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Exam 1:

- The NAE Grand Challenges describe 14 topics of national importance in engineering, including
topics such as: “make solar energy more economical,” “provide access to clean water” … etc.
true
- The price of a Ford “model T” was $850 when it rolled out of the assembly line in 1918. False
- High speed steel tools (including tungsten, molybdenum, and molybdenum-cobalt, invented in
the 1950’s, can sustain temperatures up to 1000℃. False
- Stainless steel, as an alloy of iron, have more than 12% of chromium, especially, the famous 18-8
stainless steel has a composition of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. True
- The 400 series ferritic stainless steel has a high chromium content (up to 27%), is magnetic, and
is the cheapest among stainless steels: True
- The so-called “eutectic solder” in electronic soldering is a tin-lead alloy with about 62% of time
and 38% of lead in the alloy, so as to create the co-existence of solid and liquid phase in
soldering applications when heat is applied with a soldering iron. False
- The two G-codes G02 and G03 for circular interpolation and cutting are modal because once the
code is issued in a CNC program, the function remains active until canceled by another modal G
code. True
- In machine design, we typically consider materials within elastic range. However, in the
manufacturing processes presented in this class, we often consider materials and processes in
the plastic range, not the linear range. True
- The van der waals force is a primary bond between atoms and molecules and is stronger than a
covalent bond. False
- Alumina (Al2O3) is a? ceramic metal
- Orthogonal cutting is a manufacturing process model for? Ductile materials
- Which of the following statements is not true about passivation of stainless steel? Common
passivation treatment uses alkaline solution
- The EDM machine in lab OE-137 is a? wire EDM
- What is the average share of manufacturing industry in US GDP from 1950 to 2000? It is always
between 15% and 20%
- The American National Standards defines GD&T vocabulary and provide its grammatical rules.
Which document defines the most updated “Dimensioning and Tolerancing”?
ASME Y14.5M-1994
- Name the three basic categories of engineering materials: metals, ceramics, polymers
- What is the carbon content in 1040 steel? 0.4%
- Crystalline structures: BCC (Iron (Fe) and Chromium (Cr))
FCC (Aluminum (Al), Nickel (Ni), and Copper (Cu))
HCP (Titanium (Ti))

Exam 2:
- The two steps of parameter design in Taguchi method to enhance the robustness of design are:
step 1: reduce variation
Step 2: move to target
- 6 and 9 are the best shape of a chip, they are small and can be removed easily from work piece.
- Which mode of wear is the Taylor’s tool life equation based on? Flank wear
- Center drill: makes a primary hole that shows the location of the hole. Without it, a drill may not
be able to place the hole at the intended precise location
- Binder material for cemented carbides: cobalt
Cements: aluminum
- Hardness strongest to weakest: diamond, cubic boron nitride, boron carbide, silicon carbide,
aluminum oxide

- Coated carbide insert tools: The thin film coating are typically done by the following two
deposition processes: chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition

Exam 3:
- What is the main factor that distinguishes between the “bulk deformation” and “sheet metal-
working” processes? Volume-to-surface-area-ratio
- Explain the reason(s) why a forged connecting rod is better, as far as strength is concerned, than
a machined (with material removal) one: forged: continuous grain flow
Machined: interrupted grain flow
- The aluminum beverage can is manufactured by a deep drawing process:
a. The manufacturing cost of each can: 4 cents
b. The cost of the 12 oz beverage you drink: less than 1 cent
c. Why is the lid shaped with a neck area: save material cost of lid (more expensive alloy)
- HONDA’s humanoid robot ASIMO was introduced in 2000. When asked why HONDA invested in
such humanoid robot, the CEO of HONDA responded with this answer: Mobility

Quiz 1:
- It is estimated that cutting tools are always used correctly: false
- High speed steel tools are stronger than carbide tools: false
- Work piece composition and hardness will determine tool shape: true
- Only conductive work pieces can be EDM’ed: true
- The single piece dies are stronger than those built from segments: true.
- Cutting tool selection should be based on safety, time, and quality
- Two-thirds of carbide tools are coated, which gives more life time and more cutting speed
- Ceramic tools are excellent in chemical resistance but do not withstand high heat
- EDM is a thermo erosion process.
- Wire cut EDM machine use traveling wire electrode to cut

Quiz 2:
- Stamping dies are the tools that shape and cut sheet metal parts: true
- The two principal types of die casting machines are Hot chamber machine and cold chamber
machine: true
- Die casting is a high precision rapid part production process involving the high pressure injection
of a molten metal into a die having a cavity of the desired part shape: true
- The most common die casting metals are steel and Magnesium alloys: False
- Forgibility depends on Metal’s/alloy’s composition, crystal structure, and mechanical properties:
True
- Die cast machines are often rated by clamping-force capacity or shot weight capacity.
- The die halves are attached to platens of the die cast machine, including stationary platen and
removable platen.
- Close-die forging performing may include, edging, blocking and finish-forging
- Two most common types of dies are cutting and forming dies
- Dies refers to only female part of the tooling.
Quiz 3:
- The Knee Mill is used for tool making, prototyping, and mass-volume production: false
- Power required for milling operations varies with cutter geometry and speed: true
- Process accuracy is an important process and/or property of workholding: true
- There are a total of 3 degrees-of-freedom (dof) to be constrained for locating: false
- Hole making including holemaking and hole finishing operations: true
- Milling process uses the relative motion between the rotating multiple edge cutters and the
workpiece to generate flat and curved surfaces.
- Most machining centers have 20-40 tools installed
- Workholding includes any device used to grip and present the work piece.
- The engine lathe requires means to hold and rotating the workpiece, and hold and move the
cutting tool
- Operating parameters and process variables of Lathe are cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of
cut.

Quiz 4:
- All injection molding machines are a combination of an injection system and clamping system:
true
- Vents are used to heat the thermoplastic material to its appropriate viscosity: false
- Thermal expansion of plastics is ten times greater than metals: true
- Friction heat easily dissipates through a plastic workpiece: false
- Vacuum metallizer is a physical process of depositing a plastic layer on the metal part: false
- Injection molding is the most common method of produce part out of plastic material
- The speed of the injection molding machine is determined by the mold cooling system
- Snap fits are integral fasteners that are molded into plastic parts which lock into place when
assembled.
- Welding provides exceptional joints that are as strong as the surrounding plastics
- The finishing includes degating, deflashing, cleaning, and decorating.

Homework 2:

Chapter 1
- The three basic categories of engineering materials are: metals, ceramics, polymers
- Inventions of the Industrial Revolution include which of the following? Steam engine
- Ferrous Metals include which of the following? Copper, steel
- Which one of the following engineering materials is defined as a compound containing metallic
and nonmetallic elements? Ceramic

Chapter 2:
- The basic structure unit of matter is which of the following? Atom
- Which of the following bond types are classified as primary bonds? Covalent, ionic bonding,
metallic bonding
- How many atoms are there in the face-centered cubic (FCC) unit cell? 14
- Which of the following are not point defects in a crystal lattice structure? Edge dislocations,
grain boundaries, screw dislocation
- Polymers are characterized by which of the following bonding types? Covalent, Van der Waals

Chapter 3:
- Which of the following is the correct definition of ultimate tensile strength, as derived from the
results of a tensile test on a metal specimen? The maximum load divided by the original area of
the specimen
- If stress values were measured during a tensile test, which of the following would have the
higher value? True stress
- If strain measurements were made during a tensile test, which would have the higher value?
Engineering strain
- The plastic region of the stress-strain curve for a metal is characterized by a proportional
relationship between stress and strain? False
- Which of the following types of stress-strain relationships best describes the behavior of brittle
materials such as ceramics and thermosetting plastics? Perfectly elastic
- Most hardness tests involve pressing a hard object into the surface of a test specimen and
measuring the indentation (or its effect) that result? true
- Which of the following materials had highest hardness? Alumina ceramic

Chapter 4:
- In the heating of most metal alloys, melting begins at a certain temperature and concludes at a
higher temperature. In these cases, which of the following marks the beginning of melting?
Solidus
- Which of the following pure metals is the best conductor of electricity? Silver
- A super conductor is characterized by which of the following? Zero resistivity

Chapter 5:
- A tolerance is which of the following? Total permissible variation from a specified dimension
- Which one of the following manufacturing processes will likely result in the best surface finish?
Grinding
- Which one of the following manufacturing processes will likely result in the worst surface finish?
Sand casting, sawing
Equations

Chapter 3 (hw 2)

- Flow curve: pg 46: 𝜎 = 𝐾𝜀 𝑛


2𝐹
- Brinell Hardness Test: pg 53: HB =
𝜋𝐷𝑏 (𝐷𝑏 − 𝐷𝑏2 −𝐷𝑖2

Chapter 4 (hw 2)

- Thermal expansion: pg 68: 𝐿2 − 𝐿1 = 𝛼𝐿1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 )

Chapter 5 (hw 2)

𝑛 𝑦𝑖
- Average roughness: pg 90: 𝑅𝑎 = 𝑖=1 𝑛
1 𝑛 2
- Root-mean square average roughness: 90: 𝑅𝑅𝑀𝑆 = 𝑛 𝑖=1 |𝑦𝑖|

Chapter 6: (hw 4)

- Inverse lever rule: pg 102:


𝐶𝑆
L phase proportion:
𝐶𝑆+𝐶𝐿
𝐶𝐿
S phase proportion: 𝐶𝑆+𝐶𝐿

Chapter 21: (hw 5)

- Material Removal Rate: pg 487: 𝑅𝑀𝑅 = 𝑣𝑓𝑑


- Orthogonal cutting operation:
𝑡
Chip thickness ratio: pg 489: r = 𝑡𝑜
𝑐
𝑟𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝛼
Shear plane angle: pg 489: tan(𝜑) =
1−𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛼
Shear strain: pg 490: 𝛾 = tan 𝜑 − 𝛼 + cot 𝜑
- Forces in metal cutting:
𝐹
Coefficient of friction: pg 493: 𝜇 = 𝑁 = tan(β)
𝐹
Shear stress: pg 493: 𝜏 = 𝑆 = 𝐴𝑠
𝑠
𝑡 𝑤
Area of shear plane: pg 493: 𝐴𝑠 = sin0 𝜑
Pg. 494: F = 𝐹𝑐 sin 𝛼 + 𝐹𝑡 cos⁡(𝛼)
N = 𝐹𝑐 cos 𝛼 − 𝐹𝑡 sin⁡(𝛼)
𝐹𝑠 = 𝐹𝑐 cos 𝜑 − 𝐹𝑡 sin⁡(𝜑)
𝐹𝑛 = 𝐹𝑐 sin 𝜑 + 𝐹𝑡 cos⁡(𝜑)
𝐹𝑠 cos 𝛽−𝛼
Cutting force: pg 495: 𝐹𝑐 =
cos 𝜑+𝛽 −𝛼
𝐹 sin 𝛽−𝛼
Thrust force: pg 495: 𝐹𝑡 = cos𝑠 𝜑+𝛽 −𝛼
𝛼 𝛽
- Merchant equation: pg 495: 𝜑 = 2 − 2
- Cutting power: pg 497: 𝑃𝑐 = 𝐹𝑐 𝑣 = U𝑅𝑀𝑅
- Specific energy: pg 498: U =𝑃𝑢

Chapter 22 (hw 6)

- Turning
𝑣
Rotational speed: pg 511: N = 𝜋𝐷
0
Feed rate: pg 511: 𝐹𝑟 = 𝑁𝑓
𝐿 𝜋𝐷0 𝐿
Machining time: pg 511: 𝑇𝑚 = 𝑓 = 𝑓𝑣
𝑟
- Drilling
𝑣
Rotational speed: pg 520: N = 𝜋𝐷
Feed rate: pg 520: 𝐹𝑟 = 𝑁𝑓
𝑡+𝐴
Machining time for through hole: pg 520: 𝑇𝑚 = 𝑓𝑟
𝑑+𝐴
Machining time for blind hole: pg 521: 𝑇𝑚 =
𝑓𝑟
𝜃
Approach allowance: pg 520: A = 0.5Dtan(90- ))
2
2
Material Removal Rate: pg 521: 𝑅𝑀𝑅 = 𝜋𝐷 𝑓𝑟 /4
- Milling
𝑣
Rotational speed: pg 526: N = 𝜋𝐷
Feed rate: pg 526: 𝐹𝑟 = 𝑁𝑛𝑡 𝑓
Material Removal Rate: pg 527: 𝑅𝑀𝑅 = 𝑤𝑓𝑟 𝑑
Slab milling:
Approach allowance: pg 527 A = 𝑑(𝐷 − 𝑑)
𝐿+𝐴
Machining time: pg 527: 𝑇𝑚 = 𝑓𝑟
Face milling:
Center over work piece: Approach allowance: pg 527 A = 0.5(𝐷 − 𝐷 2 − 𝑤 2 )
Offset: Approach allowance: pg 528: A = 𝑤 𝐷 − 𝑤
𝐿+𝐴
Machining time: pg 528: 𝑇𝑚 = 𝑓𝑟

Chapter 23 (hw 6)

- Taylor tool life equation: pg556: 𝑣𝑇 𝑛 = 𝐶


𝑇
- MR = 𝑇
𝑟𝑒𝑓

Chapter 25: (hw 7)


- Grinding
Average length of chip: pg 610: 𝑙𝑐 = 𝐷𝑑
Material Removal rate: pg 610: 𝑅𝑀𝑅 = 𝑀𝑅𝑅 = 𝑣𝑤 𝑤𝑑
Number of chips formed per time: pg 611: 𝑛𝑐 = 𝑣𝑤𝐶
Power: P =Fv = T𝜔
𝐹𝑐 𝐷
T=
2
Surface wheel speed: v = 𝜋𝐷𝑁 (N = spindle speed)
𝑃
Specific energy: u =𝑅
𝑀𝑅

Chapter 18 (hw 10)


𝐿
- Strain: 𝜀 =
𝐿0
- Flow stress: pg 386: 𝑌𝑓 = 𝐾𝜀 𝑛
𝐾𝜀 𝑛
- Average Flow stress: pg 387: 𝑌𝑓 = 1+𝑛

Chapter 19 (hw 10)

- Flat rolling:
Draft: pg397: d = 𝑡0 − 𝑡𝑓
Maximum draft: pg 398: 𝑑𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝜇2 𝑅
- forging
𝜋𝐷 2 𝐿
Volume: pg 408: V = 4
𝑉
Area: A =
𝑕
0.4𝜇𝐷
Forging shape factor: 𝑝𝑔 408: 𝐾𝑓 = 1 + 𝑕
Force: pg 408: F =𝐾𝑓 𝑌𝑓 𝐴
- extrusion:
𝐴0
reduction ratio: pg 423: 𝑟𝑥 =
𝐴𝑓
strain: pg 423: 𝜀 = ln⁡(𝑟𝑥 )
extrusion strain: pg 424: 𝜀 = 𝑎 + 𝑏ln⁡
(𝑟𝑥 )
2𝐿
ram pressure for direct extrusion: pg 424: p = 𝑌𝑓 𝜀𝑥 +
𝐷0
- Drawing:
𝐴0 −𝐴𝑓
Reduction: pg 431: 𝑟 = 𝐴0
𝐴 1
Strain: pg 431: 𝜀 = ln 𝐴0 = ln 1−𝑟
𝑓
𝜇 𝐴
Draw stress: pg 431: 𝜎𝑑 = 𝑌𝑓 (1 + tan 𝛼
)𝜑𝑙𝑛 𝐴0
𝑓
0.12𝐷
Pg 432: 𝜑 = 0.88 +
𝐿𝑐
0 𝐷 −𝐷𝑓
Contact length: pg 432: 𝐿𝑐 = 2 sin ∝
Draw force: pg 432: F = 𝐴𝑓 𝜎𝑑

Chapter 20 (hw 10):

- Sheet metal cutting


Clearance: pg 446: c = 𝐴𝑐 𝑡
Blanking Punch Diameter: pg 447:𝐷𝑏 − 2𝑐
Blanking die diameter: pg 447:𝐷𝑏
Hole Punch Diameter: pg 447:𝐷𝑕
Hole die diameter: pg 447: 𝐷𝑕 + 2𝑐
- Bending: pg 452-453
- Drawing:
Drawing ratio: pg 457
Reduction: pg 458
Thickness to diameter ratio: pg 458

Chapter 10 (hw 11):

- Solidification time: chvorinov’s rule: 𝑝𝑔 216:

Chapter 38:

- Open loop positioning system:


Speed of motor shaft rotation: pg 899
Angle of rotation: pg 900

Number of pulses: pg 900

Rotational speed of lead screw: pg 900

Pulse train frequency: pg 900

- Closed loop positioning system:


Control resolution: pg 903
K INEMATICS AND W ORKSPACE OF S ERIAL ROBOT A RM

MEC325/580, Spring 2010 I. Kao

This handout explains the kinematics and workspace of a two-link planar serial manipulator, or robot arm.
Analysis of a two-link arm, shown in Figure 1, is the most basic kinematic analysis for serial robots. The
IBM 7545 SCARA robot in the lab has a similar kinematics. Here, we will discuss the forward kinematics
and workspace of such robot arm.

effector point


Kinematics: As shown in Figure 1, the Cartesian coordinates of the end-
can be obtained as follows
Y P(x, y)
L2
      !" θ2

  $#&%' () $#&%  !" (1)


(2) L1

* is measured from the + axis and  is measured θ1


Note that the angle
,
from the extension line of the base link . With equations (1) and (2),
O
X

we can define the Jacobian matrix which relates the infinitesimal dis-

placement in the Cartesian space ( -. ) to that in the joint space ( - ) as
Figure 1: A 2-link planar manip-
ulator.
follows

/0 1-.  324 4075 6 4 4095 8 =<?> ' '  $#&%'   >  7#&%@    !!AA >  BB$#&%    !!""  C
- 44 0 : 6 4 4$0 : 8; (3)

where -.
ED -  - GFIH is the vector of the Cartesian coordinates, and - J ED 
"K!7FIH is the vector
containing the joint coordinates. The Jacobian matrix relates the infinitesimal displacement - (in radians)

to the resulting infinitesimal displacement -. in the Cartesian space by the following equation

L
B
/ 0 M
 @
N < -  P/0Q< - 
-. - - OC - !RC (4)

as that in equation (4) with


/0 - 
An important note is in order here. Note that any time when the angles are involved in direct algebra, such
, you have to use angles in “radians” instead of “degrees.”
S
 $  T UWVYXZ![\]Z XZ!$XZ^ _XO`bac
Example of forward kinematics and Jacobian: Two configurations of the 2-link arm are given at
and , with and .
 LXO`bVc
From equations (1) and (2), the coordinates of the end-effector and the Jacobian matrices are:

At
 A$!A T UWVYX Z [\ Z ed <  C < XOOX `b`b\]\]fh]f]gYhV C /0 <?> XOXO`b\]`b\]fh]gYf]V h > OX XO`jX`bi]g]h]gYf]a h C

 
 A
$
 
 A
 T
U

 X Z $
 X Z e
d <  < XO`bfYX 
/ 
0 < X X
At C X C XO`bfYX XO`bVYX C

that configuration cannot move along


,
Note that the Jacobian matrix for the second configuration is singular. This is because the two-link arm at
direction instantaneously. When this happens, we call the robot
being at a singular configuration. In fact, you should be able to prove that the Jacobian matrix is always

1
with
! _X
singular (i.e., the robot is at a singular configuration) whenever the distal link is aligned with the base link,
.

With infinitesimal angular displacement of -  D XO`jX  XO`jX  FH -  

 (note the angles are in “radi-


ans”), the displacement of the end-effector in the Cartesian coordinates for the two configurations can be
obtained from equation (4), and are
 XO`jX]XhgYf]a  X
-. < --
 C 9< > OX `jX]Xag[f C c -. < --
 C < OX `jX  iYXC c
and (5)



respectively. Again, we find that the two-link manipulator can not move in the -direction instantaneously
at configuration 2 because - is identically zero.

Workspace: Workspace of a robot (or called the work envelope) represents the space within which the robot
can reach without singularity. The boundary of the workspace represents the singular configuration of the
robot. The workspace depends on the angular range of the two angles of the arms, and . The typical
 !
workspace for a two-link arm is illustrated in Figure 2 by the shaded region.
Y

θ2
L2

L1

θ1
X
O
and 
L L1 2
X G 
 [h]Z and X !  hYXZ .
Figure 2: The workspace of a two-link manipulator with link lengths and the range of

2
Taguchi Methods

Parameter Design:
Definition of S/N Ratios

Professor Imin Kao, Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook; kao@mal.eng.sunysb.edu
Topics of Exam #3
•  Metal forming & sheet metal working
–  Feasibility of processes
–  Analysis and synthesis
•  Casting & molding
–  Chvorinov equation & riser design
–  Processes of expendable/permanent casting
•  Manufacturing automation & robotics
–  Kinematics of robotics: analysis & workspace
–  Motion control: accuracy and repeatability
–  Design for X
–  PLC

Exam #3
Arrangement of Problems
•  5 fill-in-blank questions

•  5 Problems

•  Extra credit problems (more difficult; may


not necessarily be in textbook; may need
additional derivation or work)
MEC325/580 H ANDOUT: A N E XAMPLE OF THE TAGUCHI M ETHOD

MEC325/580, Spring 2010 I. Kao

This handout explains the application of the non-dynamic Taguchi method using an example of experimental
design with L4 orthogonal array on a practical manufacturing process with experimental measurements.

Problem Statement: Experiments were conducted for a tile making process using the Taguchi method.
Three control factors are identified as crucial to the strength of the tiles, as described in the following.

A: ingredient #1, B: ingredient #2, and C: temperature of the curing process

with each control factor having two levels. The experiments were conducted with the results tabulated in
Table 1. Note that in Table 1, the orthogonal array employed is the L4 array. (cf. the handout on various
orthogonal arrays) The data measured (or the readings) in Table 1 are the strength of the tiles, in M P a.

Results
No. A B C N1 N2
1 1 1 1 100 250
2 1 2 2 160 185
3 2 1 2 495 295
4 2 2 1 360 313
Table 1: A L4 array and experimental results

1. Since the strength of the tile is considered here as the measure to evaluate the tile making process,
which criterion should you use: larger-the-better, smaller-the-better, or nominal-the-best?

2. Determine the optimal condition of each control factor, based on the parameter design with the S/N
ratios to maximize the strength.

Solution: The experimental design has 4 experiments, each with 2 readings. The terms “experiment” and
“reading” are explained in the Remarks at the end of this handout.

1. Because the strength of the tile is to be maximized, we will use larger-the-better criterion.

2. Once the larger-the-better criterion is chosen, the following equations for calculating the S/N ratios
are employed.
 
2 1 1 1
σ = + (1)
2 y12 y22
η = −10 log σ 2 (2)

where y1 and y2 are the data under the 2 columns N1 and N2 . Substituting the readings in Table 1 into
equations (1) and (2), we obtain the L4 orthogonal array with the calculated data of σ 2 and η listed in
Table 2.
Once the S/N ratios, η, are calculated, as listed in the last column in Table 2, we can calculate the
average S/N ratios associated with each level of the three control factors. For example, the average

1
Results S/N Ratios
No. A B C N1 N2 σ2 η
1 1 1 1 100 250 0.00005800 42.37
2 1 2 2 160 185 0.00003414 44.67
3 2 1 2 495 295 0.00000779 51.09
4 2 2 1 360 313 0.00000896 50.48
Table 2: Calculating the S/N ratios based on the measurements and readings

A B C
level 1 43.52 46.73 46.42
level 2 50.78 47.57 47.88
Table 3: The response table

S/N ratio for A1 (first level of control parameter A) is the average of experiment No. 1 and 2 (row 1
and 2) by virtue of the designation of levels under the column for the control factor A. Similarly, the
average S/N ratio for B2 is the average of experiment No. 2 and 4. The entries of the response tables
are calculated and listed in Table 3.
The response table can be used to plot the following response chart for the signal-to-noise ratios, as
shown in Figure 1.
52

50

48

46

44

42

40

38
A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2
Figure 1: The plot of response chart based on the values obtained in the response table.

Optimal Levels of Control Factors:


From the response chart (or the response table), the optimal design corresponding to the choice of
the combination of one of the two levels of the three control factors is found to be A2 B2 C2 (i.e.,
level 2 of parameter A, level 2 of parameter B, and level 2 of parameter C) which corresponds to the
combination of highest S/N ratios from each parameter.
For example, if the first and second levels of the curing temperatures (C1 and C2 ) are 150◦ F and
200◦ F , respectively, we will choose level 2 with a curing temperature at 200◦ F as our design based
on the results of Taguchi method.

Remarks:

2
(i) Each row of the orthogonal array is call an “experiment” which represents a set of experimental setup
using the designated levels of the control factors. For example, in the L4 array in Table 1, each of the
4 rows represents one experiment.

(ii) In each experiment, there are “readings”—typically two readings if two compound noise levels are
used, as in the case of the example here with N1 and N2 .

(iii) Note that the largest S/N ratio is always chosen for optimal design levels regardless of the criterion
used. This applies to both positive and negative S/N ratios.

(iv) For other orthogonal arrays, the number of experiments will change and the combination of the levels
of the control factors will also change. For example, a L9 array has 9 experiments and each control
factor has 3 levels. Yet, the methodology of finding the S/N ratios and the response table/chart remains
the same.

3
Taguchi Methods!

Case Study of Taguchi Methods:


Canon Example

Professor Imin Kao!


Department of Mechanical Engineering!
SUNY at Stony Brook!
631-632-8308; email: kao@mal.eng.sunysb.edu!

Taguchi Methods!

Cannon Example

Distance ! !y= (F!t/m)2 /g sin2" = k F2 sin2" !


Ball weight & !!t !m = 0.2 kg, !t=0.1sec!
Constant (k) ! !k = 0.02549 m/N2!
Range of " ! !0 < " " 45º!
Range of F ! !0 < F " 170 N!
Taguchi Methods!

Traditional Approach

Starts with F=130N and apply the !


projectile equation!

y = y(F, ") = k F2 sin2"!


150 = (0.02549)1302 sin(2 ")!

Solve for " = 10.19º!

Taguchi Methods!

Parameter Design
!  Control factors! F1 = 30 N "1 = 5°!
F2 = 90 N "2 = 23°!
F3 = 150 N "3 = 42°!

!  Noise factors! Fi+ = nominal + 10% Fi = nominal!


-
Fi = nominal -10% "i+ = nominal + 3°!
"i = nominal "i- = nominal - 3°!

!  Compound factor! N1 = y(Fi+ , "i+)!


-
N2 = y(Fi , "i- ) for i=1,2,3!
Calculations of Flying Distance
nominal N1=y(F1’!1’) y N2=y(F3’!3’) y
F1 = 30 N F1 = 33 F1 = 27
!1=5º != 8º 7.65 != 2º 1.30
!2=23º != 26º 21.88 != 20º 11.95
!= 45º 27.76 != 39º 18.18
!3=42º
F2 = 90 N F2 = 99 F2 = 81
!1=5º != 8º 68.87 != 2º 11.67
!2=23º != 26º 196.88 != 20º 107.51
!= 45º 249.85 != 39º 163.60
!3=42º
F2 = 150 N F3 = 165 F3 = 135
!1=5º != 8º 191.30 != 2º 32.41
!2=23º != 26º 546.89 != 20º 298.63
!= 45º 694.02 != 39º 454.44
!3=42º

Taguchi Methods!

Calculation of S/N Ratio and Mean


Taguchi Methods!

Response Tables

Response table (#)! Response table (mean)!


1st 2nd 3rd
F avg@30N avg@90N avg@150N
6.06 6.06 6.06
! (!=5º) (!=23º) (!=42º)
-0.0386 7.63 10.60
Optimum Condition: " = 42º!
(within chosen range) F = 76.9 N!

Taguchi Methods!

Plot of Response
Taguchi Methods!

Comparison of Variability
Traditional Solution! Parameter Design!
(F=130 N, "=10.19º) !=45! (F=76.9 N, " = 42º) !=26!

Taguchi Methods!

Conclusions of First Iteration


"  Conclusions From Response Table (#)!
–  The parameter " is more sensitive to parameter
variation so we pick one with largest S/N!
–  F has constant S/N ratio so it is insensitive to
parameter variations!
"  Conclusions From Response Table (mean)!
–  The mean values increase with F!
–  The mean values increase with " for the range of
values in the first iteration!
Taguchi Methods!

Graphical Interpretations

Increase S/N ratio ! Move mean to target!


Output variations are much! The slope at F=30N!
smaller at "=42o than those! is about 88o so the
at 5o, for input variation! output is nearly linear
of ±3o! when F>30N!

Taguchi Methods!

Summary

•  Quality and Loss Function!


•  Two Steps to Increase Robustness and
to Enhance Quality!
•  Use Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N) in
Parameter Design for Robust
Technology!
•  More Robust Results are obtained by
Using Parameter Design!
MEC325/580 H ANDOUT: VOLUMETRIC C HANGES AND
D EFECTS IN M ETAL C ASTING

Spring 2010 I. Kao

The following lecturing materials are adapted from the textbook [1].

Shrinkage in metal casting: Metals shrink or contract during solidification and cooling processes. Shrink-
age, which causes dimensional changes in casting, is the result of the following three factors:

1. Contraction of the molten metal as it cools prior to solidification;


2. Contraction of the metal during phase change from liquid to solid (latent heat of fusion); and
3. Contraction of the solidified metal (the casting) as its temperature drops to ambient temperature.

The largest amount of shrinkage occurs during the cooling of the casting in factor 2 above. In the
following table, the percentages of contraction for several metals during solidification are listed. Note,
however, some metals expand during cooling, including gray cast iron.

Table 1: Volumetric contraction or expansion percentage for various metals in casting during solidification

metal volumetric contraction


Aluminum 7.1%
Zinc 6.5%
Al, 4.5% Cu 6.3%
Gold 5.5%
White iron 4–5.5%
Copper 4.9%
Brass (70-30%) 4.5%
Magnesium 4.2%
90% Cu, 10% Al 4%
Carbon steels 2.5–4%
Al, 12% Si 3.8%
Lead 3.2%
metal volumetric expansion
Bismuth 3.3%
Silicon 2.9%
Gray cast iron 2.5%

Defects in Casting: Defects are important in casting. Different names have been used to associate the same
or similar defects. As a result, the International Committee of Foundry Technical Associations has developed
standardized nomenclature, consisting of seven basic categories of casting defects, as follows.

1. Metallic projections: This category consists of fins, flash, or massive projections such as swells and
rough surfaces.

1
2. Cavities: This category consists of rounded or rough internal or exposed cavities, including blow-
holes, pinholes, and shrinkage cavities.

3. Discontinuities: Examples are such as cracks, cold or hot tearing, and cold shuts. If the solidifying
metal is constrained from shrinking freely, cracking and tearing can occur. Although many factors
are involved in tearing, coarse grain size and the presence of low-melting segregates along the grain
boundaries (intergranular) increase the tendency for hot tearing. Incomplete castings result from the
molten metal being at too low a temperature or from the metal being poured too slowly. Cold shut is
an interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially
solidified metal.

4. Defective surface: This includes defects such as surface folds, laps, scars, adhering sand layers (in
sand casting), and oxide scale.

5. Incomplete casting: This category includes defects such as misruns (due to premature solidification),
insufficient volume of metal poured, and runout (due to loss of metal from the mold after pouring).

6. Incorrect dimension or shape: Such defects are owing to factors such as improper shrinkage al-
lowance, pattern-mounting error, irregular contraction, deformed pattern, or warped casting.

7. Inclusions: Inclusions usually form during melting, solidification, and molding. Generally nonmetal-
lic, they are regarded as harmful because they act like stress raisers and reduce the strength of the
casting. Hard inclusions (spots) also tend to chip or break tools in machining. They can be filtered
out during processing of the molten metal with the environment (usually with oxygen) or the crucible
material. Chemical reactions among components in the molten metal may produce inclusions; slugs
and other foreign materials entrapped in the molten metal also become inclusions. Reactions between
the metal and the mold material may produce inclusions as well. In addition, spalling of the mold
and core surfaces produces inclusions, suggesting the importance of maintaining melt quality and
monitoring the conditions of the molds.

References

[1] S. Kalpakjian and S. R. Schmid Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials Prentice Hall,
fourth ed., 2003

2
Metal Casting
Introduction
Manufacturing Processes –– Podcast Series

Imin Kao, Professor


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering and App. Sci.
SUNY at Stony Brook

An Introduction of Casting
• Process in which molten metal/materials
flows by gravity or other force into a mold
where it solidifies in the shape of the mold
cavity
• Solidification processes can be classified
according to engineering material processed:
– Metals
– Ceramics, specifically glasses
– Polymers and polymer matrix composites (PMCs)

1
Metal Casting

Open mold Closed mold

Two Categories of Casting Processes


1. Expendable mold processes – uses an
expendable mold which must be destroyed
to remove casting
– Mold materials: sand, plaster, and similar
materials, plus binders
2. Permanent mold processes – uses a
permanent mold which can be used over
and over to produce many castings
– Made of metal (or, less commonly, a ceramic
refractory material

2
Solidification Time
• Heat content ∝ volume & heat transfer ∝ surface area
• Solidification time depends on size and shape of
casting by relationship known as Chvorinov's Rule

" V %n
TST = Cm $ '
# A&
where TST = total solidification time; V = volume of
the casting; A = surface area of casting; n = exponent
with typical value = 2; and Cm is mold constant.
!

Mold Constant in Chvorinov's Rule


• Mold constant Cm depends on:
– Mold material
– Thermal properties of casting metal
– Pouring temperature relative to melting point
• Value of Cm for a given casting operation
can be based on experimental data from
previous operations carried out using same
mold material, metal, and pouring
temperature, even though the shape of the
part may be quite different

3
Chvorinov’s Rule & Cast Design
• A casting with a higher V/A ratio cools and
solidifies more slowly than one with lower ratio
– To feed molten metal to main cavity, TST for riser
must greater than TST for main casting
• Since mold constants of riser and casting will be
equal, design the riser to have a larger V/A ratio
so that the main casting solidifies first
– Riser acts as heat & cast reservoir
– This minimizes the effects of shrinkage

Furnaces for Casting Processes


Furnaces most commonly used in foundries:
• Cupolas
• Direct fuel‑fired furnaces
• Crucible furnaces
• Electric‑arc furnaces
• Induction furnaces

4
Metals for Casting
• Most commercial castings are made of
alloys rather than pure metals
– Alloys are generally easier to cast, and
properties of product are better
• Casting alloys can be classified as:
– Ferrous: (1) gray cast iron, (2) nodular iron, (3)
white cast iron, (4) malleable iron, and (5) alloy
cast irons (∼ 1400°C or 2500°F) & (6) steel (1650°
C or 3000°F)
– Nonferrous: (1) Aluminum (660°C or 1220°F), (2)
Copper Alloys (1083°C or 1981°F), (3) Zinc Alloys
(419°C or 786°F), (4) others

Post-Solidification Processes
• Trimming
• Removing the core
• Surface cleaning
• Inspection
• Repair, if required
• Heat treatment

5
Casting Quality
• There are numerous opportunities for things to
go wrong in a casting operation, resulting in
quality defects in the product
• The defects can be classified as follows:
– Common defects to all casting processes: (a)
misrun, (b) cold shut, (c) cold shots, (d) shrinkage
cavity, (e) microporosity, (f) hot tearing
– Defects related to sand casting process: (a) sand
blow, (b) pinholes, (c) sand wash, (d) scabs, (e)
penetration, (f) mold shift, (g) core shift, (h) mold
crack

Common Casting Defects (a) & (b)


Misrun: A casting that has Cold shot: Two portions of
solidified before completely metal flow together but there
filling mold cavity is a lack of fusion due to
premature freezing

6
Common Casting Defects (c) & (d)
Cold shots: Metal splatters Shrinkage cavity: Depression in surface
during pouring and solid or internal void caused by solidification
globules form and become shrinkage that restricts amount of
entrapped in casting molten metal available in last region to
freeze

Common Casting Defects (e) & (f)


Microporosity: network of Hot tearing: hot cracking
small voids due to local caused by unyielding mold in
shrinkage in the dendritic contraction during cooling,
structure with separation of metal cast

7
MEC325/580 H ANDOUT: M ETAL C ASTING AND R ISER D ESIGN

Spring 2010 I. Kao

An important aspect of design for metal casting using sand mold is the consideration of solidification time,
and the inclusion of riser design to elongate the time to solidification in order to reduce defects or other
failures in the casting process.

The solidification time in metal casting is governed by the following empirical equation called the
Chvorinov’s rule  n
V
TST = Cm (1)
A
where TST is the total solidification time, Cm is the mold constant, VA is the volume-to-surface-area ratio,
and n is the exponent, usually taken as 2. The mold constant, Cm depends on the particular conditions of
the cast operation, including mold material, thermal properties of case metal, and pouring temperature. The
mold constant can be obtained based on experimental data with the same mold, metal, pouring temperature,
... etc, even though the part may be very different. The Chvorinov’s rule suggests that a casting with higher
volume-to-surface-area ratio will cool and solidify more slowly than one with a lower ratio.

The riser design can be used to prevent part of the metal cast from prematurely solidified which causes
casting defects. Risers by its relative position can be side riser or top riser, or by its configuration can be
open riser or blind riser. The following figure shows a closed mold with a complex mold geometry which
requires a riser design. Note the different terminology of the parts of the cast and mold, as illustrated in
Figure 1.

Figure 1: A closed mold in which the mold geometry is more complex and requires a passageway system
leading into the cavity, with a riser design.

Example: Riser design using the Chvorinov’s rule.


A cylindrical riser must be designed for the sand casting mold shown in Figure 1. The passageway leading
to the cavity casting is a steel rectangular plate with dimension of 3′′ × 5′′ × 1′′ . Previous observations have
indicated that the total solidification time (T ST ) for this casting is 1.6 min. The cylindrical riser will have
a diameter-to-height ratio of 1.0. Determine the dimensions of the riser so that the T ST is 2.0 minutes to
allow more time for the flow of metal to cavity for a successful casting.

Solution: First, we need to determine Cm for the casting:

1
The volume is V = 3 × 5 × 1 = 15 in3 ; the surface area is A = 2(3 × 5 + 3 × 1 + 5 × 1) = 46 in2 .
Given T ST = 1.6 min, we take n = 2 and apply the Chvorinov’s rule,
2
15

1.6 = Cm =⇒ Cm = 15.05 min/in2 (2)
46

Therefore, the mold constant for the riser is also Cm = 15.05 min/in2 .
πD 2 πD 3 D
For the cylindrical
 
riser, the volume is V = 4 h = 4 since h = 1 (given); the surface area is
πD 2
A = πDh + 2 4 = 1.5πD 2 . Thus, the ratio is

V (1) D
= 4 D= (3)
A 1.5 6
Substituting into the Chvorinov’s equation, we have
2
D

2.0 = 15.05 =⇒ D = h = 2.187′′ (4)
6

Therefore, the cylindrical riser with a diamter-to-height ratio of 1.0 should have a diamter of D = 2.187′′ .

