Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 97
1. SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION SS It is the first step in seismic prospecting. It includes acquiring raw data from the field using field instruments and operations. The field instruments used for acquisition are: a source (dynamite, explosive, shaped charges, vibrosies, air gun, and thumper), a receiver (geophone, hydrophone, and marsh phone), the dog house (recording unit, magnetic tapes, on-screen display). For acquisition a survey has to be planned. This is done using the survey design techniques. There might be 2D and 3D seismic surveys. » In 2D seismic survey, the source and receiver are placed in a line, There can be split spread (source in the middle and receiver on either sides) or end on spread (source on one end and receivers on the other). > In 3D seismic survey, there are a series of receiver and source arrays covering an area. The source and receiver are orthogonal. For petroleum exploration purpose, 3D surveys are mainly used. Figure 1.1.1: Geometry of acquisition. 2D SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION In the 2D data acquisition source and geophone are in line. Acquisition of data is first and important part of seismic. Any data processing technique cannot add any frequencies that were not recorded nor enhance information outside the bandwidth of the seismic data acquired in the field. Hence we should be careful during acquisition of data. Before acquisition, first we design field parameter. Inappropriate or poorly designed parameters can severely limit the quality and utility of the seismic data. Properly designed parameter, based on the knowledge of the area and the exploration target, normally lead to greatly enhance and interpretable seismic section. 1.2 Design of field parameters: The well-designed seismic survey begins with a clear knowledge of tors merit consideration in the survey objectives in general terms. Several fi the design of ultimate field parameters, including economics, time of the survey, type of energy source type of geophones and their patterns. Some parameters of a seismic acquisition program are > Maximum offset: distance from the source to most remote receiver. Minimum offset: distance from the source to nearest receiver. v v Group interval: distance between geophone arrays. Constant for a survey. > Shot interval: distance between two shots. > Fold coverage: number of times a subsurface point is surveyed by different source and detectors. 2 > Sample interval: the time interval between digital samples of the signal. Varies from less than 1 ms to 4 ms. This sample rate is chosen not to limit the vertical resolution and to record the desired maximum frequencies. > Choice of source and geophone arrays. > No. of recording channel. > Direction of shooting. Before conduct the survey we clearly mark the area of survey with reference of any fixed structure like pillar, bridges ete. while in offshore we define co-ordinates by satellite navigation. Layout In reflection seismic survey two type of layout are most commonly used. 1, End-on 2. Split spread 1. End-on: In survey we used several no. of channels or geophone group. The most commonly used is 96 or 120 channels. In end-on shooting, source is placed on side of geophone array. SOURCE Fig, -1.1.2 End-on shooting 3 it-spread In this layout source is placed in between the geophone array. There are two type of split-spread layout. (a) Symmetrical Split-spread: in this layout equal geophones are placed on both side of source. This layout is used when depth of interest is shallow. y y Vv Fig.1.1.3 Symmetrical split-spread (b) Asymmetrical split-spread: In this spread different no. of geophones are placed on both side of source. This spread is used when our depth of interest is both shallow and deeper. VY yvyyy Fig. 1.1.4 asymmetrical split spread 4 3D SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION SS Seismic data are usually collected along lines of traverse that form same sort of grid and 3-D picture of structure is deduced by interpolating between the lines, However features seen on such lines may be located off to the side of the lines rather than underneath the lines and small but important features (like fault) can occur between the lines. This produce error in interpretation 3-D surveys are done to obtain data uniformly distributed over an area rather than long lines; in order to correctly locate the geological features, 3-D techniques also reduces the spatial noise. 1.3 Acquisition requirements In 3-D, we wish to have uniform acquisition conditions and a uniform surface distribution of CMP’s that (1) data distributing on a uniform grid (2) same CMP multiplicity (3) utilizing the same mix of offset distances & (4) same mix of azimuth.3-D seismic data can be acquired in number of ways. The usual method is to run a series of closely spaced lines, to have geophones laid out in two or more parallel lines. In other land work, geophones are laid out on lines at right angles to source lines. Different Field Parameters and Their Selection Box In an orthogonal design the box corresponds to the area encompassed by two consecutive receiver lines (spaced Ry) and two consecutive source lines (spaced Sx). Box area is then: Sh = Ry *Sx Directions Two types of directions have to be considered: Intine direction: Which is parallel to receiver lines. Sampling in this direction is generally satisfactory. Cross-line direction: Which is orthogonal to receiver lines. Sampling in this direction is generally weak and has to be investigated carefully. Receiver lines Source lines pr pe e es or Phe Cross-line direction > > Pb a a é eecevevesonece Invline direction Fig.1.1.5 Source and Receiver line direction Fold of coverage The 3-D fold is the number of midpoints that fall into the same bin and that will be stacked, The nominal fold (or full fold) of a 3D survey is the fold for the maximum offset. The majority of the bins is filled by the nominal fold. Run-in; is the distance necessary to bring the fold from its minimum to its nominal value in the shooting direction. 6 Run-out: is the distance necessary to bring the fold from its nominal value to its minimum in the shooting direction. Foldage (F)= inline fold (Fix) x cross line fold (Fx) No of receiver station x receiver station interval in inline direction Inline fold (Fs) —— 2x source station interval in the inline direction No of receiver line x receiver station interval in cross line Cross line fold (Fx) = 2.x source station interval in the cross line direction, aiid K " i A 4 ste tals \ ota 1 Recsiver, a LG lines 5 a4 paS$) Fold 2 Source tine || ATS Fold 4 Midpoints —} v TN Fig 1.1.6 Inline and cross line fold Midpoint Midpoint is a point located exactly in the middle of the source — receiver distance. It is not necessarily located along a receiver line as in 2-D. Instead, midpoints are usually scattered within the survey area. In practice, they rarely form a regular grid. Common mid point (CMP): In an horizontal layered Medium with constant velocity, common mid point(CMP) is the point located in the middle of different Source-receiver pairs which reflection corresponds to the same subsurface point. It is desirable that source-receiver pairs are different in direction and in offsets. CMP bin CMP bin is a square or rectangular area, which contains all midpoints that correspond to the same CMP, Traces that fall in the same bin are stacked. Their number corresponds to the fold of the bin. Bin size: The bin size corresponds to the length and to the width of the bin, Smallest bin dimensions are equal to half source point interval and half receiver interval (Sy/2*Rx/2). e e > > Deh D> DeD pp: e e ° 8 Move-Ups ‘Two types of move-ups can be considered for 3-D surveys: In-line move-up: Occurs when the template moves up along the survey from its initial position after completion of a salvo of shots. Cross-line move-up: Occurs when the template reaches the edge of the survey area and moves up across the survey to start a new in-line move-up. 4 g Be al 2 = 3| Bed 2) 82 ae ue < 4, KTR isi move Second move Initial postion of the template Tlie moveup Fig 1.1.8 Inline and cross line move-up Offsets Taking into account the configuration of the 3-D template, different offsets can be defined: In-line offset: is the distance representing half-length of the template in the in-line direction Cross-line offset: is the distance representing half-length of the template in the cross-line direction. Maximum offset (Xmax): is the distance of half-diagonal of the template. Maximum Minimum offset (Xmin): is the length of the diagonal of the box formed by two consecutive receiver lines and two consecutive source lines. Patch A patch is an acquisition technique where source lines are not parallel to receiver lines. If source and receiver lines are orthogonal the spread is called orthogonal (cross spread). If receiver and source lines are not orthogonal the spread is called slant spread. The survey area will be covered by the juxtaposition of patches. Each one represents a unit area obtained by several template moves. Shot points can be inside the template or outside. Receiver Line Receiver line is a line where receivers are located at a regular distance. In land 3-D surveys receiver lines are kept as straight as possible. In marine 3- D surveys receiver lines correspond to the towed streamers. Receiver line interval (Ry): Receiver line interval is the distance between two consecutive receiver lines. It is also called receiver line spacing. Receiver interval (Rx): Receiver interval is the distance between two consecutive receivers located on the same receiver line. It is also called receiver spacing. FECEIVER LINES: oe gecesedescoce af) a A A a oe Seccecescccce a a A 34 a eee eecosccce A ° or DP >> bP, A eooesevesceendi Fig 1.1.9 Source Line 10 Receiver density (Rd): Receiver density is the number of receivers per surface unit, in general square kilometer (sq.km). Number of receiver lines per kilometer and number of receivers per kilometer determine the receiver density (Ra), Roll-Along Roll-along is the distance of two consecutive positions of the template. It is a number. In-line roll-along: Corresponds to the in-line move-up of the template and represents the distance between two consecutive positions of the template. The number of columns of receivers left behind the template is equal to the in-line-roll-along. Cross-line roll-along: Corresponds to the cross-line move up of the template and represents the distance between two consecutive positions of the template .The number of receiver rows left behind the template is equal to the cross-line-roll-along. se ake ate 0 ote oo! sition ofthe template st moxe HE Second move Cross ine movoup fee ® Fist move "Second move Initial postion ‘of the template Trine moveup 1.1.10 Inline and cross line roll-along Source Line Source line is a line where source points are located at a regular distance. In land 3-D surveys source lines can be orthogonal or parallel to receiver lines or have any other direction (slant). In marine 3-D surveys source lines correspond to the lines followed by airgun arrays. Source line interval (Sx): Source line interval is the distance between two consecutive source lines. It is also called source line spacing. Source interval (Sy): Source interval is the distance between two consecutive source points located on the same source line. It is also called source spacing. Shot density (Sd): Shot density is the number of shots per surface unit, in general square kilometer (sq.km). Number of source lines per kilometer and number of sources per kilometer determine the shot density (Sd). SOURCE LINES Fig 1.1.11 Source line and source line interval 12 Salvo A salvo is the number of fired shots before the template. moves up along the survey. A. . ote ote cote o ote « ote e ot offe © whe © one 0 chee one core o oy A. . ote e ote cote ote o ote e ot off © one © one © ene 0 one 0 oreo oy ro we ote 0 of ote whee oe "as riety 4, a. ot ote ote 0 of ote one 0 ot a ee Template Fig1.1.12 Salvo and Template Swath When the template moves in one direction and reaches the edge of the survey area, it will generate a swath. Usually the first move occurs in the in- line direction. Swath-shooting mode: The swath-shooting mode is an acquisition technique where source lines are parallel to receiver lines. Swath 5 ‘Swath 4 Fig 1.1.13 Swath shooting 13 ‘Template All active receivers corresponding to one given shot point corresponds to a template These receivers are located on several parallel lines. 