ln  ln
3 2

INTEGRATE EQ. (2)

 (2L  x)
dx 1
From Appendix C: 
2
2L  x

 (2L  x)
xdx 2L
  ln(2L  x)
2
2L  x
596 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.7-9 A simple beam ACB is constructed with square cross sections and
a double taper (see figure). The depth of the beam at the supports is dA and at the
midpoint is dC  2dA. Each half of the beam has length L. Thus, the depth d and q
moment of inertia I at distance x from the left-hand end are, respectively,
dA
d   (L  x)
L C
d4 d A4 I A B
I      (L  x)4  A4 (L  x)4
12 12L4 L
in which IA is the moment of inertia at end A of the beam. (These equations x
are valid for x between 0 and L, that is, for the left-hand half of the beam.) L L
(a) Obtain equations for the slope and deflection of the left-hand half of
the beam due to the uniform load.
(b) From those equations obtain formulas for the angle of rotation A at
support A and the deflection C at the midpoint.

Solution 9.7-9 Simple beam with a double taper


L  length of one-half of the beam SLOPE OF THE BEAM
IA Substitute C1 into Eq. (2).
I  4 (L  x) 4 (0  x  L)
L qL4x2 qL3
(x is measured from the left-hand support A) v¿  3
2EIA (L  x) 16EIA
Reactions: RA  RB  qL qL 3
8Lx2
qx2 qx2  B1  R (0  x  L) (3)
Bending moment: M  RAx   qLx  16EIA (L  x) 3
2 2
From Eq. (9-12a): ANGLE OF ROTATION AT SUPPORT A
qx2 qL3
EIv–  M  qLx  uA  v¿(0)  (positive clockwise)
2 16EIA
qL5x qL4x2
v–  4 (0  x  L) (1) INTEGRATE EQ. (3)
EIA (L  x) 2EIA (L  x) 4
From Appendix C:
L(3L  4x)

x2dx
3  ln(L  x)
INTEGRATE EQ. (1)
(L  x) 2(L  x) 2
L  3x

xdx
From Appendix C:  qL3 8L2 (3L  4x)
(L  x) 4 6(L  x) 3 v Bx 
L2  3Lx  3x2 16EIA 2(L  x) 2
 (L  x)
2
x dx
4
3(L  x) 3  8L ln(L  x) R  C2 (0  x  L) (4)
qL 5
L  3x qL4 3
v¿  B R B.C. 2 v(0)  0 ∴ C2   ¢  ln L ≤
EIA 6(L  x) 3 2EIA 2
qL4 L2  3Lx  3x2 DEFLECTION OF THE BEAM
 B R  C1
2EIA 3(L  x) 3 Substitute C2 into Eq. (4) and simplify. (The algebra
qL4x2 is lengthy.)
  C1 (0  x  L) (2)
2EIA (L  x) 3 qL4 (9L2  14Lx  x2 )x x
v B  ln ¢ 1  ≤ R
qL 3
2EIA 8L (L  x) 2 L
B.C. 1 (symmetry) v¿(L)  0 ∴ C1  
16EIA
(0  x  L)

DEFLECTION AT THE MIDPOINT C OF THE BEAM


qL4 qL4
C  v(L)  (3  4 ln 2)  0.02843
8EIA EIA
(positive downward)
SECTION 9.8 Strain Energy 597

Strain Energy

The beams described in the problems for Section 9.8 have constant
h
flexural rigidity EI. A B
Problem 9.8-1 A uniformly loaded simple beam AB (see figure) of b
span length L and rectangular cross section (b  width, h  height)
has a maximum bending stress max due to the uniform load. L
Determine the strain energy U stored in the beam.