Remarks: For the riser and cast, the following comparison can be made.

volume surface area


riser Vr = 8.216 in3 Ar = 22.54 in2
cast Vc = 15 in3 Ac = 46 in2

Based on the table, we have VVrc = 55%. That is, the volume of the cast is increased by 55% due to the
riser if only the rectangular part is concerned. However, the gain in time is 25% that allows the cavity to be
filled more completely.

References

[1] M. P. Groover Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: materials, processes, and systems Wiley, third
ed., 2006

2
INTRODUCTION AND
OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING
1. What is Manufacturing?
2. Materials in Manufacturing
3. Manufacturing Processes
4. Production Systems
5. Organization of the Book

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing is Important
 Technologically
 Economically
 Historically

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing - Technologically Important

Technology - the application of science to provide


society and its members with those things that
are needed or desired
 Technology provides the products that help our
society and its members live better
 What do these products have in common?
 They are all manufactured
 Manufacturing is the essential factor that
makes technology possible

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing - Economically Important

U.S. economy:

% of
Sector
GNP
Manufacturing 20%

Manufacturing is one Agriculture, minerals, etc. 5%


way by which nations Construction & utilities 5%
create material wealth
Service sector – retail, 70%
transportation, banking,
communication, education, and
government

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing - Historically Important
Throughout history, human cultures that were
better at making things were more
successful
 Making better tools meant better crafts &
weapons
 Better crafts allowed people to live better
 Better weapons allowed them to conquer
other cultures in times of conflict
 To a significant degree, the history of
civilization is the history of humans' ability to
make things

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
What is Manufacturing?
The word manufacture is derived from two Latin
words manus (hand) and factus (make); the
combination means “made by hand”
 “Made by hand” accurately described the
fabrication methods that were used when the
English word “manufacture” was first coined
around 1567 A.D.
 Most modern manufacturing operations are
accomplished by mechanized and automated
equipment that is supervised by human
workers

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing - Technologically
Application of physical and chemical processes to
alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance
of a starting material to make parts or products
 Manufacturing also includes assembly
 Almost always carried out as a sequence of
operations

Figure 1.1 (a)


Manufacturing
as a technical
process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing - Economically
Transformation of materials into items of greater
value by means of one or more processing and/or
assembly operations
 Manufacturing adds value to the material by
changing its shape or properties, or by combining
it with other materials

Figure 1.1 (b)


Manufacturing
as an economic
process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing Industries
Industry consists of enterprises and organizations
that produce or supply goods and services
 Industries can be classified as:
1. Primary industries - those that cultivate
and exploit natural resources, e.g.,
farming, mining
2. Secondary industries - take the outputs
of primary industries and convert them into
consumer and capital goods -
manufacturing is the principal activity
3. Tertiary industries - service sector

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing Industries - continued

 Secondary industries include manufacturing,


construction, and electric power generation
 Manufacturing includes several industries
whose products are not covered in this book;
e.g., apparel, beverages, chemicals, and food
processing
 For our purposes, manufacturing means
production of hardware
 Nuts and bolts, forgings, cars, airplanes,
digital computers, plastic parts, and ceramic
products

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Production Quantity Q

The quantity of products Q made by a factory has


an important influence on the way its people,
facilities, and procedures are organized
 Annual production quantities can be classified
into three ranges:
Production range Annual Quantity Q
Low production 1 to 100 units
Medium production 100 to 10,000 units
High production 10,000 to millions of

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Variety P
Product variety P refers to different product
types or models produced in the plant
 Different products have different features
 They are intended for different markets
 Some have more parts than others
 The number of different product types made
each year in a factory can be counted
 When the number of product types made in
the factory is high, this indicates high
product variety

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
P versus Q in Factory Operations

Figure 1.2 P-Q Relationship

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
More About Product Variety
Although P is a quantitative parameter, it is
much less exact than Q because details on
how much the designs differ is not captured
simply by the number of different designs
 Soft product variety - small differences
between products, e.g., between car models
made on the same production line, with many
common parts among models
 Hard product variety - products differ
substantially, e.g., between a small car and a
large truck, with few common parts (if any)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing Capability
A manufacturing plant consists of processes and
systems (and people, of course) designed to
transform a certain limited range of materials
into products of increased value
 The three building blocks - materials,
processes, and systems - are the subject of
modern manufacturing
 Manufacturing capability includes:
1. Technological processing capability
2. Physical product limitations
3. Production capacity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
1. Technological Processing Capability
The available set of manufacturing processes in
the plant (or company)
 Certain manufacturing processes are suited to
certain materials
 By specializing in certain processes, the
plant is also specializing in certain materials
 Includes not only the physical processes, but
also the expertise of the plant personnel
 Examples:
 A machine shop cannot roll steel
 A steel mill cannot build cars

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
2. Physical Product Limitations
Given a plant with a certain set of processes,
there are size and weight limitations on the
parts or products that can be made in the plant
 Product size and weight affect:
 Production equipment
 Material handling equipment
 Production, material handling equipment, and
plant size must be planned for products that lie
within a certain size and weight range

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
3. Production Capacity
Defined as the maximum quantity that a plant
can produce in a given time period (e.g.,
month or year) under assumed operating
conditions
 Operating conditions refer to number of
shifts per week, hours per shift, direct labor
manning levels in the plant, and so on
 Usually measured in terms of output units,
such as tons of steel or number of cars
produced by the plant
 Also called plant capacity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Materials in Manufacturing

Most engineering materials can be classified


into one of three basic categories:
1. Metals
2. Ceramics
3. Polymers
 Their chemistries are different
 Their mechanical and physical properties
are dissimilar
 These differences affect the manufacturing
processes that can be used to produce
products from them

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
In Addition: Composites
Nonhomogeneous mixtures of the other three
basic types rather than a unique category

Figure 1.3 Venn


diagram of three
basic material types
plus composites

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
1. Metals
Usually alloys, which are composed of two or more
elements, at least one of which is metallic
 Two basic groups:
1. Ferrous metals - based on iron, comprises
about 75% of metal tonnage in the world:
 Steel = Fe-C alloy (0.02 to 2.11% C)
 Cast iron = Fe-C alloy (2% to 4% C)
2. Nonferrous metals - all other metallic
elements and their alloys: aluminum,
copper, magnesium, nickel, silver, tin,
titanium, etc.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
2. Ceramics
Compounds containing metallic (or semi-metallic)
and nonmetallic elements.
 Typical nonmetallic elements are oxygen,
nitrogen, and carbon
 For processing, ceramics divide into:
1. Crystalline ceramics – includes:
 Traditional ceramics, such as clay
(hydrous aluminum silicates)
 Modern ceramics, such as alumina
(Al2O3)
2. Glasses – mostly based on silica (SiO2)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
3. Polymers
Compound formed of repeating structural units
called mers, whose atoms share electrons to
form very large molecules
 Three categories:
1. Thermoplastic polymers - can be
subjected to multiple heating and cooling
cycles without altering molecular structure
2. Thermosetting polymers - molecules
chemically transform (cure) into a rigid
structure – cannot be reheated
3. Elastomers - shows significant elastic
behavior
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
4. Composites
Material consisting of two or more phases that
are processed separately and then bonded
together to achieve properties superior to its
constituents
 Phase - homogeneous mass of material,
such as grains of identical unit cell structure
in a solid metal
 Usual structure consists of particles or fibers
of one phase mixed in a second phase
 Properties depend on components, physical
shapes of components, and the way they are
combined to form the final material

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing Processes
Two basic types:
1. Processing operations - transform a work
material from one state of completion to a
more advanced state
 Operations that change the geometry,
properties, or appearance of the starting
material
2. Assembly operations - join two or more
components to create a new entity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Figure 1.4 Classification of manufacturing processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Processing Operations

Alters a material’s shape, physical properties,


or appearance in order to add value
 Three categories of processing
operations:
1. Shaping operations - alter the geometry
of the starting work material
2. Property-enhancing operations -
improve physical properties without
changing shape
3. Surface processing operations - to
clean, treat, coat, or deposit material on
exterior surface of the work
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shaping Processes – Four Categories
1. Solidification processes - starting material
is a heated liquid or semifluid
2. Particulate processing - starting material
consists of powders
3. Deformation processes - starting material
is a ductile solid (commonly metal)
4. Material removal processes - starting
material is a ductile or brittle solid

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solidification Processes
Starting material is heated sufficiently to
transform it into a liquid or highly plastic state
 Examples: metal casting, plastic molding

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Particulate Processing
Starting materials are powders of metals or
ceramics
 Usually involves pressing and sintering, in
which powders are first compressed and then
heated to bond the individual particles

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Deformation Processes
Starting workpart is shaped by application of
forces that exceed the yield strength of the
material
 Examples: (a) forging, (b) extrusion

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Material Removal Processes
Excess material removed from the starting piece
so what remains is the desired geometry
 Examples: machining such as turning, drilling,
and milling; also grinding and nontraditional
processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Waste in Shaping Processes
Desirable to minimize waste in part shaping
 Material removal processes are wasteful in
unit operations, simply by the way they work
 Most casting, molding, and particulate
processing operations waste little material
 Terminology for minimum waste processes:
 Net shape processes - when most of the
starting material is used and no
subsequent machining is required
 Near net shape processes - when
minimum amount of machining is required

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Property-Enhancing Processes
Performed to improve mechanical or physical
properties of work material
 Part shape is not altered, except
unintentionally
 Example: unintentional warping of a heat
treated part
 Examples:
 Heat treatment of metals and glasses
 Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Processing Operations
 Cleaning - chemical and mechanical
processes to remove dirt, oil, and other
contaminants from the surface
 Surface treatments - mechanical working
such as sand blasting, and physical
processes like diffusion
 Coating and thin film deposition - coating
exterior surface of the workpart

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Assembly Operations
Two or more separate parts are joined to form a
new entity
 Types of assembly operations:
1. Joining processes – create a permanent
joint
 Welding, brazing, soldering, and
adhesive bonding
2. Mechanical assembly – fastening by
mechanical methods
 Threaded fasteners (screws, bolts and
nuts); press fitting, expansion fits

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Production Systems

People, equipment, and procedures used for the


combination of materials and processes that
constitute a firm's manufacturing operations
 A manufacturing firm must have systems and
procedures to efficiently accomplish its type
of production
 Two categories of production systems:
 Production facilities
 Manufacturing support systems
 Both categories include people (people make
the systems work)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Production Facilities

The factory, production equipment, and


material handling systems
 Production facilities "touch" the product
 Includes the way the equipment is arranged
in the factory - the plant layout
 Equipment usually organized into logical
groupings, called manufacturing systems
 Examples:
 Automated production line

 Machine cell consisting of an industrial

robot and two machine tools

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Facilities versus Product Quantities
A company designs its manufacturing systems
and organizes its factories to serve the
particular mission of each plant
 Certain types of production facilities are
recognized as the most appropriate for a
given type of manufacturing:
1. Low production – 1 to 100
2. Medium production – 100 to 10,000
3. High production – 10,000 to >1,000,000
 Different facilities are required for each of the
three quantity ranges

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Low Production
Job shop is the term used for this type of
production facility
 A job shop makes low quantities of
specialized and customized products
 Products are typically complex, e.g.,
space capsules, prototype aircraft, special
machinery
 Equipment in a job shop is general purpose
 Labor force is highly skilled
 Designed for maximum flexibility

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Medium Production
Two different types of facility, depending on
product variety:
 Batch production
 Suited to hard product variety
 Setups required between batches
 Cellular manufacturing
 Suited to soft product variety
 Worker cells organized to process parts
without setups between different part styles

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
High Production
 Often referred to as mass production
 High demand for product
 Manufacturing system dedicated to the
production of that product
 Two categories of mass production:
1. Quantity production
2. Flow line production

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Quantity Production
Mass production of single parts on single
machine or small numbers of machines
 Typically involves standard machines equipped
with special tooling
 Equipment is dedicated full-time to the
production of one part or product type
 Typical layouts used in quantity production are
process layout and cellular layout

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Flow Line Production
Multiple machines or workstations arranged in
sequence, e.g., production lines
 Product is complex
 Requires multiple processing and/or
assembly operations
 Work units are physically moved through the
sequence to complete the product
 Workstations and equipment are designed
specifically for the product to maximize
efficiency

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing Support Systems

A company must organize itself to design the


processes and equipment, plan and control
production, and satisfy product quality
requirements
 Accomplished by manufacturing support
systems - people and procedures by which a
company manages its production operations
 Typical departments:
1. Manufacturing engineering
2. Production planning and control
3. Quality control

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Overview of Major Topics

Figure 1.10 Overview of production system and major


topics in Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
A spectacular scene in steelmaking is charging of a basic oxygen
furnace, in which molten pig iron produced in a blast furnace is
poured into the BOF. Temperatures are around 1650°C (3000 ° F).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
A machining cell consisting of two horizontal machining centers
supplied by an in-line pallet shuttle (photo courtesy of Cincinnati
Milacron).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
A robotic arm performs
unloading and loading
operation in a turning
center using a dual gripper
(photo courtesy of
Cincinnati Milacron).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Metal chips fly in a high
speed turning operation
performed on a computer
numerical control turning
center (photo courtesy of
Cincinnati Milacron).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Photomicrograph of the cross section of multiple coatings of
titanium nitride and aluminum oxide on a cemented carbide
substrate (photo courtesy of Kennametal Inc.).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
A batch of silicon wafers enters a furnace heated to 1000°C
(1800°F) during fabrication of integrated circuits under clean room
conditions (photo courtesy of Intel Corporation).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two welders perform arc
welding on a large steel
pipe section (photo
courtesy of Lincoln
Electric Company).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Automated dispensing of
adhesive onto component
parts prior to assembly
(photo courtesy of EFD,
Inc.).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Assembly workers on an
engine assembly line
(photo courtesy of Ford
Motor Company).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Assembly operations
on the Boeing 777
(photo courtesy of
Boeing Commercial
Airplane Co.).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
DIMENSIONS, TOLERANCES, AND
SURFACES
1. Dimensions, Tolerances, and Related
Attributes
2. Surfaces
3. Effect of Manufacturing Processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Dimensions and Tolerances
 Factors that determine the performance of a
manufactured product, other than mechanical
and physical properties, include :
 Dimensions - linear or angular sizes of a
component specified on the part drawing
 Tolerances - allowable variations from the
specified part dimensions that are permitted
in manufacturing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Dimensions (ANSI Y14.5M-1982):
A dimension is "a numerical value expressed in
appropriate units of measure and indicated on a
drawing and in other documents along with lines,
symbols, and notes to define the size or
geometric characteristic, or both, of a part or part
feature"
 Dimensions on part drawings represent nominal
or basic sizes of the part and its features
 The dimension indicates the part size desired by
the designer, if the part could be made with no
errors or variations in the fabrication process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Tolerances (ANSI Y14.5M-1982):
A tolerance is "the total amount by which a
specific dimension is permitted to vary. The
tolerance is the difference between the
maximum and minimum limits"
 Variations occur in any manufacturing process,
which are manifested as variations in part size
 Tolerances are used to define the limits of the
allowed variation

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Bilateral Tolerance
Variation is permitted in
both positive and
negative directions from
the nominal dimension
 Possible for a bilateral
tolerance to be
unbalanced; for
example, 2.500 +0.010,
-0.005 Figure 5.1 Ways to specify
tolerance limits for a
nominal dimension of 2.500:
(a) bilateral

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Unilateral Tolerance
Variation from the
specified dimension is
permitted in only one
direction
 Either positive or
negative, but not both

Figure 5.1 Ways to specify


tolerance limits for a
nominal dimension of 2.500:
(b) unilateral

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Limit Dimensions
Permissible variation in
a part feature size
consists of the
maximum and
minimum dimensions
allowed

Figure 5.1 - Ways to specify


tolerance limits for a
nominal dimension of 2.500:
(c) limit dimensions

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surfaces
Nominal surface – designer’s intended surface
contour of part, defined by lines in the
engineering drawing
 The nominal surfaces appear as
absolutely straight lines, ideal circles,
round holes, and other edges and
surfaces that are geometrically perfect
 Actual surfaces of a part are determined by
the manufacturing processes used to make it
 Variety of processes result in wide
variations in surface characteristics

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Why Surfaces are Important
 Aesthetic reasons
 Surfaces affect safety
 Friction and wear depend on surface
characteristics
 Surfaces affect mechanical and physical
properties
 Assembly of parts is affected by their surfaces
 Smooth surfaces make better electrical
contacts

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Technology
 Concerned with:
 Defining the characteristics of a surface
 Surface texture
 Surface integrity
 Relationship between manufacturing
processes and characteristics of resulting
surface

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Metallic Part Surface

Figure 5.2 A magnified cross-section of a typical metallic part


surface.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Texture
The topography and geometric features of the
surface
 When highly magnified, the surface is anything
but straight and smooth
 It has roughness, waviness, and flaws
 It also possesses a pattern and/or direction
resulting from the mechanical process that
produced it

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Texture
Repetitive and/or random deviations from the
nominal surface of an object

Figure 5.3 Surface texture features.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Four Elements of Surface Texture
1. Roughness - small, finely-spaced deviations
from nominal surface
 Determined by material characteristics and
processes that formed the surface
2. Waviness - deviations of much larger spacing
 Waviness deviations occur due to work
deflection, vibration, heat treatment, and
similar factors
 Roughness is superimposed on waviness

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Four Elements of Surface Texture
3. Lay - predominant
direction or
pattern of the
surface texture

Figure 5.4 Possible lays of


a surface.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Four Elements of Surface Texture
4. Flaws - irregularities that occur occasionally on
the surface
 Includes cracks, scratches, inclusions, and
similar defects in the surface
 Although some flaws relate to surface
texture, they also affect surface integrity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Roughness and Surface Finish
 Surface roughness - a measurable
characteristic based on roughness deviations
 Surface finish - a more subjective term
denoting smoothness and general quality of a
surface
 In popular usage, surface finish is often
used as a synonym for surface roughness
 Both terms are within the scope of surface
texture

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Roughness
Average of vertical deviations from nominal
surface over a specified surface length

Figure 5.5 Deviations from nominal surface used in the two


definitions of surface roughness.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Roughness Equation
 Arithmetic average (AA) based on absolute
values of deviations, and is referred to as
average roughness
Lm
y
Ra = ∫ dx
0 Lm

where Ra = average roughness; y = vertical


deviation from nominal surface (absolute
value); and Lm = specified distance over which
the surface deviations are measured

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Alternative Surface Roughness Equation
 Approximation of previous equation is perhaps
easier to comprehend
n
yi
Ra  
i 1 n

where Ra has the same meaning as above; yi =


vertical deviations (absolute value) identified by
subscript i; and n = number of deviations
included in Lm

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutoff Length
 A problem with the Ra computation is that
waviness may get included
 To deal with this problem, a parameter called
the cutoff length is used as a filter to separate
waviness from roughness deviations
 Cutoff length is a sampling distance along the
surface
 A sampling distance shorter than the
waviness eliminates waviness deviations
and only includes roughness deviations

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Roughness Specification

Figure 5.6 Surface texture symbols in engineering


drawings: (a) the symbol, and (b) symbol with
identification labels.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Integrity
 Surface texture alone does not completely
describe a surface
 There may be metallurgical changes in the
altered layer beneath the surface that can have
a significant effect on a material's mechanical
properties
Surface integrity is the study and control of this
subsurface layer and the changes in it that
occur during processing which may influence
the performance of the finished part or product

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Changes Caused by Processing
 Surface changes are caused by the application
of various forms of energy during processing
 Example: Mechanical energy is the most
common form in manufacturing
 Processes include forging, extrusion,
and machining
 Although its primary function is to change
geometry of workpart, mechanical energy
can also cause residual stresses, work
hardening, and cracks in the surface layers

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Energy Forms in Surface Integrity
 Mechanical energy
 Thermal energy
 Chemical energy
 Electrical energy

Trumpf-machines.com

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Changes by Mechanical Energy
 Residual stresses in subsurface layer
 Example: bending of sheet metal
 Cracks - microscopic and macroscopic
 Example: tearing of ductile metals in
machining
 Voids or inclusions introduced mechanically
 Example: center-bursting in extrusion
 Hardness variations (e.g., work hardening)
 Example: strain hardening of new surface in
machining

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Changes by Thermal Energy
 Metallurgical changes (recrystallization, grain
size changes, phase changes at surface)
 Redeposited or resolidified material (e.g.,
welding or casting)
 Heat-affected zone in welding (includes some
of the metallurgical changes listed above)
 Hardness changes

Wikipedia.org – root weld

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Changes by Chemical Energy
 Intergranular attack
 Chemical contamination
 Absorption of certain elements such as H and
Cl in metal surface
 Corrosion, pitting, and etching
 Dissolving of microconstituents
 Alloy depletion and resulting hardness changes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Changes by Electrical Energy
 Changes in conductivity and/or magnetism
 Craters resulting from short circuits during
certain electrical processing techniques such
as arc welding

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Effect of Manufacturing Processes

•Let’s Look at Table 5.4


•and Table 5.5

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Tolerances and Manufacturing Processes
 Some manufacturing processes are inherently
more accurate than others
 Examples:
 Most machining processes are quite
accurate, capable of tolerances = 0.05 mm
( 0.002 in.) or better
 Sand castings are generally inaccurate, and
tolerances of 10 to 20 times those used for
machined parts must be specified

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surfaces and Manufacturing Processes
 Some processes are inherently capable of
producing better surfaces than others
 In general, processing cost increases with
improvement in surface finish because
additional operations and more time are
usually required to obtain increasingly better
surfaces
 Processes noted for providing superior
finishes include honing, lapping, polishing,
and superfinishing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL CASTING
1. Overview of Casting Technology
2. Heating and Pouring
3. Solidification and Cooling

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solidification Processes
Starting work material is either a liquid or is in a
highly plastic condition, and a part is created
through solidification of the material
 Solidification processes can be classified
according to engineering material processed:
 Metals
 Ceramics, specifically glasses
 Polymers and polymer matrix composites
(PMCs)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Figure 10.1 Classification of solidification processes.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Casting
Process in which molten metal flows by gravity or
other force into a mold where it solidifies in the
shape of the mold cavity
 The term casting also applies to the part made
in the process
 Steps in casting seem simple:
1. Melt the metal
2. Pour it into a mold
3. Let it freeze

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Capabilities and Advantages of Casting
 Can create complex part geometries
 Can create both external and internal shapes
 Some casting processes are net shape; others
are near net shape
 Can produce very large parts
 Some casting methods are suited to mass
production

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Disadvantages of Casting
 Different disadvantages for different casting
processes:
 Limitations on mechanical properties
 Poor dimensional accuracy and surface
finish for some processes; e.g., sand
casting
 Safety hazards to workers due to hot molten
metals
 Environmental problems

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Parts Made by Casting
 Big parts
 Engine blocks and heads for automotive
vehicles, wood burning stoves, machine
frames, railway wheels, pipes, church bells,
big statues, pump housings
 Small parts
 Dental crowns, jewelry, small statues, frying
pans
 All varieties of metals can be cast, ferrous and
nonferrous

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Overview of Casting Technology
 Casting is usually performed in a foundry
Foundry = factory equipped for making molds,
melting and handling molten metal, performing
the casting process, and cleaning the finished
casting
 Workers who perform casting are called
foundrymen

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
The Mold in Casting
 Contains cavity whose geometry determines
part shape
 Actual size and shape of cavity must be
slightly oversized to allow for shrinkage of
metal during solidification and cooling
 Molds are made of a variety of materials,
including sand, plaster, ceramic, and metal

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Open Molds and Closed Molds

Figure 10.2 Two forms of mold: (a) open mold, simply a container
in the shape of the desired part; and (b) closed mold, in which
the mold geometry is more complex and requires a gating
system (passageway) leading into the cavity.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two Categories of Casting Processes
1. Expendable mold processes – uses an
expendable mold which must be destroyed to
remove casting
 Mold materials: sand, plaster, and similar
materials, plus binders
2. Permanent mold processes – uses a
permanent mold which can be used over and
over to produce many castings
 Made of metal (or, less commonly, a
ceramic refractory material

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages and Disadvantages
 More intricate geometries are possible with
expendable mold processes
 Part shapes in permanent mold processes are
limited by the need to open the mold
 Permanent mold processes are more
economic in high production operations

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Sand Casting Mold

Figure 10.2 (b) Sand casting mold.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Sand Casting Mold Terms
 Mold consists of two halves:
 Cope = upper half of mold
 Drag = bottom half
 Mold halves are contained in a box, called a
flask
 The two halves separate at the parting line

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Forming the Mold Cavity
 Mold cavity is formed by packing sand around
a pattern, which has the shape of the part
 When the pattern is removed, the remaining
cavity of the packed sand has desired shape of
cast part
 The pattern is usually oversized to allow for
shrinkage of metal during solidification and
cooling
 Sand for the mold is moist and contains a
binder to maintain its shape

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Use of a Core in the Mold Cavity
 The mold cavity provides the external surfaces
of the cast part
 In addition, a casting may have internal
surfaces, determined by a core, placed inside
the mold cavity to define the interior geometry
of part
 In sand casting, cores are generally made of
sand

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Gating System
Channel through which molten metal flows into
cavity from outside of mold
 Consists of a downsprue, through which metal
enters a runner leading to the main cavity
 At the top of downsprue, a pouring cup is often
used to minimize splash and turbulence as the
metal flows into downsprue

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Riser
Reservoir in the mold which is a source of liquid
metal to compensate for shrinkage of the part
during solidification
 The riser must be designed to freeze after the
main casting in order to satisfy its function

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Heating the Metal
 Heating furnaces are used to heat the metal to
molten temperature sufficient for casting
 The heat required is the sum of:
1. Heat to raise temperature to melting point
2. Heat of fusion to convert from solid to
liquid
3. Heat to raise molten metal to desired
temperature for pouring

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Pouring the Molten Metal
 For this step to be successful, metal must flow
into all regions of the mold, most importantly
the main cavity, before solidifying
 Factors that determine success
 Pouring temperature
 Pouring rate
 Turbulence

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solidification of Metals
Transformation of molten metal back into solid
state
 Solidification differs depending on whether the
metal is
 A pure element or
 An alloy

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cooling Curve for a Pure Metal
 A pure metal solidifies at a constant temperature
equal to its freezing point (same as melting
point)

Figure 10.4 Cooling curve for a pure metal during casting.


©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solidification of Pure Metals
 Due to chilling action of mold wall, a thin skin of
solid metal is formed at the interface
immediately after pouring
 Skin thickness increases to form a shell around
the molten metal as solidification progresses
 Rate of freezing depends on heat transfer into
mold, as well as thermal properties of the metal

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Figure 10.5 Characteristic grain structure in a casting of a pure metal,
showing randomly oriented grains of small size near the mold wall, and
large columnar grains oriented toward the center of the casting.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solidification of Alloys
 Most alloys freeze over a temperature range
rather than at a single temperature

Figure 10.6 (a) Phase diagram for a copper-nickel alloy system


and (b) associated cooling curve for a 50%Ni-50%Cu
composition during casting.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Figure 10.7 Characteristic grain structure in an alloy casting,
showing segregation of alloying components in center of casting.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solidification Time
 Solidification takes time
 Total solidification time TTS = time required for
casting to solidify after pouring
 TTS depends on size and shape of casting by
relationship known as Chvorinov's Rule
n
V 
TST  Cm  
 A
where TST = total solidification time; V =
volume of the casting; A = surface area of
casting; n = exponent with typical value = 2;
and Cm is mold constant.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Mold Constant in Chvorinov's Rule
 Mold constant Cm depends on:
 Mold material
 Thermal properties of casting metal
 Pouring temperature relative to melting point
 Value of Cm for a given casting operation can
be based on experimental data from previous
operations carried out using same mold
material, metal, and pouring temperature, even
though the shape of the part may be quite
different

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
What Chvorinov's Rule Tells Us
 A casting with a higher volume-to-surface area
ratio cools and solidifies more slowly than one
with a lower ratio
 To feed molten metal to main cavity, TST for
riser must greater than TST for main casting
 Since mold constants of riser and casting will
be equal, design the riser to have a larger
volume-to-area ratio so that the main casting
solidifies first
 This minimizes the effects of shrinkage

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shrinkage in Solidification and Cooling

Figure 10.8 Shrinkage of a cylindrical casting during solidification


and cooling: (0) starting level of molten metal immediately after
pouring; (1) reduction in level caused by liquid contraction during
cooling (dimensional reductions are exaggerated for clarity).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shrinkage in Solidification and Cooling

Figure 10.8 (2) reduction in height and formation of shrinkage


cavity caused by solidification shrinkage; (3) further reduction in
height and diameter due to thermal contraction during cooling of
solid metal (dimensional reductions are exaggerated for clarity).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solidification Shrinkage
 Occurs in nearly all metals because the solid
phase has a higher density than the liquid
phase
 Thus, solidification causes a reduction in
volume per unit weight of metal
 Exception: cast iron with high C content
 Graphitization during final stages of freezing
causes expansion that counteracts
volumetric decrease associated with phase
change

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shrinkage Allowance
 Patternmakers account for solidification
shrinkage and thermal contraction by making
mold cavity oversized
 Amount by which mold is made larger relative
to final casting size is called pattern shrinkage
allowance
 Casting dimensions are expressed linearly, so
allowances are applied accordingly

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Directional Solidification
 To minimize damaging effects of shrinkage, it
is desirable for regions of the casting most
distant from the liquid metal supply to freeze
first and for solidification to progress from these
remote regions toward the riser(s)
 Thus, molten metal is continually available
from risers to prevent shrinkage voids
 The term directional solidification describes
this aspect of freezing and methods by
which it is controlled

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Achieving Directional Solidification
 Desired directional solidification is achieved
using Chvorinov's Rule to design the casting
itself, its orientation in the mold, and the riser
system that feeds it
 Locate sections of the casting with lower V/A
ratios away from riser, so freezing occurs first
in these regions, and the liquid metal supply for
the rest of the casting remains open
 Chills - internal or external heat sinks that
cause rapid freezing in certain regions of the
casting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
External Chills

Figure 10.9 (a) External chill to encourage rapid freezing of the


molten metal in a thin section of the casting; and (b) the likely
result if the external chill were not used.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Riser Design
 Riser is waste metal that is separated from the
casting and remelted to make more castings
 To minimize waste in the unit operation, it is
desirable for the volume of metal in the riser to
be a minimum
 Since the geometry of the riser is normally
selected to maximize the V/A ratio, this allows
riser volume to be reduced to the minimum
possible value

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
METAL CASTING PROCESSES
1. Sand Casting
2. Other Expendable Mold Casting Processes
3. Permanent Mold Casting Processes
4. Foundry Practice
5. Casting Quality
6. Metals for Casting
7. Product Design Considerations

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two Categories of Casting Processes
1. Expendable mold processes - mold is sacrificed to
remove part
 Advantage: more complex shapes possible
 Disadvantage: production rates often limited by
time to make mold rather than casting itself
2. Permanent mold processes - mold is made of metal
and can be used to make many castings
 Advantage: higher production rates
 Disadvantage: geometries limited by need to
open mold

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Overview of Sand Casting
 Most widely used casting process, accounting for a
significant majority of total tonnage cast
 Nearly all alloys can be sand casted, including metals
with high melting temperatures, such as steel, nickel, and
titanium
 Castings range in size from small to very large
 Production quantities from one to millions

Figure 11.1 A large sand casting weighing over


680 kg (1500 lb) for an air compressor frame
(photo courtesy of Elkhart Foundry).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Making the Sand Mold
 The cavity in the sand mold
is formed by packing sand
around a pattern, then
separating the mold into two
halves and removing the
pattern
 The mold must also contain
gating and riser system
 If casting is to have internal
surfaces, a core must be
included in mold
 A new sand mold must be
made for each part produced

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Steps in Sand Casting
1. Pour the molten metal into sand mold
2. Allow time for metal to solidify
3. Break up the mold to remove casting
4. Clean and inspect casting
 Separate gating and riser system
5. Heat treatment of casting is sometimes required to
improve metallurgical properties

Figure
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, is from of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Fundamentals
www.themetalcasting.com
The Pattern
A full-sized model of the part, slightly enlarged to account for
shrinkage and machining allowances in the casting
 Pattern materials:
 Wood - common material because it is easy to work, but
it warps
 Metal - more expensive to make, but lasts much longer
 Plastic - compromise between wood and metal

Top center is the clay original, then the two part


plaster mold used for casting the lead at above, and
wax cast from mold, sprued for better brass casting,
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Mnot yet cast.
P Groover, 2008-01-12.
Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
homepages.waymark.net/mikefirth/tapper6881b.jpg
Types of Patterns
Figure 11.3 Types of patterns used in sand casting:
(a) solid pattern
(b) split pattern
(c) match-plate pattern
(d) cope and drag pattern

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Core
Full-scale model of interior surfaces of part
 It is inserted into the mold cavity prior to pouring
 The molten metal flows and solidifies between the mold
cavity and the core to form the casting's external and
internal surfaces
 May require supports to hold it in position in the mold cavity
during pouring, called chaplets

Figure 11.4 (a) Core held in place in the mold cavity by chaplets, (b)
possible chaplet
©2007 John design,
Wiley & Sons, Inc. M (c) casting
P Groover, with internal
Fundamentals cavity.
of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Desirable Mold Properties
 Strength - to maintain shape and resist erosion
 Permeability - to allow hot air and gases to pass
through voids in sand
 Thermal stability - to resist cracking on contact with
molten metal
 Collapsibility - ability to give way and allow casting
to shrink without cracking the casting
 Reusability - can sand from broken mold be reused
to make other molds?