3-D Data Volume 3-D data volume is the result of data processing It is a migrated volume obtained after sorting the data in CMP bins (binning) and stacking the data. Data are gathered in (X, ¥, Z) coordinates with: —OX in the in-line direction; — OY in the cross-line direction; —OZ in two way time (or depth). In some surveys different volumes can be generated and separately interpreted with: —Near offsets; ~ Mid offsets; ~ Far offsets. ven es, ste em vt rhe in ise Figt 4 Geophysical Parameters Geophysical parameters of 3-D can be gathered into imaging, edge, geometrical and recording parameters. All of them have an impact on the 3D data quality. However some of them have a great impact on the cost of the survey and have to be adjusted carefully. They correspond mainly to the imaging parameters and are related to fold of coverage, bin size and migration aperture. They are thus related to sampling and aliasing criteria, to resolution and signal enhancement and to migration efficiency: Edge parameters include in-line and cross-line tapers. Geometrical parameters correspond to offsets and source and receiver lay outs. Recording parameters are related to recording length and sampling rate. Imaging Parameters Fold of Coverage The fold of coverage of a 3-D seismic survey represents the number of traces that are located within a bin and that will be summed. Minimum bin dimensions correspond to half the source interval and half the receiver interval. Each trace is generated in the middle of a source-receiver pair. Source-receiver pairs have different directions. Traces within the bin thus have a range of azimuths and offsets but they correspond to the same 16). When summed all traces carry the same signal, which is enhanced as it is in subsurface location (Fig. phase. However all traces have different random noise which is out of phase. The summation process decreases the level of noise. Then the fold contributes greatly to the enhancement of the signal to noise (S/N) ratio. After stacking each bin contains one single trace, whose S/N ratio is multiplied by VF (F being the fold). 15 Uhh?! S Recetver Bin Size: The bin size will affect the lateral resolution of the survey and its frequency content. Resolution and bin size: Resolution is defined as the ability of a seismic method to distinguish two events of the subsurface that are close to each other. Lateral resolution (also called horizontal resolution) corresponds to the direction parallel to the seismic measurement plane. It is related to the Fresnel zone. The Fresnel zone is defined as the subsurface area, which reflects energy that arrives at the earth’s surface within a time delay equal to half the dominant period (1/2). In this case ray paths of reflected waves differ by less than half a wavelength. Commonly accepted value is one-fourth the signal wavelength (/4). Then a recorded reflection at the surface is not coming from a subsurface point, but from a disk shape area, which dimension is equal to the Fresnel zone. The radius of the Fresnel zone is given by: RE=(V/2)(tolfaon)!? +. This shows that high frequencies give better resolution than low frequencies and resolution deteriorates with depth and with increasing velocities. Migration technique drastically improves resolution The 3-D migration is a major factor that drastically improves the 3-D imaging compared with 2-D data as the energy is by far better focused. In 3-D processing, out of the plane events are restored to their correct subsurface location and become additional energy. As a matter of fact the migration can be considered as a downward continuation of receivers from the surface to the reflector making the Fresnel zone smaller and smaller. The3-D migration will shorten the radius of the Fresnel zone in all directions improving drastically the resolution. Bin size must be equal to the lateral resolution after migration. This value is equal to half the dominant wavelength Aaom associated with the dominant frequency faom (2) Spatial sampling and bin size: Spatial sampling is a common operation in seismic acquisition. The recorded samples must allow the reconstruction of the original signal without ambiguity. A proper sampling is given by Nyquist condition (or Shannon theorem), which states that two samples per period are minimum to reconstruct a discrete signal. Then sampling interval is: At ST/2 or At 1/2 faux According to Gijs Vermeer, in the (f, k) plane there is a maximum wave number | £| max such that the energy is nil for frequency superior to fimax and there is a minimum velocity Vaie .The spatial sampling for shots and receivers is thus: AX(1,8) SVonin / 2foes + Whereas the spatial sampling in the midpoint domain is: AXm SVinin / 4fnax For dipping events (with dip 8), the above formulae become: AXs) SV min / 2fmax SiN. Axa SV aia / 4fnas Sin... These formulae give the maximum-recorded frequency and wave numbers and no alias occurs. However, if Vas is very small or Faas is very high the above formulae lead to very small Ax, which is very difficult to implement. Then it is common in acquisition to accept some kind of signal that is aliased such as ground roll with low velocity or noise with high frequency. Diffractions and bin size Diffractions are useful for migration and should be sampled correctly. The sampling formula is (Liner and Underwood, 1999): AX Pre-survey Design ( Preliminary Inputs ) > Detailed Design (finalizing the acquisition geometry and parameters) Pre-survey design primarily involves gathering of various available information viz. exploration objectives, review of existing geo-scientific data, socio-cultural data from the operational area including logistics and so on. The information was analyzed to broadly estimate the geophysical requirements of the survey consistent with the exploration objectives, as also the financial implications of implementing the survey. The pre-survey design sets the constraints in terms of fold, offset & azimuth distribution, bin size ete i.e. sets the preliminary inputs to the survey designing. A large number of geometries are simulated based on the technical requirement as observed in the pre-survey design which serves as the input to the second step ie, detailed design. The detailed design process incorporates the choice of critical acquisition parameters such as shooting pattern, spacing of shots, shot-lines receivers and receiver-lines as well as 24 the inline and cross line spread length that are consistent with the broad technical requirement as observed during the pre-survey design process. APPROACH TO SELECT THE ACQUISITION PARAMETERS GEOPHYSICAL / GEOLOGICAL OBJECTIVE REVIEW OF AVAILABLE GEOSCIENTIFIC DATA. DECIDING THE PRILIMINARY INPUTS v SURVEY DESIGNING 4 IT MEETS THE REQUIREMENTS? NO YES FINALIZE THE GEOMETRY Field Operation 1. Survey Surveying is the science and art of making the measurement necessary to determine the relative position of points above, on or beneath the surface of the earth, or to establish such points, ‘The surveying work consists of primarily making such measurements and can be divided into three parts- Field work, computing and mapping. In seismic surveys the main objective of the survey work is to mark/fix and provide the precise position of sources and sensors to be laid out on the ground prior to commencement of recording operations. In order 25 to achieve the desired level of precision in geophysical positioning the surveying work was divided into three steps, > DGPS Survey > Control Point Survey > Implantation Survey. a. DGPS Survey DGPS is a differential mode of operation of GPS and involves in the measurement of the relative position of the unknown point (rover) with respect to a known point (reference or Master). The technique is extensively used in the exploration industry for precise positioning of the sources and receivers in almost all seismic survey endeavors. ‘The study area was adjacent to Moran, Thowara, Borbil-Diroi and Dipling 3D block which have been already covered by 3D seismic survey. The satellite point fixed in the adjacent block viz. Borbil-Diroi were used as Master Control points. Practice Adopted for fixing DGPS Points There are certain standard practices that were followed during the course of GPS observations to avoid operational errors and ensure precision for further computations, > DGPS surveyed points were distributed uniformly in the block to have better quality control of the surveyed grid during the course of control and implantation survey. > An observation site was selected, where 15° degree clearance from horizon to sky was available. 26 » Observation site was chosen to avoid High Tension lines and radio signal transmitter station. » Battery status and memory card status checked initially before going to field. v Proper centering and leveling of receivers at the master and rover point was ensured. > Since reference station is set up at a point of known coordinates, the coordinates of this reference point were entered carefully before starting the observations. > Receiver antenna height were measured accurately and documented on the DGPS sketch sheet provided to the surveyor. v The time of observation was fixed based on the base line length and was always kept more than the required specifications to avoid repetition of observation at the same point. > A person was engaged at each receiver station site to make sure that receivers should not be disturbed during the course of field observation. v The field data was processed to resolve the ambiguity with GDOP value less than 5 as against a minimum of 8 specified in the SKI-PRO manual. Lower GDP values helps in providing more accurate solutions. b. Control Point Survey Control points surveys were carried out along village roads and approaches in tea gardens etc. using Total Stations. Utmost care was taken to avoid operational errors during the course of traversing for minimizing the error in computed coordinates of control points, The traverses of the Total Station were tied up with the bench mark points obtained by the DGPS survey. 27 ‘Triangulation methods were applied to verify the coordinates of the control points with respect to bench mark points. Practices Adopted in Control Point (CP) Surveying > Survey was always started from two known DGPS positioned points and tied to the other two or same DGPS positioned points. v After a CP was confirmed, its position was marked by fixing wooden peg engraved deep into the ground and the identification number of the control point written on it. The visibility of two consecutive CP was required for their subsequent use during the line opening and line tying. Site selection in the above backdrop was always done carefully so as to avoid any problem during the course of implantation survey work. v The control traverses were choosen and run carefully so that no trace line or shot point line is more than a maximum of two and a half kilometers away from for better control > Detailed line sketches of the topographic and other features were prepared during the course of control survey. c. Implantation Survey The purpose of implantation survey was to mark and implant the survey lines on the ground as per the planned grid using Electronics Total Stations. Pickets painted with red color and white color on top were fixed on the ground for the identification of trace point and shot point respectively. Corresponding trace no. and shot point no. were written on it with black 28 marker, Shot points were marked with a circle on the ground whereas trace point marked with cross mark. Practices Adopted in Implantation Survey > Implantation survey was always started from a pair of control points or established DGPS points available nearest to the line to be surveyed. v The staked out points were tied to the nearest control points or DGPS points available. > Detailed line sketches of the topographic and other features were prepared during the course of implantation survey along each line. > The source and receiver points were staked out on the ground and the line was closed with respect to the known points. The data was subsequently processed to identify