Solution 9.8-1 Simple beam with a uniform load


16Ismax
Given: L, b, h, max
Find: U(strain energy) Solve for q: q 
qLx qx2 L2h
Bending moment: M   Substitute q into Eq. (1):
2 2
L 16Is2max L

M2dx U
Strain energy (Eq. 9-80a): U  15h2E
0
2EI
bh3 4bhLs2max
q2L5 Substitute I  : U
 (1) 12 45E
240EI
Mmaxc Mmaxh
Maximum stress: smax  
I 2I
qL2 qL2h
Mmax  smax 
8 16I

Problem 9.8-2 A simple beam AB of length L supports a concentrated


load P at the midpoint (see figure). P
(a) Evaluate the strain energy of the beam from the bending moment A
in the beam. B
(b) Evaluate the strain energy of the beam from the equation of the
deflection curve.
(c) From the strain energy, determine the deflection  under the L

L

load P. 2 2

Solution 9.8-2 Simple beam with a concentrated load


Px L
(a) BENDING MOMENT M ¢0 x ≤ Strain energy (Eq. 9-80b):
2 2 L2 L2

 
EI d 2v 2 Px 2
L2 U2 ¢ ≤ dx  EI ¢ ≤ dx

2 2 3
M dx P L 2 dx 2 2EI
Strain energy (Eq. 9-80a): U  2  0 0
0
2 EI 96 EI PL2 3

(b) DEFLECTION CURVE 96EI
From Table G-2, Case 4: (c) DEFLECTION  UNDER THE LOAD P
Px L From Eq. (9-82a):
v (3L2  4x2 ) ¢ 0  x  ≤
48EI 2 2U PL3
2  
dv P dv Px P 48EI
 (L2  4x2 ) 
dx 16EI dx2 2EI
598 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.8-3 A cantilever beam AB of length L supports a uniform q


load of intensity q (see figure).
(a) Evaluate the strain energy of the beam from the bending moment
in the beam.
A B
(b) Evaluate the strain energy of the beam from the equation of the
L
deflection curve.

Solution 9.8-3 Cantilever beam with a uniform load


dv q
(a) BENDING MOMENT  (3L2x  3Lx2  x3 )
dx 6EI
Measure x from the free end B. d 2v q
qx2 2  (L2  2Lx  x2 )
M dx 2EI
2
Strain energy (Eq. 9-80b):
Strain energy (Eq. 9-80a): L


L L
qx2 2 q2L5 EI d 2 v 2
 
M2dx 1 U ¢ ≤ dx
U  ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤ dx  2 dx2
0
2EI 0
2EI 2 40EI 0
L


EI q 2 2
 ¢ ≤ (L  2Lx  x2 ) 2dx
(b) DEFLECTION CURVE 2 0
2EI
Measure x from the fixed support A. q2L5

From Table G-1, Case 1: 40EI
qx2
v (6L2  4Lx  x2 )
24EI


Problem 9.8-4 A simple beam AB of length L is subjected to loads that A B
produce a symmetric deflection curve with maximum deflection  at the
midpoint of the span (see figure).
How much strain energy U is stored in the beam if the deflection
L L
curve is (a) a parabola, and (b) a half wave of a sine curve? — —
2 2

Solution 9.8-4 Simple beam (symmetric deflection curve)


GIVEN: L, EI,    maximum deflection at (b) DEFLECTION CURVE IS A SINE CURVE
midpoint
x dv  x d2v 2 x
Determine the strain energy U. v   sin  cos 2   2 sin
L dx L L dx L L
Assume the deflection v is positive downward.
Strain energy (Eq. 9-80b):
(a) DEFLECTION CURVE IS A PARABOLA L L
 2 2 x
 
EI d 2v 2 EI
U ¢ 2 ≤ dx  ¢  2 ≤ sin2 dx
4x dv 4 2 dx 2 L L
v (L  x)  (L  2x) 0 0
L2 dx L2  EI
4 2

d2v 8 
4L3
2 2
dx L
Strain energy (Eq. 9-80b):
L L

 
EI d2 v 2 EI 8 2 32EI2
U ¢ 2 ≤ dx  ¢  2 ≤ dx 
0
2 dx 2 0 L L3
SECTION 9.8 Strain Energy 599

Problem 9.8-5 A beam ABC with simple supports at A and B and an


overhang BC supports a concentrated load P at the free end C (see figure). P
(a) Determine the strain energy U stored in the beam due to the load P.
B
(b) From the strain energy, find the deflection C under the load P. A C
(c) Calculate the numerical values of U and C if the length L is 8 ft,
the overhang length a is 3 ft, the beam is a W 10  12 steel wide-flange
section, and the load P produces a maximum stress of 12,000 psi in the L a
beam. (Use E  29  106 psi.)