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Foundry Sands
Silica (SiO2) or silica mixed with other minerals
 Good refractory properties - capacity to endure high temperatures
 Small grain size yields better surface finish on the cast part
 Large grain size is more permeable, allowing gases to escape
during pouring
 Irregular grain shapes strengthen molds due to interlocking,
compared to round grains
 Disadvantage: interlocking tends to reduce permeability
Binders
 Sand is held together by a mixture of water and bonding clay
 Typical mix: 90% sand, 3% water, and 7% clay
 Other bonding agents also used in sand molds:
 Organic resins (e g , phenolic resins)
 Inorganic binders (e g , sodium silicate and phosphate)
 Additives are sometimes combined with the mixture to
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
increase strength and/or permeability
Types of Sand Mold
 Green-sand molds - mixture of sand, clay, and
water;
 “Green" means mold contains moisture at time of
pouring
 Dry-sand mold - organic binders rather than clay
 And mold is baked to improve strength
 Skin-dried mold - drying mold cavity surface of a
green-sand mold to a depth of 10 to 25 mm, using
torches or heating lamps

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Buoyancy in Sand Casting Operation
 During pouring, buoyancy of the molten metal tends
to displace the core, which can cause casting to be
defective
 Force tending to lift core = weight of displaced liquid
less the weight of core itself
Fb = Wm - Wc
where Fb = buoyancy force; Wm = weight of molten
metal displaced; and Wc = weight of core

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Other Expendable Mold Processes
 Shell Molding
 Vacuum Molding
 Expanded Polystyrene Process
 Investment Casting
 Plaster Mold and Ceramic Mold Casting
Here is a good reference web site:
http://www.custompartnet.com/wu/SandCasting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shell Molding
Casting process in which the mold is a thin shell of
sand held together by thermosetting resin binder

Figure 11.5 Steps in shell-molding: (1) a match-plate or


cope-and-drag metal pattern is heated and placed over a
box containing sand mixed with thermosetting resin.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shell Molding
Figure 11.5 Steps in shell-molding: (2) box is inverted so that
sand and resin fall onto the hot pattern, causing a layer of the
mixture to partially cure on the surface to form a hard shell; (3)
box is repositioned so that loose uncured particles drop away;

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shell Molding
Figure 11.5 Steps in shell-molding: (4) sand shell is heated in
oven for several minutes to complete curing; (5) shell mold is
stripped from the pattern;

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shell Molding

From www.janfa.com

Figure 11.5 Steps in shell-molding: (6) two halves of the shell mold are
assembled, supported by sand or metal shot in a box, and pouring is
accomplished; (7) the finished casting with sprue removed.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages and Disadvantages
 Advantages of shell molding:
 Smoother cavity surface permits easier flow of
molten metal and better surface finish
 Good dimensional accuracy - machining often
not required
 Mold collapsibility minimizes cracks in casting
 Can be mechanized for mass production
 Disadvantages:
 More expensive metal pattern
 Difficult to justify for small quantities

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Expanded Polystyrene Process
Uses a mold of sand packed around a polystyrene foam pattern
which vaporizes when molten metal is poured into mold
 Other names: lost-foam process, lost pattern process,
evaporative-foam process, and full-mold process
 Polystyrene foam pattern includes sprue, risers, gating system,
and internal cores (if needed)
 Mold does not have to be opened into cope and drag sections
From www.wtec.org/loyola/casting/fh05_20.jpg

Figure 11.7 Expanded polystyrene casting process: pattern of


©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
polystyrene is coated with refractory compound;
Expanded Polystyrene Process

Figure 11.7 Expanded polystyrene


Figure 11.7 Expanded casting process: (3) molten metal is
polystyrene casting process: poured into the portion of the pattern
(2) foam pattern is placed in that forms the pouring cup and sprue.
mold box, and sand is As the metal enters the mold, the
compacted around the pattern; polystyrene foam is vaporized ahead
of the advancing liquid, thus the
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
resulting mold cavity is filled.
Advantages and Disadvantages
 Advantages of expanded polystyrene process:
 Pattern need not be removed from the mold
 Simplifies and speeds mold-making, because two
mold halves are not required as in a conventional
green-sand mold
 Disadvantages:
 A new pattern is needed for every casting
 Economic justification of the process is highly
dependent on cost of producing patterns

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Expanded Polystyrene Process
 Applications:
 Mass production of castings for automobile
engines
 Automated and integrated manufacturing
systems are used to
1. Mold the polystyrene foam patterns and then
2. Feed them to the downstream casting
operation

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Investment Casting (Lost Wax Process)
A pattern made of wax is coated with a refractory
material to make mold, after which wax is melted
away prior to pouring molten metal
 "Investment" comes from a less familiar definition of
"invest" - "to cover completely," which refers to
coating of refractory material around wax pattern
 It is a precision casting process - capable of
producing castings of high accuracy and intricate
detail

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Investment Casting

Figure 11.8 Steps in investment casting: (1) wax patterns are


produced, (2) several patterns are attached to a sprue to form
a pattern tree

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Investment Casting

Figure 11.8 Steps in investment casting: (3) the pattern tree is coated
with a thin layer of refractory material, (4) the full mold is formed by
covering the coated tree with sufficient refractory material to make
it rigid

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Investment Casting

Figure 11.8 Steps in investment casting: (5) the mold is held in an


inverted position and heated to melt the wax and permit it to drip out
of the cavity, (6) the mold is preheated to a high temperature, the
molten metal is poured, and it solidifies

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Investment Casting

Figure 11.8 Steps in investment casting: (7) the mold is


broken away from the finished casting and the parts are
separated from the sprue

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Investment Casting

Figure 11 9 A one-piece compressor stator with 108


separate airfoils made by investment casting (photo
courtesy of Howmet Corp.).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages and Disadvantages
 Advantages of investment casting:
 Parts of great complexity and intricacy can be
cast
 Close dimensional control and good surface
finish
 Wax can usually be recovered for reuse
 Additional machining is not normally
required - this is a net shape process
 Disadvantages
 Many processing steps are required
 Relatively expensive process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Plaster Mold Casting
Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster
of Paris (gypsum - CaSO4-2H2O)
 In mold-making, plaster and water mixture is poured
over plastic or metal pattern and allowed to set
 Wood patterns not generally used due to
extended contact with water
 Plaster mixture readily flows around pattern,
capturing its fine details and good surface finish

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages and Disadvantages
 Advantages of plaster mold casting:
 Good accuracy and surface finish
 Capability to make thin cross-sections
 Disadvantages:
 Mold must be baked to remove moisture,
which can cause problems in casting
 Mold strength is lost if over-baked
 Plaster molds cannot stand high
temperatures, so limited to lower melting
point alloys

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ceramic Mold Casting
Similar to plaster mold casting except that mold is
made of refractory ceramic material that can
withstand higher temperatures than plaster
 Can be used to cast steels, cast irons, and other
high-temperature alloys
 Applications similar to those of plaster mold casting
except for the metals cast
 Advantages (good accuracy and finish) also similar

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Permanent Mold Casting Processes
 Economic disadvantage of expendable mold
casting: a new mold is required for every casting
 In permanent mold casting, the mold is reused many
times
 The processes include:
 Basic permanent mold casting
 Die casting
 Centrifugal casting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
The Basic Permanent Mold Process
Uses a metal mold constructed of two sections
designed for easy, precise opening and closing
 Molds used for casting lower melting point alloys are
commonly made of steel or cast iron
 Molds used for casting steel must be made of
refractory material, due to the very high pouring
temperatures

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Permanent Mold Casting

Figure 11.10 Steps in permanent mold casting: (1) mold is


preheated and coated

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Permanent Mold Casting

Figure 11.10 Steps in permanent mold casting: (2) cores (if used)
are inserted and mold is closed, (3) molten metal is poured into
the mold, where it solidifies.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages and Limitations
 Advantages of permanent mold casting:
 Good dimensional control and surface finish
 More rapid solidification caused by the cold
metal mold results in a finer grain structure,
so castings are stronger
 Limitations:
 Generally limited to metals of lower melting
point
 Simpler part geometries compared to sand
casting because of need to open the mold
 High cost of mold

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Applications of Permanent Mold Casting
 Due to high mold cost, process is best suited to high
volume production and can be automated
accordingly
 Typical parts: automotive pistons, pump bodies, and
certain castings for aircraft and missiles
 Metals commonly cast: aluminum, magnesium,
copper-base alloys, and cast iron

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Die Casting
A permanent mold casting process in which molten
metal is injected into mold cavity under high
pressure
 Pressure is maintained during solidification, then
mold is opened and part is removed
 Molds in this casting operation are called dies;
hence the name die casting
 Use of high pressure to force metal into die cavity is
what distinguishes this from other permanent mold
processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Die Casting Machines
 Designed to hold and accurately close two mold
halves and keep them closed while liquid metal is
forced into cavity
 Two main types:
1. Hot-chamber machine
2. Cold-chamber machine

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Hot-Chamber Die Casting
Metal is melted in a container, and a piston injects
liquid metal under high pressure into the die
 High production rates - 500 parts per hour not
uncommon
 Applications limited to low melting-point metals that
do not chemically attack plunger and other
mechanical components
 Casting metals: zinc, tin, lead, and magnesium

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Hot-Chamber Die Casting

Figure 11.13 Cycle in hot-chamber casting: (1) with die closed


and plunger withdrawn, molten metal flows into the chamber (2)
plunger forces metal in chamber to flow into die, maintaining
pressure during cooling and solidification.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cold-Chamber Die Casting Machine
Molten metal is poured into unheated chamber
from external melting container, and a piston
injects metal under high pressure into die cavity
 High production but not usually as fast as
hot-chamber machines because of pouring step
 Casting metals: aluminum, brass, and
magnesium alloys
 Advantages of hot-chamber process favor its use
on low melting-point alloys (zinc, tin, lead)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cold-Chamber Die Casting

Figure 11.14 Cycle in cold-chamber casting: (1) with die


closed and ram withdrawn, molten metal is poured into
the chamber

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cold-Chamber Die Casting

Figure 11.14 Cycle in cold-chamber casting: (2) ram forces metal


to flow into die, maintaining pressure during cooling and
solidification.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Molds for Die Casting
 Usually made of tool steel, mold steel, or maraging
steel
 Tungsten and molybdenum (good refractory
qualities) used to die cast steel and cast iron
 Ejector pins required to remove part from die when it
opens
 Lubricants must be sprayed into cavities to prevent
sticking

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages and Limitations
 Advantages of die casting:
 Economical for large production quantities
 Good accuracy and surface finish
 Thin sections are possible
 Rapid cooling provides small grain size and
good strength to casting
 Disadvantages:
 Generally limited to metals with low metal
points
 Part geometry must allow removal from die

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Centrifugal Casting
A family of casting processes in which the mold is
rotated at high speed so centrifugal force distributes
molten metal to outer regions of die cavity
 The group includes:
 True centrifugal casting
 Semicentrifugal casting
 Centrifuge casting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
True Centrifugal Casting
Molten metal is poured into rotating mold to produce a
tubular part
 In some operations, mold rotation commences after
pouring rather than before
 Parts: pipes, tubes, bushings, and rings
 Outside shape of casting can be round, octagonal,
hexagonal, etc , but inside shape is (theoretically)
perfectly round, due to radially symmetric forces

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
True Centrifugal Casting
Figure 11.15 Setup for true centrifugal casting.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Semicentrifugal Casting
Centrifugal force is used to produce solid castings
rather than tubular parts
 Molds are designed with risers at center to supply
feed metal
 Density of metal in final casting is greater in outer
sections than at center of rotation
 Often used on parts in which center of casting is
machined away, thus eliminating the portion where
quality is lowest
 Examples: wheels and pulleys

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Centrifuge Casting
Mold is designed with part cavities located away from
axis of rotation, so that molten metal poured into
mold is distributed to these cavities by centrifugal
force
 Used for smaller parts
 Radial symmetry of part is not required as in other
centrifugal casting methods

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Furnaces for Casting Processes
 Furnaces most commonly used in foundries:
 Cupolas
 Direct fuel-fired furnaces
 Crucible furnaces
 Electric-arc furnaces
 Induction furnaces

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cupolas
Vertical cylindrical furnace equipped with tapping spout
near base
 Used only for cast irons
 Although other furnaces are also used, the
largest tonnage of cast iron is melted in cupolas
 The "charge," consisting of iron, coke, flux, and
possible alloying elements, is loaded through a
charging door located less than halfway up height of
cupola

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Direct Fuel-Fired Furnaces
Small open-hearth in which charge is heated by
natural gas fuel burners located on side of furnace
 Furnace roof assists heating action by reflecting
flame down against charge
 At bottom of hearth is a tap hole to release molten
metal
 Generally used for nonferrous metals such as
copper-base alloys and aluminum

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Crucible Furnaces
Metal is melted without direct contact with burning fuel
mixture
 Sometimes called indirect fuel-fired furnaces
 Container (crucible) is made of refractory material
or high-temperature steel alloy
 Used for nonferrous metals such as bronze, brass,
and alloys of zinc and aluminum
 Three types used in foundries: (a) lift-out type, (b)
stationary, (c) tilting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Crucible Furnaces
Figure 11.19 Three types of crucible furnaces: (a) lift-out crucible,
(b) stationary pot, from which molten metal must be ladled, and
(c) tilting-pot furnace.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Electric-Arc Furnaces
Charge is melted by heat generated from an electric arc
 High power consumption, but electric-arc furnaces can be
designed for high melting capacity
 Used primarily for melting steel

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Induction Furnaces
Uses alternating current passing through a coil to develop magnetic
field in metal
 Induced current causes rapid heating and melting
 Electromagnetic force field also causes mixing action in liquid metal
 Since metal does not contact heating elements, environment can
be closely controlled to produce molten metals of high quality and
purity
 Melting steel, cast iron, and aluminum alloys are common
applications in foundry work

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ladles
 Moving molten metal from melting furnace to
mold is sometimes done using crucibles
 More often, transfer is accomplished by ladles

Figure 11.21 Two common types of ladles: (a) crane ladle,


and (b) two-man ladle.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Additional Steps After Solidification
 Trimming
 Removing the core
 Surface cleaning
 Inspection
 Repair, if required
 Heat treatment

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Trimming
Removal of sprues, runners, risers, parting-line flash,
fins, chaplets, and any other excess metal from the
cast part
 For brittle casting alloys and when cross sections
are relatively small, appendages can be broken off
 Otherwise, hammering, shearing, hack-sawing,
band-sawing, abrasive wheel cutting, or various
torch cutting methods are used

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Removing the Core
If cores have been used, they must be removed
 Most cores are bonded, and they often fall out of
casting as the binder deteriorates
 In some cases, they are removed by shaking
casting, either manually or mechanically
 In rare cases, cores are removed by chemically
dissolving bonding agent
 Solid cores must be hammered or pressed out

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Surface Cleaning
Removal of sand from casting surface and otherwise
enhancing appearance of surface
 Cleaning methods: tumbling, air-blasting with coarse
sand grit or metal shot, wire brushing, buffing, and
chemical pickling
 Surface cleaning is most important for sand casting
 In many permanent mold processes, this step
can be avoided
 Defects are possible in casting, and inspection is
needed to detect their presence

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Heat Treatment
 Castings are often heat treated to enhance
properties
 Reasons for heat treating a casting:
 For subsequent processing operations such as
machining
 To bring out the desired properties for the
application of the part in service

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Casting Quality
 There are numerous opportunities for things to go
wrong in a casting operation, resulting in quality
defects in the product
 The defects can be classified as follows:
 General defects common to all casting processes
 Defects related to sand casting process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
General Defects: Misrun
A casting that has solidified before completely
filling mold cavity

Figure 11.22 Some common defects in castings: (a) misrun

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
General Defects: Cold Shut
Two portions of metal flow together but there is
a lack of fusion due to premature freezing

Figure 11.22 Some common defects in castings: (b) cold shut

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
General Defects: Cold Shot
Metal splatters during pouring and solid globules
form and become entrapped in casting

Figure 11.22 Some common defects in castings: (c) cold shot

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
General Defects: Shrinkage Cavity

Depression in surface or internal void caused by


solidification shrinkage that restricts amount of
molten metal available in last region to freeze

Figure 11.22 Some common defects in castings: (d) shrinkage cavity


©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Sand Casting Defects: Sand Blow
Balloon-shaped gas cavity caused by release of
mold gases during pouring

Figure 11.23 Common defects in sand castings: (a) sand blow

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Sand Casting Defects: Pin Holes
Formation of many small gas cavities at or slightly
below surface of casting

Figure 11.23 Common defects in sand castings: (b) pin holes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Sand Casting Defects: Penetration
When fluidity of liquid metal is high, it may penetrate
into sand mold or core, causing casting surface to
consist of a mixture of sand grains and metal

Figure 11.23 Common defects in sand castings: (e) penetration

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Sand Casting Defects: Mold Shift

A step in cast product at parting line caused by


sidewise relative displacement of cope and drag

Figure 11.23 Common defects in sand castings: (f) mold shift

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Foundry Inspection Methods
 Visual inspection to detect obvious defects such as
misruns, cold shuts, and severe surface flaws
 Dimensional measurements to insure that
tolerances have been met
 Metallurgical, chemical, physical, and other tests
concerned with quality of cast metal

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Metals for Casting
 Most commercial castings are made of alloys rather
than pure metals
 Alloys are generally easier to cast, and properties
of product are better
 Casting alloys can be classified as:
 Ferrous
 Nonferrous

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ferrous Casting Alloys: Cast Iron
 Most important of all casting alloys
 Tonnage of cast iron castings is several times that
of all other metals combined
 Several types: (1) gray cast iron, (2) nodular iron, (3)
white cast iron, (4) malleable iron, and (5) alloy cast
irons
 Typical pouring temperatures  1400C (2500F),
depending on composition

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ferrous Casting Alloys: Steel
 The mechanical properties of steel make it an
attractive engineering material
 The capability to create complex geometries makes
casting an attractive shaping process
 Difficulties when casting steel:
 Pouring temperature of steel is higher than for
most other casting metals  1650C (3000F)
 At such temperatures, steel readily oxidizes, so
molten metal must be isolated from air
 Molten steel has relatively poor fluidity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Nonferrous Casting Alloys: Aluminum
 Generally considered to be very castable
 Pouring temperatures low due to low melting
temperature of aluminum
 Tm = 660C (1220F)
 Properties:
 Light weight
 Range of strength properties by heat treatment
 Easy to machine

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Nonferrous Casting Alloys: Copper Alloys
 Includes bronze, brass, and aluminum bronze
 Properties:
 Corrosion resistance
 Attractive appearance
 Good bearing qualities
 Limitation: high cost of copper
 Applications: pipe fittings, marine propeller blades,
pump components, ornamental jewelry

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Nonferrous Casting Alloys: Zinc Alloys
 Highly castable, commonly used in die casting
 Low melting point – melting point of zinc Tm = 419C
(786F)
 Good fluidity for ease of casting
 Properties:
 Low creep strength, so castings cannot be
subjected to prolonged high stresses

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Considerations
 Geometric simplicity:
 Although casting can be used to produce
complex part geometries, simplifying the part
design usually improves castability
 Avoiding unnecessary complexities:
 Simplifies mold-making

 Reduces the need for cores

 Improves the strength of the casting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Considerations
 Corners on the casting:
 Sharp corners and angles should be avoided,
since they are sources of stress concentrations
and may cause hot tearing and cracks
 Generous fillets should be designed on inside
corners and sharp edges should be blended

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Considerations
 Draft Guidelines:
 In expendable mold casting, draft facilitates
removal of pattern from mold
 Draft = 1 for sand casting

 In permanent mold casting, purpose is to aid in


removal of the part from the mold
 Draft = 2 to 3 for permanent mold processes

 Similar tapers should be allowed if solid cores


are used

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Draft
 Minor changes in part design can reduce need for
coring

Figure 11.25 Design change to eliminate the need for using a


core: (a) original design, and (b) redesign.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Considerations
 Dimensional Tolerances and Surface Finish:
 Significant differences in dimensional
accuracies and finishes can be achieved in
castings, depending on process:
 Poor dimensional accuracies and finish for
sand casting
 Good dimensional accuracies and finish for

die casting and investment casting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Considerations
 Machining Allowances:
 Almost all sand castings must be machined to
achieve the required dimensions and part
features
 Additional material, called the machining
allowance, is left on the casting in those surfaces
where machining is necessary
 Typical machining allowances for sand castings
are around 1.5 and 3 mm (1/16 and 1/4 in)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
SHAPING PROCESSES FOR PLASTICS
1. Properties of Polymer Melts
2. Extrusion
3. Production of Sheet, Film, and Filaments
4. Coating Processes
5. Injection Molding
6. Other Molding Processes
7. Thermoforming
8. Casting
9. Polymer Foam Processing and Forming
10. Product Design Considerations

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Plastic Products
 Plastics can be shaped into a wide variety of
products:
 Molded parts
 Extruded sections
 Films
 Sheets
 Insulation coatings on electrical wires
 Fibers for textiles

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
More Plastic Products
 In addition, plastics are often the principal ingredient
in other materials, such as
 Paints and varnishes
 Adhesives
 Various polymer matrix composites
 Many plastic shaping processes can be adapted to
produce items made of rubbers and polymer matrix
composites

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Trends in Polymer Processing
 Applications of plastics have increased at a
much faster rate than either metals or ceramics
during the last 50 years
 Many parts previously made of metals are
now being made of plastics
 Plastic containers have been largely
substituted for glass bottles and jars
 Total volume of polymers (plastics and
rubbers) now exceeds that of metals

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Plastic Shaping Processes are Important

 Almost unlimited variety of part geometries


 Plastic molding is a net shape process
 Further shaping is not needed
 Less energy is required than for metals due to much
lower processing temperatures
 Handling of product is simplified during production
because of lower temperatures
 Painting or plating is usually not required

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two Types of Plastics
1. Thermoplastics
 Chemical structure remains unchanged during
heating and shaping
 More important commercially, comprising more
than 70% of total plastics tonnage
2. Thermosets
 Undergo a curing process during heating and
shaping, causing a permanent change
(cross-linking) in molecular structure
 Once cured, they cannot be remelted

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Classification of Shaping Processes
 Extruded products with constant cross-section
 Continuous sheets and films
 Continuous filaments (fibers)
 Molded parts that are mostly solid
 Hollow molded parts with relatively thin walls
 Discrete parts made of formed sheets and films
 Castings
 Foamed products

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Polymer Melts
 To shape a thermoplastic polymer it must be heated
so that it softens to the consistency of a liquid
 In this form, it is called a polymer melt
 Important properties of polymer melts:
 Viscosity
 Viscoelasticity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Viscosity of Polymer Melts
Fluid property that relates shear stress to shear rate
during flow
 Due to its high molecular weight, a polymer melt is a
thick fluid with high viscosity
 Most polymer shaping processes involve flow
through small channels or die openings
 Flow rates are often large, leading to high shear
rates and shear stresses, so significant pressures
are required to accomplish the processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Viscosity and Shear Rate
Viscosity of a polymer
melt decreases with shear
rate, thus the fluid
becomes thinner at higher
shear rates

Figure 13.1 Viscosity


relationships for Newtonian
fluid and typical polymer melt.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Viscosity and Temperature
Viscosity decreases with temperature, thus the
fluid becomes thinner at higher temperatures

Figure 13.2 Viscosity as a function of temperature for


selected polymers at a shear rate of 103 s-1.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Viscoelasticity
Combination of viscosity and elasticity
 Possessed by both polymer solids and polymer
melts
 Example: die swell in extrusion, in which the hot
plastic expands when exiting the die opening

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Die Swell

Extruded polymer "remembers" its previous shape


when in the larger cross section of the extruder,
tries to return to it after leaving the die orifice

Figure 13.3 Die swell, a manifestation of viscoelasticity in


polymer melts, as depicted here on exiting an extrusion die.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion
Compression process in which material is forced to flow
through a die orifice to provide long continuous
product whose cross-sectional shape is determined
by the shape of the orifice
 Widely used for thermoplastics and elastomers to
mass produce items such as tubing, pipes, hose,
structural shapes, sheet and film, continuous
filaments, and coated electrical wire
 Carried out as a continuous process; extrudate is
then cut into desired lengths

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extruder
Figure 13.4 Components and features of a (single-screw) extruder
for plastics and elastomers

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two Main Components of an Extruder
1. Barrel
2. Screw
 Die - not an extruder component
 Special tool that must be fabricated for particular
profile to be produced

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extruder Barrel
 Internal diameter typically ranges from 25 to 150
mm (1.0 to 6.0 in.)
 L/D ratios usually between 10 and 30: higher
ratios for thermoplastics, lower ratios for
elastomers
 Feedstock fed by gravity onto screw whose
rotation moves material through barrel
 Electric heaters melt feedstock; subsequent
mixing and mechanical working adds heat which
maintains the melt

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extruder Screw
 Divided into sections to serve several functions:
 Feed section - feedstock is moved from
hopper and preheated
 Compression section - polymer is
transformed into fluid, air mixed with pellets
is extracted from melt, and material is
compressed
 Metering section - melt is homogenized and
sufficient pressure developed to pump it
through die opening

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extruder Screw

Figure 13.5 Details of an extruder screw inside the barrel.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Die End of Extruder
 Progress of polymer melt through barrel leads
ultimately to the die zone
 Before reaching die, the melt passes through a
screen pack - series of wire meshes supported by a
stiff plate containing small axial holes
 Functions of screen pack:
 Filter out contaminants and hard lumps
 Build pressure in metering section
 Straighten flow of polymer melt and remove its
"memory" of circular motion from screw

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Melt Flow in Extruder
 As screw rotates inside barrel, polymer
melt is forced to move forward toward die;
as in an Archimedian screw
 Principal transport mechanism is drag flow,
Qd, resulting from friction between the
viscous liquid and the rotating screw
 Compressing the polymer melt through the
die creates a back pressure that reduces
drag flow transport (called back pressure
flow, Qb )
 Resulting flow in extruder is Qx = Qd – Qb

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Die Configurations and Extruded Products
 The shape of the die orifice determines the
cross-sectional shape of the extrudate
 Common die profiles and corresponding extruded
shapes:
 Solid profiles
 Hollow profiles, such as tubes
 Wire and cable coating
 Sheet and film
 Filaments

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion of Solid Profiles
 Regular shapes such as
 Rounds
 Squares
 Irregular cross sections such as
 Structural shapes
 Door and window moldings
 Automobile trim
 House siding

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion Die for Solid Cross Section
Figure 13.8 (a) Side view cross-section of an extrusion die for
solid regular shapes, such as round stock; (b) front view of die,
with profile of extrudate. Die swell is evident in both views.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Hollow Profiles
 Examples: tubes, pipes, hoses, and other
cross-sections containing holes
 Hollow profiles require mandrel to form the shape
 Mandrel held in place using a spider
 Polymer melt flows around legs supporting the
mandrel to reunite into a monolithic tube wall
 Mandrel often includes an air channel through which
air is blown to maintain hollow form of extrudate
during hardening

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion Die for Hollow Shapes
Figure 13.10 Side view cross-section of extrusion die for shaping
hollow cross-sections such as tubes and pipes; Section A-A is a
front view cross-section showing how the mandrel is held in
place; Section B-B shows the tubular cross-section just prior to
exiting the die; die swell causes an enlargement of the diameter.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Wire and Cable Coating
 Polymer melt is applied to bare wire as it is
pulled at high speed through a die
 A slight vacuum is drawn between wire and
polymer to promote adhesion of coating
 Wire provides rigidity during cooling - usually
aided by passing coated wire through a water
trough
 Product is wound onto large spools at speeds
up to 50 m/s (10,000 ft/min)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion Die for Coating Wire

Figure 13.11 Side view cross-section of die for coating of


electrical wire by extrusion.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Polymer Sheet and Film
 Film - thickness below 0.5 mm (0.020 in.)
 Packaging - product wrapping material, grocery bags, garbage bags
 Stock for photographic film
 Pool covers and liners for irrigation ditches
 Sheet - thickness from 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) to about 12.5 mm (0.5 in.)
 Flat window glazing
 Thermoforming stock
Materials
 All thermoplastic polymers
 Polyethylene, mostly low density PE
 Polypropylene
 Polyvinylchloride
 Cellophane

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Sheet and Film Production Processes
 Most widely used processes are continuous, high
production operations
 Processes include:
 Slit-Die Extrusion of Sheet and Film
 Blown-Film Extrusion Process
 Calendering

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Slit-Die Extrusion of Sheet and Film
Production of sheet and film by conventional extrusion, using a narrow slit as
the die opening
 Slit may be up to 3 m (10 ft) wide and as narrow as around 0.4 mm (0.015
in)
 A problem is uniformity of thickness throughout width of stock, due to
drastic shape change of polymer melt as it flows through die
 Edges of film usually must be trimmed because of thickening at edges

Figure 13.14
©2007 A die
John Wiley configurations
& Sons, for
Inc. M P Groover, extrudingofsheet
Fundamentals Modern & film.
Manufacturing 3/e
Blown-Film Extrusion Process
Combines extrusion and blowing to produce a tube of thin film
 Process sequence:
 Extrusion of tube
 Tube is drawn upward while still molten and simultaneously
expanded by air inflated into it through die
 Air is blown into tube to maintain uniform film thickness and

tube diameter

Figure 13.16 Blown-film process for


high production of thin tubular film.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Calendering
Feedstock is passed through a series of
rolls to reduce thickness to desired
gage
 Expensive equipment, high
production rates
 Process is noted for good surface
finish and high gage accuracy
 Typical materials: rubber or rubbery
thermoplastics such as plasticized
PVC
 Products: PVC floor covering, shower
curtains, vinyl table cloths, pool liners, Figure 13.17 A typical roll
and inflatable boats and toys configuration in calendering

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Fiber and Filament Products
 Definitions:
 Fiber - a long, thin strand whose length is at
least 100 times its cross-section
 Filament - a fiber of continuous length
 Applications:
 Fibers and filaments for textiles
 Most important application

 Reinforcing materials in polymer composites


 Growing application, but still small

compared to textiles

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Materials for Fibers and Filaments
Fibers can be natural or synthetic
 Natural fibers constitute ~ 25% of total market
 Cotton is by far the most important staple
 Wool production is significantly less than cotton
 Synthetic fibers constitute ~ 75% of total fiber market
 Polyester is the most important
 Others: nylon, acrylics, and rayon

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Fiber and Filament Production - Spinning
For synthetic fibers, spinning = extrusion of
polymer melt or solution through a spinneret,
then drawing and winding onto a bobbin
 Spinneret = die with multiple small holes
 The term is a holdover from methods used to
draw and twist natural fibers into yarn or
thread
 Three variations, depending on polymer :
1. Melt spinning
2. Dry spinning
3. Wet spinning

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Melt Spinning
Starting polymer is heated to molten state and
pumped through spinneret
 Typical spinneret is 6 mm (0.25 in) thick and
contains approximately 50 holes of diameter
0.25 mm (0.010 in)
 Filaments are drawn and air cooled before
being spooled onto bobbin
 Significant extension and thinning of
filaments occur while polymer is still molten,
so final diameter wound onto bobbin may be
only 1/10 of extruded size
 Used for polyester and nylon filaments

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Melt Spinning

Figure 13.18 Melt


spinning of continuous
filaments

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Dry Spinning
Similar to melt spinning, but starting polymer is in
solution and solvent can be separated by
evaporation
 First step is extrusion through spinneret
 Extrudate is pulled through a heated chamber which
removes the solvent, leaving the polymer
 Used for filaments of cellulose acetate and acrylics

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Wet Spinning
Similar to melt spinning, but polymer is again in
solution, only solvent is non-volatile
 To separate polymer, extrudate is passed through a
liquid chemical that coagulates or precipitates the
polymer into coherent strands which are then
collected onto bobbins
 Used to produce filaments of rayon (regenerated
cellulose)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Subsequent Processing of Filaments
 Filaments produced by any of the three processes
are usually subjected to further cold drawing to align
crystal structure along direction of filament axis
 Extensions of 2 to 8 are typical
 Effect is to significantly increase tensile strength
 Drawing is done by pulling filament between two
spools, where winding spool is driven at a faster
speed than unwinding spool

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding

Polymer is heated to a highly plastic state and


forced to flow under high pressure into a
mold cavity where it solidifies and the
molding is then removed from cavity
 Produces discrete components almost
always to net shape
 Typical cycle time 10 to 30 sec, but cycles
of one minute or more are not uncommon
 Mold may contain multiple cavities, so
multiple moldings are produced each cycle

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molded Parts
 Complex and intricate shapes are possible
 Shape limitations:
 Capability to fabricate a mold whose cavity is the
same geometry as part
 Shape must allow for part removal from mold
 Part size from  50 g (2 oz) up to  25 kg (more than
50 lb), e.g., automobile bumpers
 Injection molding is economical only for large
production quantities due to high cost of mold

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Polymers for Injection Molding
 Injection molding is the most widely used molding
process for thermoplastics
 Some thermosets and elastomers are injection
molded
 Modifications in equipment and operating
parameters must be made to avoid premature
cross-linking of these materials before injection

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding Machine
Two principal components:
1. Injection unit
 Melts and delivers polymer melt
 Operates much like an extruder
2. Clamping unit
 Opens and closes mold each injection cycle

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding Machine
Figure 13.20 A large (3000 ton capacity) injection
molding machine (Photo courtesy of Cincinnati
Milacron).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding Machine
Figure 13.21 Diagram of an injection molding machine,
reciprocating screw type (some mechanical details are
simplified).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Unit of Molding Machine
Consists of barrel fed from one end by a hopper
containing supply of plastic pellets
 Inside the barrel is a screw which:
1. Rotates for mixing and heating polymer
2. Acts as a ram (i.e., plunger) to inject
molten plastic into mold
 Non-return valve near tip of screw
prevents melt flowing backward along
screw threads
 Later in molding cycle ram retracts to
its former position

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Clamping Unit of Molding Machine
 Functions:
1. Holds two halves of mold in proper alignment
with each other
2. Keeps mold closed during injection by applying
a clamping force sufficient to resist injection
force
3. Opens and closes mold at the appropriate times
in molding cycle

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding Cycle

Figure 13.22 Typical molding cycle: (1) mold is closed

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding Cycle

Figure 13.22 Typical molding cycle: (2) melt is injected


into cavity.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding Cycle

Figure 13.22 Typical molding cycle: (3) screw is retracted.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding Cycle

Figure 13.22 Typical molding cycle: (4) mold opens and


part is ejected.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
The Mold
 The special tool in injection molding
 Custom-designed and fabricated for the part to be
produced
 When production run is finished, the mold is
replaced with a new mold for the next part
 Various types of mold for injection molding:
 Two-plate mold
 Three-plate mold
 Hot-runner mold

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two-Plate Mold

Figure 13.23 Details of a two-plate mold for thermoplastic injection


molding: (a) closed. Mold has two cavities to produce two
cup-shaped parts with each injection shot.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two-Plate Mold

Figure 13.23 Details of a two-plate mold for


thermoplastic injection molding: (b) open

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two-Plate Mold Features
 Cavity – geometry of part but slightly oversized to
allow for shrinkage
 Created by machining of mating surfaces of two
mold halves
 Distribution channel through which polymer melt
flows from nozzle into mold cavity
 Sprue - leads from nozzle into mold
 Runners - lead from sprue to cavity (or cavities)
 Gates - constrict flow of plastic into cavity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
More Two-Plate Mold Features
 Ejection system – to eject molded part from cavity at
end of molding cycle
 Ejector pins built into moving half of mold usually
accomplish this function
 Cooling system - consists of external pump
connected to passageways in mold, through which
water is circulated to remove heat from the hot
plastic
 Air vents – to permit evacuation of air from cavity as
polymer melt rushes in

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Three-Plate Mold
Uses three plates to separate parts from sprue and
runner when mold opens
 Advantages over two-plate mold:
 As mold opens, runner and parts disconnect and
drop into two containers under mold
 Allows automatic operation of molding machine

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Hot-Runner Mold
 Eliminates solidification of sprue and runner by
locating heaters around the corresponding runner
channels
 While plastic in mold cavity solidifies, material in
sprue and runner channels remains molten, ready to
be injected into cavity in next cycle
 Advantage:
 Saves material that otherwise would be scrap in
the unit operation

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding Machines
 Injection molding machines differ in both injection
unit and clamping unit
 Name of injection molding machine is based on the
type of injection unit used
 Reciprocating-screw injection molding machine
 Plunger-type injection molding machine
 Several clamping designs
 Mechanical (toggle)
 Hydraulic

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shrinkage
Reduction in linear size during cooling from
molding to room temperature
 Polymers have high thermal expansion
coefficients, so significant shrinkage occurs
during solidification and cooling in mold
 Typical shrinkage values:
Plastic Shrinkage, mm/mm (in/in)
Nylon-6,6 0.020
Polyethylene 0.025
Polystyrene 0.004
PVC 0.005

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Compensation for Shrinkage
 Dimensions of mold cavity must be larger than
specified part dimensions:
Dc = Dp + DpS + DpS2
where Dc = dimension of cavity; Dp = molded part
dimension, and S = shrinkage value
 Third term on right hand side corrects for
shrinkage in the shrinkage

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shrinkage Factors
 Fillers in the plastic tend to reduce shrinkage
 Injection pressure – higher pressures force more
material into mold cavity to reduce shrinkage
 Compaction time - similar effect – longer time forces
more material into cavity to reduce shrinkage
 Molding temperature - higher temperatures lower
polymer melt viscosity, allowing more material to be
packed into mold to reduce shrinkage

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Thermoplastic Foam Injection Molding
Molding of thermoplastic parts that possess dense outer skin
surrounding lightweight foam center
 Part has high stiffness-to-weight ratio suited to structural
applications
 Produced either by introducing a gas into molten plastic in
injection unit or by mixing a gas-producing ingredient with
starting pellets
 A small amount of melt is injected into mold cavity, where it
expands to fill cavity
 Foam in contact with cold mold surface collapses to form dense
skin, while core retains cellular structure

http://www.globalspec.com/FeaturedProducts/Detail/Reed
yInternational/SAFTEC_XP600/101387/0?deframe=1

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding of Thermosets
 Equipment and operating procedure must be
modified to avoid premature cross-linking of TS
polymer
 Reciprocating-screw injection unit with shorter
barrel length
 Temperatures in barrel are relatively low
 Melt is injected into a heated mold, where
cross-linking occurs to cure the plastic
 Curing in the mold is the most time-consuming
step in the cycle
 Mold is then opened and part is removed

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Reaction Injection Molding
Two highly reactive liquid ingredients are mixed and
immediately injected into a mold cavity where
chemical reactions leading to solidification occur
 RIM was developed with polyurethane to produce
large automotive parts such as bumpers and fenders
 RIM polyurethane parts possess a foam internal
structure surrounded by a dense outer skin
 Other materials used in RIM: epoxies, and
urea-formaldehyde

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Compression Molding
 A widely used molding process for thermosetting
plastics
 Also used for rubber tires and polymer matrix
composite parts
 Molding compound available in several forms:
powders or pellets, liquid, or preform
 Amount of charge must be precisely controlled to
obtain repeatable consistency in the molded product

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Compression Molding

Figure 13.28 Compression molding for thermosetting


plastics: (1) charge is loaded, (2) and (3) charge is
compressed and cured, and (4) part is ejected and removed.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Molds for Compression Molding
 Simpler than injection molds
 No sprue and runner system in a compression mold
 Process itself generally limited to simpler part
geometries due to lower flow capabilities of TS
materials
 Mold must be heated, usually by electric resistance,
steam, or hot oil circulation

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Compression Molding
 Molding materials:
 Phenolics, melamine, urea-formaldehyde, epoxies, urethanes,
and elastomers
 Typical compression-molded products:
 Electric plugs, sockets, and housings; pot handles, and
dinnerware plates
http://www.leechind.com/images/plastic_molding1b.jpg

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Transfer Molding
TS charge is loaded into a chamber immediately ahead
of mold cavity, where it is heated; pressure is then
applied to force soft polymer to flow into heated mold
where it cures
 Two variants:
 Pot transfer molding - charge is injected from a
"pot" through a vertical sprue channel into cavity
 Plunger transfer molding – plunger injects charge
from a heated well through channels into cavity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Pot Transfer Molding
Figure 13.29 (a) Pot transfer molding: (1) charge is loaded
into pot, (2) softened polymer is pressed into mold cavity
and cured, and (3) part is ejected.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Plunger Transfer Molding

Figure 13.29 (b) plunger transfer molding: (1) charge is


loaded into pot, (2) softened polymer is pressed into
mold cavity and cured, and (3) part is ejected.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Compression vs. Transfer Molding
 In both processes, scrap is produced each cycle as
leftover material, called the cull
 The TS scrap cannot be recovered
 Transfer molding is capable of molding more
intricate part shapes than compression molding but
not as intricate as injection molding
 Transfer molding lends itself to molding with inserts,
in which a metal or ceramic insert is placed into
cavity prior to injection, and the plastic bonds to
insert during molding

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Blow Molding
Molding process in which air pressure is used to inflate soft plastic
into a mold cavity
 Important for making one-piece hollow plastic parts with thin
walls, such as bottles
 Because these items are used for consumer beverages in mass
markets, production is typically organized for very high
quantities
 Accomplished in two steps:
1. Fabrication of a starting tube, called a parison
2. Inflation of the tube to desired final shape
 Forming the parison is accomplished by either
 Extrusion or
 Injection molding
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion Blow Molding
Figure 13.30 Extrusion blow molding: (1) extrusion of parison; (2)
parison is pinched at the top and sealed at the bottom around a
metal blow pin as the two halves of the mold come together; (3) the
tube is inflated so that it takes the shape of the mold cavity; and (4)
mold is opened to remove the solidified part.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Blow Molding

Figure 13.32 Injection blow molding: (1) parison is injected


molded around a blowing rod; (2) injection mold is opened
and parison is transferred to a blow mold; (3) soft polymer is
inflated to conform to the blow mold; and (4) blow mold is
opened and blown product is removed.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Stretch Blow Molding
Variation of injection blow molding in which blowing rod
stretches the soft parison for a more favorable
stressing of polymer than conventional blow molding
 Resulting structure is more rigid, more transparent,
and more impact resistant
 Most widely used material is polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) which has very low permeability
and is strengthened by stretch blow molding
 Combination of properties makes it ideal as
container for carbonated beverages

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Stretch Blow Molding

Figure 13.33 Stretch blow molding: (1) injection molding of


parison; (2) stretching; and (3) blowing.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Materials and Products in Blow Molding
 Blow molding is limited to thermoplastics
 Materials: high density polyethylene, polypropylene
(PP), polyvinylchloride (PVC), and polyethylene
terephthalate
 Products: disposable containers for beverages and
other liquid consumer goods, large shipping drums
(55 gallon) for liquids and powders, large storage
tanks (2000 gallon), gasoline tanks, toys, and hulls
for sail boards and small boats

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Thermoforming
Flat thermoplastic sheet or film is heated and deformed
into desired shape using a mold
 Heating usually accomplished by radiant electric
heaters located on one or both sides of starting
plastic sheet or film
 Widely used in packaging of products and to
fabricate large items such as bathtubs, contoured
skylights, and internal door liners for refrigerators

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Vacuum Thermoforming

Figure 13.35 Vacuum thermoforming: (1) a flat plastic sheet is


softened by heating
Figure 13.35 Vacuum thermoforming: (2) the softened sheet is
placed
©2007 Johnover
Wiley &aSons,
concave moldFundamentals
Inc. M P Groover, cavity of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Vacuum Thermoforming

Figure 13.35 Vacuum thermoforming: (3) a vacuum draws the sheet


into the cavity
Figure 13.35 (4) plastic hardens on contact with the cold mold surface,
and the part is removed and subsequently trimmed from the web.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Negative Molds vs. Positive Molds
Negative mold has concave cavity
Positive mold has convex shape
 Both types are used in thermoforming
 For positive mold, heated sheet is draped over
convex form and negative or positive pressure forces
plastic against mold surface

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Vacuum Thermoforming

Figure 13.37 Use of a positive mold in vacuum thermoforming: (1) the heated
plastic sheet is positioned above the convex mold
Figure 13.37 Use of a positive mold in vacuum thermoforming: (2) the clamp
is lowered into position, draping the sheet over the mold as a vacuum
forces the sheet against the mold surface