the quality of the survey and if it was found to be within tolerances it was accepted or otherwise the line was resurveyed. > The difference between theoretical coordinates and field coordinates were checked on a daily basis, > All out precautions were taken to avoid operational errors due to wrong input of co-ordinates, incorrect centering and leveling of the equipment including measurement of height ete. 2. Recording Operation Successful implementation of the survey design during the recording phase is the key to the acquiring seismic data with good geophysical attributes as envisaged during the design process. For efficient implementation of the 29 survey design the jobs, roles and responsibilities of recording crew were divided into the following three groups. > Layout of the Acquisition Spread & Monitoring > Drilling & monitoring of shot- hole > Loading and blasting of Shot-holes a, Layout of the Acquisition Spread & Monitoring The primary role of the line supervisor was to ensure proper physical connection between the Station Units (S.U.) and proper plantation of geophones at their staked out positions. For this purpose each acquisition line, divided into three parts viz. Low, Middle & High, was manned by three company supervisors and three contractor supervisors. Besides ensuring the correct position and proper physical connection their job included replacement of any faulty cables, geophones or SU’s, PSU’s during the course of line checking as communicated by the observer. Besides the physical checking of layout of acquisition spread, the quality of acquisition spread was controlled through the online monitoring of spread on the instrument. The main role of the observer was to check the line status through trouble shooting, to record & maintained the quality of data and to make proper communication with crewmembers. b. Shot hole Drilling Since the area of the acquisition spread in 3D seismic survey on any day is much- much larger than a conventional 2D spread, efficient control and management needs to be exercised for proper location and drilling of shot holes including their depths. 30 ‘Three nos.of company drilling supervisor were entrusted the responsibility to monitor the shot hole depth and their positions. Manual drilling was used to drill shot holes of depth of 60 feet. For Shot locations falling in low lying areas and near river channels precautionary measures were taken to load the holes immediately as soon as they were drilled to avoid hole collapse. In essence, such types of areas were identified one day in advance to the recording operations so that proper planning of blasters movement in a systematic way to these points can take place without any loss of operation time. c. Loading and Blasting of Shot Holes ‘As dynamite is used as a subsurface source of energy to generate the clastic waves in the seismic survey operation so it require awareness in the handling. The loader crews again verified shot hole depth and used 10 feet long steel rods to load and proper coupling of explosive charge varying 2.5- 5.0 Kg. In many occasions shot holes were either washed properly or redrilled upto desired depth to generate good seismic signal. Quality Control e accuracy of the surveyed grid was maintained by adopting the best practices in DGPS, Control Point Survey and Implantation survey. (Field Operation: Survey). 2, Before going to field, we ensured the proper functioning of ground electronics in order to avoid the loss of operational time and any interference in the data due to faulty electronic equipments. 3. A small geophysical laboratory equipped with Test and Maintenance System (TMS), Line Tester (LT 388) and Geophone Analyzer was 31 established for the repairing and calibration of faulty ground electronics. 4, Bit to Bit verification test of the instrument was carried out to ensure the error free seismic data acquisition. 5. Company line supervisors, contractor line supervisors and executives ensured correct positioning of receiver lines and shot hole positions through the following: > Shot point and trace point interval was checked and verified by step traversing, wherever there were any doubts. > It was ensured through physical checking that every geophones was implanted vertically and their coupling with the ground were firm. > No compromises were made regarding the shot hole depth. Every shot hole drilled up to desired depth to generate good seismic signal. In many occasions shot holes were washed properly to put the explosives inside for having proper coupling and desired depth. Always shots were tamped with water and mud for proper coupling & energy penetration. 6. The Crosstalk, Impulse and Leakage tests were run every day in the field prior to and during the moment of seismic data acquisition. The results were analyzed to replace the faulty cable, SU, CSU, geophones etc. with the new one. 7, Raw monitor records was used as QC measure tool during the field operation as follows > First break on the monitor records depicts the shot position, 32 > Slope of the first arrivals; direct wave energy and refracted energy used to verify the trace line alignment. v Noise analysis and map ability of deeper horizons or target horizons on the monitor records used to have a rough idea about the shot hole depth and charge size used. v The geophone response in terms of polarity and plantation verified from the monitor records. v Utmost care was taken not to let the noise come into data, During the course of production shooting all the lines in the swath were monitored on a continuous basis to avoid any form of undesired noise in the recorded seismic signatures. The shots were only taken when the noise level was at its minimum. This assumed significant importance as several trace lines crossed through highways with heavy traffic plying on them. 8. Planning of recovery shots had to be done on continuous basis due to obstacles, local problems and other access constraint in the area of operation. Subsequently, effective recovery shots with suitable spread pattern were planned through simulation in such a way that the missing geophysical attributes are recovered to the best possible extent. Up hole Survey and Data Interpretation Earth is assumed to be made of different homogeneous layers with different physical properties but the near surface layer known as weathering layer shows a great variation in its physical properties and it is of great importance in hydrocarbon exploration. To delineate the deeper horizons, it is necessary and required to know the near surface’s physical properties because the 33 heterogeneity in the physical properties of the near surface effects the data recorded for deeper horizons. The main objective of the uphole survey is to know the velocity and thickness of weathering layer as well as sub- weathering layer. The results of uphole survey are used to calculate the source statics and receiver statics correction. 3. Seismic Energy source Seismic energy sources are used to generate energy which propagates inside and undergo various phenomenons like refraction, reflection and diffractions which return to the earth surface and recorded by detectors situated near the earth, There are a number of energy source which are related to explosive and non explosive .We use these energy sources for land and marine seismic data acquisition. The main difference between land and marine seismic is the water layer, which has to be penetrated by the signal. The physical processes by which seismic energy is generated in the water are different from those in solid earth materials. 3.1 Land energy sources & Marine energy source > Dynamite Dynamite is an ideal seismic source for land data acquisition. because of the impulsive nature of the seismic signal it creates and convenient storage and mobility it provides for energy that can be converted into ground motion. There are several disadvantages associated wit the use of dynamite. 34 1) In seismic operations, the dynamite is planted in sticks or cans in boreholes that may range from 30 ft. to several hundred feet in depth. This requires drilling the holes, which is a difficult and expensive procedure. It is difficult to use in hilly terrain where the heavy drilling equipment is not easy to move and in deserts where the water is not readily available. 2) Dynamite is dangerous to use. Any mishandling can be costly and harmful. Dynamite are also used in marine seismic data acquisition .in shooting explosive at sea, it has been customary to detonate the charge at such a shallow depth that bubble would break through surface of the water and not oscillate the maximum depth “d” (in feet) at which the bubble will break is releated to the charge weight “w” (in pound) by the formula d=3.8w!® There are several disadvantages associated wit the use of dynamite 1) It causes loss of marine lives and property. 2) Low efficieney since large portion of energy goes into the air. 3) Danger in handling in explosives. > Buried Primacord Primacord (an explosive extruded into a rope like form), detonating it at one end or its center, and letting the explosive disturbance propagate along it at a speed 22,000 fi/s. Geoflex source system operates on this principle. > Vibroseis: Vibroseis is a method used to propagate energy signals into the earth over an extended period of time as opposed to the near instantaneous energy provided by impulsive sources described above. The signal was originally 35 generated by a servo-controlled hydraulic vibrator or shaker unit mounted on a mobile base unit but electro-mechanical versions have also been developed. Vibroseis was developed by the Continental Oil Company (Conoco) during the 1950s and was a trademark until the company's patent elapsed. > Air Gun A source of seismic energy used in acquisition of marine seismic data. This gun releases highly compressed air into water. Air guns are also used in water-filled pits on land as an energy source during acquisition of vertical seismic profiles. mo REA nw Fig 3.1.1 Single Air gun Schematic Array Air gun arrangement Armed and Fired Position > Weight dropping Early experiments were carried out in 1924 but use of magnetic recordings made it possible to merge impulses from multiple drops in close propinquity in order to produce from such energy sources. The first commercial system 36 of this type was invented by McCullom and put to use for oil exploration in 1953. The source he developed is called a Thumper. A high level of noise is generated by weight dropping, mostly in the form of surface waves. Procedure involves dropping of a 3-ton iron slab, attached to a special crane on a truck hoisted 9ft. up in the air. As soon as the fist drop is made, the truck is moved 10ft, to another spot within a few seconds. Waves from each drop are picked up by the detector spread ad recorded on magnetic tape for later analysis. The main disadvantage of using this mechanism is that dropping in no way produces synchronized impacts from multiple units. > Flexotir This is a small pellet of dynamite weight about two ounces .This is detonated at the center of a perforated cast-iron spherical shell about 2ft in diameter which is towed behind at the depth about 40ft .the perforation breaks the bubble so that undesired effect of bubble pulsing on the signal are suppressed Here the shooting depths % of wavelength of typical seismic reflection wave .therefore ,the efficiency of the explosion for generation seismic energy is much greater than foe detonation just below the surface. > Maxipulse Another source containing dynamite, the maxipulse is also designed for detonation under conditions that combine safty ,efficiency ,and elimination of bubble-pulse effects. In this the charge is about half pound packed in a can which is injected into the water at a depth of about 20t0 40ft. The detonation tackes place about | second after the injection, After detonation, a 37 bubble is formed which expands and and collapses with a period of 100millseconds .In order to reduce the bubble oscillation a filter is used. 4, SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING. Alteration of seismic data to suppres noise, enhance signal and migrate seismic events to the appropriate location in space is termed as Seismic Processing, It facilitates better interpretation because subsurface structures and reflection geometries are more apparent. 