Solution 9.8-5 Simple beam with an overhang


(a) STRAIN ENERGY (use Eq.9-80a) (b) DEFLECTION C UNDER THE LOAD P
P From Eq. (9-82a):
B 2U Pa2
A C C   (L  a)
P 3EI

x x (c) CALCULATE U AND C


L a Data: L  8 ft  96 in. a  3ft  36 in.
W 10  12 E  29  106 psi
max 12,000 psi
Pax d 9.87
FROM A TO B: M   I  53.8 in.4 c    4.935 in.
L 2 2
L

 
M2dx 1 Pax 2 P2a2L Express load P in terms of maximum stress:
UAB   ¢ ≤ dx 
2EI 0
2EI L 6EI Mc Mmaxc Pac smax I
smax    ∴ P
I I I ac
FROM B TO C: M  Px P a (L  a) smaxI(L  a)
2 2 2

a U   241 in.-lb
 2EI (Px) dx  6EI
1 P2a3 6EI 6c2E
UBC  2
Pa2 (L  a) smaxa(L  a)
0
C    0.133 in.
3EI 3cE
TOTAL STRAIN ENERGY:
P2a2
U  UAB  UBC  (L  a)
6EI

Problem 9.8-6 A simple beam ACB supporting a concentrated load P at P M0


the midpoint and a couple of moment M0 at one end is shown in the figure. A C B
Determine the strain energy U stored in the beam due to the
force P and the couple M0 acting simultaneously.

L L
— —
2 2

Solution 9.8-6 Simple beam with two loads


P M0 P M0
C FROM A TO C M  RAx  ¢  ≤x
A B 2 L
L/2 L/2 L2

 
P M0 M2dx 1 P M0 2 2
RA   UAC   ¢  ≤ x dx
2 L 2EI 2EI 0
2 L
x x
P M0 L
RB    (P2L2  4PLM0  4M20 )
RA RB 2 L 192EI
600 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

P M0
FROM B TO C M  RB x  M0  ¢  ≤ x  M0 STRAIN ENERGY OF THE ENTIRE BEAM
2 L
L2 L
U  UAC  UBC  (P2L2  6PLM0  16M02 )
 
M 2dx 1 P M0 2
UBC   B¢  ≤ x  M0 R dx 96EI
2EI 2EI 0
2 L
P2L3 PM0L2 M02 L
L   
 (P2L2  8PLM0  28M20 ) 96EI 16EI 6EI
192EI

L L
Problem 9.8-7 The frame shown in the figure consists of a beam ACB
supported by a strut CD. The beam has length 2L and is continuous B
through joint C. A concentrated load P acts at the free end B. A C
Determine the vertical deflection B at point B due to the load P. P
L
Note: Let EI denote the flexural rigidity of the beam, and let EA
denote the axial rigidity of the strut. Disregard axial and shearing effects
in the beam, and disregard any bending effects in the strut.
D

Solution 9.8-7 Frame with beam and strut

BEAM ACB LCD  length of strut


x  12L
C F  axial force in strut
A B
L L  2 12P
F2LCD
USTRUT  (Eq. 2-37a)
RA  P 2 EA
(2 12P) 2 ( 12L) 412P2L
USTRUT  
For part AC of the beam: M  Px 2 EA EA
L

 
M2dx 1 P2L3
UAC   (Px) 2dx  P2L3 412P2L
2 EI 2 EI 0 6 EI FRAME U  UBEAM  USTRUT  
3 EI EA
P2L3
For part CB of the beam: UCB  UAC 
6 EI DEFLECTION B AT POINT B
P2L3
Entire beam: UBEAM  UAC  UCB  From Eq. (9-82 a):
3 EI
2U 2 PL3 812PL
B   
STRUT CD P 3 EI EA
2P

C
2P

D
2P 45°

2P