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Materials for Thermoforming
 Only thermoplastics can be thermoformed,
 Extruded sheets of thermosetting or elastomeric
polymers have already been cross-linked and
cannot be softened by reheating
 Common TP polymers: polystyrene, cellulose
acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, ABS, PVC,
acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate), polyethylene, and
polypropylene

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Applications of Thermoforming
 Thin films: blister packs and skin packs for
packaging commodity products such as cosmetics,
toiletries, small tools, and fasteners (nails, screws,
etc.)
 For best efficiency, filling process to containerize
item(s) is immediately downstream from
thermoforming
 Thicker sheet stock: boat hulls, shower stalls,
advertising displays and signs, bathtubs, certain
toys, contoured skylights, internal door liners for
refrigerators

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Casting
Pouring liquid resin into a mold, using gravity to fill
cavity, where polymer hardens
 Both thermoplastics and thermosets are cast
 Thermoplastics: acrylics, polystyrene, polyamides
(nylons) and PVC
 Thermosetting polymers: polyurethane,
unsaturated polyesters, phenolics, and epoxies
 Simpler mold
 Suited to low quantities

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Polymer Foam
A polymer-and-gas mixture that gives the material a
porous or cellular structure
 Most common polymer foams: polystyrene
(Styrofoam, a trademark), polyurethane
 Other polymers: natural rubber ("foamed rubber")
and polyvinylchloride (PVC)

www.bioceramics.uni-bremen.de/research/research_scaffolds.htm
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Properties of a Foamed Polymer
 Low density
 High strength per unit weight
 Good thermal insulation
 Good energy absorbing qualities
Classification
 Elastomeric - matrix polymer is a rubber, capable of
large elastic deformation
 Flexible - matrix is a highly plasticized polymer such
as soft PVC
 Rigid - polymer is a stiff thermoplastic such as
polystyrene or a thermoset such as a phenolic
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Applications of Polymer Foams
 Characteristic properties of polymer foams, and the ability to
control elastic behavior by selection of base polymer, make
these materials suitable for certain applications
 Applications: hot beverage cups, heat insulating structural
materials, cores for structural panels, packaging materials,
cushion materials for furniture and bedding, padding for
automobile dashboards, and products requiring buoyancy

Figure 13.40 Two


©2007 John polymer
Wiley foam
& Sons, Inc. M P structures: (a) closed
Groover, Fundamentals cellManufacturing
of Modern and (b) open 3/e cell.
Polymer Foam Structures

Figure 13.40 Two polymer foam structures: (a) closed cell


and (b) open cell.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion of Polystyrene Foams
 Polystyrene (PS) is a thermoplastic polymer
 A physical or chemical blowing agent is fed into polymer melt
near die end of extruder barrel; thus, extrudate consists of
expanded polymer
 Products: large sheets and boards that are subsequently cut
to size for heat insulation panels and sections
 Expandable foam molding
 Molding material consists of prefoamed polystyrene
beads
 Beads are fed into mold cavity where they are
further expanded and fused together to form the
molded product
 Products: hot beverage cups, www.8linx.com/cnc/eps_foam.htm

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shaping of Polyurethane Foams
 Polyurethane can be thermosetting,
elastomer or thermoplastic (less common)
 Polyurethane foam products are made in a
one-step process in which the two liquid
ingredients are mixed and immediately fed
into a mold or other form
 Polymer is synthesized and part
www.foamcuttingmachinery.com/sitemap.html geometry is created at the same time
 Shaping processes for polyurethane foam:
www.jjorly.com/foam_fabrication.htm

 Spraying
 Pouring
 Cutting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Guidelines: General
 Strength and stiffness
 Plastics are not as strong or stiff as metals
 Avoid applications where high stresses will be
encountered
 Creep resistance is also a limitation
 Strength-to-weight ratios for some plastics are
competitive with metals in certain applications

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Guidelines: General
 Impact Resistance
 Capacity of plastics to absorb impact is generally good;
plastics compare favorably with most metals
 Service temperatures
 Limited relative to metals and ceramics
 Thermal expansion
 Dimensional changes due to temperature changes
much more significant than for metals
 Many plastics are subject to degradation from sunlight and other
forms of radiation
 Some plastics degrade in oxygen and ozone atmospheres
 Plastics are soluble in many common solvents
 Plastics are resistant to conventional corrosion mechanisms that
afflict many metals

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Guidelines: Extrusion
 Wall thickness
 Uniform wall thickness is desirable in an extruded
cross section
 Variations in wall thickness result in non-uniform
plastic flow and uneven cooling which tend to warp
extrudate
 Hollow sections
 Hollow sections complicate die design and plastic flow
 Desirable to use extruded cross-sections that are not
hollow yet satisfy functional requirements
 Corners
 Sharp corners, inside and outside, should be avoided
in extruded cross sections
 They result in uneven flow during processing and
stress concentrations in the final product

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Guidelines: Moldings
 Economic production quantities
 Each part requires a unique mold, and the mold
for any molding process can be costly, particularly
for injection molding
 Minimum production quantities for injection
molding are usually around 10,000 pieces
 For compression molding, minimum quantities are
1000 parts, due to simpler mold designs
 Transfer molding lies between injection molding
and compression molding

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Guidelines: Moldings
 Part complexity
 An advantage of plastic molding is that it allows multiple functional
features to be combined into one part
 Although more complex part geometries mean more costly molds,
it may nevertheless be economical to design a complex molding if
the alternative involves many individual components that must be
assembled.
 Wall thickness
 Thick cross sections are wasteful of material, more likely to cause
warping due to shrinkage, and take longer to harden
 Reinforcing ribs
 Achieves increased stiffness without excessive wall thickness
 Ribs should be made thinner than the walls they reinforce to
minimize sink marks on outside wall

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Guidelines: Moldings
 Corner radii and fillets
 Sharp corners, both external and internal, are undesirable in
molded parts
 They interrupt smooth flow of the melt, tend to create surface
defects, and cause stress concentrations in the part
 Holes
 Holes are quite feasible in plastic moldings, but they complicate
mold design and part removal
 Draft
 A molded part should be designed with a draft on its sides to
facilitate removal from mold
 Especially important on inside wall of a cup-shaped part
because plastic contracts against positive mold shape
 Recommended draft:
 For thermosets, ~ 1/2 to 1

 For thermoplastics, ~ 1/8 to 1/2

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Guidelines: Moldings
 Tolerances
 Although shrinkage is predictable under closely
controlled conditions, generous tolerances are
desirable for injection moldings because of
 Variations in process parameters that affect
shrinkage
 Diversity of part geometries encountered

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
RUBBER PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
1. Rubber Processing and Shaping
2. Manufacture of Tires and Other Rubber
Products
3. Product Design Considerations

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Overview of Rubber Processing
 Many of the production methods used for
plastics are also applicable to rubbers
 However, rubber processing technology is
different in certain respects, and the rubber
industry is largely separate from the plastics
industry
 The rubber industry and goods made of rubber
are dominated by one product: tires
 Tires are used in large numbers on
automobiles, trucks, aircraft, and bicycles

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Rubber Processing and Shaping

Two basic steps in rubber goods production:


1. Production of the rubber itself
 Natural rubber (NR) is an agricultural
crop
 Synthetic rubbers is based on
petroleum
2. Processing into finished goods:
 Compounding
 Mixing
 Shaping
 Vulcanizing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
The Rubber Industries

 Production of raw NR is an agricultural


industry because latex, the starting ingredient,
is grown on plantations in tropical climates
 By contrast, synthetic rubbers are produced by
the petrochemical industry
 Finally, processing into tires and other
products occurs at processor (fabricator)
plants, commonly known as the rubber
industry
 The company names include Goodyear, B.
F. Goodrich, and Michelin, all reflecting the
importance of the tire

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Production of Natural Rubber
 Natural rubber is tapped from rubber trees
(Hevea brasiliensis) as latex
 The trees are grown on plantations in
Southeast Asia and other parts of the world
 Latex is a colloidal dispersion of solid particles
of the polymer polyisoprene in water
 Polyisoprene (C5H8)n is the chemical
substance that comprises NR, and its
content in the emulsion is about 30%
 The latex is collected in large tanks, thus
blending the yield of many trees together

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Recovering the Rubber
 Preferred method to recover rubber from latex
involves coagulation - adding an acid such as
formic acid (HCOOH)
 Coagulation takes about 12 hours
 The coagulum, now soft solid slabs, is then
squeezed through a series of rolls which drive
out most of the water and reduce thickness to
about 3 mm (1/8 in)
 The sheets are then draped over wooden
frames and dried in smokehouses
 Several days are normally required to
complete the drying process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Grades of Natural Rubber
 The resulting rubber, now in a form called
ribbed smoked sheet, is folded into large bales
for shipment to the processor
 It has a characteristic dark brown color
 In some cases, the sheets are dried in hot air
rather than smokehouses, and the term
air-dried sheet is used; this is considered to be
a better grade of rubber
 A still better grade, called pale crepe rubber,
involves two coagulation steps, followed by
warm air drying
 Its color is light tan

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Synthetic Rubber
 Most synthetic rubbers are produced from
petroleum by the same polymerization
techniques used to synthesize other polymers
 Unlike thermoplastic and thermosetting
polymers, which are normally supplied to the
fabricator as pellets or liquid resins, synthetic
rubbers are supplied to rubber processors in
the form of large bales
 The rubber industry has a long tradition of
handling NR in these unit loads

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Compounding
 Rubber is always compounded with additives
 Compounding adds chemicals for
vulcanization, such as sulfur
 Additives include fillers which act either to
enhance the rubber's mechanical properties
(reinforcing fillers) or to extend the rubber to
reduce cost (non-reinforcing fillers)
 It is through compounding that the specific
rubber is designed to satisfy a given
application in terms of properties, cost, and
processability

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Carbon Black in Rubber
 The single most important reinforcing filler in
rubber is carbon black, a colloidal form of
carbon obtained by thermal decomposition of
hydrocarbons (soot)
 Its effect is to increase tensile strength and
resistance to abrasion and tearing of the
final rubber product
 Carbon black also provides protection from
ultraviolet radiation
 Most rubber parts are black in color
because of their carbon black content

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Other Fillers and Additives in Rubber
 China clays - hydrous aluminum silicates
(Al2Si2O5(OH)4) reinforce less than carbon
black but are used when black is not acceptable
 Other polymers, such as styrene, PVC, and
phenolics
 Recycled rubber added in some rubber
products, but usually 10% or less
 Antioxidants; fatigue- and ozone-protective
chemicals; coloring pigments; plasticizers and
softening oils; blowing agents in the production
of foamed rubber; mold release compounds

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Mixing
 The additives must be thoroughly mixed with
the base rubber to achieve uniform dispersion
of ingredients
 Uncured rubbers have high viscosity so
mechanical working of the rubber can increase
its temperature up to 150C (300F)
 If vulcanizing agents were present from the
start of mixing, premature vulcanization would
result - the “rubber processor's nightmare”

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Two-Stage Mixing
To avoid premature vulcanization, a two-stage
mixing process is usually employed
 Stage 1 - carbon black and other
non-vulcanizing additives are combined with
the raw rubber
 The term master batch is used for this
first-stage mixture
 Stage 2 - after stage 1 mixing is completed,
and cooling time has been allowed, stage 2
mixing is carried out in which vulcanizing
agents are added

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Filament Reinforcement in Rubber
 Many products require filament reinforcement to
reduce extensibility but retain the other desirable
properties of rubber
 Examples: tires, conveyor belts
 Filaments used for this purpose include
cellulose, nylon, and polyester
 Fiber-glass and steel are also used (e.g.,
steel-belted radial tires)
 Continuous fiber materials must be added
during shaping; they are not mixed like the
other additives

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shaping and Related Processes
 Shaping processes for rubber products can be
divided into four basic categories:
1. Extrusion
2. Calendering
3. Coating
4. Molding and casting
 Some products require several basic
processes plus assembly work
 Example: tires

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion
 Screw extruders are generally used for
extrusion of rubber
 The L/D ratio of the extruder barrel is less than
for thermoplastics, typically in the range 10 to
15, to reduce risk of premature cross-linking
 Die swell occurs in rubber extrudates, since the
polymer is in a highly plastic condition and
exhibits the “memory” property
 The rubber has not yet been vulcanized

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Calendering
Stock is passed through a series of gaps of
decreasing size made by a stand of rotating
rolls
 Rubber sheet thickness is determined by final
roll gap

Figure 13.17 Calendering

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Roller Die Process
Combination of extrusion and calendering that
results in better quality product than either
extrusion or calendering alone

Figure 14.2 Roller die process - rubber extrusion followed by rolling

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Coating or Impregnating Fabrics with Rubber

An important industrial process for producing


automobile tires, conveyor belts, inflatable rafts,
and waterproof cloth tents and rain coats

Figure 14.3 Coating of fabric with rubber using a calendering process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Molded Rubber Products
 Molded rubber products include shoe soles
and heals, gaskets and seals, suction cups,
and bottle stops
 Also, many foamed rubber parts are produced
by molding
 In addition, molding is an important process in
tire production

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Molding Processes for Rubber
 Principal molding processes for rubber are
1. Compression molding
2. Transfer molding
3. Injection molding
 Compression molding is the most important
because of its use in tire manufacture
 Curing (vulcanizing) is accomplished in the
mold in all three processes, this representing
a departure from previous shaping methods,
all of which use a separate vulcanizing step

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
What is Vulcanization?
Treatment that accomplishes cross-linking of
elastomer molecules, to make the rubber
stiffer and stronger but retain extensibility
 On a submicroscopic scale, the long-chain
molecules of rubber become joined at
certain tie points, the effect of which is to
reduce the ability of the elastomer to flow
 A typical soft rubber has 1 or 2
cross-links per 1000 units (mers)
 As the number of cross-links increases,
the polymer becomes stiffer and behaves
more and more like a thermosetting
plastic (e.g., hard rubber)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Effect of Vulcanization

Figure 14.4 Effect of vulcanization on rubber molecules: (1) raw rubber,


and (2) vulcanized (cross-linked) rubber. Variations of (2) include:
(a) soft rubber, low degree of cross-linking; and (b) hard rubber,
high degree of cross-linking.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Vulcanization Chemicals and Times

 When first invented by Goodyear in 1839,


vulcanization used sulfur (about 8 parts by
weight of S mixed with 100 parts of NR) at
140C (280F) for about 5 hours
 Vulcanization with sulfur alone is no longer
used today, due to long curing times
 Various other chemicals (e.g., zinc oxide, stearic
acid) are combined with smaller doses of sulfur
to accelerate and strengthen the treatment
 Resulting cure time is 15-20 minutes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Tires and Other Rubber Products
 Tires are about 75% of total rubber tonnage
 Other important products:
 Footwear
 Seals
 Shock-absorbing parts
 Conveyor belts
 Hose
 Foamed rubber products
 Sports equipment

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Pneumatic Tires
 Functions of pneumatic tires on vehicle :
 Support the weight of the vehicle,
passengers, and cargo
 Transmit the motor torque to propel the
vehicle
 Absorb road vibrations and shock to provide
a comfortable ride
 Tires are used on automobiles, trucks, buses,
farm tractors, earth moving equipment, military
vehicles, bicycles, motorcycles, and aircraft

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Tire Construction
 A tire is an assembly of many parts
 Passenger car tire has about 50 individual
components
 Large earthmover tire has as many as 175
 The internal structure of the tire, known as the
carcass, consists of multiple layers of rubber
coated cords, called plies
 The cords are strands of nylon, polyester, fiber
glass, or steel, which provide inextensibility to
reinforce the rubber in the carcass

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Three Tire Constructions

Figure 14.5 Three tire constructions: (a) diagonal ply, (b) belted bias,
and (c) radial ply.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Tire Production Sequence
 Tire production is summarized in three steps:
1. Preforming of components
2. Building the carcass and adding rubber
strips to form the sidewalls and treads
3. Molding and curing the components into one
integral piece
 Following descriptions of these steps are typical
 Variations exist in processing depending on
construction, tire size, and type of vehicle on
which the tire will be used

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Preforming of Components
 Carcass consists of multiple components, most
of which are rubber or reinforced rubber
 These components and others are produced
by continuous processes
 Then pre-cut to size and shape for
subsequent assembly
 Other components include: bead coil, plies,
inner lining, belts, tread, and sidewall

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Building the Carcass
 Carcass is traditionally assembled using a
machine known as a building drum, whose
main element is a cylindrical arbor that rotates

Figure 14.6 Tire just before removal from building drum, but prior to molding
and curing.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Molding and Curing
 Tire molds are usually split molds and contain
the tread pattern to be impressed on the tire

Figure 14.7 Tire molding: (1) uncured tire is placed over expandable
diaphragm; (2) mold is closed and diaphragm is expanded to
force uncured rubber against mold cavity, impressing tread
pattern into rubber; mold & diaphragm are heated to cure rubber
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Other Rubber Products: Rubber Belts
 Widely used in conveyors and mechanical
power transmission systems (pulleys)
 Rubber is an ideal material for these products
because if its flexibility, but the belt must have
little or no extensibility in order to function
 Accordingly, it is reinforced with fibers,
commonly polyester or nylon
 Fabrics of these polymers are usually coated
by calendering, assembled together to obtain
required number of plies and thickness, and
subsequently vulcanized by continuous or
batch heating processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Other Rubber Products: Hose
Two basic types:
1. Plain hose (no reinforcement) is extruded
tubing
2. Reinforced tube, which consists of:
 Inner tube - extruded of a rubber
compounded for particular liquid that will
flow through it
 Reinforcement layer - applied to inner tube
as fabric, or by spiraling, knitting, braiding
 Outer layer – compounded for environment
and applied by extrusion

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Other Rubber Products: Footwear
 Rubber components in footwear: soles, heels,
rubber overshoes, and certain upper parts
 Molded parts are produced by injection
molding, compression molding, and certain
special molding techniques developed by the
shoe industry
 The rubbers include both solid and foamed
 For low volume production, manual methods
are sometimes used to cut rubber from flat
stock

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Processing of Thermoplastic Elastomers
A thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is a
thermoplastic polymer that possesses the
properties of a rubber
 TPEs are processed like thermoplastics, but
their applications are those of an elastomer
 Most common shaping processes are injection
molding and extrusion
 Generally more economical and faster than
the traditional processes used for rubbers
that must be vulcanized

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
TPE Products
 Molded products: shoe soles, athletic footwear,
and automotive components such as fender
extensions and corner panels
 Extruded items: insulation coating for electrical
wire, tubing for medical applications, conveyor
belts, sheet and film stock
 No tires of TPE

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Considerations
Economic Production Quantities:
 Rubber parts produced by compression
molding (the traditional process) can often be
produced in quantities of 1000 or less
 The mold cost is relatively low compared to
other molding methods
 As with plastic parts, injection molding of
rubber parts requires higher production
quantities to justify the more expensive mold

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Product Design Considerations
Draft:
 Draft is usually unnecessary for molded parts
of rubber, because its flexibility allows it to
deform for removal from the mold
 Shallow undercuts, although undesirable, are
possible with rubber molded parts for the same
reason
 The low stiffness and high elasticity of the
material permits removal from the mold

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
SHAPING PROCESSES FOR
POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES
1. Starting Materials for PMCs
2. Open Mold Processes
3. Closed Mold Processes
4. Filament Winding
5. Pultrusion Processes
6. Other PMC Shaping Processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Overview of PMC Technology
A polymer matrix composite (PMC) is a composite
material consisting of a polymer imbedded with
a reinforcing phase such as fibers or powders
 The importance of PMC processes derive from
the growing use of this class of material,
especially fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs)
 FRP composites can be designed with very
high strength-to-weight and
modulus-to-weight ratios
 These features make them attractive in
aircraft, cars, trucks, boats, and sports
equipment

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
PMC Shape Processing

 Many PMC shaping processes are slow and labor


intensive
 In general, techniques for shaping composites are
less efficient than for other materials - Why?
 Composites are more complex than other
materials, consisting of two or more phases
 For FRPs, there is the need to orient the
reinforcing phase
 Many new composites fabrication processes in
last 7 years. – SCRIMP, VARTM, automated
open-mold, etc.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Categories of FRP Shape Processes
 Open mold processes - some of the original FRP
manual procedures for laying resins and fibers onto
forms
 Closed mold processes - much the same as those
used in plastic molding
 Filament winding - continuous filaments are dipped
in liquid resin and wrapped around a rotating
mandrel, producing a rigid, hollow, cylindrical shape
 Pultrusion - similar to extrusion only adapted to
include continuous fiber reinforcement
 Other - operations not in previous categories

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Classification of FRP Processes

Figure 15.1 Classification of


manufacturing processes
for fiber reinforced
polymer (FRP)
composites

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Polymer Matrix
 Thermosetting (TS) polymers are the most
common matrix materials
 Principal TS polymers are:
 Phenolics – used with particulate

reinforcing phases
 Polyesters and epoxies - most closely
associated with FRPs
 Thermoplastic molding compounds include
fillers or reinforcing agents
 Nearly all rubbers are reinforced with carbon
black

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Reinforcing Agent
 Possible geometries - fibers, particles, and flakes
 Possible materials - ceramics, metals, other
polymers, or elements such as carbon or boron
 Particles and flakes are used in many plastic
molding compounds
 Of most engineering interest is the use of fibers as
the reinforcing phase in FRPs

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Fibers as the Reinforcing Phase
 Common fiber materials: glass, carbon, and Kevlar
(a polymer)
 In some fabrication processes, the filaments are
continuous, while in others, they are chopped into
short lengths
 In continuous form, individual filaments are
usually available as rovings - collections of
untwisted continuous strands, convenient form for
handling
 By contrast, a yarn is a twisted collection of
filaments

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Fibers as the Reinforcing Phase
 The most familiar form of continuous fiber is a
cloth - a fabric of woven yarns
 Similar to a cloth is a woven roving, a fabric
consisting of untwisted filaments rather than yarns
 Woven rovings can be produced with unequal
numbers of strands in the two directions so that
they possess greater strength in one direction
 Such unidirectional woven rovings are often
preferred in laminated FRP composites

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Mats and Preforms as Reinforcements
 Fibers can also be in a mat form - a felt consisting of
randomly oriented short fibers held loosely together
with a binder
 Mats are commercially available as blankets of
various weights, thicknesses, and widths
 Mats can be cut and shaped for use as preforms
in some of the closed mold processes
 During molding, the resin impregnates the preform
and then cures, thus yielding a fiber-reinforced
molding

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Combining Matrix and Reinforcement
1. The starting materials arrive at the fabrication
operation as separate entities and are combined into
the composite during shaping
 Filament winding and pultrusion, in which
reinforcing phase = continuous fibers
2. The two component materials are combined into
some starting form that is convenient for use in the
shaping process
 Molding compounds
 Prepregs

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Molding Compounds
FRP composite molding compounds consist of the
resin matrix with short randomly dispersed fibers,
similar to those used in plastic molding
 Most molding compounds for composite processing
are thermosetting polymers
 Since they are designed for molding, they must be
capable of flowing
 Accordingly, they have not been cured prior to
shape processing
 Curing is done during and/or after final shaping

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Prepregs
Fibers impregnated with partially cured TS resins to
facilitate shape processing
 Available as tapes or cross-plied sheets or fabrics
 Curing is completed during and/or after shaping
 Advantage: prepregs are fabricated with continuous
filaments rather than chopped random fibers, thus
increasing strength and modulus

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Open Mold Processes
Family of FRP shaping processes that use a single
positive or negative mold surface to produce
laminated FRP structures
 The starting materials (resins, fibers, mats, and
woven rovings) are applied to the mold in layers,
building up to the desired thickness
 This is followed by curing and part removal
 Common resins are unsaturated polyesters and
epoxies, using fiberglass as the reinforcement

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Open Mold FRP Processes
1. Hand lay-up
2. Spray-up
3. Vacuum Bagging – uses hand-lay-up, uses
atmospheric pressure to compact laminate.
4. Automated tape-laying machines
 The differences are in the methods of applying the
laminations to the mold, alternative curing
techniques, and other differences

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Hand Lay-Up Method
Open mold shaping method in which successive layers
of resin and reinforcement are manually applied to
an open mold to build the laminated FRP composite
structure
 Labor-intensive
 Finished molding must usually be trimmed with a
power saw to size outside edges
 Oldest open mold method for FRP laminates, dating
to the 1940s when it was first used for boat hulls

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Hand Lay-Up Method

Figure 15.4 Hand lay-up : (1) mold is treated with mold release agent; (2) thin gel
coat (resin) is applied, to the outside surface of molding; (3) when gel coat has
partially set, layers of resin and fiber are applied, the fiber is in the form of mat
or cloth; each layer is rolled to impregnate the fiber with resin and remove air;
(4) part is cured; (5) fully hardened part is removed from mold.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Products Made by Hand Lay-Up
 Generally large in size but low in production quantity
- not economical for high production
 Applications:
 Boat hulls
 Swimming pools
 Large container tanks
 Movie and stage props
 Other formed sheets
 The largest molding ever made was ship hulls for the
British Royal Navy: 85 m (280 ft) long

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Spray-Up Method
Liquid resin and chopped fibers are sprayed onto an
open mold to build successive FRP laminations
 Attempt to mechanize application of resin-fiber
layers and reduce lay-up time
 Alternative for step (3) in the hand lay-up procedure

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Spray-Up Method

Figure 15.5 Spray-up method

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Products Made by Spray-Up
 Boat hulls, bathtubs, shower stalls, automobile and
truck body parts, recreational vehicle components,
furniture, large structural panels, and containers
 Movie and stage props are sometimes made by this
method
 Since products made by spray-up have randomly
oriented short fibers, they are not as strong as those
made by lay-up, in which the fibers are continuous
and directed

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Vacuum Bagging

Use atmospheric pressure to suck air from under vacuum bag,


to compact composite layers down and make a high quality
laminate (image from cgi.ebay.com).
 Layers from bottom include: mold, mold release, composite,
peel-ply, breather cloth, vacuum bag, also need vacuum
valve, sealing tape.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Automated Tape-Laying Machines
Automated tape-laying machines operate by
dispensing a prepreg tape onto an open mold
following a programmed path
 Typical machine consists of overhead gantry to
which the dispensing head is attached
 The gantry permits x-y-z travel of the head, for
positioning and following a defined continuous path

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Figure 15.6 Automated tape-laying machine (photo
courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Curing in Open Mold Processes
 Curing is required of all thermosetting resins used in
FRP laminated composites
 Curing cross-links the polymer, transforming it from
its liquid or highly plastic condition into a hardened
product
 Three principal process parameters in curing:
1. Time
2. Temperature
3. Pressure

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Curing at Room Temperature
 Curing normally occurs at room temperature for the
TS resins used in hand lay-up and spray-up
procedures
 Moldings made by these processes are often
large (e.g., boat hulls), and heating would be
difficult due to product size
 In some cases, days are required before room
temperature curing is sufficiently complete to
remove the part

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Curing Methods Based on Heating
 Oven curing provides heat at closely controlled
temperatures; some curing ovens are equipped to
draw a partial vacuum
 Infrared heating - used in applications where it is
impractical to place molding in oven
 Curing in an autoclave, an enclosed chamber
equipped to apply heat and/or pressure at
controlled levels
 In FRP composites processing, it is usually a
large horizontal cylinder with doors at either end

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Closed Mold Processes
 Performed in molds consisting of two sections that
open and close each molding cycle
 Tooling cost is more than twice the cost of a
comparable open mold due to the more complex
equipment required in these processes
 Advantages of a closed mold are: (1) good finish on
all part surfaces, (2) higher production rates, (3)
closer control over tolerances, and (4) more complex
three-dimensional shapes are possible

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Classification of Closed Mold Processes
 Three classes based on their counterparts in
conventional plastic molding:
1. Compression molding
2. Transfer molding
3. Injection molding
 The terminology is often different when polymer
matrix composites are molded

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Compression Molding PMC Processes
A charge is placed in lower mold section, and the
sections are brought together under pressure,
causing charge to take the shape of the cavity
 Mold halves are heated to cure TS polymer
 When molding is sufficiently cured, the mold is
opened and part is removed
 Several shaping processes for PMCs based on
compression molding
 The differences are mostly in the form of the
starting materials

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Transfer Molding PMC Processes
A charge of thermosetting resin with short fibers is
placed in a pot or chamber, heated, and squeezed
by ram action into one or more mold cavities
 The mold is heated to cure the resin
 Name of the process derives from the fact that the
fluid polymer is transferred from a pot into a mold

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Injection Molding PMC Processes
 Injection molding is noted for low cost production of
plastic parts in large quantities
 Although most closely associated with
thermoplastics, the process can also be adapted to
thermosets
 Processes of interest in the context of PMCs:
 Conventional injection molding
 Reinforced reaction injection molding

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Conventional Injection Molding
 Used for both TP and TS type FRPs
 Virtually all TPs can be reinforced with fibers
 Chopped fibers must be used
 Continuous fibers would be reduced by the action
of the rotating screw in the barrel
 During injection into the mold cavity, fibers tend to
become aligned as they pass the nozzle
 Part designers can sometimes exploit this feature
to optimize directional properties in the part

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Reinforced Reaction Injection Molding

Reaction injection molding (RIM) - two reactive


ingredients are mixed and injected into a
mold cavity where curing and solidification
occur due to chemical reaction
Reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM) -
similar to RIM but includes reinforcing fibers,
typically glass fibers, in the mixture
 Advantages: similar to RIM (e.g., no heat
energy required, lower cost mold), with the
added benefit of fiber-reinforcement
 Products: auto body, truck cab applications
for bumpers, fenders, and other body parts

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Filament Winding
Resin-impregnated continuous fibers are wrapped
around a rotating mandrel that has the internal
shape of the desired FRP product; the resin is
then cured and the mandrel removed
 The fiber rovings are pulled through a resin bath
immediately before being wound in a helical
pattern onto the mandrel
 The operation is repeated to form additional
layers, each having a criss-cross pattern with the
previous, until the desired part thickness has
been obtained

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Filament Winding

Figure 15.8 Filament winding.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Filament Winding Machine

Figure 15.10 Filament winding machine (photo courtesy


of Cincinnati Milacron).
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Pultrusion Processes
Similar to extrusion (hence the name similarity) but
workpiece is pulled through die (so prefix "pul-" in
place of "ex-")
 Like extrusion, pultrusion produces continuous
straight sections of constant cross section
 Developed around 1950 for making fishing rods of
glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP)
 A related process, called pulforming, is used to make
parts that are curved and which may have variations
in cross section throughout their lengths

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Pultrusion
Continuous fiber rovings are dipped into a resin bath
and pulled through a shaping die where the
impregnated resin cures
 The sections produced are reinforced throughout
their length by continuous fibers
 Like extrusion, the pieces have a constant cross
section, whose profile is determined by the shape of
the die opening
 The cured product is cut into long straight sections

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Pultrusion Process

Figure 15.11 Pultrusion process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Materials and Products in Pultrusion
 Common resins: unsaturated polyesters, epoxies,
and silicones, all thermosetting polymers
 Reinforcing phase: E-glass is most widely, in
proportions from 30% to 70%
 Products: solid rods, tubing, long flat sheets,
structural sections (such as channels, angled and
flanged beams), tool handles for high voltage work,
and third rail covers for subways.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Pulforming
Pultrusion with additional steps to form the length into a
semicircular contour and alter the cross section at
one or more locations along the length
 Pultrusion is limited to straight sections of constant
cross section
 There is also a need for long parts with continuous
fiber reinforcement that are curved rather than
straight and whose cross sections may vary
throughout length
 Pulforming is suited to these less regular shapes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Pulforming Process

Figure 15.12 Pulforming process (not shown in the


sketch is the cut-off of the pulformed part).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Other PMC Shaping Processes
 Centrifugal casting
 Tube rolling
 Continuous laminating
 Cutting of FRPs
 In addition, many traditional thermoplastic shaping
processes are applicable to FRPs with short fibers
based on TP polymers
 Blow molding
 Thermoforming
 Extrusion

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Methods
 Cutting of FRP laminated composites is required in
both uncured and cured states
 Uncured materials (prepregs, preforms, SMCs, and
other starting forms) must be cut to size for lay-up,
molding, etc.
 Typical cutting tools: knives, scissors, power
shears, and steel-rule blanking dies
 Nontraditional methods are also used, such as
laser beam cutting and water jet cutting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Methods
 Cured FRPs are hard, tough, abrasive, and
difficult-to-cut
 Cutting of FRPs is required to trim excess
material, cut holes and outlines, and so on
 For glass FRPs, cemented carbide cutting tools
and high speed steel saw blades can be used
 For some advanced composites (e.g.,
boron-epoxy), diamond cutting tools cut best
 Water jet cutting is also used, to reduce dust and
noise problems with conventional sawing methods

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL FORMING
1. Overview of Metal Forming
2. Material Behavior in Metal Forming
3. Temperature in Metal Forming
4. Strain Rate Sensitivity
5. Friction and Lubrication in Metal Forming

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Metal Forming
Large group of manufacturing processes in which
plastic deformation is used to change the
shape of metal workpieces
 The tool, usually called a die, applies stresses
that exceed the yield strength of the metal
 The metal takes a shape determined by the
geometry of the die

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Stresses in Metal Forming
 Stresses to plastically deform the metal are
usually compressive
 Examples: rolling, forging, extrusion
 However, some forming processes
 Stretch the metal (tensile stresses)
 Others bend the metal (tensile and
compressive)
 Still others apply shear stresses

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Material Properties in Metal Forming
 Desirable material properties:
 Low yield strength
 High ductility
 These properties are affected by temperature:
 Ductility increases and yield strength
decreases when work temperature is raised
 Other factors:
 Strain rate and friction

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Basic Types of Deformation Processes
1. Bulk deformation
 Rolling
 Forging
 Extrusion
 Wire and bar drawing
2. Sheet metalworking
 Bending
 Deep drawing
 Cutting
 Miscellaneous processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Bulk Deformation Processes
 Characterized by significant deformations and
massive shape changes
 "Bulk" refers to workparts with relatively low
surface area-to-volume ratios
 Starting work shapes include cylindrical billets
and rectangular bars

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Rolling

Figure 18.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (a) rolling

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Forging

Figure 18.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (b) forging

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Extrusion

Figure 18.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (c) extrusion

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Wire and Bar Drawing

Figure 18.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (d) drawing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Sheet Metalworking
 Forming and related operations performed on
metal sheets, strips, and coils
 High surface area-to-volume ratio of starting
metal, which distinguishes these from bulk
deformation
 Often called pressworking because presses
perform these operations
 Parts are called stampings
 Usual tooling: punch and die

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Sheet Metal Bending

Figure 18.3 Basic sheet metalworking operations: (a) bending

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Deep Drawing

Figure 18.3 Basic sheet metalworking operations: (b) drawing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shearing of Sheet Metal

Figure 18.3 Basic sheet metalworking operations: (c) shearing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Material Behavior in Metal Forming
 Plastic region of stress-strain curve is primary
interest because material is plastically
deformed
 In plastic region, metal's behavior is expressed
by the flow curve:

  K n

where K = strength coefficient; and n = strain


hardening exponent
 Flow curve based on true stress and true strain

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Flow Stress
 For most metals at room temperature, strength
increases when deformed due to strain
hardening
 Flow stress = instantaneous value of stress
required to continue deforming the material

Yf  K n

where Yf = flow stress, that is, the yield


strength as a function of strain

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Average Flow Stress
 Determined by integrating the flow curve
equation between zero and the final strain
value defining the range of interest
_
K n
Yf 
1 n
_
where Y = average flow stress; and  =
f
maximum strain during deformation process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Temperature in Metal Forming
 For any metal, K and n in the flow curve
depend on temperature
 Both strength (K) and strain hardening (n)
are reduced at higher temperatures
 In addition, ductility is increased at higher
temperatures

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Temperature in Metal Forming
 Any deformation operation can be
accomplished with lower forces and power at
elevated temperature
 Three temperature ranges in metal forming:
 Cold working
 Warm working
 Hot working

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cold Working
 Performed at room temperature or slightly
above
 Many cold forming processes are important
mass production operations
 Minimum or no machining usually required
 These operations are near net shape or net
shape processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages of Cold Forming
 Better accuracy, closer tolerances
 Better surface finish
 Strain hardening increases strength and
hardness
 Grain flow during deformation can cause
desirable directional properties in product
 No heating of work required

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Disadvantages of Cold Forming
 Higher forces and power required in the
deformation operation
 Surfaces of starting workpiece must be free of
scale and dirt
 Ductility and strain hardening limit the amount
of forming that can be done
 In some cases, metal must be annealed to
allow further deformation
 In other cases, metal is simply not ductile
enough to be cold worked

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Warm Working
 Performed at temperatures above room
temperature but below recrystallization
temperature
 Dividing line between cold working and warm
working often expressed in terms of melting
point:
 0.3Tm, where Tm = melting point (absolute
temperature) for metal

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages of Warm Working
 Lower forces and power than in cold working
 More intricate work geometries possible
 Need for annealing may be reduced or
eliminated

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Hot Working
 Deformation at temperatures above the
recrystallization temperature
 Recrystallization temperature = about one-half
of melting point on absolute scale
 In practice, hot working usually performed
somewhat above 0.5Tm
 Metal continues to soften as temperature
increases above 0.5Tm, enhancing
advantage of hot working above this level

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Why Hot Working?
Capability for substantial plastic deformation of
the metal - far more than possible with cold
working or warm working
 Why?
 Strength coefficient (K) is substantially less
than at room temperature
 Strain hardening exponent (n) is zero
(theoretically)
 Ductility is significantly increased

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages of Hot Working

 Workpart shape can be significantly altered


 Lower forces and power required
 Metals that usually fracture in cold working can
be hot formed
 Strength properties of product are generally
isotropic
 No strengthening of part occurs from work
hardening
 Advantageous in cases when part is to be
subsequently processed by cold forming

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Disadvantages of Hot Working
 Lower dimensional accuracy
 Higher total energy required (due to the
thermal energy to heat the workpiece)
 Work surface oxidation (scale), poorer surface
finish
 Shorter tool life

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Strain Rate Sensitivity
 Theoretically, a metal in hot working behaves
like a perfectly plastic material, with strain
hardening exponent n = 0
 The metal should continue to flow at the
same flow stress, once that stress is
reached
 However, an additional phenomenon occurs
during deformation, especially at elevated
temperatures: Strain rate sensitivity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
What is Strain Rate?
 Strain rate in forming is directly related to
speed of deformation v
 Deformation speed v = velocity of the ram or
other movement of the equipment
 Strain rate is defined: . v

. h
where  = true strain rate; and h =
instantaneous height of workpiece being
deformed

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Evaluation of Strain Rate
 In most practical operations, valuation of strain
rate is complicated by
 Workpart geometry
 Variations in strain rate in different regions
of the part
 Strain rate can reach 1000 s-1 or more for
some metal forming operations

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Effect of Strain Rate on Flow Stress
 Flow stress is a function of temperature
 At hot working temperatures, flow stress also
depends on strain rate
 As strain rate increases, resistance to
deformation increases
 This effect is known as strain-rate sensitivity