4.1 OBJECTIVES » To obtain a representative image of the subsurface. »> Improve the signal to noise ratio: e.g. by measuring of several channels and stacking of the data (white noise is suppressed). > Present the reflections on the record sections with the greatest possible resolution and clarity and the proper geometrical relationship to each other by adapting the waveform of the signals. » Isolate the wanted signals (isolate reflections from multiples and surface waves). Obtain information about the subsurface (velocities, reflectivity ete.). vv Obtain a realistic image by geometrical correction. v Conversion from travel time into depth and correction from dips and diffractions 38 4.2 PREPROCESSING Preprocessing is the first and important step in the processing sequence of and it commences with the reception of field tapes and observers log Field tape contains seismic data and observers contains geographical data(shot/receiver number, picket number, latitude and longitude ete.) >» DEMULTIPLEXING Field tapes customarily arrive at the processing center written in multiplexed format (time sequential) because that is the way generally the sampling is done in field. In general the early stages of processing require channel ordered or trace ordered data. Demultiplex is therefore done to convert the time sequential data into trace sequential data. Mathematically, demultiplexing is seen as transposing a big matrix so that the column of the resulting matrix can be read as seismic traces recorded at different offsets with a common shot pint. At this stage, the data are converted in a convenient format that is used throughout the processing. This format is determined by the type of the processing system and 39 individual company. A common format used in seismic industry fro data exchange is SEG-Y, established by the society of exploration geophysicists. Nowadays demultiplexing is done in the field. > REFORMATTING The formats generally used for data recording are SEG-D (Demultiplexed data) and SEG-B (Multiplexed data). Hence they are called field formats. Demultiplexed is done on data recorded in SEG-D format. In this stage the data are converted to a convenient format, which is used throughout processing. There are many standards available for data storage. Format differs with the manufarcturer, type of recording instrument and also with the version of operating system, » Field Geometry Set Up Field geometry is created with the help of information provided by field party. That is as follows. 1. Survey information (1) X and Y coordinate of shot/vib, Points, (I1) Elevation of geophone/shot points 2. Recording instrument () Record file numbers (I) Shot interval, group interval, near offset and far offset (IID Layout, no. of channels, foldage. 3. Processing information (D Datum staties (I) Near surface model (IID) Datum plane elevation Edit traces, which consists of killing extremely noisy traces and muting the first-arrivals on all traces. Traces from poorly planted geophones. may show sluggishness and introduce low frequency and sometimes cause spiky amplitudes and therefore degrade a CMP stack. These traces are identified during manual inspection/editing phase of all the shot records and flagged in the header so that they will not be included (they are “killed”) in processing steps and in display. Traces so noisy that they don’t visually correlate with strong arrivals on adjacent traces should be killed. We have to be conservative in trace killing because the fold of this data is low and eliminating only a few traces may have noticeable effect on the stacked traces, Editing involves leaving out the auxiliary channels & NTBC traces and detecting and changing dead or exceptionally noisy traces. Bad data may be replaced with interpolated values. Noisy traces, those with static glitches or mono-frequency high amplitude signal levels are deleted. Polarity reversals are corrected. Output after editing usually includes a plot of each file so that one can see what data need further editing and what type of noise attenuation are required. 41 Fig.4.1.2 (a) before editing (b) after editing » SPHERICAL DIVERGENCE CORRECTION ‘A single shot can be thought of a point source which gives rise to a spherical wave field. There are many factors which affect the amplitude of this wave field as it propagates through the earth, Two important factors which have major effect on a propagating wave field are spherical divergence and absorption. Spherical divergence causes wave amplitude to decay as l/r, where r is the radius of the wave front. Absorption results in a change of frequency content of the initial source signal in a time-variant manner, as it propagates. Since carth behaves as a low pass filter so high frequencies are rapidly absorbed. There are some programmes used for gain-AGC, PGC, geometric spreading correction > STATIC CORRECTION When the seismic observations are made on non flat topography, the observed arrival times will not depict the subsurface structures. The reflection time must be corrected for elevation and for the changes in the thickness of the weathering layer with respect to flat datum. The former correction removes difference in travel time due to variation of surface elevation of the shot and receiver location, The weathering corrections remove differences in travel time to the near surface zones of unconsolidated low velocity layer which may vary thickness from place to place. These are also called static corrections, as they do not change with time, The static corrections are computed taking into account the elevation of the source and receiver locations with respect to seismic reference datum (such as Mean Sea Level), velocity information in the weathering and sub weathering layers. Often, special surveys (up hole surveys, shallow refraction studies) precede the conventional acquisition to obtain the characteristics of the low velocity layer. MAIN PROCESSING Main processing starts. It includes three major steps. They are as follows: 1. DECONVOLUTION 2, STACKING 3. MIGRATION cet SE Zee Midpoint Migration Deconvolution Time Fig 4.1.3 Seismic data volume represented in processing coordinate: midpoint- ofiset-time > Deconvolution acts on the data along time axis and increase temporal resolution. v Stacking compresses the data volume in the offset direction and yields the plane of stack section (the frontal face of the prism) v Migration then move dipping events to their true subsurface position and collapses diffraction and thus increases lateral resolution. > DECONVOLUTION Deconvolution is a process that improves the temporal resolution of seismic data by compressing the basic seismic wavelet. The need for deconvolution: In exploration seismology the seismic wavelet generated by the source travels through different geologic strata to reach the receiver. Because of the many distorting effects encountered the wavelet reaching the receiver is by no means similar to the wave propogation by source. Objective of deconvolution: > Shorten reflection wavelets 44 > Attenuate ghost , instrument effects , reverberation and multiple reflection The convolutional model for deconvolution @ The earth is made up of horizontal layers of constant velocity. (ID) The source generates a compressional plane wave that impinges on layer boundaries at normal incidence. (Il) The source wave form does not change as it travels in the surface. (IV) The noise component n(t) is zero. (V) The source waveform is known. (VD) Reflectivity is a random series. (VID) Seismic wavelet is minimum phase. There are two type Deconvolution 1) Deterministic Deconvolution: Deconvolution where the particular of the filter whose effects are to be removed are known is called deterministic Deconvolution .The source wave shape is sometime recorded and used in a deterministic source signature correction .No random are involved For e.g. where source wavelet accurately known we can do source signature deconvolution. 2) Statistical deconvolution: A statistical deconvolution need to derive information about the wavelet from the data itself where no information is available about any of the component of the model Statistical deconvolution is applied without prior application of deterministic deconvolution in the 45 case the of a land data taken with an explosive source. In addition we make certain assumption about the data justifies the statistical approach There are two type of statistical deconvolution @) Spiking Deconvolution — The process by which the seismic wavelet is compressed into a zero lag spike is called Spiking decon (Il) Predictive deconvolution — The process uses prediction distance greater than unity and yields a wavelet of finite duration instead of a spike. This is helpful in suppressing multiples > CMP Shorting: Seismic data acquisition with multifold coverage is done in shot-receiver (s,g) coordinate. Seismic data processing, on other hand conventionally is done in midpoint-offset (y, h) coordinates. The required coordinate transformation is achieved by sorting the data into CMP gather based on the field geometry information , each individual trace is assigined to the mid point between shot and receiver location associated with that trace .Those traces with the same mid point are grouped together , making up a CMP gather 46 Fig 4.1.5 Seismic in common midpoint gather > Velocity Analysis Velocity analysis is the most important and sensitive part of the processing. Without velocity we cannot change seismic section into depth domain, which is very necessary. For applying NMO correction we need NMO velocity. Thus we perform velocity analysis on each CDP gather but it is not feasible to perform velocity analysis on cach CDP gather. Hence we perform velocity analysis on one CDP gather from a group of CDP points (generally group size is 50 VDP points). There are several methods to do velocity analysis like constant velocity scan, constant velocity stacks (CVS), 47 velocity spectrum method and horizontal velocity analysis. Out of these methods, now a days velocity spectrum method is mostly used because it distinguishes the signal along hyperbolic paths even with a high level of random noise. This is because of the power of the cross correlation in measuring coherency. The accuracy of the velocity is limited. (I) Constant Velocity Stacks (CVS) Fig shows this method. In this example, a portion of a line consisting of 24 common-depth-point gather have been NMO corrected and stacked with velocities ranging 1000 m/s to 3000 m/s. The resulting stacked 24 traces, displayed as one panel, represent one constant velocity. These panels are displayed side by side with the velocity value indicated, where velocity values increase from left to right. Stacking velocities are picked directly from these panels by selecting the velocity that yields the best coherency and the strongest amplitude for a velocity value at a certain time. Care must be taken in using this kind of velocity analysis to estimate the best stacking velocities. One should know the velocity range of an area, especially if there are structure changes. (Il) Velocity spectrum method: ‘The velocity spectrum approach is unlike the CVS method. It is base on the correlation of the traces in a CMP gather, and not on lateral continuity of staked events, This method, compared with the CVS method, is more suitable for data with multiple reflection problems. It is less suitable for highly complex structure problems. Suppose we repeatedly correct the gather using constant velocity values from 2000-4300 m/sec, then stack the gather and display the stacked traces side by side. The result is a display of velocity versus two-way time, called a “velocity spectrum”. 