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Strain Rate Sensitivity

Figure 18.5 (a) Effect of strain rate on flow stress at an elevated work
temperature. (b) Same relationship plotted on log-log coordinates.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Strain Rate Sensitivity Equation

Yf = Cεm

where C = strength constant (similar but


not equal to strength coefficient in flow
curve equation), and m = strain-rate
sensitivity exponent

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Effect of Temperature on Flow Stress

Figure 18.6 Effect of


temperature on flow stress
for a typical metal. The
constant C, as indicated by
the intersection of each plot
with the vertical dashed line
at strain rate = 1.0,
decreases, and m (slope of
each plot) increases with
increasing temperature.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Observations about Strain Rate Sensitivity
 Increasing temperature decreases C and
increases m
 At room temperature, effect of strain rate is
almost negligible
 Flow curve is a good representation of
material behavior
 As temperature increases, strain rate
becomes increasingly important in
determining flow stress

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Friction in Metal Forming
 In most metal forming processes, friction is
undesirable:
 Metal flow is retarded
 Forces and power are increased
 Tooling wears faster
 Friction and tool wear are more severe in hot
working

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Lubrication in Metal Forming
 Metalworking lubricants are applied to
tool-work interface in many forming operations
to reduce harmful effects of friction
 Benefits:
 Reduced sticking, forces, power, tool wear
 Better surface finish
 Removes heat from the tooling

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Considerations in Choosing a Lubricant
 Type of forming process (rolling, forging, sheet
metal drawing, etc.)
 Hot working or cold working
 Work material
 Chemical reactivity with tool and work metals
 Ease of application
 Cost

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
BULK DEFORMATION
PROCESSES
IN METALWORKING
 Rolling
 Other Deformation Processes Related
to Rolling
 Forging

 Other Deformation Processes Related


to Forging
 Extrusion

 Wire and Bar Drawing


Bulk Deformation
Metal forming operations which cause
significant shape change by deformation in
metal parts whose initial form is bulk rather
than sheet
 Starting forms: cylindrical bars and billets,
rectangular billets and slabs, and similar
shapes
 These processes work by stressing metal
sufficiently to cause plastic flow into desired
shape
 Performed as cold, warm, and hot working
Importance of Bulk
Deformation
 In hot working, significant shape
change can be accomplished
 In cold working, strength can be
increased during shape change
 Little or no waste - some operations
are near net shape or net shape
processes
 The parts require little or no
subsequent machining
Four Basic Bulk Deformation
Processes
1. Rolling – slab or plate is squeezed between
opposing rolls
2. Forging – work is squeezed and shaped
between between opposing dies
3. Extrusion – work is squeezed through a die
opening, thereby taking the shape of the
opening
4. Wire and bar drawing – diameter of wire or
bar is reduced by pulling it through a die
opening
Rolling
Deformation process in which work
thickness is reduced by compressive
forces exerted by two opposing rolls

Figure 19.1 - The rolling process (specifically, flat rolling)


The Rolls

The rotating rolls perform two main


functions:
 Pull the work into the gap between
them by friction between workpart and
rolls
 Simultaneously squeeze the work to
reduce cross section
Types of Rolling
 By geometry of work:
 Flat rolling - used to reduce thickness of a
rectangular cross-section
 Shape rolling - a square cross-section is
formed into a shape such as an I-beam
 By temperature of work:
 Hot Rolling – most common due to the
large amount of deformation required
 Cold rolling – produces finished sheet and
plate stock
Figure 19.2 - Some of the steel products made
in a rolling mill
Figure 19.3 - Side view of flat rolling,
indicating before and after thicknesses,
work velocities, angle of contact with rolls,
and other features
Flat Rolling – Terminology

Draft = amount of thickness reduction


d t o t f

where d = draft; to = starting thickness; and tf = final


thickness
Flat Rolling – Terminology

Reduction = draft expressed as a


fraction of starting stock thickness:
d
r 
to
where r = reduction
Shape Rolling

Work is deformed into a contoured cross-section


rather than flat (rectangular)
 Accomplished by passing work through rolls that
have the reverse of desired shape
 Products include:
 Construction shapes such as I-beams, L-beams,
and U-channels
 Rails for railroad tracks
 Round and square bars and rods
Figure 19.5 - A
rolling mill for
hot flat rolling;
the steel plate is
seen as the
glowing strip
extending
diagonally from
the lower left
corner
(photo courtesy
of Bethlehem
Steel Company)
Rolling Mills
 Equipment is massive and expensive
 Rolling mill configurations:
 Two-high – two opposing large diameter rolls
 Three-high – work passes through both
directions
 Four-high – backing rolls support smaller work
rolls
 Cluster mill – multiple backing rolls on smaller
rolls
 Tandem rolling mill – sequence of two-high mills
Figure 19.6 - Various configurations of rolling
mills:
(a) 2-high rolling mill
Figure 19.6 - Various configurations of rolling
mills:
(b) 3-high rolling mill
Figure 19.6 - Various configurations of rolling
mills:
(c) four-high rolling mill
Cluster Mill
Multiple backing rolls allow even smaller roll
diameters

Figure 19 6 - Various configurations of rolling mills: (d) cluster mill


Tandem Rolling Mill
A series of rolling stands in sequence

Figure 19.6 - Various configurations of rolling mills:


(e) tandem rolling mill
Thread Rolling
Bulk deformation process used to form threads on cylindrical
parts by rolling them between two dies
 Most important commercial process for mass producing bolts
and screws
 Performed by cold working in thread rolling machines
 Advantages over thread cutting (machining):
 Higher production rates
 Better material utilization
 Stronger threads due to work hardening
 Better fatigue resistance due to compressive stresses
introduced by rolling
Figure 19.7 - Thread rolling with flat dies:
(1) start of cycle, and (2) end of cycle
Ring Rolling
Deformation process in which a thick-walled ring of
smaller diameter is rolled into a thin-walled ring of
larger diameter
 As thick-walled ring is compressed, deformed metal
elongates, causing diameter of ring to be enlarged
 Hot working process for large rings and cold working
process for smaller rings
 Applications: ball and roller bearing races, steel tires
for railroad wheels, and rings for pipes, pressure
vessels, and rotating machinery
 Advantages: material savings, ideal grain orientation,
strengthening through cold working
Figure 19.8 - Ring rolling used to reduce the wall
thickness and increase the diameter of a ring:
(1) start, and (2) completion of process
Forging

Deformation process in which work is compressed between


two dies
 Oldest of the metal forming operations, dating from about
5000 B C
 Components: engine crankshafts, connecting rods, gears,
aircraft structural components, jet engine turbine parts
 In addition, basic metals industries use forging to establish
basic form of large components that are subsequently
machined to final shape and size
Classification of Forging
Operations
 Cold vs. hot forging:
 Hot or warm forging – most common, due
to the significant deformation and the need
to reduce strength and increase ductility of
work metal
 Cold forging - advantage is increased
strength that results from strain hardening
 Impact vs. press forging:
 Forge hammer - applies an impact load
 Forge press - applies gradual pressure
Types of Forging Dies

 Open-die forging - work is compressed


between two flat dies, allowing metal to
flow laterally without constraint
 Impression-die forging - die surfaces
contain a cavity or impression that is
imparted to workpart, thus constraining
metal flow - flash is created
 Flashless forging - workpart is completely
constrained in die and no excess flash is
produced
Figure 19.10 - Three types of forging: (a)
open-die forging
Figure 19.10 - Three types of forging (b)
impression-die forging
Figure 19.10 - Three types of forging (c)
flashless forging
Open-Die Forging

Compression of workpart with cylindrical


cross-section between two flat dies
 Similar to compression test

 Deformation operation reduces height


and increases diameter of work
 Common names include upsetting or
upset forging
Open-Die Forging with No
Friction
If no friction occurs between work and die surfaces,
then homogeneous deformation occurs, so that
radial flow is uniform throughout workpart height
and true strain is given by:
ho
  ln
h
where ho= starting height; and h = height at some
point during compression
 At h = final value hf, true strain is maximum value
Figure 19.11 - Homogeneous deformation of a cylindrical
workpart under ideal conditions in an open-die forging
operation:
(1) start of process with workpiece at its original length and
diameter, (2) partial compression, and (3) final size
Open-Die Forging with
Friction
 Friction between work and die
surfaces constrains lateral flow of
work, resulting in barreling effect
 In hot open-die forging, effect is even
more pronounced due to heat transfer
at and near die surfaces, which cools
the metal and increases its resistance
to deformation
Figure 19.12 - Actual deformation of a
cylindrical workpart in open-die forging,
showing pronounced barreling:
(1) start of process, (2) partial deformation,
and (3) final shape
Impression-Die Forging
Compression of workpart by dies with inverse of desired
part shape
 Flash is formed by metal that flows beyond die cavity
into small gap between die plates
 Flash must be later trimmed from part, but it serves
an important function during compression:
 As flash forms, friction resists continued metal flow
into gap, constraining material to fill die cavity
 In hot forging, metal flow is further restricted by
cooling against die plates
Figure 19.15 - Sequence in impression-die forging:
(1) just prior to initial contact with raw workpiece,
(2) partial compression, and
(3) final die closure, causing flash to form in gap
between die plates
Impression-Die Forging
Practice
 Several forming steps often required, with separate
die cavities for each step
 Beginning steps redistribute metal for more
uniform deformation and desired metallurgical
structure in subsequent steps
 Final steps bring the part to its final geometry
 Impression-die forging is often performed
manually by skilled operator under adverse
conditions
Impression-Die Forging
Advantages and Limitations
 Advantages compared to machining from solid stock:
 Higher production rates
 Conservation of metal (less waste)
 Greater strength
 Favorable grain orientation in the metal
 Limitations:
 Not capable of close tolerances
 Machining often required to achieve accuracies
and features needed, such as holes, threads, and
mating surfaces that fit with other components
Flashless Forging
Compression of work in punch and die tooling
whose cavity does allow for flash
 Starting workpart volume must equal die
cavity volume within very close tolerance
 Process control more demanding than
impression-die forging
 Best suited to part geometries that are simple
and symmetrical
 Often classified as a precision forging process
Figure 19.18 - Flashless forging:
(1) just before initial contact with
workpiece,
(2) partial compression, and
(3) final punch and die closure
Forging Hammers (Drop
Hammers)
 Apply an impact load against workpart - two
types:
 Gravity drop hammers - impact energy from
falling weight of a heavy ram
 Power drop hammers - accelerate the ram by
pressurized air or steam
 Disadvantage: impact energy transmitted
through anvil into floor of building
 Most commonly used for impression-die forging
Figure 19.20 - Drop forging hammer, fed by
conveyor and heating units at the right of
the scene
(photo courtesy of Chambersburg Engineering
Company)
Figure 19.21 - Diagram showing details of a
drop hammer for impression-die forging
Forging Presses

 Apply gradual pressure to accomplish


compression operation - types:
 Mechanical presses - converts
rotation of drive motor into linear
motion of ram
 Hydraulic presses - hydraulic piston
actuates ram
 Screw presses - screw mechanism
drives ram
Extrusion
Compression forming process in which the work
metal is forced to flow through a die opening
to produce a desired cross-sectional shape
 Process is similar to squeezing toothpaste out
of a toothpaste tube
 In general, extrusion is used to produce long
parts of uniform cross-sections
 Two basic types of extrusion:
 Direct extrusion
 Indirect extrusion
Figure 19.31 - Direct extrusion
Comments on Direct
Extrusion
 Also called forward extrusion
 As ram approaches die opening, a small portion
of billet remains that cannot be forced through
die opening
 This extra portion, called the butt, must be
separated from extruded product by cutting it
just beyond the die exit
 Starting billet cross section usually round, but
final shape is determined by die opening
Figure 19.32 - (a) Direct extrusion to produce a
hollow or semi-hollow cross-section; (b) hollow and
(c) semi-hollow cross- sections
Figure 19.33 - Indirect extrusion to
produce
(a) a solid cross-section and (b) a
hollow cross-section
Comments on Indirect
Extrusion
 Also called backward extrusion and
reverse extrusion
 Limitations of indirect extrusion are
imposed by the lower rigidity of hollow
ram and difficulty in supporting
extruded product as it exits die
General Advantages of
Extrusion
 Variety of shapes possible, especially in hot
extrusion
 Limitation: part cross-section must be uniform
throughout length
 Grain structure and strength enhanced in
cold and warm extrusion
 Close tolerances possible, especially in cold
extrusion
 In some operations, little or no waste of
material
Hot vs. Cold Extrusion

 Hot extrusion - prior heating of billet to


above its recrystallization temperature
 This reduces strength and increases
ductility of the metal, permitting more
size reductions and more complex
shapes
 Cold extrusion - generally used to
produce discrete parts
 The term impact extrusion is used to
indicate high speed cold extrusion
Extrusion Ratio

Also called the reduction ratio, it is defined as


Ao
rx 
Af

where rx = extrusion ratio; Ao = cross-sectional


area of the starting billet; and Af = final cross-
sectional area of the extruded section
 Applies to both direct and indirect extrusion
Comments on Orifice Shape
of Extrusion Die
 Simplest cross section shape =
circular die orifice
 Shape of die orifice affects ram
pressure
 As cross-section becomes more
complex, higher pressure and greater
force are required
Figure 19.37 - A complex extruded
cross-section for a heat sink (photo
courtesy of Aluminum Company of America)
Extrusion Presses

 Either horizontal or vertical


 Horizontal more common
 Extrusion presses - usually
hydraulically driven, which is
especially suited to semi-continuous
direct extrusion of long sections
 Mechanical drives - often used for
cold extrusion of individual parts
Wire and Bar Drawing

Cross-section of a bar, rod, or wire is reduced


by pulling it through a die opening
 Similar to extrusion except work is pulled
through die in drawing (it is pushed through in
extrusion)
 Although drawing applies tensile stress,
compression also plays a significant role
since metal is squeezed as it passes through
die opening
Figure 19.41 - Drawing of bar, rod, or wire
Area Reduction in Drawing

Change in size of work is usually given


by area reduction:

Ao  Af
r
Ao

where r = area reduction in drawing; Ao


= original area of work; and Ar = final
work
Wire Drawing vs. Bar
Drawing
 Difference between bar drawing and
wire drawing is stock size
 Bar drawing - large diameter bar and
rod stock
 Wire drawing - small diameter stock -
wire sizes down to 0.03 mm (0.001
in.) are possible
 Although the mechanics are the
same, the methods, equipment, and
even terminology are different
Drawing Practice and
Products
 Drawing practice:
 Usually performed as cold working
 Most frequently used for round cross-sections

 Products:
 Wire: electrical wire; wire stock for fences, coat
hangers, and shopping carts
 Rod stock for nails, screws, rivets, and springs
 Bar stock: metal bars for machining, forging,
and other processes
Bar Drawing

 Accomplished as a single-draft
operation - the stock is pulled through
one die opening
 Beginning stock has large diameter
and is a straight cylinder
 This necessitates a batch type
operation
Figure 19.42 - Hydraulically operated draw
bench
for drawing metal bars
Wire Drawing

 Continuous drawing machines consisting of


multiple draw dies (typically 4 to 12) separated
by accumulating drums
 Each drum (capstan) provides proper force to
draw wire stock through upstream die
 Each die provides a small reduction, so desired
total reduction is achieved by the series
 Annealing sometimes required between dies
Figure 19.43 - Continuous drawing of wire
Figure 19.44 - Draw die for drawing of round
rod or wire
Preparation of the Work for
Wire or Bar Drawing
 Annealing – to increase ductility of
stock
 Cleaning - to prevent damage to work
surface and draw die
 Pointing – to reduce diameter of
starting end to allow insertion through
draw die
SHEET METALWORKING
• Cutting Operations
• Bending Operations
• Drawing
• Other Sheet Metal Forming
Operations
• Dies and Presses for Sheet Metal
Processes
• Sheet Metal Operations Not
Performed on Presses
• Bending of Tube Stock
Sheet Metalworking Defined
Cutting and forming operations
performed on relatively thin sheets of
metal
• Thickness of sheet metal = 0.4 mm
(1/64 in) to 6 mm (1/4 in)
• Thickness of plate stock > 6 mm
• Operations usually performed as
cold working
Sheet and Plate Metal Products
• Sheet and plate metal parts for
consumer and industrial products
such as
• Automobiles and trucks
• Airplanes
• Railway cars and locomotives
• Farm and construction equipment
• Small and large appliances
• Office furniture
• Computers and office equipment
Advantages of Sheet Metal Parts
• High strength
• Good dimensional accuracy
• Good surface finish
• Relatively low cost
• For large quantities, economical
mass production operations are
available
Sheet Metalworking Terminology
1. “Punch-and-die”
• Tooling to perform cutting, bending,
and drawing
2. “Stamping press”
• Machine tool that performs most sheet
metal operations
3. “Stampings”
• Sheet metal products
Three Major Categories of
Sheet Metal Processes
1. Cutting
• Shearing to separate large sheets; or
cut part perimeters or make holes in
sheets
2. Bending
• Straining sheet around a straight axis
3. Drawing
• Forming of sheet into convex or
concave shapes
Cutting
Shearing between two
sharp cutting edges

Figure
20.1 - Shearing
of sheet metal
between two
cutting edges:
(1) just before the
punch contacts
work
Figure
20.1 - Shearing of
sheet metal
between two
cutting edges:
(2) punch begins to
push into work,
causing plastic
deformation
Figure
20.1 - Shearing
of sheet metal
between two
cutting edges:
(3) punch
compresses and
penetrates into
work causing a
smooth cut
surface
Figure
20.1 - Shearing of
sheet metal
between two
cutting edges:
(4) fracture is
initiated at the
opposing cutting
edges which
separates the sheet
Shearing, Blanking, and Punching
Three principal operations in
pressworking that cut sheet metal:
• Shearing
• Blanking
• Punching
Shearing
Sheet metal cutting operation along a
straight line between two cutting
edges
• Typically used to cut large sheets
into smaller sections for subsequent
operations
Figure 20.3 - Shearing operation:
(a) side view of the shearing operation
(b) front view of power shears equipped with
inclined upper cutting blade Symbol v indicates
motion
Blanking and Punching
Blanking - sheet metal cutting to
separate piece from surrounding
stock
• Cut piece is the desired part, called a
blank
Punching - sheet metal cutting similar
to blanking except cut piece is scrap,
called a slug
• Remaining stock is the desired part
Figure 20.4 - (a) Blanking and (b) punching
Figure 20.6 - Die size determines blank size
Db; punch size determines hole size Dh.; c
= clearance
Angular Clearance
Purpose: allows slug or blank to drop
through die
• Typical values: 0.25 to 1.5 on each
side

Figure 20.7 - Angular


clearance
Cutting Forces
Important for determining press size
(tonnage)

F=StL
where S = shear strength of metal;
t = stock thickness, and L = length of
cut edge
Bending
Straining sheetmetal around a straight
axis to take a permanent bend

Figure 20.11 - (a) Bending of sheet metal


Metal on inside of neutral plane is
compressed, while metal on outside
of neutral plane is stretched

Figure 20.11 - (b) both compression and tensile elongation of the


metal occur in bending
Types of Sheetmetal Bending
• V-bending - performed with a
V-shaped die
• Edge bending - performed with a
wiping die
V-Bending
• For low production
• Performed on a press brake
• V-dies are simple and inexpensive

Figure 20.12 -
(a) V-bending
Edge Bending
• For high production
• Pressure pad required
• Dies are more complicated and costly

Figure 20.12 - (b) edge bending


Stretching during Bending
• If bend radius is small relative to
stock thickness, metal tends to
stretch during bending
• Important to estimate amount of
stretching, so that final part length =
specified dimension
• Problem: to determine the length of
neutral axis of the part before
bending
Bend Allowance Formula

A
BA  2 (R  K bat )
360
where BA = bend allowance; A = bend
angle; R= bend radius; t = stock
thickness; and Kba is factor to
estimate stretching
• If R < 2t, Kba = 0.33
• If R  2t, Kba = 0.50
Springback in Bending
Springback = increase in included
angle of bent part relative to included
angle of forming tool after tool is
removed
• Reason for springback:
• When bending pressure is removed,
elastic energy remains in bent part,
causing it to recover partially toward its
original shape
Figure 20.13 - Springback in bending shows itself as
a decrease in bend angle and an increase in
bend radius: (1) during bending, the work is
forced to take the radius Rb and included angle
Ab' of the bending tool (punch in V-bending), (2)
after punch is removed, the work springs back to
radius R and angle A'
Bending Force
Maximum bending force estimated as
follows:

2
K bf TSwt
F
D
where F = bending force; TS = tensile strength of sheet
metal; w = part width in direction of bend axis; and t =
stock thickness. For V- bending, Kbf = 1.33; for edge
bending, Kbf = 0.33
Figure 20.14 - Die opening dimension D: (a)
V-die, (b) wiping die
Drawing
Sheet metal forming to make
cup-shaped, box-shaped, or other
complex-curved, hollow-shaped
parts
• Sheet metal blank is positioned over
die cavity and then punch pushes
metal into opening
• Products: beverage cans,
ammunition shells, automobile body
panels
Figure 20.19 -
(a) Drawing of a
cup-shaped
part:
(1) start of
operation
before punch
contacts work
(2) near end of
stroke

(b) Corresponding
workpart:
(1) starting blank
(2) drawn part
Drawing Ratio DR

Most easily defined for cylindrical shape:

Db
DR 
Dp

where Db = blank diameter; and Dp =


punch diameter
• Indicates severity of a given drawing
operation
• Upper limit = 2.0
Reduction r
• Again, defined for cylindrical shape:

Db  Dp
r
Db

• Value of r should be less than 0.50


Thickness-to-Diameter Ratio

Thickness of starting blank divided by


blank diameter
Thickness-to-diameter ratio = t/Db
• Desirable for t/Db ratio to be greater
than 1%
• As t/Db decreases, tendency for
wrinkling increases
Blank Size Determination
• For final dimensions of drawn shape
to be correct, starting blank diameter
Db must be right
• Solve for Db by setting starting sheet
metal blank volume = final product
volume
• To facilitate calculation, assume
negligible thinning of part wall
Shapes other than Cylindrical Cups
• Square or rectangular boxes (as in
sinks),
• Stepped cups,
• Cones,
• Cups with spherical rather than flat
bases,
• Irregular curved forms (as in
automobile body panels)
• Each of these shapes presents its
own unique technical problems in
drawing
Other Sheet Metal Forming on Presses
Other sheet metal forming operations
performed on conventional presses
• Operations performed with metal
tooling
• Operations performed with flexible
rubber tooling
Ironing
• Makes wall thickness of cylindrical cup
more uniform
• Examples: beverage cans and artillery
shells

Figure 20.25 - Ironing to achieve a more uniform wall thickness in a


drawn cup: (1) start of process; (2) during process
Note thinning and elongation of walls
Embossing
• Used to create indentations in sheet,
such as raised (or indented) lettering
or strengthening ribs

Figure 20.26 - Embossing: (a) cross-section of punch and die


configuration during pressing; (b) finished part with embossed ribs
Guerin Process

Figure 20.28 - Guerin process: (1) before and (2) after


Symbols v and F indicate motion and applied force
respectively
Advantages of Guerin Process
• Low tooling cost
• Form block can be made of wood,
plastic, or other materials that are
easy to shape
• Rubber pad can be used with
different form blocks
• Process attractive in small quantity
production
Dies for Sheet Metal Processes
Most pressworking operations
performed with conventional
punch-and-die tooling
• Custom-designed for particular part
• The term stamping die sometimes
used for high production dies
Figure 20.30 - Components of a punch and die
for a blanking operation
Figure
20.31 -
(a)Progressi
ve die;
(b)associate
d strip
developm
ent
Figure 20.32 - Components of a
typical mechanical drive
stamping press
Figure
20.33 - Gap
frame press for
sheet
metalworking
(photo courtesy
of E. W. Bliss
Company)
Capacity = 1350
kN (150 tons)
Figure 20.34 -
Press brake with
bed width of
9.15 m (30 ft)
and capacity
of 11,200 kN
(1250 tons);
two workers
are
positioning
plate stock for
bending
(photo courtesy
of Niagara
Machine &
Tool Works)
Figure 20.35 - Several sheet metal parts
produced on a turret press, showing
variety of hole shapes possible
(photo courtesy of Strippet, Inc.)
Figure 20.36 - Computer numerical control
turret press
(photo courtesy of Strippet, Inc.)
Figure 20.37 -
Straight-sided
frame press
(photo courtesy
Greenerd Press
& Machine
Company, Inc.)
Power and Drive Systems
• Hydraulic presses - use a large
piston and cylinder to drive the ram
• Longer ram stroke than mechanical
types
• Suited to deep drawing
• Slower than mechanical drives
• Mechanical presses – convert
rotation of motor to linear motion of
ram
• High forces at bottom of stroke
• Suited to blanking and punching
Sheet Metal Operations
Not Performed on Presses
• Stretch forming
• Roll bending and forming
• Spinning
• High-energy-rate forming processes.
Stretch Forming
Sheet metal is stretched and
simultaneously bent to achieve
shape change

Figure 20.39 - Stretch forming: (1) start of process; (2) form die is
pressed into the work with force Fdie, causing it to be stretched and
bent over the form. F = stretching force
Force Required in Stretch Forming
F  LtYf

where F = stretching force; L = length


of sheet in direction perpendicular to
stretching; t = instantaneous stock
thickness; and Yf = flow stress of
work metal
• Die force Fdie can be determined by
balancing vertical force components
Roll Bending
Large metal sheets and plates are
formed into curved sections using
rolls

Figure 20.40 - Roll bending


Roll Forming
Continuous bending process in which
opposing rolls produce long sections
of formed shapes from coil or strip
stock
Figure 20.41 - Roll
forming of a
continuous
channel
section:
(1) straight rolls
(2) partial form
(3) final form
Spinning
Metal forming process in which an
axially symmetric part is gradually
shaped over a rotating mandrel
using a rounded tool or roller
• Three types:
1. Conventional spinning
2. Shear spinning
3. Tube spinning
Figure 20.42 - Conventional spinning: (1)
setup at start of process; (2) during
spinning; and (3) completion of process
High-Energy-Rate Forming (HERF)
Processes to form metals using large
amounts of energy over a very short
time
• HERF processes include:
• Explosive forming
• Electrohydraulic forming
• Electromagnetic forming
Explosive Forming
Use of explosive charge to form sheet
(or plate) metal into a die cavity
• Explosive charge causes a shock
wave whose energy is transmitted to
force part into cavity
• Applications: large parts, typical of
aerospace industry
Figure 20.45 - Explosive forming:
(1) setup, (2) explosive is detonated, and
(3) shock wave forms part and plume
escapes water surface
Electromagnetic Forming
Sheet metal is deformed by
mechanical force of an
electromagnetic field induced in
workpart by an energized coil
• Presently the most widely used
HERF process
• Applications: tubular parts
Figure 20.47 - Electromagnetic forming: (1)
setup in which coil is inserted into tubular
workpart surrounded by die; (2) formed
part
THEORY OF METAL MACHINING
1. Overview of Machining Technology
2. Theory of Chip Formation in Metal Machining
3. Force Relationships and the Merchant
Equation
4. Power and Energy Relationships in Machining
5. Cutting Temperature

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Material Removal Processes
A family of shaping operations, the common
feature of which is removal of material from a
starting workpart so the remaining part has the
desired geometry
 Machining – material removal by a sharp
cutting tool, e.g., turning, milling, drilling
 Abrasive processes – material removal by
hard, abrasive particles, e.g., grinding
 Nontraditional processes - various energy
forms other than sharp cutting tool to remove
material

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Machining
Cutting action involves shear deformation of work
material to form a chip
 As chip is removed, new surface is exposed

Figure 21.2 (a) A cross-sectional view of the machining process, (b)


tool with negative rake angle; compare with positive rake angle in (a).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Why Machining is Important
 Variety of work materials can be machined
 Most frequently used to cut metals
 Variety of part shapes and special geometric
features possible, such as:
 Screw threads
 Accurate round holes
 Very straight edges and surfaces
 Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Disadvantages with Machining
 Wasteful of material
 Chips generated in machining are wasted
material, at least in the unit operation
 Time consuming
 A machining operation generally takes more
time to shape a given part than alternative
shaping processes, such as casting, powder
metallurgy, or forming

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Machining in Manufacturing Sequence
 Generally performed after other manufacturing
processes, such as casting, forging, and bar
drawing
 Other processes create the general shape
of the starting workpart
 Machining provides the final shape,
dimensions, finish, and special geometric
details that other processes cannot create

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Machining Operations
 Most important machining operations:
 Turning
 Drilling
 Milling
 Other machining operations:
 Shaping and planing
 Broaching
 Sawing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Turning

Single point cutting tool removes material from a


rotating workpiece to form a cylindrical shape

Figure 21.3 Three most common machining processes: (a) turning,

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Drilling
Used to create a round hole, usually by means of
a rotating tool (drill bit) with two cutting edges

Figure 21.3 (b) drilling,

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Milling
Rotating multiple-cutting-edge tool is moved
across work to cut a plane or straight surface
 Two forms: peripheral milling and face milling

Figure 21.3 (c) peripheral milling, and (d) face milling.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Tool Classification
1. Single-Point Tools
 One dominant cutting edge
 Point is usually rounded to form a nose
radius
 Turning uses single point tools
2. Multiple Cutting Edge Tools
 More than one cutting edge
 Motion relative to work achieved by rotating
 Drilling and milling use rotating multiple
cutting edge tools

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Tools

Figure 21.4 (a) A single-point tool showing rake face, flank, and tool
point; and (b) a helical milling cutter, representative of tools with
multiple cutting edges.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Conditions in Machining

 Three dimensions of a machining process:


 Cutting speed v – primary motion
 Feed f – secondary motion
 Depth of cut d – penetration of tool
below original work surface
 For certain operations, material removal
rate can be computed as
RMR = v f d
where v = cutting speed; f = feed; d =
depth of cut

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Conditions for Turning

Figure 21.5 Speed, feed, and depth of cut in turning.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Roughing vs. Finishing
In production, several roughing cuts are usually
taken on the part, followed by one or two
finishing cuts
 Roughing - removes large amounts of material
from starting workpart
 Creates shape close to desired geometry,
but leaves some material for finish cutting
 High feeds and depths, low speeds
 Finishing - completes part geometry
 Final dimensions, tolerances, and finish
 Low feeds and depths, high cutting speeds

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Machine Tools
A power-driven machine that performs a
machining operation, including grinding
 Functions in machining:
 Holds workpart
 Positions tool relative to work
 Provides power at speed, feed, and depth
that have been set
 The term is also applied to machines that
perform metal forming operations

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Orthogonal Cutting Model
Simplified 2-D model of machining that describes
the mechanics of machining fairly accurately

Figure 21.6 Orthogonal cutting: (a) as a three-dimensional process.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Chip Thickness Ratio
to
r 
tc

where r = chip thickness ratio; to =


thickness of the chip prior to chip
formation; and tc = chip thickness after
separation
 Chip thickness after cut always greater than
before, so chip ratio always less than 1.0

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Determining Shear Plane Angle
 Based on the geometric parameters of the
orthogonal model, the shear plane angle  can
be determined as:
r cos 
tan  
1  r sin

where r = chip ratio, and  = rake angle

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shear Strain in Chip Formation

Figure 21.7 Shear strain during chip formation: (a) chip formation
depicted as a series of parallel plates sliding relative to each other, (b)
one of the plates isolated to show shear strain, and (c) shear strain
triangle used to derive strain equation.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shear Strain
Shear strain in machining can be computed
from the following equation, based on the
preceding parallel plate model:
 = tan( - ) + cot 

where  = shear strain,  = shear plane


angle, and  = rake angle of cutting tool

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Chip Formation

Figure 21.8 More realistic view of chip formation, showing shear


zone rather than shear plane. Also shown is the secondary shear
zone resulting from tool-chip friction.
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Four Basic Types of Chip in Machining
1. Discontinuous chip
2. Continuous chip
3. Continuous chip with Built-up Edge (BUE)
4. Serrated chip

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Discontinuous Chip

 Brittle work materials


 Low cutting speeds
 Large feed and depth
of cut
 High tool-chip friction

Figure 21.9 Four types of


chip formation in metal
cutting: (a) discontinuous

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Continuous Chip

 Ductile work materials


 High cutting speeds
 Small feeds and
depths
 Sharp cutting edge
 Low tool-chip friction

Figure 21.9 (b) continuous

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Continuous with BUE
 Ductile materials
 Low-to-medium cutting
speeds
 Tool-chip friction
causes portions of chip
to adhere to rake face
 BUE forms, then
breaks off, cyclically

Figure 21.9 (c) continuous


with built-up edge

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Serrated Chip

 Semicontinuous -
saw-tooth
appearance
 Cyclical chip forms
with alternating high
shear strain then low
shear strain
 Associated with
difficult-to-machine
metals at high cutting
speeds Figure 21.9 (d) serrated.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Forces Acting on Chip

 Friction force F and Normal force to friction N


 Shear force Fs and Normal force to shear Fn

Figure 21.10 Forces in


metal cutting: (a) forces
acting on the chip in
orthogonal cutting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Resultant Forces
 Vector addition of F and N = resultant R
 Vector addition of Fs and Fn = resultant R'
 Forces acting on the chip must be in balance:
 R' must be equal in magnitude to R
 R’ must be opposite in direction to R
 R’ must be collinear with R

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Coefficient of Friction
Coefficient of friction between tool and chip:
F

N

Friction angle related to coefficient of friction


as follows:
  tan 

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Shear Stress
Shear stress acting along the shear plane:
Fs
S
As

where As = area of the shear plane


t ow
As 
sin 

Shear stress = shear strength of work material


during cutting

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Force and Thrust Force
 F, N, Fs, and Fn cannot be directly measured
 Forces acting on the tool that can be measured:
 Cutting force Fc and Thrust force Ft

Figure 21.10 Forces


in metal cutting: (b)
forces acting on the
tool that can be
measured

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Forces in Metal Cutting
 Equations can be derived to relate the forces
that cannot be measured to the forces that can
be measured:
F = Fc sin + Ft cos
N = Fc cos - Ft sin
Fs = Fc cos - Ft sin
Fn = Fc sin + Ft cos
 Based on these calculated force, shear stress
and coefficient of friction can be determined

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
The Merchant Equation
 Of all the possible angles at which shear
deformation can occur, the work material will
select a shear plane angle  that minimizes
energy, given by
 
  45  
2 2
 Derived by Eugene Merchant
 Based on orthogonal cutting, but validity
extends to 3-D machining

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
What the Merchant Equation Tells Us

 
  45  
2 2

 To increase shear plane angle


 Increase the rake angle
 Reduce the friction angle (or coefficient of
friction)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Effect of Higher Shear Plane Angle
 Higher shear plane angle means smaller shear
plane which means lower shear force, cutting
forces, power, and temperature

Figure 21.12 Effect of shear plane angle  : (a) higher  with a


resulting lower shear plane area; (b) smaller  with a corresponding
larger shear plane area. Note that the rake angle is larger in (a), which
tends to increase shear angle according to the Merchant equation
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Power and Energy Relationships
 A machining operation requires power
 The power to perform machining can be
computed from:
Pc = Fc v
where Pc = cutting power; Fc = cutting force;
and v = cutting speed

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Power and Energy Relationships
 In U.S. customary units, power is traditional
expressed as horsepower (dividing ft-lb/min by
33,000)

Fcv
HPc 
33,000

where HPc = cutting horsepower, hp

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Power and Energy Relationships
 Gross power to operate the machine tool Pg or
HPg is given by

Pc HPc
Pg  or HPg 
E E

where E = mechanical efficiency of machine tool


 Typical E for machine tools  90%

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Unit Power in Machining
 Useful to convert power into power per unit
volume rate of metal cut
 Called unit power, Pu or unit horsepower, HPu

Pc HPc
PU = or HPu =
RMR RMR

where RMR = material removal rate

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Specific Energy in Machining
Unit power is also known as the specific energy U

Pc Fcv
U = Pu = =
RMR vtow

Units for specific energy are typically


N-m/mm3 or J/mm3 (in-lb/in3)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Temperature
 Approximately 98% of the energy in machining
is converted into heat
 This can cause temperatures to be very high at
the tool-chip
 The remaining energy (about 2%) is retained
as elastic energy in the chip

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Temperatures are Important
High cutting temperatures
1. Reduce tool life
2. Produce hot chips that pose safety hazards to
the machine operator
3. Can cause inaccuracies in part dimensions
due to thermal expansion of work material

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Temperature

 Analytical method derived by Nathan Cook


from dimensional analysis using
experimental data for various work materials
0.333
0.4U  vt o 
T   
C  K 
where T = temperature rise at tool-chip
interface; U = specific energy; v = cutting
speed; to = chip thickness before cut; C =
volumetric specific heat of work material; K =
thermal diffusivity of work material

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cutting Temperature
 Experimental methods can be used to measure
temperatures in machining
 Most frequently used technique is the
tool-chip thermocouple
 Using this method, Ken Trigger determined the
speed-temperature relationship to be of the
form:
T = K vm
where T = measured tool-chip interface
temperature, and v = cutting speed

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
MACHINING OPERATIONS AND
MACHINE TOOLS
• Turning and Related Operations
• Drilling and Related Operations
• Milling
• Machining Centers and Turning Centers
• Other Machining Operations
• High Speed Machining

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Machining

A material removal process in which a sharp cutting tool


is used to mechanically cut away material so that the
desired part geometry remains
• Most common application: to shape metal parts
• Machining is the most versatile and accurate of all
manufacturing processes in its capability to produce
a diversity of part geometries and geometric features
Casting can also produce a variety of shapes, but
it lacks the precision and accuracy of machining

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Classification of Machined Parts
1. Rotational - cylindrical or disk-like shape
2. Nonrotational (also called prismatic) - block-like or
plate-like

Figure 22.1 - Machined parts are classified as: (a) rotational, or (b)
nonrotational, shown here by block and flat parts

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Machining Operations and Part Geometry

Each machining operation produces a characteristic part


geometry due to two factors:
1. Relative motions between the tool and the
workpart
• Generating –part geometry is determined by
the feed trajectory of the cutting tool
2. Shape of the cutting tool
• Forming –part geometry is created by the
shape of the cutting tool

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.2 - Generating shape: (a) straight turning, (b) taper
turning, (c) contour turning, (d) plain milling, (e) profile milling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.3 - Forming to create shape: (a) form turning, (b) drilling,
and (c) broaching

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.4 - Combination of forming and generating to create
shape: (a) thread cutting on a lathe, and (b) slot milling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Turning

A single point cutting tool removes material from a


rotating workpiece to generate a cylindrical shape
• Performed on a machine tool called a lathe
• Variations of turning that are performed on a lathe:
Facing
Contour turning
Chamfering
Cutoff
Threading

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.5 - Turning operation

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Facing
Tool is fed
radially inward

Figure 22.6 (a) facing

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Contour Turning
Instead of feeding the tool parallel to the axis of rotation,
tool follows a contour that is other than straight, thus
creating a contoured form

Figure 22.6 (c) contour turning

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Chamfering
Cutting edge cuts an angle on the corner of the cylinder,
forming a "chamfer"

Figure 22.6 (e) chamfering

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cutoff
Tool is fed radially into rotating work at some location to
cut off end of part

Figure 22.6 (f) cutoff

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Threading
Pointed form tool is fed linearly across surface of
rotating workpart parallel to axis of rotation at a large
feed rate, thus creating threads

Figure 22.6 (g) threading

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.7
Diagram of
an engine
lathe,
showing its
principal
components

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Methods of Holding the Work in a Lathe

• Holding the work between centers


• Chuck
• Collet
• Face plate

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Holding the Work Between Centers

Figure 22.8 (a) mounting the work between centers using a "dog”

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Chuck

Figure 22.8 (b) three-jaw chuck

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Collet

Figure 22.8 (c) collet

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Face Plate

Figure 22.8 (d) face plate for non-cylindrical workparts

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Turret Lathe

Tailstock replaced by “turret”that holds up to six tools


• Tools rapidly brought into action by indexing the
turret
• Tool post replaced by four-sided turret to index four
tools
• Applications: high production work that requires a
sequence of cuts on the part

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Chucking Machine

• Uses chuck in its spindle to hold workpart


• No tailstock, so parts cannot be mounted between
centers
• Cutting tool actions controlled automatically
• Operator’ s job: to load and unload parts
• Applications: short, light-weight parts

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Bar Machine

• Similar to chucking machine except collet replaces


chuck, permitting long bar stock to be fed through
headstock
• At the end of the machining cycle, a cutoff operation
separates the new part
• Highly automated (the term automatic bar machine is
often used)
• Applications: high production of rotational parts

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Automatic Screw Machine

• Same as automatic bar machine but smaller


• Applications: high production of screws and similar
small hardware items; hence, its name

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Multiple Spindle Bar Machines

• More than one spindle, so multiple parts machined


simultaneously by multiple tools
Example: six spindle automatic bar machine works
on six parts at a time
• After each machining cycle, spindles (including
collets and workbars) are indexed (rotated) to next
position

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.9 - (a) Part produced on a six-spindle automatic bar
machine; and (b) sequence of operations to produce the part: (1)
feed stock to stop, (2) turn main diameter, (3) form second
diameter and spotface, (4) drill, (5) chamfer, and (6) cutoff

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Boring
• Difference between boring and turning:
Boring is performed on the inside diameter of an
existing hole
Turning is performed on the outside diameter of
an existing cylinder
• In effect, boring is an internal turning operation
• Boring machines
Horizontal or vertical - refers to the orientation of
the axis of rotation of machine spindle

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.12 - A vertical boring mill –for large, heavy workparts

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Drilling
• Creates a round hole in
a workpart
• Contrasts with boring
which can only enlarge
an existing hole
• Cutting tool called a drill
or drill bit
• Customarily performed
on a drill press Figure 21.3 (b) drilling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Through Holes vs. Blind Holes
Through-holes - drill exits the opposite side of work
Blind-holes –drill does not exit work on opposite side

Figure 22.13 - Two hole types: (a) through-hole, and (b) blind hole

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Reaming
Used to slightly
enlarge a hole,
provide better
tolerance on
diameter, and
improve surface
finish

Figure 22.14 -
Machining operations
related to drilling:
(a) reaming

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Tapping
Used to provide
internal screw
threads on an
existing hole
Tool called a tap

Figure 22.14 (b) tapping

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Counterboring
Provides a stepped
hole, in which a
larger diameter
follows a smaller
diameter partially
into the hole

Figure 22.14 (c) counterboring

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Upright Drill
Stands on the floor

Bench Drill
Similar but smaller
and mounted on
a table or bench

Figure 22.15 - Upright drill press

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Radial Drill
Large drill press
designed for
large parts

Figure 22.16 - Radial drill press (Willis Machinery and Tools)

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Work Holding for Drill Presses

• Workpart can be clamped in a vise, fixture, or jig


Vise - general purpose workholder with two jaws
Fixture - workholding device that is usually
custom-designed for the particular workpart
Drill jig –similar to fixture but also provides a
means of guiding the tool during drilling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Milling
Machining operation in which work is fed past a rotating
tool with multiple cutting edges
• Axis of tool rotation is perpendicular to feed direction
• Creates a planar surface; other geometries possible
either by cutter path or shape
• Other factors and terms:
Milling is an interrupted cutting operation
Cutting tool called a milling cutter, cutting edges
called "teeth"
Machine tool called a milling machine

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 21.3 - Two forms of milling:
(a) peripheral milling, and (b) face milling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Peripheral Milling vs. Face Milling

• Peripheral milling
Cutter axis is parallel to surface being machined
Cutting edges on outside periphery of cutter
• Face milling
Cutter axis is perpendicular to surface being milled
Cutting edges on both the end and outside
periphery of the cutter

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Slab Milling
The basic form of peripheral milling in which the cutter
width extends beyond the workpiece on both sides

Figure 22.18
(a) slab milling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Slotting
• Width of cutter is less than workpiece width, creating
a slot in the work

Figure 22.18
(b) slotting

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Conventional
Face Milling
Cutter overhangs work
on both sides

Figure 22.20
(a) conventional face milling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
End Milling
Cutter diameter is less
than work width, so
a slot is cut into part

Figure 22.20 - (c) end milling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Profile Milling
Form of end milling
in which the
outside periphery
of a flat part is
cut

Figure 22.20 (d) profile milling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Pocket Milling
Another form of
end milling used
to mill shallow
pockets into flat
parts

Figure 22.20 (e) pocket milling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Surface Contouring
Ball-nose cutter is fed
back and forth across
the work along a
curvilinear path at close
intervals to create a
three dimensional
surface form

Figure 22.20 (f) surface contouring

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.23 (a) horizontal knee-and-column milling machine

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.23 (b) vertical knee-and-column milling machine

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.24 (b) ram type knee-and-column machine; ram can
be adjusted in and out, and toolhead can be swiveled
©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “
Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Machining Centers
Highly automated machine tool capable of performing
multiple machining operations under CNC control in
one setup with minimal human attention
Typical operations are milling and drilling
Three, four, or five axes
• Other features:
Automatic tool-changing
Pallet shuttles
Automatic workpart positioning

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.26 - Universal machining center (Cincinnati Milacron);
highly automated, capable of multiple machining operations under
computer control in one setup with minimal human attention

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.27 - CNC 4-axis turning center (Cincinnati Milacron);
capable of turning and related operations, contour turning, and
automatic tool indexing, all under computer control.
©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “
Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Mill-Turn Centers

Highly automated machine tool that can perform turning,


milling, and drilling operations on a workpart
• General configuration of a turning center
• Can position a cylindrical workpart at a specified
angle so a rotating cutting tool (e.g., milling cutter)
can machine features into outside surface of part
A conventional turning center cannot stop
workpart at a defined angular position and does
not possess rotating tool spindles

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.28 - Operation of a mill-turn center: (a) example part with
turned, milled, and drilled surfaces; and (b) sequence of
operations on a mill-turn center: (1) turn second diameter,
(2) mill flat with part in programmed angular position, (3) drill hole
with part in same programmed position, and (4) cutoff

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Shaping and Planing
• Similar operations
• Both use a single point cutting tool moved linearly
relative to the workpart

Figure 22.29 - (a) Shaping, and (b) planing

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Shaping and Planing

• A straight, flat surface is created in both operations


• Interrupted cutting
Subjects tool to impact loading when entering
work
• Low cutting speeds due to start-and-stop motion
• Usual tooling: single point high speed steel tools

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.30 - Components of a shaper

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.31 - Open side planer

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Broaching
• Moves a multiple tooth cutting tool linearly relative to
work in direction of tool axis

Figure 22.33 - The broaching operation

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Broaching

Advantages:
• Good surface finish
• Close tolerances
• Variety of work shapes possible
Cutting tool called a broach
• Owing to complicated and often custom-shaped
geometry, tooling is expensive

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Internal Broaching
• Performed on internal surface of a hole
• A starting hole must be present in the part to insert
broach at beginning of stroke

Figure 22.34 - Work shapes that can be cut by internal broaching;


cross-hatching indicates the surfaces broached

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Sawing

• Cuts narrow slit in work by a tool consisting of a


series of narrowly spaced teeth
• Tool called a saw blade
• Typical functions:
Separate a workpart into two pieces
Cut off unwanted portions of part

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.35 (a) power hacksaw –linear reciprocating motion
of hacksaw blade against work

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.35 (b) bandsaw
(vertical) –linear
continuous motion of
bandsaw blade, which is in
the form of an endless
flexible loop with teeth on
one edge

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 22.35 (c) circular saw –rotating saw blade provides
continuous motion of tool past workpart

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
High Speed Machining (HSM)

Cutting at speeds significantly higher than those used in


conventional machining operations
• A persistent trend throughout history of machining is
higher and higher cutting speeds
• At present there is a renewed interest in HSM due to
potential for faster production rates, shorter lead
times, and reduced costs

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
High Speed Machining
Comparison of conventional vs. high speed machining
Indexable tools (face mills)
Work material Conventional speed High speed
m/min ft/min m/min ft/min
Aluminum 600+ 2000+ 3600+ 12,000+
Cast iron, soft 360 1200 1200 4000
Cast iron, ductile 250 800 900 3000
Steel, alloy 210 700 360 1200
Source: Kennametal Inc.

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Other HSM Definitions –DN Ratio

DN ratio = bearing bore diameter (mm) multiplied by


maximum spindle speed (rev/min)
• For high speed machining, typical DN ratio is
between 500,000 and 1,000,000
• Allows larger diameter bearings to fall within HSM
range, even though they operate at lower rotational
speeds than smaller bearings

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Other HSM Definitions –HP/RPM Ratio

hp/rpm ratio = ratio of horsepower to maximum spindle


speed
• Conventional machine tools usually have a higher
hp/rpm ratio than those equipped for HSM
• Dividing line between conventional machining and
HSM is around 0.005 hp/rpm
• Thus, HSM includes 15 hp spindles that can rotate at
30,000 rpm (0.0005 hp/rpm)

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Other HSM Definitions

• Emphasize:
Higher production rates
Shorter lead times
Rather than functions of spindle speed
• Important non-cutting factors:
Rapid traverse speeds
Automatic tool changes

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Requirements for High Speed Machining
• Special bearings designed for high rpm
• High feed rate capability (e.g., 50 m/min)
• CNC motion controls with “ look-ahead”features to
avoid “undershooting”or “ overshooting”tool path
• Balanced cutting tools, toolholders, and spindles to
minimize vibration
• Coolant delivery systems that provide higher
pressures than conventional machining
• Chip control and removal systems to cope with much
larger metal removal rates

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
High Speed Machining Applications
• Aircraft industry, machining of large airframe
components from large aluminum blocks
Much metal removal, mostly by milling
• Multiple machining operations on aluminum to
produce automotive, computer, and medical
components
Quick tool changes and tool path control important
• Die and mold industry
Fabricating complex geometries from hard
materials

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
CUTTING TOOL TECHNOLOGY

• Tool Life
• Tool Materials
• Tool Geometry
• Cutting Fluids

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cutting Tool Technology

Two principal aspects:


1. Tool material
2. Tool geometry

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Three Modes of Tool Failure

• Fracture failure
Cutting force becomes excessive and/or dynamic,
leading to brittle fracture
• Temperature failure
Cutting temperature is too high for the tool
material
• Gradual wear
Gradual wearing of the cutting tool

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Preferred Mode of Tool Failure:
Gradual Wear
• Fracture and temperature failures are premature
failures
• Gradual wear is preferred because it leads to the
longest possible use of the tool
• Gradual wear occurs at two locations on a tool:
Crater wear –occurs on top rake face
Flank wear –occurs on flank (side of tool)

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 23.1 - Diagram of worn cutting tool, showing the principal
locations and types of wear that occur

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 23.2 -

(a) Crater wear, and

(b) flank wear on a cemented


carbide tool, as seen
through a toolmaker's
microscope

(Courtesy Manufacturing
Technology Laboratory,
Lehigh University, photo
by J. C. Keefe)

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 23.3 - Tool wear as a function of cutting time
Flank wear (FW) is used here as the measure of tool wear
Crater wear follows a similar growth curve

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 23.4 - Effect of cutting speed on tool flank wear (FW) for three
cutting speeds, using a tool life criterion of 0.50 mm flank wear

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 23.5 - Natural log-log plot of cutting speed vs tool life

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Taylor Tool Life Equation

This relationship is credited to F. W. Taylor (~1900)


vT n C
where v = cutting speed; T = tool life; and n and C
are parameters that depend on feed, depth of cut,
work material, tooling material, and the tool life
criterion used
•n is the slope of the plot
•C is the intercept on the speed axis

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Tool Life Criteria in Production

1. Complete failure of cutting edge


2. Visual inspection of flank wear (or crater wear) by the
machine operator
3. Fingernail test across cutting edge
4. Changes in sound emitted from operation
5. Chips become ribbony, stringy, and difficult to dispose of
6. Degradation of surface finish
7. Increased power
8. Workpiece count
9. Cumulative cutting time

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Tool Materials

• Tool failure modes identify the important properties


that a tool material should possess:
Toughness - to avoid fracture failure
Hot hardness - ability to retain hardness at high
temperatures
Wear resistance - hardness is the most important
property to resist abrasive wear

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 23.6 - Typical hot hardness relationships for selected tool
materials. Plain carbon steel shows a rapid loss of hardness as
temperature increases. High speed steel is substantially better,
while cemented carbides and ceramics are significantly harder
at elevated temperatures.

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Typical Values of n and C in
Taylor Tool Life Equation
Tool material n C (m/min) C (ft/min)
High speed steel:
Non-steel work 0.125 120 350
Steel work 0.125 70 200
Cemented carbide
Non-steel work 0.25 900 2700
Steel work 0.25 500 1500
Ceramic
Steel work 0.6 3000 10,000

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
High Speed Steel (HSS)

Highly alloyed tool steel capable of maintaining


hardness at elevated temperatures better than high
carbon and low alloy steels
• One of the most important cutting tool materials
• Especially suited to applications involving
complicated tool geometries, such as drills, taps,
milling cutters, and broaches
• Two basic types (AISI)
1. Tungsten-type, designated T- grades
2. Molybdenum-type, designated M-grades

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
High Speed Steel Composition

• Typical alloying ingredients:


Tungsten and/or Molybdenum
Chromium and Vanadium
Carbon, of course
Cobalt in some grades
• Typical composition:
Grade T1: 18% W, 4% Cr, 1% V, and 0.9% C

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cemented Carbides

Class of hard tool material based on tungsten carbide


(WC) using powder metallurgy techniques with
cobalt (Co) as the binder
• Two basic types:
1. Non-steel cutting grades - only WC-Co
2. Steel cutting grades - TiC and TaC added to
WC-Co

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cemented Carbides –General Properties

• High compressive strength but low-to-moderate


tensile strength
• High hardness (90 to 95 HRA)
• Good hot hardness
• Good wear resistance
• High thermal conductivity
• High elastic modulus - 600 x 103 MPa (90 x 106 lb/in2)
• Toughness lower than high speed steel

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Non-steel Cutting Carbide Grades

• Used for nonferrous metals and gray cast iron


• Properties determined by grain size and cobalt
content
As grain size increases, hardness and hot
hardness decrease, but toughness increases
As cobalt content increases, toughness improves
at the expense of hardness and wear resistance

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Steel Cutting Carbide Grades

• Used for low carbon, stainless, and other alloy steels


For these grades, TiC and/or TaC are substituted
for some of the WC
This composition increases crater wear resistance
for steel cutting, but adversely affects flank wear
resistance for non-steel cutting applications

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cermets

Combinations of TiC, TiN, and titanium carbonitride


(TiCN), with nickel and/or molybdenum as binders.
• Some chemistries are more complex
• Applications: high speed finishing and semifinishing
of steels, stainless steels, and cast irons
Higher speeds and lower feeds than steel-cutting
carbide grades
Better finish achieved, often eliminating need for
grinding

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Coated Carbides
Cemented carbide insert coated with one or more thin
layers of wear resistant materials, such as TiC, TiN,
and/orAl2O3
• Coating applied by chemical vapor deposition or
physical vapor deposition
• Coating thickness = 2.5 - 13 m (0.0001 to 0.0005 in)
• Applications: cast irons and steels in turning and
milling operations
• Best applied at high speeds where dynamic force and
thermal shock are minimal

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Ceramics

Primarily fine-grained Al2O3, pressed and sintered at


high pressures and temperatures into insert form with
no binder
• Applications: high speed turning of cast iron and steel
• Not recommended for heavy interrupted cuts (e.g.
rough milling) due to low toughness
• Al2O3 also widely used as an abrasive in grinding

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Synthetic Diamonds
Sintered polycrystalline diamond (SPD) - fabricated by
sintering very fine-grained diamond crystals under
high temperatures and pressures into desired shape
with little or no binder
• Usually applied as coating (0.5 mm thick) on WC-Co
insert
• Applications: high speed machining of nonferrous
metals and abrasive nonmetals such as fiberglass,
graphite, and wood
Not for steel cutting

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cubic Boron Nitride

• Next to diamond, cubic boron nitride (cBN) is hardest


material known
• Fabrication into cutting tool inserts same as SPD:
coatings on WC-Co inserts
• Applications: machining steel and nickel-based alloys
• SPD and cBN tools are expensive

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Tool Geometry

Two categories:
• Single point tools
Used for turning, boring, shaping, and planing
• Multiple cutting edge tools
Used for drilling, reaming, tapping, milling,
broaching, and sawing

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Single-
Point
Tool
Geometry

Figure 23.7 - (a)


Seven elements of
single-point tool
geometry; and (b) the
tool signature
convention that
defines the seven
elements

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 23.9 - Three ways of holding and presenting the cutting edge for a
single-point tool:
(a) solid tool, typical of HSS;
(b) brazed insert, one way of holding a cemented carbide insert; and
(c) mechanically clamped insert, used for cemented carbides, ceramics,
and other very hard tool materials

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 23.10 - Common insert shapes: (a) round, (b) square, (c)
rhombus with two 80point angles, (d) hexagon with three 80
point angles, (e) triangle (equilateral), (f) rhombus with two 55
point angles, (g) rhombus with two 35point angles. Also shown
are typical features of the geometry.

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Twist Drills
• By far the most common cutting tools for hole-making
• Usually made of high speed steel

Figure 23.12 - Standard geometry of a twist drill

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Twist Drill Operation

• Rotation and feeding of drill bit result in relative


motion between cutting edges and workpiece to form
the chips
Cutting speed varies along cutting edges as a
function of distance from axis of rotation
Relative velocity at drill point is zero, so no cutting
takes place
A large thrust force is required to drive the drill
forward into hole

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Twist Drill Operation - Problems

• Chip removal
Flutes must provide sufficient clearance to allow
chips to be extracted from bottom of hole
• Friction makes matters worse
Rubbing between outside diameter of drill bit and
newly formed hole
Delivery of cutting fluid to drill point to reduce
friction and heat is difficult because chips are
flowing in the opposite direction

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Milling Cutters

• Principal types:
Plain milling cutter
Form milling cutter
Face milling cutter
End milling cutter

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Plain Milling Cutter
• Used for peripheral or slab milling

Figure 23.13 -
Tool geometry elements
of an 18-tooth plain
milling cutter

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Form Milling Cutter

Peripheral milling cutter in which cutting edges have


special profile to be imparted to work
• Important application
Gear-making, in which the form milling cutter is
shaped to cut the slots between adjacent gear
teeth, thereby leaving the geometry of the gear
teeth

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Face Milling Cutter
• Teeth cut on side and periphery of the cutter

Figure 23.14 - Tool geometry elements of a four-tooth face


milling cutter: (a) side view and (b) bottom view

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
End Milling Cutter

• Looks like a drill bit but designed for primary cutting


with its peripheral teeth
• Applications:
Face milling
Profile milling and pocketing
Cutting slots
Engraving
Surface contouring
Die sinking

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cutting Fluids

Any liquid or gas applied directly to machining operation


to improve cutting performance
• Two main problems addressed by cutting fluids:
1. Heat generation at shear zone and friction zone
2. Friction at the tool-chip and tool-work interfaces
• Other functions and benefits:
 Wash away chips (e.g., grinding and milling)
 Reduce temperature of workpart for easier
handling
 Improve dimensional stability of workpart

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cutting Fluid Functions

• Cutting fluids can be classified according to function:


Coolants - designed to reduce effects of heat in
machining
Lubricants - designed to reduce tool-chip and
tool-work friction

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Coolants

• Water used as base in coolant-type cutting fluids


• Most effective at high cutting speeds where heat
generation and high temperatures are problems
• Most effective on tool materials that are most
susceptible to temperature failures (e.g., HSS)

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Lubricants

• Usually oil-based fluids


• Most effective at lower cutting speeds
• Also reduces temperature in the operation

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cutting Fluid Contamination

• Tramp oil (machine oil, hydraulic fluid, etc.)


• Garbage (cigarette butts, food, etc.)
• Small chips
• Molds, fungi, and bacteria

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Dealing with Cutting Fluid Contamination

• Replace cutting fluid at regular and frequent intervals


• Use filtration system to continuously or periodically
clean the fluid
• Dry machining

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Cutting Fluid Filtration

Advantages:
• Prolong cutting fluid life between changes
• Reduce fluid disposal cost
• Cleaner fluids reduce health hazards
• Lower machine tool maintenance
• Longer tool life

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Dry Machining

• No cutting fluid is used


• Avoids problems of cutting fluid contamination,
disposal, and filtration
• Problems with dry machining:
Overheating of the tool
Operating at lower cutting speeds and production
rates to prolong tool life
Absence of chip removal benefits of cutting fluids
in grinding and milling

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
GRINDING AND
OTHER ABRASIVE PROCESSES
• Grinding
• Related Abrasive Process

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Abrasive Machining

Material removal by action of hard, abrasive particles


usually in the form of a bonded wheel
• Generally used as finishing operations after part
geometry has been established y conventional
machining
• Grinding is most important abrasive processes
• Other abrasive processes: honing, lapping,
superfinishing, polishing, and buffing

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Why Abrasive Processes are Important

• Can be used on all types of materials


• Some can produce extremely fine surface finishes, to
0.025 m (1 -in)
• Some can hold dimensions to extremely close
tolerances

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Grinding

Material removal process in which abrasive particles are


contained in a bonded grinding wheel that operates
at very high surface speeds
• Grinding wheel usually disk-shaped and precisely
balanced for high rotational speeds

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
The Grinding Wheel

• Consists of abrasive particles and bonding material


Abrasive particles accomplish cutting
Bonding material holds particles in place and
establishes shape and structure of wheel

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Grinding Wheel Parameters

• Abrasive material
• Grain size
• Bonding material
• Wheel grade
• Wheel structure

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Abrasive Material Properties

• High hardness
• Wear resistance
• Toughness
• Friability - capacity to fracture when cutting edge
dulls, so a new sharp edge is exposed

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Traditional Abrasive Materials

• Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) - most common abrasive


Used to grind steel and other ferrous high-strength
alloys
• Silicon carbide (SiC) - harder than Al2O3 but not as
tough
Used on aluminum, brass, stainless steel, some
cast irons and certain ceramics

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Newer Abrasive Materials

• Cubic boron nitride (cBN) –very hard, very expensive


Suitable for steels
Used for hard materials such as hardened tool
steels and aerospace alloys (e.g., Ni-based alloys)
• Diamond –Even harder, very expensive
Occur naturally and also made synthetically
Not suitable for grinding steels
Used on hard, abrasive materials such as
ceramics, cemented carbides, and glass

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Hardness of Abrasive Materials

Abrasive material Knoop hardness


Aluminum oxide 2100
Silicon carbide 2500
Cubic boron nitride 5000
Diamond (synthetic) 7000

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Grain Size

• Small grit sizes produce better finishes


• Larger grit sizes permit larger material removal rates
• Harder work materials require smaller grain sizes to
cut effectively
• Softer materials require larger grit sizes

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Measurement of Grain Size

• Grit size is measured using a screen mesh procedure


Smaller grit sizes indicated by larger numbers in
the screen mesh procedure and vice versa
Grain sizes in grinding wheels typically range
between 8 (very coarse) and 250 (very fine)

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Bonding Material Properties

• Must withstand centrifugal forces and high


temperatures
• Must resist shattering during shock loading of wheel
• Must hold abrasive grains rigidly in place for cutting
yet allow worn grains to be dislodged so new sharp
grains are exposed

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Wheel Structure

Refers to the relative spacing of abrasive grains in


wheel
• In addition to abrasive grains and bond material,
grinding wheels contain air gaps or pores
• Volumetric proportions of grains, bond material, and
pores can be expressed as:

P g P b P p 1 . 0

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.1 - Typical structure of a grinding wheel

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Wheel Structure
• Measured on a scale that ranges between "open"
and "dense."
Open structure means Pp is relatively large and Pg
is relatively small - recommended when clearance
for chips must be provided
Dense structure means Pp is relatively small and
Pg is larger - recommended to obtain better
surface finish and dimensional control

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Wheel Grade

Indicates bond strength in retaining abrasive grits during


cutting
• Depends on amount of bonding material in wheel
structure (Pb)
• Measured on a scale ranging between soft and hard
Soft" wheels lose grains readily - used for low
material removal rates and hard work materials
Hard wheels retain grains - used for high stock
removal rates and soft work materials

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Grinding Wheel Specification

• Standard grinding wheel marking system used to


designate abrasive type, grit size, grade, structure,
and bond material
Example: A-46-H-6-V
• Also provides for additional identifications for use by
grinding wheel manufacturers

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.2 - Some of the standard grinding wheel shapes:
(a) straight, (b) recessed two sides, (c) metal wheel frame with abrasive
bonded to outside circumference, (d) abrasive cut- off wheel

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Surface Finish

• Most grinding is performed to achieve good surface


finish
• Best surface finish is achieved by:
Small grain sizes
Higher wheel speeds
Denser wheel structure = more grits per wheel
area

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Why Specific Energy in Grinding is High

• Size effect - small chip size causes energy to remove


each unit volume of material to be significantly
higher - roughly 10 times higher
• Individual grains have extremely negative rake
angles, resulting in low shear plane angles and high
shear strains
• Not all grits are engaged in actual cutting

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Three Types of Grain Action

• Cutting - grit projects far enough into surface to form


a chip - material is removed
• Plowing - grit projects into work, but not far enough to
cut - instead, surface is deformed and energy is
consumed, but no material is removed
• Rubbing - grit contacts surface but only rubbing
friction occurs, thus consuming energy, but no
material is removed

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.4 - Three types of grain action in grinding:
(a) cutting, (b) plowing, and (c) rubbing

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Temperatures at the Work Surface
• Grinding is characterized by high temperatures and
high friction, and most of the energy remains in the
ground surface, resulting in high work surface
temperatures
• Damaging effects include:
Surface burns and cracks
Metallurgical damage immediately beneath the
surface
Softening of the work surface if heat treated
Residual stresses in the work surface

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
How to Reduce Work Surface Temperatures

• Decrease infeed (depth of cut) d


• Reduce wheel speed v
• Reduce number of active grits per square inch on the
grinding wheel C
• Increasing work speed vw
• Use a cutting fluid

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Causes of Wheel Wear - 1

Grain fracture - when a portion of the grain breaks off,


but the rest remains bonded in the wheel
• Edges of the fractured area become new cutting
edges
• Tendency to fracture is called friability

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Causes of Wheel Wear - 2

Attritious wear - dulling of individual grains, resulting in


flat spots and rounded edges
• Analogous to tool wear in conventional cutting tool
• Caused by similar mechanisms including friction,
diffusion, and chemical reactions

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Causes of Wheel Wear - 3

Bond fracture - the individual grains are pulled out of the


bonding material
• Depends on wheel grade, among other factors
• Usually occurs because grain has become dull due to
attritious wear, and resulting cutting force becomes
excessive

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.5 - Typical wear curve of a grinding wheel. Wear
is conveniently plotted as a function of volume of
material removed, rather than as a function of time
(based on [13])

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Grinding Ratio

Indicates slope of the wheel wear curve

VW
GR 
Vg

where GR = grinding ratio; Vw = volume of work material


removed; and Vg = corresponding volume of grinding
wheel worn

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Dressing the Wheel
Dressing - accomplished by rotating disk, abrasive stick,
or another grinding wheel held against the wheel
being dressed as it rotates
• Functions:
Breaks off dulled grits to expose new sharp grains
Removes chips clogged in the wheel
• Accomplished by a rotating disk, an abrasive stick, or
another grinding wheel operating at high speed, held
against the wheel being dressed as it rotates
• Required when wheel is in third region of wear curve

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Truing the Wheel

Truing - use of a diamond-pointed tool fed slowly and


precisely across wheel as it rotates
• Very light depth is taken (0.025 mm or less) against
the wheel
• Not only sharpens wheel, but restores cylindrical
shape and insures straightness across outside
perimeter
Although dressing sharpens, it does not guarantee
the shape of the wheel

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Application Guidelines - I
• To optimize surface finish, select
Small grit size and dense wheel structure
Use higher wheel speeds (v) and lower work
speeds (vw)
Smaller depths of cut (d) and larger wheel
diameters (D) will also help
• To maximize material removal rate, select
Large grit size
More open wheel structure
Vitrified bond

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Application Guidelines - II
• For grinding steel and most cast irons, select
Aluminum oxide as the abrasive
• For grinding most nonferrous metals, select
Silicon carbide as the abrasive
• For grinding hardened tool steels and certain
aerospace alloys, choose
Cubic boron nitride as the abrasive
• For grinding hard abrasive materials such as
ceramics, cemented carbides, and glass, choose
Diamond as the abrasive

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Application Guidelines - III

• For soft metals, choose


Large grit size and harder grade wheel
• For hard metals, choose
Small grit size and softer grade wheel

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.7 - Four types of surface grinding: (a) horizontal spindle with
reciprocating worktable, (b) horizontal spindle with rotating worktable,
(c) vertical spindle with reciprocating worktable,
and (d) vertical spindle with rotating worktable

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.8 - Surface grinder with horizontal spindle and
reciprocating worktable (most common grinder type)

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.9 - Two types of cylindrical grinding:
(a) external, and (b) internal

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Centerless Grinding

Figure 25.11 - External centerless grinding

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Creep Feed Grinding

Figure 25.13 - Comparison of (a) conventional surface


grinding and (b) creep feed grinding

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Creep Feed Grinding

• Depths of cut 1000 to 10,000 times greater than in


conventional surface grinding
• Feed rates reduced by about the same proportion
• Material removal rate and productivity are increased
in creep feed grinding because the wheel is
continuously cutting
• In conventional surface grinding, wheel is engaged in
cutting for only a portion of the stroke length

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Honing

Abrasive process performed by a set of bonded


abrasive sticks using a combination of rotational and
oscillatory motions
• Common application is to finish the bores of internal
combustion engines
• Grit sizes range between 30 and 600
• Surface finishes of 0.12 m (5 -in) or better
• Creates a characteristic cross-hatched surface that
retains lubrication

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.16 - The honing process: (a) the honing tool used for
internal bore surface, and (b) cross-hatched surface pattern
created by the action of the honing tool

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Lapping

Uses a fluid suspension of very small abrasive particles


between workpiece and lap (tool)
• Lapping compound - fluid with abrasives, general
appearance of a chalky paste
• Typical grit sizes between 300 to 600
• Applications: optical lenses, metallic bearing surfaces,
gages

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.17 - The lapping process in lens-making

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Superfinishing

Similar to honing - uses bonded abrasive stick pressed


against surface and reciprocating motion
• Differences with honing:
Shorter strokes
Higher frequencies
Lower pressures between tool and surface
Smaller grit sizes

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 25.18 - Superfinishing on an
external cylindrical surface

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
RAPID PROTOTYPING
1. Fundamentals of Rapid Prototyping
2. Rapid Prototyping Technologies
3. Applications and Benefits of Rapid Prototyping

news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/451186

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Rapid Prototyping (RP)
A family of fabrication processes developed to make
engineering prototypes in minimum lead time based
on a CAD model of the item
 Traditional method is machining
 Can require significant lead-times – several
weeks, depending on part complexity and
difficulty in ordering materials
 RP allows a part to be made in hours or days, given
that a computer model of the part has been
generated on a CAD system

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Why is Rapid Prototyping Important?
 Product designers want to have a physical model of
a new part or product design rather than just a
computer model or line drawing
 Creating a prototype is an integral step in design
 A virtual prototype (a CAD model of the part) may
not be sufficient for the designer to visualize the
part adequately
 Using RP to make the prototype, the designer
can see and feel the part and assess its merits
and shortcomings

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
RP – Two Basic Categories:
1. Material removal RP - machining, using a dedicated
CNC machine that is available to the design
department on short notice
 Starting material is often wax
 Easy to machine
 Can be melted and resolidified
 The CNC machines are often small - called
desktop machining
2. Material addition RP - adds layers of material one at
a time to build the solid part from bottom to top

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Starting Materials in Material Addition RP
1. Liquid monomers that are cured layer by layer into solid
polymers
2. Powders that are aggregated and bonded layer by layer
3. Solid sheets that are laminated to create the solid part
Additional Methods
 In addition to starting material, the various material
addition RP technologies use different methods of
building and adding layers to create the solid part
 There is a correlation between starting material
and part building techniques

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Steps to Prepare Control Instructions
1. Geometric modeling - model the component on a
CAD system to define its enclosed volume
2. Tessellation of the geometric model - the CAD
model is converted into a computerized format that
approximates its surfaces by facets (triangles or
polygons)
3. Slicing of the model into layers - computerized
model is sliced into closely-spaced parallel
horizontal layers

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solid Model to Layers

Figure 34.1 Conversion of a solid model of an object into


layers (only one layer is shown).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
More About Rapid Prototyping
 Alternative names for RP:
 Layer manufacturing
 Direct CAD manufacturing
 Solid freeform fabrication
 Rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RPM)
 RP technologies are being used increasingly to
make production parts and production tooling, not
just prototypes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Classification of RP Technologies
 There are various ways to classify the RP
techniques that have currently been developed
 The RP classification used here is based on the
form of the starting material:
1. Liquid-based
2. Solid-based
3. Powder-based

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Liquid-Based Rapid Prototyping Systems
 Starting material is a liquid
 About a dozen RP technologies are in this category
 Includes the following processes:
 Stereolithography
 Solid ground curing
 Droplet deposition manufacturing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Stereolithography (STL)
RP process for fabricating a solid plastic part out of a
photosensitive liquid polymer using a directed laser
beam to solidify the polymer
 Part fabrication is accomplished as a series of layers
- each layer is added onto the previous layer to
gradually build the 3-D geometry
 The first addition RP technology - introduced 1988
by 3D Systems Inc. based on the work of Charles
Hull
 More installations than any other RP method

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Stereolithography

Figure 34.2 Stereolithography: (1) at the start of the process, in which


the initial layer is added to the platform; and (2) after several layers
have been added so that the part geometry gradually takes form.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Figure 34.3 A part produced by stereolithography (photo
courtesy of 3D Systems, Inc.).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Facts about STL
 Each layer is 0.076 mm to 0.50 mm (0.003 in to
0.020 in.) thick
 Thinner layers provide better resolution and more
intricate shapes; but processing time is longer
 Starting materials are liquid monomers
 Polymerization occurs on exposure to UV light
produced by laser scanning beam
 Scanning speeds ~ 500 to 2500 mm/s

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Part Build Time in STL
Time to complete a single layer :
Ai
Ti   Td
vD
where Ti = time to complete layer i; Ai = area of
layer i; v = average scanning speed of the laser
beam at the surface; D = diameter of the “spot
size,” assumed circular; and Td = delay time
between layers to reposition the worktable

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Part Build Time in STL - continued
Once the Ti values have been determined for all layers,
then the build cycle time is:
ni
Tc   Ti
i 1

where Tc = STL build cycle time; and nl =


number of layers used to approximate the part
 Time to build a part ranges from one hour for
small parts of simple geometry up to several
dozen hours for complex parts

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solid Ground Curing (SGC)
Like stereolithography, SGC works by curing a
photosensitive polymer layer by layer to create a
solid model based on CAD geometric data
 Instead of using a scanning laser beam to cure a
given layer, the entire layer is exposed to a UV
source through a mask above the liquid polymer
 Hardening takes 2 to 3 s for each layer

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solid Ground Curing
Figure 34.4 SGC
steps for each
layer: (1) mask
preparation, (2)
applying liquid
photopolymer
layer,(3) mask
positioning and
exposure of layer,
(4) uncured
polymer removed
from surface, (5)
wax filling, (6)
milling for flatness
and thickness.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Facts about SGC
 Sequence for each layer takes about 90 seconds
 Time to produce a part by SGC is claimed to be
about eight times faster than other RP systems
 The solid cubic form created in SGC consists of solid
polymer and wax
 The wax provides support for fragile and
overhanging features of the part during fabrication,
but can be melted away later to leave the free-
standing part

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Droplet Deposition Manufacturing (DDM)
Starting material is melted and small droplets are shot
by a nozzle onto previously formed layer
 Droplets cold weld to surface to form a new layer
 Deposition for each layer controlled by a moving x-y
nozzle whose path is based on a cross section of a
CAD geometric model that is sliced into layers
 Work materials include wax and thermoplastics

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Solid-Based Rapid Prototyping Systems
 Starting material is a solid
 Solid-based RP systems include the following
processes:
 Laminated object manufacturing
 Fused deposition modeling

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)
Solid physical model made by stacking layers of sheet
stock, each an outline of the cross-sectional shape
of a CAD model that is sliced into layers
 Starting sheet stock includes paper, plastic,
cellulose, metals, or fiber-reinforced materials
 The sheet is usually supplied with adhesive backing
as rolls that are spooled between two reels
 After cutting, excess material in the layer remains in
place to support the part during building

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Laminated Object Manufacturing

Figure 34.5 Laminated object manufacturing.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
RP process in which a long filament of wax or polymer
is extruded onto existing part surface from a
workhead to complete each new layer
 Workhead is controlled in the x-y plane during each
layer and then moves up by a distance equal to one
layer in the z-direction
 Extrudate is solidified and cold welded to the cooler
part surface in about 0.1 s
 Part is fabricated from the base up, using a layer-by-
layer procedure

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Powder-Based RP Systems
 Starting material is a powder
 Powder-based RP systems include the following:
 Selective laser sintering
 Three dimensional printing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Moving laser beam sinters heat-fusible powders in
areas corresponding to the CAD geometry model
one layer at a time to build the solid part
 After each layer is completed, a new layer of loose
powders is spread across the surface
 Layer by layer, the powders are gradually bonded by
the laser beam into a solid mass that forms the 3-D
part geometry
 In areas not sintered, the powders are loose and can
be poured out of completed part

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP)
Part is built layer-by-layer using an ink-jet printer to
eject adhesive bonding material onto successive
layers of powders
 Binder is deposited in areas corresponding to the
cross sections of part, as determined by slicing the
CAD geometric model into layers
 The binder holds the powders together to form the
solid part, while the unbonded powders remain loose
to be removed later
 To further strengthen the part, a sintering step can
be applied to bond the individual powders

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Three Dimensional Printing

Figure 34.6 Three dimensional printing: (1) powder layer is


deposited, (2) ink-jet printing of areas that will become the part,
and (3) piston is lowered for next layer (key: v = motion).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
RP Applications
 Applications of rapid prototyping can be classified
into three categories:
1. Design
2. Engineering analysis and planning
3. Tooling and manufacturing

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Design Applications
 Designers are able to confirm their design by
building a real physical model in minimum time using
RP
 Design benefits of RP:
 Reduced lead times to produce prototypes
 Improved ability to visualize part geometry
 Early detection of design errors
 Increased capability to compute mass properties

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Engineering Analysis and Planning
 Existence of part allows certain engineering analysis
and planning activities to be accomplished that
would be more difficult without the physical entity
 Comparison of different shapes and styles to
determine aesthetic appeal
 Wind tunnel testing of streamline shapes
 Stress analysis of physical model
 Fabrication of pre-production parts for process
planning and tool design

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Tooling Applications
 Called rapid tool making (RTM) when RP is used to
fabricate production tooling
 Two approaches for tool-making:
1. Indirect RTM method
2. Direct RTM method

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Indirect RTM Method
Pattern is created by RP and the pattern is used to
fabricate the tool
 Examples:
 Patterns for sand casting and investment
casting
 Electrodes for EDM

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Direct RTM Method
RP is used to make the tool itself
 Example:
 3DP to create a die of metal powders followed
by sintering and infiltration to complete the die

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Manufacturing Applications
 Small batches of plastic parts that could not be
economically molded by injection molding because
of the high mold cost
 Parts with intricate internal geometries that could not
be made using conventional technologies without
assembly
 One-of-a-kind parts such as bone replacements that
must be made to correct size for each user

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Problems with Rapid Prototyping
 Part accuracy:
 Staircase appearance for a sloping part surface
due to layering
 Shrinkage and distortion of RP parts
 Limited variety of materials in RP
 Mechanical performance of the fabricated parts is
limited by the materials that must be used in the
RP process

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
MICROFABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES
1. Microsystem Products
2. Microfabrication Processes

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Relative Sizes in Microtechnology

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Design Trend and Terminology
 Miniaturization of products and parts, with
features sizes measured in microns (10-6 m)
 Some of the terms:
 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) -
miniature systems consisting of both
electronic and mechanical components
 Microsystem technology (MST) - refers to
the products as well as the fabrication
technologies
 Nanotechnology - even smaller entities
whose dimensions are measured in
nanometers (10-9 m)

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages of Microsystem Products
 Less material usage
 Lower power requirements
 Greater functionality per unit space
 Accessibility to regions that are forbidden to
larger products
 In most cases, smaller products should mean
lower prices because less material is used

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Types of Microsystem Devices
 Microsensors
 Microactuators
 Microstructures and microcomponents
 Microsystems and micro-instruments

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Microsensors
A sensor is a device that detects or measures
some physical phenomenon such as heat or
pressure
 Most microsensors are fabricated on a silicon
substrate using same processing technologies
as those used for integrated circuits
 Microsensors have been developed to measure
force, pressure, position, speed, acceleration,
temperature, flow, and various optical,
chemical, environmental, and biological
variables

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Microactuators
An actuator converts a physical variable of one
type into another type, and the converted
variable usually involves some mechanical
action
 An actuator causes a change in position or
the application of force
 Examples of microactuators: valves,
positioners, switches, pumps, and rotational
and linear motors

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Microstructures and Microcomponents
Micro-sized parts that are not sensors or
actuators
 Examples: microscopic lenses, mirrors,
nozzles, gears, and beams
 These items must be combined with other
components in order to provide a useful
function

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Microscopic Gear and Human Hair

Figure 37.3 A microscopic gear and a human hair. Image created by


scanning electron microscope. The gear is high-density polyethylene
molded by a process similar to LIGA except that the mold cavity was
fabricated using a focused ion beam (photo courtesy of W. Hung,
Texas A&M U., and M. Ali, Nanyang Tech. U).
©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Microsystems and micro-instruments
Integration of several of the preceding
components with the appropriate electronics
package into a miniature system or
instrument
 They tend to be very application-specific
 Examples: microlasers, optical chemical
analyzers, and microspectrometers
 The economics of manufacturing these kinds
of systems have tended to make
commercialization difficult

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Industrial Applications of Microsystems
 Ink-jet printing heads
 Thin-film magnetic heads
 Compact disks
 Automotive components
 Medical applications
 Chemical and environmental applications
 Other applications

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ink-Jet Printing Heads
 Currently one of the largest applications of
MST
 A typical ink-jet printer uses up several
cartridges each year
 Today’s ink-jet printers have resolutions of
1200 dots per inch (dpi)
 This resolution converts to a nozzle
separation of only about 21 m, certainly in
the microsystem range

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ink-Jet Printer Head

Figure 37.3 Diagram of an ink-jet printing head.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Thin-Film Magnetic Heads
 Read-write heads are key components in
magnetic storage devices
 Reading and writing of magnetic media with
higher bit densities limited by the size of the
read-write head
 Development of thin-film magnetic heads was
an important breakthrough not only in digital
storage technology but microfabrication
technologies as well
 Thin-film read-write heads are produced
annually in hundreds of millions of units, with a
market of several billion dollars per year

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Thin-Film Magnetic Read-Write Head

Figure 37.4 Thin-film magnetic read-write head (simplified).