48 There are two commonly used ways to display the velocity spectrum: power plot and contour plot s 1.5: (a) @) Fig 4.1.5 Two way of displaying velocity spectrum derived from the CMP gather (a). (b) nower nlot (c) contour nlot. (III) Horizontal Velocity Analysis: One method to estimate velocities with enough accuracy for structural and stratigraphic application to analyze the velocities of a certain horizon of interest continuously. Such a detailed velocity analysis is called Horizontal Velocity Analysis. The velocity is estimated at every CMP along the selected key horizon of interest on the stacked section. The principle of estimating the velocities by this method is the same as that of the velocity spectrum. The output coherency values derived by hyperbolic time gates are displayed as a function of velocity and CMP position. One of the applications of horizontal velocity analysis is to improve the layered velocity variation along marker horizon, especially if these velocities are used in post-stack depth migration, 49 Fig 4.1.6 The CMP gather and its velocity spectrum , the curve to the right of the semblance peaks is the interval velocity function derived from the picked rms velocity function. >» NORMAL MOVEOUIT CORRECTION None zero offset data is characterized by a travel time increase with increase in offset distance from the source to the reflector. on zero offset to zero offset conversion is achieved through a correction called as NMO {normal move out) correction. For the single constant horizontal velocity layer the trace time curve as a function of offset is a Hyperbola. The time difference between travel time at a given offset and at zero offset is called normal moveout (NMO). 50 ‘The velocity required to correct for normal moveout is called the normal moveout velocity. For a single horizontal reflector, the NMO velocity is equal to the velocity of the medium above the reflector . The simple case of single horizontal layer, using by Pythagorean Theorem the travel time equation as a function of offset is Pe) =P +xv Where x is the distance (offset) between the source and receiver position. V is the velocity of the medium above the reflecting interface. And f (0) is twice the travel time along the vertical path. The NMO correction is given by the difference between t(x) and (0) Atymo = t (x) —t (0) =1(0) {[1- (&/ vawot (0))]!? -1} Fig 4.1.7 The simple geometry for NMO correction in single layer NMO in a horizontal stratified earth sl Now we consider a medium, composed of horizon isovelocity layers Fig 2.9. is each layer has a certain thickness that can be defined in terms of two way ofiget time. The layers have interval velocities (v1,V2,....v) where N is Number of layers. Travel time equation for the path SDR is TQ) = co + cx? + ax!" + 9 Where co = t(0), cr = 1 / vm and cs, cs, ...... are complicated functions The rms velocity Vm down to the reflector on which depth point D is situated is defined as Voms = 1 /1(0) ¥ ve At(O) Where At; is the vertical two way time through the i® layer and t(0) = ¥ At. by making small spread approximation the series in equation .... can be truncated as follows: T(x) = £00) +2 / Views Here we see that the velocity required for NMO correction for a horizontally stratified medium is equal to the rms velocity Fig 4.1.8 NMO for horizontal layer 52 Before NMO Correction After NMO Correction Fig 4.1.9 Before and after NMO correction NMO Stretching: In NMO correction, a frequency distortion occurs, particularly for shallow events and at large offset. This is called NMO stretching The waveform with a dominant period T is stretched so that its period becomes T’. Stretching is frequency distortion in which events are shifted to lower frequencies, stretching is quantifies as Af/£= Atyo /t (0) Where fis the dominant frequency. Af is change in frequency 53 Because of the stretched waveform at large offset, stacking the NMO corrected CMP gather will severely damage the shallow events. This problem can be solved by muting the stretched zone in the gather. T rai (a) Y Fig 4.1.8 NMO Stretch t » RESIDUAL STATIC CORRECTION They are statics deviation from a perfect hyperbolic travel time after applying NMO and elevation statics corrections to trace within the CMP gather, These statics cause misalignment of the seismic events across the CMP gather and generate a poor stack trace. We need to estimate the time shifts from the time to perfect alignment, then correct them using an automatic procedure. A model is need for the moveout corrected travel time from a source location to point on the reflecting horizon, then back to a receiver location. The key assumption is that the residual statics are surface consistent, meaning that statics shift are time delays that depend on the sources and receiver on the surface. Since the near-surface weathered layer has a low velocity value, and refraction in its base tends to make the travel path 54 vertical, the surface consistent assumption usually is valid. However, this assumption may not be valid for high-velocity permafrost layer in which rays tend to bend away from the vertical. Residual static corrections involve three stages: 1. Picking the values. 2. Decomposition of its components, source and receiver static, structural and normal moveout terms. 3. Application of derived source and receiver terms to travel times on the pre-NMO corrected gather after finding the best solution of residual static correction. These statics are applied to the deconvolved and sorted data, and the velocity analysis is re-run. A refined velocity analysis can be obtained to produce the best coherent stack section. » DMO (dip move out) CORRECTION The DMO correction says that-post-stack migration is acceptable when the stacked data are zero-ofiget. If there are conflicting dips with varying velocities or a large lateral velocity gradient, a prestack partial migration is used to attenuate these conflicting dips. By applying this technique before stack, it will provide a better stack section that can be 55 migrated after stack. Prestack partial migration only solves the problem of conflicting dips with different stacking velocities. Its applications are: (D Post-stack migration is acceptable when the stacked data is zero- offset. This is not the case for conflicting dips with varying velocity or large lateral velocity variations. (I) Prestack partial migration or dip Move out provides a better stack, which can be migrated after stack. (I) PSPM solves only conflicting dips with different stacking velocities. > STACKING (1) Each common mid point gather after normal move out correction is summed together to yield a stacked trace (II) Stacking enhances the in-phase components and reduces the random noise. (IID) Stacking yields Zero offset section (in the absence of dipping layers in the subsurface) Stacking is combining two or more traces into one. This combination takes place in several ways. In digital data processing, the amplitudes of the traces are expressed as numbers, so stacking is accomplished by adding these numbers together, Peaks appearing at the same time on each of two traces combine to make a peak as high as the two added together. The same is true of two troughs. A pear and a trough of the same amplitude at the same time cancel 56 each other, and the stack trace shows no energy arrival at that time. If the two peaks are at the different times, the combined trace will have two separate peaks of the same sizes as the original ones. After stacking, the traces are “normalized” to reduce the amplitude so that the largest peaks can be plotted. Figure 2.11 illustrates the principle of stacking. 8 @ Uhh GF 3 Fe § 8 +be (1) TWO PEAKS AT SAME ARRIVAL TIME oo (2) PEAK ANO TROUGH AT SAME TIME ANO WATH SAME AMPLITUDE td = (3) TROUGH AND PEAK DISPLACED. Leds MAN ONE PEAK WOoTH +) (4) TWO PEAKS AT DIFFERENT TIMES Fig 4.1.9 Stacking process » MIGRATION Migration is the processes that repositions reflected energy from its common mid point to its true subsurface location. Dipping reflector on a CMP stack are plotted down dip from with less dip than their true position. A seismic section is assumed to represent a cross-section of the earth. The assumption work best when layers are flat, and fairly well when they have gentle dips. With steeper dip the assumption breaks down; the reflections are in the wrong places and have the wrong dips. 37 In estimating the hydrocarbons in place, one of the variables is the areal extent of the trap. Weather the trap is structural or stratigraphic; the seismic section should represent the earth model. Dip migration, or simply migration, is the process of moving the reflections to their proper places with their correct amount of dips. This results in a section that more accurately represents a cross-section of the earth, delineating subsurface details such as fault planes. Migration also collapse diffractions. Migration is mainly divided into six parts 1) 2D migration 2) 3D migration 3) Time migration 4) Depth migration 5) Pre stack migration 6) Post stack migration, Bow-tie effect ‘A concave-upward event in seismic data produced by a buried focus and corrected by proper migration of seismic data. The focusing of the seismic wave produces three reflection points on the event per surface location. The name was coined for the appearance of the event in unmigrated seismic data. Synclines, or sags, commonly generate bow ties. 58 Fig 4.1.10 A syncline might appear as a bow tie on a stacked section and can be corrected by proper migration of seismic data. Migration algorithms Migration algorithms can be classified under three main categories: (D) Those that are based on the integral solution to the scalar wave equation, (I) Those that are based on the finite- difference solution (II1)Those that are based on frequency-wavenumber implementations Migration parameters After deciding on the migration strategy and appropriate algorithm.The analyst then decide the migration parameter (0 Migration aperture width is the critical parameter in Kirchhoff migration. 59 (ID) Depth step size in downward continuation is the crietical parameter in finite difference methods. (LID The stretch factor is the critical parameter for stolt migration. Migration principles The migration principles are (1) The dip angle of the reflector in the geologic section is greater than in the time section thus migration steepens reflector. (III) The length of the reflector , as seen in the geologic section is shorter than in time section; thus , migration shortens the reflector. (ID) migration move reflector in the updip direction. Fig 4.1.11 Migration principle Methods of Migration There are different types of migrations: Kirchhoff’s migration: It is a statistical approach technique. It is based on the observation that the zero-offset section consists of a single 60 diffraction hyperbola that migrates to a single point. Migration involves summation of amplitudes along a hyperbolic path. The advantaged of this method is its good performance in case of steep-dip structures. The method performs poorly under low signal-to-noise ratio. Finite difference migration: It is a deterministic approach. It is modeled by an approximation of the wave equation that is suitable for use with computers. On ¢ advantage of the finite difference method is its ability to perform well under low signal-to -noise ratio condition. Its disadvantage includes long computing time and difficulties in handling steep dips Frequency Domain or F-K Migration: It is a deterministic approach via the wave equation instead of using the finite difference approximation. 2-D Fourier Transform is the main technique, use here. Its advantage is its fast computing time, good performance under low signal-to-noise ratio and excellent handling of steep dips. But it includes difficulty with wide varying velocities. Depth Migration: Time migration is appropriate as long as lateral velocity variations are moderate, When these variations are substantial, depth migration is needed to obtain a true picture of the subsurface. Time migration generally describes a simpler migration method than depth migration, though depth migration is more accurate, and can handle more complex situations. Usually, the output from time migration is a time section, and the output from depth migration is a depth section. Depth migration also deals with lateral velocity variations thus it involves large computational time. 61 Migration Effects Using perpendicular reflection principle, some subsurface features and how they will look when converted to sections with vertical traces can be considered. Then some rules can be formed for how the features of the section will have to change to be migrated back to their correct configurations. For simplicity at this stage, it will be assumed that the velocity of sound is constant all through the geologic section, and that the lines are shot in the direction of dip, so they do not have any reflections from one side or the other of the line. 1 Reflections move up-dip. 2 Anticlines become narrower. 3. Anticlines may have less or the same vertical closure. 4 The crest of the anticline does not move. 5. Synclines become broader. 6 The low point of the syncline does not move. 7 Synclines may have more or the same closure. 8 Crossing reflections may become a sharp syncline (Bow-tie effect) 9 Anumbrella shape, diffraction, becomes a point. 10 The crest of diffraction does not move, and is the diffraction point. 62 5, INTERPRETATION The interpretation of seismic data in geologic terms is the objective and end product of seismic work. Seismic data are usually interpreted by geophysicists or geologists. Since, drilling wells is very costly, it is preferable to interpret from the seismic data as much information as possible about the geologic history of the area and about the nature of the rocks in an effort to form an opinion about the probability of encountering petroleum in the structures which we map. There are some basic steps that should be followed while interpreting a seismic section. Interpreting seismic data is straightforward provided that a simple procedure is adopted. The technique is to divide up the seismic section into areas of common dip families and then mark the boundaries where these families end. The nature of these boundaries can then be interpreted geologically and a geological history for the seismic section produced.When data is first loaded onto a seismic workstation it is very important not to begin detailed interpretation immediately but to stand back and make sure that a few preliminaries have been observed. Some basic steps of seismic interpretation are: (2) Look at the horizontal and vertical scales and makes sure you have a feeling for the dimensions of the data that you are looking at. (2) Familiarize yourself with the orientation of the data and how it relates to the base map. In particular ensure that, for any geological structure, you know which is the dip and which is the strike direction. 63 (3) Look at the data on a scale that enables you to see an entire inline or cross line and look at the near surface to see if there are any features of note in the upper section. In particular, things to look out for are: a. near surface channels filled with fast or slow velocity material which have a time effect on all horizons below. near surface amplitude anomalies. These could be shallow hydrocarbon deposits and constitute drilling hazards. if land data, have a look at the statics that were applied and see if there is any time structure related to these static corrections. This structure may be spurious if the statics were applied with the wrong velocity. look for velocity anomalies creating time structure. For example pull up under salt or fault shadow effects. These time artefacts are much easier to see on sections displayed at a large 1:50,000 or 1:100,000. scale, i. and finally have a look at the migration that was applied to the data and see if you think that the data are correctly positioned. The interpretation procedure: (1) The section is divided into dip families. Q) e boundaries are drawn around each dip family (3)If the horizontal boundaries are not well defined, the dips of the overlying family are extended downwards as far as possible. The dips of the underlying family are extended up as far as possible. A best estimate of the position of the boundary is made and marked. (4) The nature of the boundaries are decided upon: (a) vertical or inclined > faults > rock or facies boundaries, e.g. salt > edge (b) horizontal or inclined > unconformities > structural growth stages > rock or facies boundaries, e.g. reefs > fans, deltas, channels, ete (5)Seismic features are separated from geology. For example, multiples, velocity anomalies, sideswipe. (6) The structural and depositional history is developed. (7)A geological model is decided on, tested and revised.. (8) The geological model is built and restored in depth at a 1 to I scale. (9) Mapping horizons are selected along with dip families controlling Horizontal and Sloping Bowndaries Vertical to Inclined Boundaries Flank to crest progressively changing ips Axial plane Figure 5.1.1; Characteristics of different types of bed inclination found in the seismic trace. 65 A synthetic example of the relationship of dip families and how they can be interpreted geologically is shown in the diagram below. The geological history derived from such a seismic interpretation would be along the following lines, in time order. PATTERNS OF DIP FAMILIES AND BOUNDARIES ~ A ts ee € DIP FAMILIES BOUNDARIES 1/5, 3/5, 4/5 Slip Planes 1 Pre-thrust 2/3 Ramp 2-3-4 Overthrust 1/2, 2/3, 3/4 Fold Axes 5 Undisturbed 5/6, 5/8 Angular Unconformities 6-7-8 Crest end flanks 5/7 Unconformity 6/7, 7/8 Fold Axes Figure 5.1.2 Pattern of Dip and Boundaries. (i) Horizons 6, 7 and 8 were laid down flat (ii) Uplift occurred which created the anticline that now contains these horizons (iii) Erosion created the unconformity that separates horizon 5 from those below. 66 (iv) Horizons 1 to 5 were laid down flat over the unconformity (v) Compression created the thrust which moved horizons 1 to 4 over the top of horizon 5. An example of an interpreted seismic section is shown in the Figure . Figure 5.1.3 An interpreted section 67 6. PETROLEUM SYSTEM 6.1 INTRODUCTION The geologic components and processes necessary to generate and store hydrocarbons, including a mature source rock, migration pathway, reservoir tock, trap and seal are collectively called the petroleum system. Appropriate relative timing of formation of these elements and the processes of generation, migration and accumulation are necessary for hydrocarbons to accumulate and be preserved. Exploration plays and prospects are typically developed in basins or regions in which a complete petroleum system has some likelihood of existing 6.2 PETROLEUM Petroleum is a complex mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbon compounds found in rock and it can exist as solid, liquid and gaseous according to the pressure-temperature-composition, with or without impurities such as sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen; and there is considerable variation in its physicochemical properties like colour, gravity, odour, sulphur content and viscosity in petroleum from different areas. + permo.eumsysten . Tr Reservor (osltetasy co ON, 68 Fig 6.1.1 Petroleum System In addition to these four basic components, a petroleum system by definition includes all the geologic processes required to create these elements. Crucial factors of proven (i.e. economic) petroleum systems include: Organic richness/type and volume of generative source rock Adequate burial history to ensure proper time-temperature conditions for source rock maturation Timing of maturation and expulsion in relation to timing of trap formation Presence of migration pathway linking source and reservoir rocks Preservation of trapping conditions from time of entrapment to present day Relative efficiency of sealing layers Petroleum systems may be identified according to three levels of certainty: known, hypothetical, and speculative (Magoon, 1988). In a known system, a good geochemical match exists between the source rock and accumulations; in the hypothetical case, a geochemical match is lacking but geochemical evidence is sufficient to identify the source rock. In the case of a speculative petroleum system, the presence of economic accumulations are lacking, but the existence of source rocks and oil/gas accumulations are postulated on the basis of geologic or geophysical evidence. 6.3 ELEMENTS OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM The essential elements of a petroleum system include the following: Source rock Reservoir rock 69 Cap rock Trap Migration Source Rock: 1. Production, accumulation and preservation of organic matter are prerequisites for the _ existence of petroleum source rocks. Photosynthesis is the basis for mass production of organic matter. About 2 billion years ago in the Precambrian photosynthesis emerged as a world wide phenomenon. Favourable conditions for the deposition of the sediments rich in organic matter are found on the continental shelves in the area of restricted circulation. Continental slopes are also favourable for accumulation of organic matter There are three major phases in the evolution of organic matter from the time of deposition to the beginning of metamorphism. a) Diagenesis: This phase occurs in the shallow subsurface at near normal temperatures and pressures. It includes both biogenic decay, aided by bacteria, and abiogenic reactions. Methane, carbon dioxide and water and given off by the organic matter leaving a complex hydrocarbon termed Kerogen. b) Catagenesis: 70 This phase occurs in the deeper subsurface, Thermal degradation of the kerogen is responsible for the generation of most hydrocarbons ie., oil and gas ©) Metagenesis; This third phase occurs at high temperatures and pressures verging on metamorphism. The last hydrocarbons, generally only methane are expelled. 5. The types of Kerogen present in a rock largely control the type of hydrocarbons generated in that rock. Different types of Kerogen contain different amounts of hydrogen relative to carbon and oxygen. The hydrogen content of Kerogen is the controlling factor for oil vs. gas yields from the primary hydrocarbon-generating reactions.On the basis of chemical composition in the nature of organic matter the kerogen is classified into four basic types as: Kerogen Predominant HydrocarbonAmount Typical ‘Type Potential of Depositional Hydrogen Environment 1 Oil prone ‘Abundant Lacustrine 1 Oil and gas prone Moderate Marine 1 Gas prone Small __ Terrestrial Iv Neither (primarily composedNone —_Terrestrial(?) of vitrinite) or inert material Table 6.1.2 Types of Kerogen a)Type-I Kerogen or saprophilic 1 This is essentially algal origin.it has high hydrogen carbon ratio(H:C is about 1.2-1.7) b) Type-Il Kerogen or Liptinie The organic matter of this type of kerogen consisted of algal detritus,but also contain material derived from zooplankton and phytoplankton. It has H:C ratio greater than 1 c) Type-III kerogen or humic This kerogen has a much lower H:C ratio(<0.84).Humic kerogen is produced from the lignin of the higher woody plants which grow on land. Type III sorce material is good for gas source. A source rock is a rock that is capable of generating or that has generated movable quantities of hydrocarbons. Typical source rocks, usually shales or limestone, contain about 1% organic matter and at least 0.5% total organic carbon (TOC), although a rich source rock might have as much as 10% organic matter. Rocks of marine origin tend to be oil-prone, whereas terrestrial source rocks (such as coal) tend to be gas-prone. Source rocks can be grouped into four basic categories, which are described in the table-1. To be a source rock, a rock must have three features: 1, Quantity of organic matter 2. Quality capable of yielding moveable hydrocarbons 3. Thermal maturity. 