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Compact Disks (CDs) and DVDs
 Important commercial products, as storage
media for audio, video, and computer software
 Molded of polycarbonate (ideal optical and
mechanical properties for the application)
 Diameter D = 120 mm and thickness = 1.2 mm
 Data consists of small pits (depressions) in a
helical track that begins at D = 46 mm and ends
at D = 117 mm
 Tracks separated by 1.6 m
 Each pit is 0.5 m wide and about 0.8 m to
3.5 m long

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Molds for CDs
 A master for the mold is made from a smooth
thin layer of photoresist on a glass plate (300
mm diameter)
 Photoresist is exposed to a laser beam that
writes data into surface while the glass plate is
rotated and moved slowly to create spiral track
 Exposed regions are removed; they will
correspond to pits in the CD track
 A thin layer of nickel is deposited onto surface
by sputtering
 Electroforming used to build up Ni thickness

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Molds for CDs (continued)
 This negative impression of the master is
called the father
 Several impressions of the father are made
(called mothers), whose surfaces are identical
to the original master
 Finally, the mothers are used to create the
actual mold impressions (called stampers)
 The stampers will be used to mass-produce the
CDs

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Molding and Further Processing of CD
 Once molded, the pitted side of the
polycarbonate disk is coated with aluminum by
sputtering to create a mirror surface
 To protect this layer, a thin coating of polymer
is deposited on the metal
 Thus, the final CD is a sandwich
 Thick polycarbonate substrate on one side
 Thin polymer layer on the other side
 Very thin layer of Aluminum in between

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Reading the Compact Disk
 In operation, the laser beam of a CD player
reads through the polycarbonate substrate
onto the reflective surface
 The reflected beam is interpreted as a
sequence o binary digits

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Automotive Components
 Micro-sensors and other micro-devices are
widely used in modern automobiles
 Between 20 and 100 sensors installed in a
modern automobile
 Functions include cruise control, anti-lock
braking systems, air bag deployment,
automatic transmission control, power
steering, all-wheel drive, automatic stability
control, and remote locking and unlocking
 In 1970 there were virtually no on-board
sensors

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Medical Applications
 A driving force for microscopic devices is the
principle of minimal-invasive therapy
 Small incisions or even available body
orifices to access the medical problem
 Standard medical practice today is to use
endoscopic examination accompanied by
laparoscopic surgery for hernia repair and
removal of gall bladder and appendix
 Growing use of similar procedures is expected
in brain surgery, operating through one or more
small holes drilled through the skull

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Microfabrication Processes
 Many MST products are based on silicon
 Reasons why silicon is a desirable material:
 Microdevices often include electronic
circuits, so both the circuit and the device
can be made on the same substrate
 Silicon has good mechanical properties:
 High strength and elasticity, good

hardness, and relatively low density


 Techniques to process silicon are well-

established

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Other Materials and MST Processing
 MST often requires other materials in addition
to silicon to obtain a particular microdevice
 Example: microactuators often consist of
several components made of different
materials
 Thus, microfabrication techniques consist of
more than just silicon processing:
 LIGA process
 Other conventional and nontraditional
processes performed on microscopic scale

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Silicon Layer Processes
 First application of silicon in MST was in the
fabrication of piezoresistive sensors to
measure stress, strain, and pressure in the
early 1960s
 Silicon is now widely used in MST to produce
sensors, actuators, and other microdevices
 The basic processing technologies are those
used to produce integrated circuits
 However, there are certain differences
between the processing of ICs and the
fabrication of microdevices

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Microfabrication vs. IC Fabrication
 Aspect ratios (height-to-width ratio of the
features) in microfabrication are generally
much greater than in IC fabrication
 The device sizes in microfabrication are often
much larger than in IC processing
 The structures produced in microfabrication
often include cantilevers and bridges and other
shapes requiring gaps between layers
 These features are not found in integrated
circuits

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Aspect Ratio

Figure 37.5 Aspect ratio (height-to-width ratio) typical in (a) fabrication


of integrated circuits and (b) microfabricated components.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
3D Features in Microfabrication
 Chemical wet etching of polycrystalline silicon
is isotropic, with the formation of cavities under
the edges of the resist
 However, in single-crystal Si, etching rate
depends on the orientation of the lattice
structure
 3-D features can be produced in single-crystal
silicon by wet etching, provided the crystal
structure is oriented to allow the etching
process to proceed anisotropically

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Crystal Faces in Cubic Lattice Structure

Figure 37.6 Three crystal faces in the silicon cubic lattice structure:
(a) (100) crystal face, (b) (110) crystal face, and (c) (111) crystal
face.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Bulk Micromachining
 Certain etching solutions, such as potassium
hydroxide (KOH), have a very low etching rate
in the direction of the (111) crystal face
 This permits formation of distinct geometric
structures with sharp edges in single-crystal
Si if the lattice is oriented favorably
 Bulk micromachining - relatively deep wet
etching process on single-crystal silicon
substrate
 Surface micromachining - planar structuring of
the substrate surface, using much more
shallow etching

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Bulk Micromachining

Figure 37.7 Several structures that can be formed in single-crystal


silicon substrate by bulk micromachining: (a) (110) silicon and (b)
(100) silicon.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Bulk Micromachining of Thin Membrane
Figure 37.7 Formation of a thin membrane in a silicon substrate:
(1) silicon substrate is doped with boron, (2) a thick layer of
silicon is applied on top of the doped layer by epitaxial
deposition, (3) both sides are thermally oxidized to form a
SiO2 resist on the surfaces, (4) the resist is patterned by
lithography, and (5) anisotropic etching is used to remove
the silicon except in the boron doped layer.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Cantilevers and Similar Structures
 Surface micromachining can be used to
construct cantilevers, overhangs, and similar
structures on a silicon substrate
 The cantilevered beams are parallel to
but separated by a gap from the silicon
surface
 Gap size and beam thickness are in the
micron range

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Micromachining to Form Cantilever
Figure 37.9 Surface micromachining to form a cantilever: (1)
on the silicon substrate is formed a silicon dioxide layer,
whose thickness will determine the gap size for the
cantilevered member; (2) portions of the SiO2 layer are
etched using lithography; (3) a polysilicon layer is applied;
(4) portions of the polysilicon layer are etched using
lithography; and (5) the SiO2 layer beneath the cantilevers is
selectively etched.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Lift-Off Technique in Microfabrication
A procedure to pattern metals such as platinum
on a substrate
 These structures are used in certain chemical
sensors, but are difficult to produce by wet
etching

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Lift-Off Technique
Figure 37.10 Lift-off technique: (1) resist is applied to
substrate and structured by lithography, (2) platinum is
deposited onto surfaces, and (3) resist is removed, taking
with it the platinum on its surface but leaving the desired
platinum microstructure.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
LIGA Process
 An important technology of MST
 Developed in Germany in the early 1980s
 LIGA stands for the German words
 LIthographie (in particular X-ray lithography)
 Galvanoformung (translated
electrodeposition or electroforming)
 Abformtechnik (plastic molding)
 The letters also indicate the LIGA process
sequence

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Processing Steps in LIGA
Figure 37.10 LIGA processing steps: (1) thick layer of resist
applied and X-ray exposure through mask, (2) exposed
portions of resist removed, (3) electrodeposition to fill
openings in resist, (4) resist stripped to provide (a) a mold or
(b) a metal part.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Advantages of LIGA
 LIGA is a versatile process – it can produce
parts by several different methods
 High aspect ratios are possible (large height-
to-width ratios in the fabricated part)
 Wide range of part sizes is feasible - heights
ranging from micrometers to centimeters
 Close tolerances are possible

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Disadvantages of LIGA
 LIGA is a very expensive process
 Large quantities of parts are usually
required to justify its application
 LIGA uses X-ray exposure
 Human health hazard

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ultra-High Precision Machining
 Trends in conventional machining include
taking smaller and smaller cut sizes
 Enabling technologies include:
 Single-crystal diamond cutting tools
 Position control systems with resolutions
as fine as 0.01 m
 Applications: computer hard discs,
photocopier drums, mold inserts for compact
disk reader heads, high-definition TV
projection lenses, and VCR scanning heads

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ultra-High Precision Machining
 One reported application: milling of grooves in
aluminum foil using a single-point diamond fly-
cutter
 The aluminum foil is 100 m thick
 The grooves are 85 m wide and 70 m
deep

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ultra-High Precision Machining

Figure 37.11 Ultra-high precision milling of grooves in aluminum foil.

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Microstereolithography (MSTL)
 MSTL layer thickness t = 10 to 20 m typically,
with even thinner layers possible
 In conventional STL, t = 75 m to 500 m
 MSTL spot size is as small as 1 or 2 m
 Laser spot size diameter in STL ~ 250 m
 Work material in MSTL not limited to
photosensitive polymer
 Researchers report fabricating 3-D ceramic
and metallic microstructures
 Starting material is a powder rather than a
liquid

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
NUMERICAL CONTROL AND
INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS
• Numerical Control
• Industrial Robotics
• Programmable Logic Controllers

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Numerical Control

A form of programmable automation in which the


mechanical actions of a piece of equipment are
controlled by a program containing coded
alphanumeric data
• The data represent relative positions between a
workhead and a workpart
Workhead = tool or other processing element
Workpart = object being processed
• NC operating principle is to control the motion of the
workhead relative to the workpart and to control the
sequence in which the motions are carried out

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Components of a Numerical Control System

• Part program - the detailed set of commands to be


followed by the processing equipment
• Machine control unit (MCU) - microcomputer that
stores and executes the program by converting each
command into actions by the processing equipment,
one command at a time
• Processing equipment - accomplishes the sequence
of processing steps to transform starting workpart
into completed part

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
NC Coordinate System

• Consists of three linear axes (x, y, z) of Cartesian


coordinate system, plus three rotational axes (a, b, c)
Rotational axes are used to orient workpart or
workhead to access different surfaces for
machining
Most NC systems do not require all six axes

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 38.2 - Coordinate systems used in numerical control: (a)
for flat and prismatic work

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 38.2 - Coordinate systems used in numerical control:
(b) for rotational work

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
NC Motion Control Systems

• Two types:
1. Point-to-point
2. Continuous path

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Point-to-Point (PTP) System

Workhead (or workpiece) is moved to a programmed


location with no regard for path taken to get to that
location
• Once the move is completed, some processing action
is accomplished by the workhead
Examples: drilling or punching a hole
• Thus, the part program consists of a series of point
locations at which operations are performed
• Also called positioning systems

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Continuous Path (CP) System

Continuous simultaneous control of more than one axis,


thus controlling path followed by tool relative to part
• Permits tool to perform a process while axes are
moving, enabling the system to generate angular
surfaces, two-dimensional curves, or 3-D contours in
the workpart
Examples: many milling and turning operations,
flame cutting
• Also called contouring in machining operations

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Two Types of Positioning

• Absolute positioning
Locations are always defined with respect to origin
of axis system
• Incremental positioning
Next location is defined relative to present location

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 38.3 - Absolute vs. incremental positioning. The workhead is
presently at point (2,3) and is to be moved to point (6,8). In
absolute positioning, the move is specified by x = 6, y = 8; while in
incremental positioning, the move is specified by x = 4, y = 5

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
NC Positioning System

Figure 38.4 - Motor and leadscrew arrangement in a NC


positioning system

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
NC Positioning System

Converts the coordinates specified in the NC part


program into relative positions and velocities between
tool and workpart during processing
Leadscrew pitch p - table is moved a distance
equal to the pitch for each revolution
Table velocity (e.g., feed rate in machining) is set
by the RPM of leadscrew
• To provide x-y capability, a single-axis system is
piggybacked on top of a second perpendicular axis

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Two Basic Types of Control in NC

• Open loop system


Operates without verifying that the actual position
is equal to the specified position
• Closed loop control system
Uses feedback measurement to verify that the
actual position is equal to the specified location

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Precision in Positioning

• Three critical measures of precision in positioning:


1. Control resolution
2. Accuracy
3. Repeatability

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Control Resolution (CR)

Defined as the distance separating two adjacent control


points in the axis movement
• Control points are sometimes called addressable
points because they are locations along the axis to
which the worktable can be directed to go
• CR depends on:
Electromechanical components of positioning
system
Number of bits used by controller to define axis
coordinate location

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 38.7 - A portion of a linear positioning system axis, with
showing control resolution, accuracy, and repeatability

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Statistical Distribution of Mechanical Errors

• When a positioning system is directed to move to a


given control point, the capability to move to that
point is limited by mechanical errors
Errors are due to a variety of inaccuracies and
imperfections, such as play between leadscrew
and worktable, gear backlash, and deflection of
machine components
• It is assumed that the errors form an unbiased normal
distribution with mean = 0 and that the standard
deviation  is constant over axis range

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Accuracy in a Positioning System

Maximum possible error that can occur between desired


target point and actual position taken by system
• For one axis:
Accuracy = 0.5 CR + 3
where CR = control resolution; and = standard
deviation of the error distribution

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Repeatability

Capability of a positioning system to return to a given


control point that has been previously programmed
• Repeatability of any given axis of a positioning
system can be defined as the range of mechanical
errors associated with the axis
Repeatability = 3

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
NC Part Programming Techniques

1. Manual part programming


2. Computer-assisted part programming
3. CAD/CAM- assisted part programming
4. Manual data input
• Common features:
 Points, lines, and surfaces of the workpart must
be defined relative to NC axis system
 Movement of the cutting tool must be defined
relative to these part features

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Manual Part Programming

Uses basic numerical data and special alphanumeric


codes to define the steps in the process
• Suited to simple point-to-point machining jobs, such
as drilling operations

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Manual Part Programming: Example

• Example command for drilling operation:


n010 x70.0 y85.5 f175 s500
where n-word (n010) = a sequence number; x- and
y-words = x and y coordinate positions (x = 70.0
mm and y = 85.5 mm), and f-word and s-word =
feed rate and spindle speed (feed rate = 175
mm/min, spindle speed = 500 rev/min)
• Complete part program consists of a sequence of
commands

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Computer-Assisted Part Programming

• Uses a high-level programming language


 Suited to programming of more complex jobs
 First NC part programming language was APT =
Automatically Programmed Tooling
 In APT, part programming is divided into two
basic steps:
1. Definition of part geometry
2. Specification of tool path and operation
sequence

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
APT Geometry Statements

• Part programmer defines geometry of workpart by


constructing it of basic geometric elements such as
points, lines, planes, circles, and cylinders
Examples:
P1 = POINT/25.0, 150.0
L1 = LINE/P1, P2
where P1 is a point located at x = 25 and y = 150,
and L1 is a line through points P1 and P2
• Similar statements are used to define circles,
cylinders, and other geometry elements

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
APT Motion Statements:
Point-to-Point (PTP)
• Specification of tool path accomplished with APT
motion statements
Example statement for point-to-point operation:
GOTO/P1
• Directs tool to move from current location to P1
P1 has been defined by a previous APT geometry
statement

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
APT Motion Statements (CP)

• Use previously defined geometry elements such as


lines, circles, and planes.
Example command:
GORGT/L3, PAST, L4
• Directs tool to go right (GORGT) along line L3 until it
is positioned just past line L4
L4 must be a line that intersects L3

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
CAD/CAM-Assisted Part Programming

Takes computer-assisted part programming further by


using a CAD/CAM system to interact with
programmer as part program is being prepared
• In conventional use of APT, program is written and
then entered into the computer for processing
Programming errors may not be detected until
computer processing
• With CAD/CAM, programmer receives immediate
visual verification as each statement is entered
Errors can be corrected immediately rather than
after entire program has been written

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Manual Data Input (MDI)

Machine operator enters part program at the machine


• Involves use of a CRT display with graphics
capability at machine tool controls
NC part programming statements are entered
using a menu-driven procedure that requires
minimum training of machine tool operator
• Because MDI does not require a staff of NC part
programmers, MDI is a way for small machine shops
to economically implement NC

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Applications of Numerical Control

• Operating principle of NC applies to many


operations
 There are many industrial operations in which the
position of a workhead must be controlled
relative to the part or product being processed
• Two categories of NC applications:
1. Machine tool applications
2. Non- machine tool applications

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Machine Tool Applications

• NC is widely used for machining operations such as


turning, drilling, and milling
• NC has motivated the development of machining
centers, which change their own cutting tools to
perform a variety of machining operations under NC
• Other NC machine tools:
Grinding machines
Sheet metal pressworking machines
Tube bending machines
Thermal cutting processes

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Non-Machine Tool Applications

• Tape laying machines and filament winding machines


for composites
• Welding machines, both arc welding and resistance
welding
• Component insertion machines in electronics
assembly
• Drafting machines
• Coordinate measuring machines for inspection

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Benefits of NC Relative to Manually
Operated Equipment
• Reduced non-productive time which results in shorter
cycle times
• Lower manufacturing lead times
• Simpler fixtures
• Greater manufacturing flexibility
• Improved accuracy
• Reduced human error

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Industrial Robotics

An industrial robot is a general purpose programmable


machine that possesses certain anthropomorphic
features
• The most apparent anthropomorphic feature of an
industrial robot is its mechanical arm, or manipulator
• Robots can perform a variety of tasks such as
loading and unloading machine tools, spot welding
automobile bodies, and spray painting
• Robots are typically used as substitutes for human
workers in these tasks

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Robot Anatomy

• An industrial robot consists of a mechanical


manipulator and a controller to move it and perform
other related functions
The mechanical manipulator consists of joints and
links to position and orient the end of the
manipulator relative to its base
The controller operates the joints in a coordinated
fashion to execute a programmed work cycle

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 38.8 -
The manipulator of a
modern industrial
robot
(photo courtesy of
Adept Technology,
Inc.)

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Manipulator Joints and Links

• A robot joint is similar to a human body joint


It provides relative movement between two parts
of the body
• Typical industrial robots have five or six joints
Manipulator joints: classified as linear or rotating
Each joint moves its output link relative to its input
link
Coordinated movement of joints gives the robot its
ability to move, position, and orient objects

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Manipulator Design

• Robot manipulators can usually be divided into two


sections:
 Arm-and-body assembly - function is to position
an object or tool
 Wrist assembly - function is to properly orient the
object or tool
• There are typically three joints associated with the
arm-and-body assembly, and two or three joints
associated with the wrist

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Manipulator Wrist

• The wrist is assembled to the last link in any of these


arm-and-body configurations
• The SCARA is sometimes an exception because it is
almost always used for simple handling and
assembly tasks involving vertical motions
A wrist is not usually present at the end of its
manipulator
Substituting for the wrist on the SCARA is usually
a gripper to grasp components for movement
and/or assembly

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
End Effectors

The special tooling that connects to the robot's wrist to


perform the specific task
• Two general types:
1. Tools - used for a processing operation
 Applications: spot welding guns, spray
painting nozzles, rotating spindles, heating
torches, assembly tools
2. Grippers - designed to grasp and move objects
 Applications: part placement, machine
loading and unloading, and palletizing

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 38.10 - A robot gripper:
(a) open and (b) closed to grasp a workpart

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Robot Programming

• Robots execute a stored program of instructions


which define the sequence of motions and positions
in the work cycle
Much like a NC part program
• In addition to motion instructions, the program may
include commands for other functions such as:
Interacting with external equipment
Responding to sensors
Processing data

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Two Basic Teach Methods in
Robot Programming
1. Leadthrough programming - "teach-by-showing" in
which manipulator is moved through the sequence
of positions in the work cycle and the controller
records each position in memory for subsequent
playback
2. Computer programming languages –robot program
is prepared at least partially off-line for subsequent
downloading to computer

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Where Should Robots be
Used in the Workplace?
• Work environment is hazardous for humans
• Work cycle is repetitive
• The work is performed at a stationary location
• Part or tool handling is difficult for humans
• Multi-shift operation
• Long production runs and infrequent changeovers
• Part positioning and orientation are established at the
beginning of work cycle, since most robots cannot
see

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Applications of Industrial Robots

• Three basic categories:


1. Material handling
2. Processing operations
3. Assembly and inspection

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Microcomputer-based device that uses stored


instructions in programmable memory to implement
logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic
control functions, through digital or analog
input/output modules, for controlling various
machines and processes
• Introduced around 1969 in response to specifications
proposed by General Motors Corporation
Controls manufacturers saw a commercial
opportunity, and today PLCs are an important
industrial controls technology

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Why PLCs are Important

• Many automated systems operate by turning on and


off motors, switches, and other devices to respond to
conditions and as a function of time
• These devices use binary variables that have two
possible values, 1 or 0, which means ON or OFF,
object present or not present, high or low voltage
• Common binary devices used in industrial control:
limit switches, photodetectors, timers, control relays,
motors, solenoids, valves, clutches, and lights
• Some devices send a signal in response to a physical
stimulus, while others respond to an electrical signal

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
Figure 38.12 - Major components of a programmable logic controller

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
PLC Programming

• Most common control instructions include logical


operations, sequencing, counting, and timing
• Many control applications require additional
instructions for analog control, data processing, and
computations
• A variety of PLC programming languages have been
developed, ranging from ladder logic diagrams to
structured text

©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “


Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e”
What is Manufacturing?

Manufacture is derived from two Latin words manus


(hand) and factus (make); the combination means
“made by hand”
• “Made by hand” accurately described the manual
methods used when the English word “manufacture”
was first coined around 1567 A.D.
• Most modern manufacturing is accomplished by
automated and computer-controlled machinery that is
manually supervised
Manufacturing is the application of physical and
chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties,
and/or appearance of a given starting material to
make parts or products; manufacturing also includes
assembly of multiple parts to make products
• Manufacturing is almost always carried out as a
sequence of operations

Manufacturing
as a technical
definition
Manufacturing is the transformation of materials into
items of greater value by means of one or more
processing and/or assembly operations
• Manufacturing adds value to the material by
changing its shape or properties, or by combining it
with other materials that have been similarly altered

Manufacturing
as an economic
definition
Manufacturing Industries (Table 1.2)

Industry consists of enterprises and organizations that


produce or supply goods and services
• Industries can be classified as:
1. Primary industries - those that cultivate and
exploit natural resources, e.g., agriculture, mining
2. Secondary industries - take the outputs of
primary industries and convert them into
consumer and capital goods - manufacturing is
the principal activity
3. Tertiary industries -service sector of the
economy
Manufacturing Industries - continued
• Most secondary industries are companies that do
manufacturing; others are construction and power
generation
• However, manufacturing includes several industries
whose production technologies are not covered in
this course; e.g., apparel, beverages, chemicals, and
food processing
• For our purposes, manufacturing means production
of hardware, which ranges from nuts and bolts to
digital computers and military weapons, as well as
plastic and ceramic products
Manufactured Products (Table1.3)

• Consumer Goods: Products purchased directly by


consumers, such as cars, personal computers, TV’s
and tennis rackets.

• Capital Goods: Products purchased by other


companies to produce goods and supply services.
Examples include aircraft, mainframe computers,
railroad equipment, machine tools and construction
equipment.
Manufactured Products (continued..)

• Other manufactured products include materials,


components and supplies.

• Examples of these items include sheet steel, bar


stock, metal stampings, machined parts, plastic
moldings, and extrusions, cutting tools, dies, molds
and lubricants..
Production Quantity
The quantity of products Q made by a factory has an
important influence on the way its people, facilities,
and procedures are organized
Annual production quantities can be classified into three
ranges:
Production range Annual Quantity Q
Low production 1 to 100 units
Medium production 100 to 10,000 units
High production 10,000 to millions of units
The ranges provided are arbitrary. Depending on
the kind of product these boundaries may shift.
Product Variety

Product variety P refers to different product types


produced in the plant
• Product variety is distinct from production quantity
• Different products have different shapes and sizes;
they are intended for different markets; some have
more parts than others
• The number of different product types made each
year in a factory can be counted
• When the number of product types made in the
factory is high, this indicates high product variety
• An inverse correlation exists between product variety
P and production quantity Q in factory operations
• If a factory's P is high, then Q is likely to be low; and if
Q is high, then P is likely to be low

Figure 1.2 -
P-Q Relationship
Production Quantity and Product Variety
Although P is a quantitative parameter, it is much less
exact than Q because details on how much the
designs differ is not captured simply by the number
of different designs
• Soft product variety - small differences between
products, e.g., differences between car models
made on the same production line, in which there is
a high proportion of common parts among models
• Hard product variety - products differ substantially,
and there are few, if any, common parts, e.g., the
difference between a small car and a large truck
Manufacturing Capability
A manufacturing plant consists of a set of processes
and systems (and people, of course) designed to
transform a certain limited range of materials into
products of increased value
• The three building blocks - materials, processes, and
systems - are the subject of modern manufacturing
• Manufacturing capability includes:
 Technological processing capability
 Physical product limitations
 Production capacity
Technological Processing Capability

The available set of manufacturing processes in the


plant (or company)
• Certain manufacturing processes are suited to certain
materials
 By specializing in certain processes, the plant is
also specializing in certain material types
• Includes not only the physical processes, but also the
expertise of the plant personnel
Physical Product Limitations
Given a plant with a certain set of processes, there are
size and weight limitations on the parts or products
that can be made in the plant
• Product size and weight affect:
 Production equipment
 Material handling equipment
• The production and material handling equipment, and
plant size must be planned for products that lie within
a certain size and weight range
Production Capacity
The production quantity that can be produced in a given
time period (e.g., month or year)
• Commonly called plant capacity, or production
capacity, it is defined as the maximum rate of
production that a plant can achieve under assumed
operating conditions
 Operating conditions refer to number of shifts per
week, hours per shift, direct labor manning levels
in the plant, and so on
• Usually measured in terms of output units, such as
tons of steel or number of cars produced by the plant
Materials in Manufacturing
• Most engineering materials can be classified into
one of three basic categories:
1. Metals
2. Ceramics
3. Polymers
• Their chemistries are different, their mechanical and
physical properties are dissimilar, and these
differences affect the manufacturing processes that
can be used to produce products from them
• In addition to the three basic categories, there are:
4. Composites - nonhomogeneous mixtures of the
other three basic types rather than a unique
category

Figure 1.3 –
Venn diagram
of three basic
Material types
plus composites
Metals
Usually alloys, which are composed of two or more
elements, at least one of which is metallic
• Two basic groups:
1. Ferrous metals - based on iron, comprise  75%
of metal tonnage in the world:
 Steel = iron-carbon alloy with 0.02 to 2.11% C
 Cast iron = alloy with 2% to 4% C
2. Nonferrous metals - all other metallic elements
and their alloys: aluminum, copper, gold,
magnesium, nickel, silver, tin, titanium, etc.
Ceramics
A compound containing metallic (or semi-metallic) and
nonmetallic elements. Typical nonmetallic elements
are oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon
• For processing purposes, ceramics divide into:
1. Crystalline ceramics – includes:
 Traditional ceramics, such as clay (hydrous
aluminum silicates)
 Modern ceramics, such as alumina (Al2O3)
2. Glasses – mostly based on silica (SiO2)
Polymers
A compound formed of repeating structural units called mers,
whose atoms share electrons to form very large molecules.
Polymers usually consist of carbon plus other elements
like hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine.

• Three categories:

1. Thermoplastic polymers - can be subjected to multiple


heating and cooling cycles without altering their
molecular structure. Common thermoplastics include
polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and nylon.
Polymers (continued..)

2. Thermosetting polymers - molecules


chemically transform (cure) into a rigid structure
upon cooling from a heated plastic condition.
Members include, phenolics, amino resins and
epoxies.

3. Elastomers - exhibit significant elastic behavior.


Members include natural rubber, neoprene,
silicone and polyurethane.
Composites
A material consisting of two or more phases that are
processed separately and then bonded together to
achieve properties superior to its constituents
• A phase = a homogeneous mass of material, such as
grains of identical unit cell structure in a solid metal
• Usual structure consists of particles or fibers of one
phase mixed in a second phase
• Properties depend on components, physical shapes
of components, and the way they are combined to
form the final material
Manufacturing Processes (Figure 1.4)

Two basic types:


1. Processing operations - transform a work material
from one state of completion to a more advanced
state. It adds value by
 Operations that change the geometry,
properties, or appearance of the starting
material.
2. Assembly operations - join two or more
components in order to create a new entity called
assembly, subassembly or joining.
Processing Operations
Alters a part's shape, physical properties, or
appearance in order to add value to the material.
• Three categories of processing operations:
1. Shaping operations - alter the geometry of the
starting work material
2. Property-enhancing operations - improve
physical properties of the material without
changing its shape (Heat Treatment)
3. Surface processing operations - performed to
clean, treat, coat, or deposit material onto the
exterior surface of the work (Finishing
Operations)
Shaping Processes – Four Categories
1. Solidification processes - starting material is a
heated liquid or semifluid that solidifies to form part
geometry
2. Particulate processing - starting material is a
powder, and the powders are formed into desired
geometry and then sintered to harden
3. Deformation processes - starting material is a
ductile solid (commonly metal) that is deformed
4. Material removal processes - starting material is
a solid (ductile or brittle), from which material is
removed so resulting part has desired geometry
Solidification Processes
• Starting material is heated sufficiently to transform it
into a liquid or highly plastic state
• Examples: Casting for metals, molding for plastics
Particulate Processing
• Starting materials are powders of metals or ceramics
• Usually involves pressing and sintering, in which
powders are first squeezed in a die cavity and then
heated to bond the individual particles
Deformation Processes
Starting workpart is shaped by application of forces that
exceed the yield strength of the material
• Examples: (a) forging, (b) extrusion
Material Removal Processes
Excess material removed from the starting workpiece so
what remains is the desired geometry
• Examples: machining such as turning, drilling, and
milling; also grinding and nontraditional processes
Waste in Shaping Processes
It is desirable to minimize waste and scrap in part
shaping
• Material removal processes tend to be wasteful in the
unit operation, simply by the way they work
• Casting and molding usually waste little material
• Terminology:
 Net shape processes - when most of the starting
material is used and no subsequent machining is
required to achieve final part geometry
 Near net shape processes - when minimum
amount of machining is required
Property-Enhancing Processes

• Performed to improve mechanical or physical


properties of the work material
• Part shape is not altered, except unintentionally
• Examples:
 Heat treatment of metals and glasses
 Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics
Surface Processing Operations
1. Cleaning - chemical and mechanical processes to
remove dirt, oil, and other contaminants from the
surface
2. Surface treatments - mechanical working such as
sand blasting, and physical processes like diffusion
3. Coating and thin film deposition - coating exterior
surface of the workpart

• Several surface processing operations used to


fabricate integrated circuits
Assembly Operations
Two or more separate parts are joined to form a new
entity
• Types of assembly operations:
1. Joining processes – create a permanent joint.
• Examples: welding, brazing, soldering, and
adhesive bonding
2. Mechanical assembly – fastening by mechanical
methods
 Examples: use of screws, bolts, nuts, other
threaded fasteners; press fitting, expansion fits
Production Systems
Productions systems consist of people, equipment, and
procedures designed for the combination of
materials and processes that constitute a firm's
manufacturing operations
• A manufacturing firm must have systems to
efficiently accomplish its type of production
• Two categories of production systems:
1. Production facilities
2. Manufacturing support systems
• Both categories include people (people make these
systems work)
Production Facilities
The factory, production equipment, and material
handling equipment
• The facilities "touch" the product
• Also includes the way the equipment is arranged in
the factory - the plant layout
• Equipment usually organized into logical groupings,
called manufacturing systems
 Examples: automated production line, machine
cell consisting of an industrial robot and two
machine tools
Production Facilities and
Product Quantities
• A company designs its manufacturing systems and
organizes its factories to serve the particular mission
of each plant
• Certain types of production facilities are recognized
as the most appropriate for a given type of
manufacturing (combination of product variety and
production quantity)
• Different facilities are required for each of the three
quantity ranges
Low Quantity Production

Job shop is the term used for this production facility


• Low quantity range = 1 to 100 units/year
• A job shop makes low quantities of specialized and
customized products
• Products are typically complex, e.g., space capsules,
prototype aircraft, special machinery
• Equipment in a job shop is general purpose
• Labor force is highly skilled
• Designed for maximum flexibility
Medium Quantity Production

• Medium quantity range = 100 to 10,000 units


annually
• Two different types of facility, depending on product
variety:
 Hard product variety: batch production
 Soft product variety: cellular manufacturing
High Production

• High quantity range = 10,000 to millions of units per


year
• Referred to as mass production
 High demand for product
 Manufacturing system dedicated to the
production of that product
• Two categories of mass production:
1. Quantity production
2. Flow line production
Quantity Production

Mass production of single parts on single machine or


small numbers of machines
• Typically involves standard machines equipped with
special tooling
• Equipment is dedicated full-time to the production of
one part type
• Typical layouts used in quantity production = process
layout and cellular layout
Flow Line Production

Multiple machines or workstations arranged in


sequence, e.g., production lines
• Product is complex and requires multiple processing
and/or assembly operations
• Work units are physically moved through the
sequence to complete the product
• Workstations and equipment are designed
specifically for the product to maximize efficiency
Manufacturing Support Systems
• A company must organize itself to design the
processes and equipment, plan and control the
production orders, and satisfy product quality
requirements
• These functions are accomplished by manufacturing
support systems - people and procedures by which
a company manages its production operations
• Typical departments:
1. Manufacturing engineering
2. Production planning and control
3. Quality control
Figure 1.10 – Overview of production system and major topics in
Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing
CNC Programming Example (Lecture, Spring 2010)

CNC Programming Sheet

CNC Programming Part Name: Programmed by:


Sheet Machine: Date: Page:
Setup information:
N G/M X Y Z IJK F R S T Others
Seq Code Pos Pos Pos Loc Feed Rad/ret Speed Tool
5 (start)
10 G20
15 G00
20 G17
25 G40
30 G49
35 G80
40 G90
45 M06 T30
50 G00
55 G00 X3.0 Y-0.5 Z0.5
60 M03 S2000
65 M08
70 G01 Z-0.25 F5.0
75 G03 X3.0 Y-3.5 I0 J-1.5 F4.0
80 G01 X7.0 F5.0
85 G00 Z0.2
90 G00 X3.0 Y-0.5
95 G01 Z-0.25 F5.0
100 G01 X7.0
105 G02 X7.0 Y-3.5 I0 J-1.5 F4.5
110 G00 Z0.5
115 X4.0 Y-2.0
120 G81 Z-0.5 F8.0 R0.1
125 X6.0
130 G00 Z0.5

1
N G/M X Y Z IJK F R S T Others
Seq Code Pos Pos Pos Loc Feed Rad/ret Speed Tool
135 M05
140 G28 Z0
145 M09
150 M30

2
ME325/580 Handout: CNC Machining
Spring 2010 I. Kao

Introduction
Computer numerical control (CNC) is the process of manufacturing machined parts in a
production environment, as controlled and allocated by a computerized controller that used
motors to drive each axis. The CNC technology has been one of manufacturing’s major
development in the 20th century. The controller is designed to control the direction, speed, and
length of time each motor rotates. The operator downloads programmed path to the computer
connected to the machine and then executes the code. The idea of Numerical Control (NC) was
conceived by John Parsons, taken up by USAF, in 1948. This term is used interchangeably with
CNC. The CNC technology not only has facilitated the development of new techniques and
achievement of higher production levels but also has helped to increase product quality.