2 Twe Definition Potential source rock | Rock which contains organic matter in sufficient quantity to generate and expel hnydrocarbons if subjected to inereased thermal maturation, Efecive source rock | Rock which contains organic matter and is presently generating andor expeling hydrocarbons to form commercial accumulations, Felis etfective source | An effective source rack which has ceased generating and expeling hyro- rock Carbons due toa thermal cooing event such as uplift or erosion before exhausting its organic matter supoly. Spent source rock | An active source rock which has exhausted ts ability to generate and expel hydro- carbons either through lack of sufficient organic matter or due to reaching an over= mature state, Table 6.1.3: Types of Source Rocks To determine... Measure... Quantity of source rack | Total organic carbon (TOC) present in the source rock| Quality of source rock | * Proportions of individual kerogen + Prevalence of long-chain hydrocarbons Thermal maturity of * Vitrinite reflectance source rock # Pyrolysis Trax Table 6.1.4: The most common methods used to determine the potential of a source rock, 6.4 Generation The most important factor in the generation of crude oil from the organic matter from the sedimentary rocks is temperature. A minimum temperature of 120° F (50° C) is necessary for the generation of oil under average sedimentary basin condition. The generation end sat 350°F (175° C).Time is also an important factor. The older the sediments lower the temperature of generation, Younger sediments need higher temperature to generate oil than the average, Heavy oils are generated at the lower temperature where as the light oils are generated at high temperature, It takes millions of years to generate oil from organic matter. The youngest known source rock that has generated oil is Pliocene. At temperature higher than 350° F crude oil is irreversibly transformed into graphite and natural gas. Because the oil generation has a ceiling (120° F) and a floor (350°), the depth in the earth where oil is generated is called the Oil Window. The type of organic matter in the source rock controls the type of petroleum generated. Reservoir A subsui ¢ body of rock having sufficient porosity and permeability to store and transmit fluids is a called a reservoir rock, Sedimentary rocks are the most common reservoir rocks because they have more porosity than most igneous and metamorphic rocks and form under temperature conditions at which hydrocarbons can be preserved. The most significant property of reservoir rock is its effective permeability. Obviously, since sandstones are the best in permeability with respect to other rocks, they act as good reservoir rocks. Cap rock It is an impermeable rock-material to prevent further migration of hydrocarbons by buoyancy, and to seal petroleum within reservoir, Cap rocks are commonly of shale or of chemically precipitated evaporite deposits such as salt or gypsum, or biochemical alteration products of petroleum like tar, 74 ‘Traps Trap is a configuration of rocks suitable for containing hydrocarbons and sealed by a relatively impermeable formation through which hydrocarbons cannot migrate. Traps are described as structural traps (in deformed strata such as folds and faults) or stratigraphic traps (in areas where rock types change, such as unconformities, pinch-outs and reefs) or their combinations. A trap is an essential component of a petroleum system. Petroleum migrates upwards and laterally from source to reservoir by buoyancy. Being lighter than water, petroleum will displace groundwater and flow upwards, as well as laterally and will seep to the surface via faults and porous overburden unless confined under special circumstances to become trapped and to form economic petroleum deposits. Migration of petroleum is aided by its low surface tension, so that molecular attraction creates a film of water around grains, whereas the petroleum occupies the central pore spaces and is separated from the water. Structural Traps By juxtaposition of porous reservoir and impermeable cap rock due to folding or faulting, structural traps are created. So some tectonic or deformational mechanism (either brittle or ductile) are always involved (Figure 5). Approximately, 80 - 90% of the world's proven oil reserves are located in anticlinal traps. Anticlinal traps are commonly tens of kilometres long or even greater, and may be thousands of metres in amplitude (e. Bombay high), or they may be combination of several small anticlines. Traps may be stacked vertically on top of each other where alternating reservoir and cap rocks have been folded in the same anticline. Fault traps are numerous, but only small, Faults can also be detrimental by breaching 75 the seal of the cap rock and allowing the flow of petroleum through the fault to the surface, where it may form an oil seep. Structural Traps Fret Anticlinal trap Fault trap ee Aaaasoes Sine Retaioniin bewees fut geometry slacemen el Mabmongtring that shallow- Sipping Shctheriatgnal or not cegre ‘siibiakdal hocostal onenmon’ anew Fig 6.1.5 Schematic diagrams of structural traps 16 Stratigraphic traps By juxtaposition of porous reservoir and impermeable cap rock due to depositional variations in grain-size of different kinds of sediments stratigraphic traps are formed. This may be due to the thinning of lenses of sand and gravel (wedge-end traps), the morphology of carbonate reefs in sub-circular mounds (reef traps) or by the juxtaposition of rock types at unconformity surfaces (unconformity traps). Although unconformities are numerous, unconformity traps account for only 4% of world reserves, possibly because petroleum may have already escaped at the ancient surface prior to the formation of the unconformable beds. In Indian offshore region, especially, in the East Coast, most of the deep-water traps are stratigraphic traps like pinch-outs, unconformities etc. In Rudrasagar Oil Field of Assam is an example of stratigraphic trap, where petroleum exists in shoestring fluvial sandstone. Stratigraphic Traps on 7 Fig 6.1.6 Schematic diagrams of stratigraphic traps Combination situations There are several combinations of situations. Rising salt-dome has stratigraphic traps draped against the edge with normal-fault trap caused by tension stress over the top. Some oil also accumulates in porous cap of salt- dome. In Assam Oil-field, there exists Naga Thrust upon which Tipam Sandstone terminates forming thrust propagation fold. This arrangement is a typical example of combination trap in India. Unfortunately, no salt-dome trap is yet known in India. 78 Cumibination traps Fie 7 Schematic diagram af salt nino or Fig 6.1.7 Schematic diagrams of Combination Traps 79 Migration Migration implies movement of hydrocarbon through rocks. There are two types of migration in a petroleum system as described below. ‘SECONDARY MIGRATION MIGRATION carer Bods [EEX] source neck =] on Mo Definitions of primary and secondary migration. (After Tissot and Welte, 1984) Fig 6.1.8 Migration of petroleum Types of petroleum migration 1, Primary Migration Primary migration is the process by which hydrocarbons are expelled from the source rock into an adjacent permeable cartier bed. It is a paradoxical situation, because most source rocks are black shale’s, which have very low permeability’s, 2, Secondary Migration Secondary migration is the movement of hydrocarbons along a "carrier bed" from the source area to the trap. Migration mostly takes place as one or more separate hydrocarbons phases (gas or liquid depending on pressure and temperature conditions). Main Driving force for migration is buoyancy. This force acts vertically and is proportional to the density 80 difference between water and the hydrocarbon. So, it is stronger for gas than heavier oil. Examples of Different Kinds of Non-sandstone Reservoir Rocks in India Y Limestone with secondary porosity: Bombay High. v Fractured shale: Indrora and Wadu Oil Field of Cambay Basin. ¥ Igneous rock: Fractured syenite of Borholla Oil Field of Assam, India. Reserve Estimation (AXH x®x S, XRF) By Recoverable reserve (RR) = Where A is the area in km’, H the thickness in m, @ the porosity, So the oil saturation, RF the recovery factor (the fraction of hydrocarbons, which can be or has been produced from a well, reservoir or field; also, the fluid that has been produced) and Bo is the reservoir formation volume factor. Bo may be of two types. It can be defined as follows: Gas FVF It is gas volume at reservoir conditions divided by gas volume at surface conditions, This factor is used to convert surface measured volumes to reservoir conditions, just as oil formation volume factors are used to convert surface measured oil volumes to reservoir volumes. Oil FVF It is oil and dissolved gas volume at reservoir conditions divided by oil volume at standard conditions. Since most measurements of oil and gas production are made at the surface, and since the fluid flow takes place in 81 the formation, volume factors are needed to convert measured surface volumes to reservoir conditions. Oil formation volume factors are almost always greater than 1.0 because the oil in the formation usually contains dissolved gas that comes out of solution in the wellbore with dropping pressure. Accumulation Once oil and gas migrates into the trap, it separates according to density. The gas, being lightest. Goes to the top of the trap to from the free gas cap. The oil goes to the middle, and the water, which is always present, is on the bottom. The oil portion of the trap is saturated with a certain percentage of oil and water. The gas-oil and oil-water contacts are buoyant and are usually leveled. In some traps, only gas and water or oil and are found. 82 7. WELLSITE OPERATIONS MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING (MWD) Measurement While Drilling (MWD) technology has become an important tool for reservoir evaluation in the past 10 years. It provides downhole evaluation of formation gamma ray, resistivity, and porosity at the time of drilling. This tool also measures and records some mechanical parameters such as: © Well deviation and azimuth, * Rate of Penetration (ROP), * Downhole Weight on Bit (WOB) and downhole Torque. Annular pressure © Annular temperature ° —E Ei it Circulating Nx itv) ECD (Equivalent Circulating Densi Direction Azimuth) Inctinationtont)| Fieine Lnemator ‘eign on tt / Tora Saver Su Bs Fig 7.1.1 Location of MWD hardware (not drawn to scale). (From Anadrill, 1988.) LOGGING WHILE DRILLING INTRODU ON Logging While Drilling tools measure in-situ formation properties with instruments that are located in the drill collars immediately above the drill bit, hence forming a part of the bottom hole assembly(BHA). LWD data are transmitted to the surface by mud pulse telemetry where variations in pressure exercised by the tool can be sensed on the surface via a computer, and stored in memory for retrieval on the surface. OBJECTIVES OF LWD TECHNOLOGY 1) To get real time drilling data thus enabling quick decision-making on rig. 2) To get quick and correct formation evaluation. MEASURED PARAMETERS A suite of LWD tools attached to the bottom hole assembly record different parameters of the drilled rocks: > Natural Gamma Ray(GR) o Average Gamma Ray © Gamma Ray Spectrometry (Potassium, Thorium, Uranium) > Electric © Spontaneous Potential (old) © Resistivity (Phase Shift & Attenuation) 84 + Laterolog + Induction logs > Density & Porosity Bulk density logs e Neutron Porosity © Ultra Sonic Caliper Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) ec Porosity Permeability © Free and Bound Fluids > Acoustic (Sonic) response © Compressional Slowness (Atc) Shear Slowness (Ats) © Estimated Porosity ADVANTAGES OF LWD TECHNOLOGY LWD, while sometimes risky and expensive, has the advantage of measuring properties of a formation before drilling fluids invade deeply. Further, many well bores prove to be difficult or even impossible to measure with conventional wireline tools, especially highly deviated wells. In these situations, the LWD measurement ensures that some measurement of the subsurface is captured in the event that wireline operations are not possible. by anton eaidin) fer] above Dt (mm) BOAO == = png ann gee 29.50 Neutton sensor (ter Zon Neron sone (oo) 2-20.05 Neutron Source 27-62 Gamma source VON Gamma sensor (short 99 Gamma sensor (ong) 27.01 Ultrasonic sensor /\\\ Turbine NMR-MRP 18.11 Read-out port ‘Magnets 14.85 Antonna 1 1426 antenna 2 rasa - : MwD -3.86 Shallow resistivity 3.74 Medium resistivity GvRS £3.56 Deep resistivity 3.39 ing resistivity 5.03 Natural gamma ray Bit sub in| 1.26 Bit resistivity —0.00 Fig 7.1.2 Components of a BHA, showing position of LWD tools 86 INTRODUCTION TO LOG RESISTIVITY LOGS INTRODUCTION Resistivity of a body or sample is defined as a physical property of a material to resist or oppose the movement of charge through the material. Well logs, which depend on electrical resistivity and are function of porosity, pore fluid content, mineralogy and temperature in rocks, are resistivity logs. Two types of logs are generally used, laterolog and induction log. LATEROLOG Laterolog tools send an electric current from an electrode on the sonde directly into the formation. The return electrodes are located either on surface or on the sonde itself, Complex arrays of electrodes on the sonde (guard electrodes) focus the current into the formation and prevent current lines from fanning out or flowing directly to the return electrode through the borehole fluid. Most tools vary the voltage at the main electrode in order to maintain a constant current intensity. This voltage is therefore proportional to the resistivity of the formation. Because current must flow from the sonde to the formation, these tools only work with conductive borehole fluid, Actually, since the resistivity of the mud is measured in series with the resistivity of the formation, laterolog tools give best results when mud resistivity is low with respect to formation resistivity, i.e., in salty mud. 36 INDUCTION LOG Induction logs use an electric coil in the sonde to generate an alternating current loop in the formation by induction. This is the same physical principle as is used in electric transformers. The alternating current loop, in turn, induces a current in a receiving coil located elsewhere on the sonde. The amount of current in the receiving coil is proportional to the intensity of current loop, hence to the conductivity (reciprocal of resistivity) of the formation. Multiple transmitting and receiving coils are used to focus formation current loops both radially (depth of investigation) and axially (vertical resolution), Since the 90’s all major logging companies use so-called array induction tools. These comprise a single transmitting coil and a large number of receiving coils. Radial and axial focusing is performed by software rather than by the physical layout of coils. Since the formation current flows in circular loops around the logging tool, mud resistivity is measured in parallel with formation resistivity, Induction tools therefore give best results when mud resistivity is high with respect to formation resistivity, i.e., fresh mud or non-conductive fluid. In oil-base mud, which is non conductive, induction logging is the only option available. OBJECTIVE Resisitivity log is generally shown on logarithmic scale, The resisitivity of hydrocarbon is higher than the resisitivity of formation water, The resisitivity of fresh water is also high and it decreases with increasing salinity. The formation resisitivity depends on the formation fluid and porosity. If the rock has low porosity or rock is compact then resistivity of formation is high. We can calculate water saturation using Archie equation. Sv = [@/o™*(R. / RO] 96 water saturation, Rw: formation water resistivity, Ri: observed bulk resistivity @ porosity, ‘a’ is a constant (often taken to be 1), m: cementation factor (varies around 2). GAMMA LOG INTRODUCTION Gamma-ray measurements detect variations in the natural radioactivity originating from changes in concentrations of the trace elements uranium (U) and thorium (Th) as well as changes in concentration of the major rock forming element potassium (K). Since the concentrations of these naturally occurring radioelements vary between different rock types, natural gamma-ray logging provides an important tool for lithologic mapping and stratigraphic correlation. Gamma-ray logs are important for detecting alteration zones, and for providing information on rock types. For example, in sedimentary rocks, sandstones can be easily distinguished from shales due to the low potassium content of the sandstones compared to the shales. In sedimentary rocks, potassium is the principal source of natural gamma radiation, primarily originating from clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite. In igneous and metamorphic geologic environments, the three sources of natural radiation may contribute equally to the total gamma radiation detected by the gamma probe. Often in base metal and gold exploration areas, the principal source of the natural gamma radiation is potassium, because alteration, characterized by the development of scricite, is prevalent in some of the lithologic units and results in an increase in the element potassium in these units. The presence of feldspar porphyry sills, which contain increased concentrations of K-feldspar minerals, would also show higher than normal radioactivity on the gamma-ray logs. During 96 metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration processes, uranium and thorium may be preferentially concentrated in certain lithologie units. Older gamma-ray logs are recorded in "counts" whose numbers vary according to the tool design. Almost all modern gamma-ray logs are recorded in API (American Petroleum Institute) units, which make a common standard for log comparison. The scale was chosen so that a value of zero would mean no radioactivity and a value of 100 would match a typical Mid-continent shale. In practice, shales can be somewhat variable in their radioactivity according to their silt content, types of clay mineral, and the occurrence of small amounts of uranium. APPLICATION > Open-hole as well as cased-hole cortelation(as 7 rays have a good penetrating power) > Computation of shale volume > Different types of clay can be identified and discriminated > Environment of deposition can be inferred depending on Th:U ratio(Th is present in terrestrial realm and U is mainly presenting marine realm) > To locate radioactive ores, uranium in particular. SP LOG (SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG) INTRODUCTION The spontaneous potential tool measures natural electrical potentials that occur in boreholes and generally distinguishes porous, permeable sandstones from intervening shales. The "natural battery" is caused when the use of drilling mud 96 with a different salinity from the formation waters, causes two solutions to be in contact that have different ion concentrations. Ions diffuse from the more concentrated solution (typically formation water) to the more dilute. The ion flow constitutes electrical current, which generates a small natural potential measured by the SP tool in millivolts. ‘When the salinities of mud filtrate and formation water are the same, the potential is zero and the SP log should be a featureless line. With a fresher mud filtrate and so, more saline formation water, sandstone will show a deflection in a negative potential direction (to the left) from a “shale base line". The amount of the deflection is controlled by the salinity contrast between the mud filtrate and the formation water. Clean (shale-free) sandstone units with the same water salinity should show a common value, the "sand line". In practice, there will be drift with depth because of the changing salinity of formation waters. The displacement on the log between the shale and sand lines is the "static self-potential" SSP. The SP log is used to: (1) detect permeable beds, (2) detect boundaries of permeable beds, (3) determine formation water resistivity (Rw), and (4) determine the volume of shale in permeable beds. An auxiliary use of the SP curve is in the detection of hydrocarbons by the suppression of the SP response. The concept of static spontaneous potential (SSP) is important because SSP represents the maximum SP that a thick, shale free, porous and permeable formation can have for a given ‘ratio between Rmf / Rw. The SP value that is measured in the borehole is influenced by bed thickness, bed resistivity, invasion, borehole diameter, shale content, and most important is the ratio of Rmf / Rw. measurement of SP is controlled by various factors. 1. Bed thickne: 2. Bed resistivity. 3. Invasion profile 96 4, Shale content in permeable bed. APPLICATION > Bed boundaries delineation » Shale volume determination. Vsh = 1- (SP/SSP). > Formation water resistivity (Rw) determination. POROSITY LOGS The three porosity logs are > Density Log > Neutron Log > Sonic Log DENSITY LOG Density logging tools contain a Cesium-137 gamma ray source which irradiates the formation with 662-KeV gamma rays. These gamma rays interact with electrons in the formation through Compton scattering and lose energy. Once the energy of the gamma ray has fallen below 100 KeV, photolectric absorption dominates: gamma rays are eventually absorbed by the formation, The amount of energy loss by Compton scattering is related to the number electrons per unit volume of formation. Since for most elements of interest (below Z = 20) the ratio of atomic weight, A, to atomic number, Z, is close to 2, gamma ray energy loss is related to the amount of matter per unit volume, i.c., formation density. 96 ee ded (@ a10 2 Information) feo 3 : BSN Rein ot ‘Compton Scattering Fig 7.1.3 Variations in spectrum for formation with constant density but different z APPLICATIONS OF DENSITY LOG (1) Measurement of density of formation (2)Caleulation of porosity (3) When combined with sonic travel times, it is used to calibrate seismic data (4) Detection of gas in reservoirwhen used in combination with neutron log (5) PEF is good indicator of lithology Fig 7.1.4 Schematic drawing of the dual spacing formation density-log 96 The distance between the face of the skid and the extremity of the eccentering arm is recorded as a caliper log, which helps to assess the quality of contact between the skid and the formation. NEUTRON LOG Neutron porosity logging tools contain an Americium-Beryllium (Amos, — Bes) neutron source, which irradiates the formation with neutrons having a mean energy of 4.2 MeV or Californium (Cfs2) source. These neutrons lose energy through elastic collisions with nuclei in the formation. Once their energy has decreased to thermal level, they diffuse randomly away from the source and are ultimately absorbed by a nucleus. Hydrogen atoms have essentially the same mass as the neutron; therefore hydrogen is the main contributor to the slowing down of neutrons. A detector at some distance from the source records the number of, neutron reaching this point, Neutrons that have been slowed down to thermal level have a high probability of being absorbed by the formation before reaching the detector. The neutron counting rate is therefore inversely related to the amount of hydrogen in the formation. APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRON LOG (1) Porosity Determination (2)Locate gas when combined with Density or acoustic Log 96 SONIC LOG The acoustic velocity log or sonic log is a porosity log that measures interval transit time (At) of a compressional sound wave traveling through one foot of formation. Transit time is the time required for the wave to travel Ift of the formation. The transit time will be more in case of liquid and vice versa. Less transit time will indicate low porosity, i.e., it is proportional to the porosity. The sonic log device consists of one or more sound transmitters, and two or more receivers. Interval transit time (At) in microseconds per foot is the reciprocal of the velocity of a compressional sound wave in feet per second. The interval transit time (At) is dependent upon both lithology and porosity. Sonic porosity can be used to determine porosity in consolidated sandstones and carbonates with intergranular porosity or intracrystalline porosity (sucrosic dolomites). In sonic logging only the first arrivals are noted. Porosity (D) = {(t— twa) / (te ta) } Fig 7.1.5 Schematic diagram of principles of acoustic velocity logging tools. 96 8. CONCOLUSION During the training period, we got an opportunity to know the seismic methods of prospecting of hydrocarbon, In the first stage, we learned seismic acquisition techniques with special emphasis on 3D seismic design and the logistic problems in the field. We visited the camp area and came to know about the functionality of the instruments during field acquisition. Some software's were also introduced for the survey designing like MESSA. For data processing, we used PROMAX software using which we could learn the different stages of data processing. This session also improved our mathematical background for the processing. In the second stage, interpretation techniques were taught with correlation of other data like well logs and VSP. Different steps of interpretation were introduced and using geology of the area, some of the sections were interpreted. Log correlations and synthetic seismogram were also used in this analysis which gives the true subsurface image of the earth. . 9. References Yilmaz, Oezdogan, 2001 Seismic Data Analysis Second Edition. Dobrin M.B., 1949 Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting, McGraw Hill Publication. Telford, W.M., Geldart, L.P., Sheriff, R.E., 1990.Applied Geophysics Second Edition, Cambridge University Press. Serra, O., 1984 Fundamental of Well Log Interpretation, Elsevier Publications. Schlumberger, The essentials of Log Interpretation practice, Schulmberger. 96