The CNC technology was developed to:


1. increase production
2. improve the quality and accuracy of manufactured parts
3. stabilize manufacturing costs
4. manufacture complex or otherwise impossible jobs
Numerical control was also designed to help produce parts with the following characteristics:
• similar in terms of raw material
• various sizes and geometry
• small- to medium-sized batches
• a sequence of similar steps was used to complete each workpiece
CNC is now a well-established process, especially with the information and computer
technology, compared to the NC technology first demonstrated in 1952. The CNC technology
has the following advantages over the NC technology:
1. Programs can be entered at the machine and stored into memory.
2. Programs are easier to edit, so part programming process design time is reduced.
3. There is greater flexibility in the complexity of parts that can be produced.
4. Three-dimensional geometric models of parts, stored in the computer, can be used to
generate CNC part programs with tool path almost automatically, thus saving manual
programming labor. This is referred to as CAD/CAM integration.
5. Computers can be connected to other computers worldwide through network, thereby
allowing part programs to be transmitted directly to remote CNC machines.

Training is required for the operator of a CNC machine. The CNC machine also requires
maintenance for smooth operations and extended life.
Two very similar standards are generally followed worldwide: the ISO 6983 and the EIA RS274.
ISO (International Standardization Organization) and EIA (Electronic Industries Association)
developed the main standard for CNC, which used simple programming instructions to enable a
machine tool to carry out a particular operation. The flow charts of CNC processing, with and
without computer aided process, are shown below.

1
Flow of CNC Processing Flow of Computer-Aided CNC Processing

develop part drawing 3D geometric CAD model

decide machine for the part decide machining ops for the part

choose the required tooling choose the required tooling

design machining sequence use CAM to generate CNC program

calculate the coordinates verify/edit via simulator

calculate spindle speed and feedrate download the part program

write the CNC program verify/edit on actual machine

preapre setup sheets and tool lists Run the program to produce part

verify/edit: simulator/machine tool

verify/edit on actual machine

Run the program to produce part

CNC Programming
A CNC program is a sequential list of machining instructions for the CNC machine to execute.
CNC code consists of blocks (also called lines), each of which contains an individual command
for a movement or specific action. There are two major types of CNC codes, or letter addresses,
in any program. The major CNC codes are G-codes and M-codes.

• G-code are preparatory functions, which involve actual tool moves (for example, control
of the machine). These include rapid moves, feed moves, radial feed moves, dwells, and
roughing and profiling cycles.
• M-codes are miscellaneous functions, which include actions necessary for machining, but
not those that are an actual tool movement (for example, auxiliary functions). These

2
include spindle on and off, tool changes, coolant on and off, program stops, and other
similar related functions.

Other letter addresses or variable are used in the G- and M-codes to make words. Most G-codes
contain a variable, defined by the programmer, for each specific function. Each designation used
in CNC programming is called a letter address. The letters used for programming are as follows:

N Block number – specifies the start of a block


G Preparatory function, as previously explained
X X-axis coordinate
Y Y-axis coordinate
Z Z-axis coordinate
I X-axis location of arc center
J Y-axis location of arc center
K Z-axis location of arc center
S Set the spindle speed
F Assign a feed rate
T Specify tool to be used
M Miscellaneous function, as previously explained

The Three Major Phases of a CNC Program


The three phases of a CNC program can be illustrated with the following sample code.
Phase CNC program Descriptions
% Program start flag (syntax & format are machine-dependent)
Program

:1001 Four digit program number; up to four digits, 0-9999


setup

N5 G90 G20 Use absolute units, and inch programming


N10 M06 T2 Stop for tool change, use Tool #2
N15 M03 S1200 Turn the spindle on CW to 1200 rpm
N20 G00 X1 Y1 Rapid to (X1, Y1) from the origin
N25 Z0.125 Rapid down to Z0.125
Material
removal

N30 G01 Z-0.125 F5 Feed down to Z-0.125 at 5 in./min


N35 G01 X2 Y2 Feed diagonally to (X2, Y2)
N40 G00 Z1 Rapid up to Z1
N45 X0 Y0 Rapid to (X0, Y0)
N50 M05 Turn the spindle off
shut
Sys

N55 M30 End of program

(1) Program setup: This phase is virtually identical in every program. It always begins with
the program start flag (% sign). Note: The actual setup for each CNC machine may differ.
For example, the CNC in our machine shop uses “0100” to start the CNC code. Line two
always has a program number from 0 to 9999. Line three is the first actually numbered.
G90 tells the controller that all distances (X and Z) are absolute, that is, measured from the
origin. G20 instructs the controller that all coordinates are measured in inch units.
(2) Material removal: This phase deals exclusively with the actual cutting feed moves. It
contains all the commands that designate linear or circular feed moves, rapid moves,

3
canned cycles such as grooving or profiling, or any other function required for that
particular part.
(3) System shutdown: It contains all those G-codes and M-codes that turn off all options that
were turned on in the setup phase. Functions such as coolant and spindle rotation must be
shut off prior to removal of the part from the machine. The shutdown phase also is
virtually identical in every program.

Using A Programming Sheet


Each row in the following program sheet contains all the data required to write one CNC block.

CNC Programming Part Name: Programmed by:


Sheet Machine: Date: Page:
Setup information:
N G/M X Y Z IJK F R S T Others
Seq Code Pos Pos Pos Loc Feed Rad/ret Speed Tool
5 G90,G20
10 M6 2
15 M3 1200
20 G00 0 0
25 0.1
30 G01 -0.1 2
35 G01 1.5

Block Format
Each block of CNC code needs to be entered correctly. The block comprises of different
components which can produce tool moves on the machine. Here is a sample:

N105 G01 X1.0 Y1.0 Z0.125 F5


N105 Block number Shows the current CNC block number
G01 G-code Tells the machine what to do. In this case, a linear feed
move
X1.0 Y1.0 Z0.125 Coordinate Gives the machine an end point for its move. X
designates an X-axis coordinates, Y/Z for Y/Z-axis.
F5 Special function Contains any special function or related parameter. In
this case, a feed rate of 5 in/min is specified.

There are some simple restrictions on CNC blocks, as follows:


• Each may contain only one tool move.
• Each may contain any number of non-tool move G-codes (e.g., G90 G20 for absolute
system and inch system), provided that they do not conflict between each other (for
example, G42 and G43).
• Each may contain only one feedrate per block.
• Each may contain only one specified tool or spindle speed.
• The block numbers should be sequential.
• Both the program start flag and the program number must be independent of all other
commands.
• The data within a block follow the sequence shown in the above sample block.

4
Preparing to Program
Before you start writing a CNC program, you must first prepare to write it. The steps include
(a) Develop an order of operations
(b) Calculate coordinates and complete a coordinate sheet
(c) Choose tooling with clamping devices, and calculate speeds and feeds

Program Zero
Program zero allows the programmer to specify a position from which all other coordinates will
be referenced. Program zero is also called “part zero” or “machine home.” “Program zero” is
particularly important in absolute programming. In incremental programming (where
coordinates are related incrementally), one has a floating program zero that changes all the time.

Tool Motion
There are three types of tool motions used in a CNC machine. They are:
(1) G00: rapid tool move
(2) G01: straight line feed move
(3) G02/03: circular interpolation or arc feed moves
All cycles such as G71 rough turning are either one of these types or a combination of these
types of motion. These motion command are modal. That is, if you program one of these
commands, you do not need to program the same code again until you want to change the type of
tool motion. The command will be in effect until it is changed or turned off.

Using Canned Cycles


Canned cycles combine many standard programming operations and are designed to shorten the
program length, minimize math calculations, and optimize cutting conditions to improve the
production of the machine. Examples of canned cycles on a mill are drilling, boring, spot facing,
tapping, … etc; on a lathe, threading and pattern repeating cycles. On the lathe, canned cycles
are also referred to as multiple repetitive cycles. Canned cycles also facilitate programming.
You should check out the canned cycles that your CNC control offers. Subroutines are also
available on many CNC controllers. You can utilize these routines to make your own canned
cycles.
Tooling
Separate tools are used for roughing and finishing, and tasks such as drilling, slotting, and thread
cutting require specific tools.
Feedrates, spindle speeds and Cutting Fluids
A good surface finish and economical production rates require proper use of spindle speeds and
feed rates, as well as cutting fluids.

5
CNC Milling

The following tables list G-codes and M-codes.

The G-codes, which include preparatory functions, involve actual tool moves. The following
table lists G-codes in CNC milling.

G-Code name Function Op*


G00 Positioning in rapid Modal
G01 Linear interpolation Modal
G02 Circular interpolation (CW) Modal
G03 Circular interpolation (CCW) Modal
G04 Dwell
G17 XY plane Modal
G18 XZ plane Modal
G19 YZ plane Modal
G20/G70 Inch unit system Modal
G21/G71 Metric unit system Modal
G28 Automatic return to reference point
G29 Automatic return from reference point
G40 Cutter compensation cancel Modal
G41 Cutter compensation left Modal
G42 Cutter compensation right Modal
G43 Tool length compensation (Plus) Modal
G44 Tool length compensation (Minus) Modal
G49 Tool length compensation cancel Modal
G80 Cancel canned cycles Modal
G81 Drilling cycle Modal
G82 Counter boring cycle Modal
G83 Deep hole (peck) drilling cycle Modal
G90 Absolute positioning Modal
G91 Incremental positioning Modal
G92 Reposition origin point
G98 Set initial plane default
G99 Return to retract (rapid) plane
Op: When noted as “modal”, it means that the function remain active until cancelled by another G-code.

* Check your CNC machine manuals for G-codes which are not listed here.

6
The M-codes, miscellaneous functions, include actions necessary for machining, but not those
that are actual tool movements. That is, they are auxiliary functions, such as spindle on and off,
tool changes, coolant on and off, program stops, other similar related functions. The following
table lists M-codes in CNC milling.

M-Code Function
M00 Program stop
M01 Optional program stop
M02 Program end
M03 Spindle on clockwise (CW)
M04 Spindle on counterclockwise (CCW)
M05 Spindle stop
M06 Tool change
M08 Coolant on
M09 Coolant off
M10 Clamps on
M11 Clamps off
M30 Program end, reset to start

7
Letter Address Listing

Letter addresses are variables used in the different G-codes and M-codes. Most G-codes contain
a variable, defined by the programmer, for each specific function. Each letter used in
conjunction with G-codes or M-codes is called words. The letter used for programming are as
follows:

Letter address Function


D Diameter offset register number
H Height offset register number
F Assigns a feed rate
G Preparatory function
I X-axis location of arc center
J Y-axis location of arc center
K Z-axis location of arc center
M Miscellaneous function
N Block number (specifies the start of a block)
P Dwell time
R Retract distance used with G81, 82, 83
Radius when used with G02 or G03
S Sets the spindle speed
T Specifies the tool to be used
X X-axis coordinates
Y Y-axis coordinates
Z Z-axis coordinates

8
Appendix: CNC Programming Sheet

CNC Programming Part Name: Programmed by:


Sheet Machine: Date: Page:
Setup information:
N G/M X Y Z IJK F R S T Others
Seq Code Pos Pos Pos Loc Feed Rad/ret Speed Tool
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

9
MEC325/580 H ANDOUT: CNC T URNING O PERATION AND L ATHE

MEC325/580, Spring 2010 I. Kao

In this handout, CNC programming for turning operations will be presented. The coordinate references are
discussed with an example of code based on the diameter programming reference.

CNC lathe programming: Before writing CNC code for turning operation, it is important to first identify
and calculate the coordinates of points of transition in turning. The machining may include multiple passes.
We will use a CNC lathe program with the finishing cut of the following lathe part, shown in Figure 1, as an
example to illustrate the concept of CNC programming in turning operations.
+X axis
9 8 4

3 2 3
5 4
2
7 6
1

−Z 1
−9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 +Z axis
Program zero
Figure 1: An example of CNC part for the illustration of CNC turning operation. All units are in inches.

First the coordinate frame with a right-hand coordinate system is shown in Figure 1. The conventional
coordinates of parts in turning operation are in the second quadrant with +X and −Z coordinates. Since a
turning operation is always axisymmetric with respect to the Z axis, the profile shown includes point 1 to
point 9, as shown in Figure 1. Note that the entire profile for programming consideration fits in the second
quadrant. The other half in the third quadrant is a mirror image of the profile shown in Figure 1. All X
values are positive, while all Z values are negative.

However, there are two types of programming references to the XZ dimension. The “diameter program-
ming” relates the X-axis to the diameter of the workpiece. The “radius programming” relates the X-axis to
the radius of the workpiece. Although many controller can work in either mode, diameter programming
is the most common and is the default for most CNC lathe. To change the default, one can enable the radius
programming mode.

Based on Figure 1, the coordinates of the diameter programming for points 1 to 9 are identified and listed
in Table 1, using the diameter programming reference. The workpiece is a cylindrical stock of diameter of
8”; tool #1 is the regular right-hand turning tool, and the tool start position is X4, Z3. The CNC code with
comments is in the following for this turning operation of the finishing cut shown in Figure 1.

N5 ____ Code for program start (machine-dependent)


N10 G90 G20 Absolute, inches system
N15 M06 T1 Tool change to Tool #1
N20 M03 S500 spindle CW with speed 500 RPM
N25 G00 X0 Z0.1 M08 Rapid to X0,Z0.1, coolant on (ready to start)

1
Table 1: Coordinates of the points identified in Figure 1, under the diameter programming reference.
Point # X Z
1 0 0
2 6 −3
3 6 −4
4 5 −4.5
5 5 −5.5
6 4 −5.5
7 4 −6
8 8 −7
9 8 −9

N30 G01 Z0 F0.02 Feed to point 1 at 0.02 in/rev


N35 G03 X6 Z-3 I0 K-3 CCW circular feed to point 2
N40 G01 Z-4 Linear Feed to point 3
N45 X5 Z-4.5 Feed to point 4
N50 Z-5.5 Feed to point 5
N55 X4 Feed to point 6
N60 Z-6 Feed to point 7
N65 X8 Z-7 Feed to point 8
N70 Z-9 Feed to point 9
N75 G00 Z2 M09 Rapid to Z2, coolant off
N80 M05 Spindle off
N85 M02 End program

Note that block 35 uses G03 to do a circular feed in CCW direction to arrive at the destination point (X6,
Z−3), with center of the 90◦ arc at (I0, K−3), using the notation of I,J,K to express the X, Y, Z coordinates
of the center. In block 40, the G-code G01 is used to do linear interpolation. Since this is a “modal” code,
it stays in effect from block 40 to 70 until it is turned off by G00, another modal code, in block 75. At the
end, the M-code is used to turn off coolant, spindle, and to end the program.

2
CNC Turning Machining Example: A part is to be finished using turning operation, as shown in the
following figure. The information about the workpiece and tool is in the following.
Workpiece size: 4" diameter by 5" length
Tool: Tool #1, right-hand turning tool
Tool start position: X4,Z3
9

8
7 6
0.30 radius 5

4 3
2
1 0.60 1.00 2.00 2.40 4.00

0.20
1.10

1.50

2.30
5.00

1. The coordinates of the finished part, as indicated in the v figure, are calculated using the diameter
programming and listed in the following table.
Point # X Z
1 0 0
2 0.6 0
3 1 −0.2
4 1 −1.1
5 2 −1.1
6 2.4 −1.5
7 2.4 −2
8 3 −2.3
9 4 −2.3

2. The following CNC program is written for the finishing pass of the lathe part.

N05____ Start of the program


N10 G90 G20 Absolute, inches system
N15 M06 T1 Tool change to Tool #1
N20 M03 Spindle on CW
N25 G00 X0 Z0.1 M08 Rapid to X0,Z0.1, coolant on (ready to start)
N30 G01 Z0 F0.012 Feed to point 1 at 0.012 in/rev
N35 X0.6 Feed to point 2
N40 X1 Z-0.2 Feed to point 3
N45 Z-1.1 Feed to point 4
N50 X2 Feed to point 5
N55 X2.4 Z-1.5 Feed to point 6
N60 Z-2 Feed to point 7
N65 G02 X3 Z-2.3 I0.3 K0 Cicular feed to point 8
N70 G01 X4 Feed to point 9
N75 G00 Z3 M09 Rapid to Z3, coolant off
N80 M05 Spindle off
N85 M02 End program

3
ME325/580 SME Video: Cutting Tool Geometries

Spring 2010 I. Kao

1. The chip formation is influenced by


• Work materials
• Tool materials
• Tool geometry
• Machine tool forces
• Process conditions (e.g., heat and vibration)
2. Use wrong cutting tool materials may
• Fail to cut
• Accelerate tool wear
• Cause tool breakage
• Damage parts
3. The following process parameters
• Workpiece composition and hardness
• Workpiece shape and surface condition
• Machine’s horsepower
• Feed and speed ranges
• Workholding rigidity
will determine
(a) tool shape
(b) tool material
(c) process parameters

Single-point cutting tools -- having only one chip producing edge


Example: turning

4. Three important considerations


• Tool material/grade
• Tool geometry
• Tool holder design
5. Definitions and terminology
• Angle of inclination
• Rake angle
• Lead/entry angle
• Insert tool holder: shank, pocket, head
6. Tool holders are specified with
• Shank size
• Right/left/neutral
• Clamping method
• Insert shape
• Insert size
• Insert style
• Insert angle

1
7. Effective break of chips is important. Proper chip breaking results from
• Feed rate
• Depth of cut
• Chipbreaker geometry
8. Shape of chips
• 6 or 9 shape – ideal shape
• helical – acceptable if it is short helical
• long stringy (or hay chips) – not desirable
• corrugated – will cause excessive cutting edge wear

Multiple-point cutting tools – having two or more chip producing edges


Examples: milling, reaming, drilling, tabbing

9. Two different milling modes


• Climb milling mode (materials removed gradually reduce as the tool travels)
• Conventional milling mode (materials removed gradually increase as the tool travels)
10. Major variables in design of miller body
• Cutter’s diameter
• Right/left hand (RH – CCW; LH – CW)
• Cutter geometries (rake and lead angles)
• Insert pocket design
• Cutter pitch
• Mounting method

Total time: 25:51 (22:30 without the Review)

2
ME325/580 SME Video: Cutting Tool Materials

Spring 2010 I. Kao

1. Cutting tools can be broken into two categories, as shown in the following table.
Cutting Tools Single-Point Tools Multiple-Point Tools
Example Turning Milling, drilling, reaming

2. It is estimated that at least 50% of cutting tools are used incorrectly. The number one error in
formulating tool selection is to lower cost on tools rather than optimize productivity and
extend tool life.
3. Cutting tool selection should be based on the following triangular chart.

4. Workpiece information includes:


• Workpiece starting and finished shapes
• Workpiece hardness
• Workpiece tensile strength
• Material abrasiveness
5. Changes in (1) workpiece materials, (2) part tolerance, (3) part geometries, and (4) required
quantities will result in changes of (a) tool materials, and (b) tool geometry.
6. Cutting tool material are required to:
• Be harder than workpiece
• Retain hardness
• Resist wear and thermal shock
• Be impact resistant
• Be chemically inert
Trade-off always exists among different requirements. A good cutting tool should be
optimized with respect to the specific cutting situation.
7. Ceramic cutting tools: properties for stability and shock

8. High speed steel tools: invented in the 1900’s, can sustain temperature up to 600°C. Include
three categories:
• Tungsten
• Molybdenum
• Molybdenum-cobalt
Titanium nitride coatings are usually used to enhance the performance and life.

1
9. In the 1930’s, carbide tools were introduced in Germany. It can sustain a temperature as high
as 1200°C, and has 3~5 times higher strength than the high speed steel tools. Typical carbide
tools include:
• tungsten carbide
• titanium carbide
• tantalum carbide
• niobium carbide
The binder material for carbide is usually cobalt.
10. The property variables for carbide tools include
• Particle size
• Binder
• Metallurgy
• Manufacturing technology
11. Contents of carbides and properties of wear and heat resistance versus strength

12. Carbide insert and fixture: considerations for selecting carbide grade cutting tools include
type of work materials, hardness, condition of outer skin of workpiece, heavy or light, rigid
or loose machine tool holder … etc.
13. Though with the same ISO 513-1991 standard coating, the carbide insert tools may differ in
• Compositions
• Microstructures
• Coatings
• Properties
• Performance
14. ANSI classification of carbide insert tools: example CNMG-432-MR7. The first 7 digits
represent the following properties:
• Insert shape
• Insert relief angle (N=0°, A=3°, B=5°, C=7°, P=11°, D=15°, E=20°, F=25°, G=30°)
• Insert tolerance class
Insert inscribed circle thickness
C = ± 0.0005 ± 0.001
E = ± 0.001 ± 0.001
G = ± 0.001 ± 0.005
M = ± 0.002 ± 0.005
± 0.004
U = ± 0.005 ± 0.005
± 0.012
• Insert type: use a one-letter symbol
• Insert size (inscribed circle or the IC size)
• Insert thickness
• Insert corner radius

2
The manufacturers often provide additional chip breaker code such as MR7 in the above
example.
15. Two-thirds of carbide tools are coated, which give rise to three times more tool life or 2~4
times more cutting speed. The coating are typically 1 mil thickness or smaller, with multiple
layers. The carbide’s primary limitation is shown in the following figure.

16. Primary cutting tool coating materials are


• Titanium carbide
• Titanium nitride
• Aluminum oxide
• Titanium carbonitride
where the titanium nitride minimizes friction.
17. Primary coating methods
• Chemical vapor deposition (CVD): at 1000°C, usually for multiple layers
• Physical vapor deposition (PVD): at 500°C, usually for single or dual layers
18. Ceramic tools have high hardness but tend to be more brittle. Ceramic cutting tools materials
can be categorized into two areas:
• Alumina-based
• Silicon nitride-based: (e.g., for high speed grey cast iron)
19. Cermet tools: excellent in chemical resistance but do not withstand high heat.
20. Super hard tools:
• Cubic boron nitride (CBN, which is the second hardest material after diamond)
• Polycrystalline diamond (PCD, 50 times more hardness than carbides)
21. Diamond coated inserts are normally for non-ferrous materials.
22. Tool failure modes:
• Edge wear
• Flank wear
• Cratering (or top wear)
• Chipping (of the tool edge)
• Built-up edge
• Deformation (normally occurs at high temperature, such as 1800-2000°F, need to use
microscope to detect)
• Thermal cracking
• Notching

Total time: 23:54 (21:14 without the Review)

3
 Merchant Equation – Know how to derive it!

𝑑𝑡 𝛼 𝛽
 Shear Plane which minimize energy is 𝑑∅ = 0 ; ∅ = (45𝑜 + 2 − 2 )
Lathe
𝑃 𝐹𝑣 𝐹
 Unit Power/Specific Energy 𝑈 = 𝑀𝑅 = 𝑣𝑡𝑐 𝑤 = 𝑡 𝑐𝑤
𝑅 𝑜 𝑜
Milling
 Materials with high strain hardening factor prefer down milling
High Strain produces “chattering” which is vibrations in cutting tool
 Climb Milling aka Down Milling produces better surfaces
Drilling
 One line makes contact and may wobble
 Precision Drilling – Start with hole so drill is centered ~ known as Center Drill

**Taylor Tool Life Equation**


𝑣𝑇 𝑛 = 𝑐 ; log 𝑣 + 𝑛𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑇 = log 𝑐
Tool Life
 Cemented Carbides – Cobalt can be a binder because of relative atomic size.
Invented in the 1930s by Germanym Based on Tungsten Carbide
 Cermet TiC, TiN, TiCN with Nickel as binder
 Typical Values
n c
Steel .125 120-70
Carbide .25 900-500
Ceramic 0.6 3000

 Cubic Boron Nitride – 2nd Hardest Material


material Hardness (1 being hardest)
Cubic Boron Nitride 2
Boron Carbide 3
Diamond 1
Aluminum Oxide (alumina) 5
Silicon Carbide 4

Sintered Polycrystalline Diamond (SPD) – Fabricated by sintering very fine-grained


diamond crystals under high temperatures
 Usually 0.5mm thick (coating)
 High Speed Machining of Non-Ferrous Metals

Abrasive Machining (Grinding,etc.)


 Grain Size measured using screen mesh
 Larger Number = smoother (smaller grain size)
 Bonding Materials
Vitrified Bond, Silicate Structure ~ Sodium Silicate, Rubber Bond, Shellac Bond,
Metallic Bond
𝑤
 Grain Aspect Ratio = 𝑟𝑔 = ; w = width of cut, T = thickness of chip
𝑇

Taguchi Methods
 Always Pick Largest Signal to Noise Ratio
 Please reference chart for method

Bulk Deformation
 B.D. = low Surface Area to Volume Ratio; Sheet Metal Working = high Surface Area
to Volume Ratio

Recrystallization Temperature = 50% Melting Temperature


Warm Working = 30% Recrystallization Temperature

Cold Working Hot Working


Strain Hardening Yes No
Ductility Yes Yes/No
Yield Strength Increased Same or Decreased
Drasitically Change Shape No Yes
At Plastic State Yes Yes
Energy Required Large Amounts Small Amounts
(excluding heat)
Oxidation Less (~0) More
Recrystallization Increased Not Affected
Temperature
ME325/580 SME DVD Video: Die Casting

Spring 2010 I. Kao

1. Die casting is a high precision rapid part production process involving the high pressure
injection of molten metal into a die having a cavity of the desired part shape.
2. Die casting is extremely versatile technique allowing single part to be cast or multiple parts
to be cast simultaneously.
3. The most common die casting metals are
• Aluminum alloys (melting point 580 °C—600 °C)
• Zinc alloys (387 °C)
• Magnesium alloys (596 °C)
In general, metals with low melting point can be die-cast. Copper and copper alloy like brass
are also die-cast but less frequently because of the high melting temperature. Metal with
high melting point can make casting more difficult. A metal with low melting temperature
has high cast ability.
4. Castability is general term which refers to
• Complexity of shape
• Minimum wall thickness
• Minimum wall draft/taper
• Precision to which the metal can be cast
5. The two principal types of die casting machines are
• Hot chamber machine
• Cold chamber machine
6. Die cast machines are often rated by clamping-force capacity or shot weight capacity.
7. Maximum part weight are
• Aluminum and Zinc (75 lbs/34 kg)
• Magnesium (45 lbs/20 kg)
• The brass (10 lbs/4.5 kg)
8. The die halves are attached to platens of the die cast machine, including stationary platen and
removable platen.
9. The die
• determines the shape of the part,
• acts as a heat exchanger,
• vents trapped air/gas, and
• ejects the solidified part.
10. The die must withstand a combination of
• molten metal heat and erosion
• thermal shock from repeated heating and cooling
• metal injection and clamping pressure
11. Dies are usually produced by
• Hot-work tool steels
• Mold steel
• Maraging steel

1
• Refractory steel such as tungsten alloys and molybdenum alloys
12. Die casting is used in many industrial applications such as trucks, cars, computer, camera,
toys, locks, agriculture, and many others.

2
MEC325/580 SME Video: Electrical Discharge Machining
Spring 2010 I. Kao

EDM: Electrical Discharge Machining


1. EDM is a thermo erosion process, in which work material is removed through a series of
rapidly recurring electrical discharges between an electrode, or cutting tool, and an electrical
conductive work piece, in the presence of dielectric fluids. These discharges occur over a
voltage gap between the electrode and work piece. Heat from the spark vaporizes minute
particles from work piece material which is then washed from the gap by the continuously
flushing dielectric fluid.
2. Two main types of ED machines: RAM & WIRE
3. EDM is an exceptionally diverse process and examples of its products are:
• tiny electronic connectors
• highly accurate medical parts
• automatic stamping dies
• aircraft body panels
4. EDM has replaced much of machining and grinding steps formerly needed in die making,
which represent the largest single use of the EDM process. Die components cut with EDM
can often be made in a single piece, no matter how complex their internal form is. The single
piece dies are stronger than those built from segments.
5. Dies are cut from:
• Hardened Steel
• Heat-Treated Steel
• Carbide
6. Other materials can be EDM’ed:
• Polycrystalline diamond
• Titanium
• Hot-rolled steel
• Cold-rolled steel
• Copper
• Brass
• High temperature alloys
7. Benefits of EDM:
• Work piece and electrode never touch  No cutting force generated  produce frail and
fragile parts (cannot be done by conventional machining)
• Burr-free, intricate details, superior surfaces finishes are possible.
• Allows heat treating before EDM  eliminates risk of damaging expensive work pieces
• Building process knowledge  help reduce training
8. Limitations:
• Low metal removal rate (MRR)
• Electrode fabrication requires time
• Electrodes are consumable
• Work pieces must be conductive
1  
 
9. Basic Components of EDM:
The electrode is attached to the ram, which is connected to one pole of pulse power supply.
The work piece connects to the other pole of power supply. There is a small gap between the
work and electrode. This gap is flooded with dielectric fluid, which acts as insulator until the
power is turned down. The machine control delivers thousands of DC electrical pulses per
second to the gap and erosion begins.
10. The sparks are generated one at a time, but it rates from tens of thousands to hundreds of
thousands of times per second. Each spark has temperature from 14,000 to 21,000ºF. As
erosion continues, the machine control advances the electrode through the work always
maintaining a constant gap distance.
11. Single spark in erosion process:
As a pulse of DC electricity reaches the electrode and part, an intense electrical field
develops in the gap. Microscopy contaminants suspended in the dielectric fluid are attracted
by the field and concentrate at the field strongest point. These contaminants build a high
conductivity bridge cross the gap. As the field’s voltage increases, this material in the
conductive bridge heat up. Some pieces ionized to form a sparkle channel between the
electrode and work piece. At this point both temperature and pressure in the channel rapidly
increase generating a spark. A small amount of material melts and vaporizes from the
electrode and work piece at the points of spark contact. A bubble composed of gases by
product vaporization rapidly expands outwards from the spark channel. Once the pulse ends,
the sparking and heating actions stop collapsing the spark channel. Dielectric fluid then
rushes into the gap, flushing molt material from both surfaces.

12. Three observable surface layers:


• Top layer, melt, easy to remove
• Middle layer, recast, polishing
• Third layer, heat affected zone, only heated not melt
13. Part surface condition is a function of EDM cycle, which has on-time and off-time expressed
in micro-seconds. All work occurs during on-time. Metal removal is proportional to the
amount of energy applied during on-time. That energy is controlled by two variables, peak
amperage or intensity of the spark and the length of on-time. The longer the on-time, the
more metal erodes.
14. Duty Cycle: percentage of on-time relative to the total cycle time.
15. Gap between work piece and electrode also impacts metal removal rate. Generally, the
smaller the gap, the better the accuracy and part finish are, and the slower the metal removal
rate is.
16. Kerf / overcut

RAM EDMING
17. Work piece mounts inside of a tank and is covered with dielectric fluid. An electrode then
lowers to within a few thousandths of an inch to the work piece to begin EDM.
18. Produce complex cavities out of a solid piece of metal.
19. Also refer to as die sinker and vertical EDM.

2  
 
20. Size and automation range from manually operated tabletop systems to large bed manual or
CNC systems.
21. Subsystems:
• Power supply
 Provides…
o Series of DC current electrical discharges
 Controls…
o Pulse voltage
o Current
o Pulse duration
o Duty cycle
o Pulse frequency
o Electrode polarity
• Dielectric system
 Introduces clean dielectric
 Popular dielectric fluids are hydrocarbon and silicon-based oil
 Flushes away debris
 Cools work piece and electrode
• Electrode
 Shape is negative to generated cavity
 Usually has a “+” polarity
 Some EDM’s require multiply electrodes for roughing and finishing operations
 Electrode making is important
 Equipped with systems of dust control and evacuation
• Servo system

WIRE EDMING
22. CNC WIRE cut EDM machine uses a traveling wire electrode to cut complex outlines and
fine details in stamping and binding dies of pretty hard steel.
23. Subsystems
• Power supply
 Similar to RAM
• Dielectric system
• Wire feeding system
 A large spool of wire
 Rollers that direct the wire through the machine
 A metal contact to conduct power to the wire
 Guides to keep the wire straight in the cut
 Pinch rolls which provide drive and wire tension
 A system to thread the wire from the upper to the lower guide
 An idle or balancing arm
 A sensor to detect when the wire runs out or breaks
 A place for wire to collect
• Positioning system

3  
 
 Use CNC two axis table (X, Y) and provides a variety of multi-axis wire positioning
capabilities
24. Wire diameter: 0.002” ~ 0.013”
25. Metal removal rate:
Inches traversed per hour × thickness of work in inches = square inches per hour
26. Top speed: 20 to 25 square inches per hour
27. The wire never touches the work piece while cutting, the servo system maintains at least one
thousandth of an inch gap between wire and work piece.
28. During spark erosion, each wire produces a kerf for overcutting the work surface that is
slightly larger than the wire’s diameter. For example, 0.012” wire can create 0.015” kerf.
29. The wire cuts along a programmed path, starting from the side of the work piece or through
drilled holes made with small EDM hole making machines designed for that purpose.
30. WIRE EDM machines can also process parts that are stacked. But flushing could be
problematic.

Third type of EDM: drilling small deep holes and slots around or regular shapes
31. Size of electrode: up to 1 foot long with diameters of one hundredth to one eighth of an inch.
32. Rotation speed: up to 100 rev/min.
33. Accuracy: up to one thousandth of an inch.
34. Fire & Smoke
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total time: 22:00 (19:30 without the Review)

4  
 
ME325/580 Handout: Engineering Materials

Spring 2010 I. Kao

Descriptions and comparisons of the three basic categories of engineering materials (metals,
ceramics, and polymers) and their mechanical, physical, and other properties

Metals Ceramics Polymers


Ferrous and non-ferrous Compound containing Compound formed of
metals metallic (or semi-metallic) repeating structural units
Description and nonmetallic elements called “mers” whose atoms
share electrons to form very
large structure
Structure Crystalline (solid state) Crystalline or non-crystalline Glassy or
(amorphous; e.g., glass, SiO2) Glassy + Crystalline
Mechanical Strong, hard, ductile (esp. High hardness Strength & stiffness vary
Properties FCC) High stiffness
High brittleness
Physical High electrical conductivity Electrical insulation Low density
Properties High thermal conductivity Thermally resistant High electric resistivity
(refractoriness) Low thermal conduction
Other Opaqueness Chemical inertness Carbon +(H2,N2,O2,Cl2)
Properties Reflectivity

In addition to the basic three categories


described above, the composite materials are
typically combinations of two of the three
engineering materials, as illustrated in the
diagram (also called the Venn diagram).
PLC Logic Table: an example
Logic States
X1 1 1 0 0
X2 1 0 1 0
C1 1 1 0 1
S1 1 1 0 1
T1 1 1 0 1
S2 1 1 0 1
Expendable-Mold
Casting
Manufacturing Processes –– Podcast Series

Imin Kao, Professor


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering and App. Sci.
SUNY at Stony Brook

Metal Casting

Open mold Closed mold

1
Riser Design for Casting
• Riser is waste metal that is separated from
the casting and can be re-melted to make
more castings
• To minimize waste in the unit operation, it
is desirable for the volume of metal in the
riser to be a minimum
• Since the geometry of the riser is normally
selected to maximize the V/A ratio (why?),
this allows riser volume to be reduced to the
minimum possible value

Figure 11.1 (textbook) A large sand casting weighing over


680 kg (1500 lb) for an air compressor frame (photo
courtesy of Elkhart Foundry).

2
Types of Patterns for Sand Casting
Figure 11.3 (textbook) Types of patterns used in
sand casting:
(a) solid pattern (b) split pattern
(c) match‑plate pattern (d) cope and drag pattern

Sand Casting
• Core:
– inserted into the mold cavity prior to pouring
– May require supports to hold it in position in the mold cavity
during pouring, called chaplets
• Desirable Mold Properties:
– Strength; Permeability; Thermal stability; Collapsibility;
Reusability
• Foundry Sands: Silica (SiO2) or silica mixed with
other minerals
– Good refractory properties; Small grain size yields better
surface finish on the cast part; Large grain size is more
permeable; Irregular grain shapes strengthen molds due to
interlocking

3
Sand Casting Defects (a) & (b)
Sand blow: Balloon‑shaped Pinholes: Formation of many
gas cavity caused by release small gas cavities at or slightly
of mold gases during pouring below surface of casting

Sand Casting Defects (c) & (d)


Sand wash: irregularity in the Scabs: rough area on the surface
surface resulting from erosion due to encrustations of sand and
of sand mold during pouring metal, due to mold surface
flaking off during solidification

4
Sand Casting Defects (e) & (f)
Penetration: When fluidity of liquid Mold shift: A step in cast
metal is high, it may penetrate into product at parting line
sand mold or core, causing casting caused by sidewise
surface to consist of a mixture of relative displacement of
sand grains and metal cope and drag

Sand Casting Defects (g) & (h)


Core shift: the core being Mold crack: a crack develops
displaced from its intended due to insufficient mold strength
position, usually vertical, caused with molten seeping into the
by buoyancy of the molten metal mold to form a ‘fin’

5
Other Expendable Mold Processes

• Shell Molding

• Vacuum Molding
• Expanded Polystyrene Process
• Investment Casting
• Plaster Mold and Ceramic Mold Casting

Investment Casting (Lost Wax Process)


A pattern made of wax is coated with a refractory
material to make mold, after which wax is melted
away prior to pouring molten metal
• “Investment” comes from a less familiar
definition of “invest” – “to cover completely,”
which refers to coating of refractory material
around wax pattern
• It is a precision casting process - capable of
producing castings of high accuracy and intricate
detail

6
Investment Casting

Figure 11.8 (textbook) Steps in investment casting: (1)


wax patterns are produced, (2) several patterns are
attached to a sprue to form a pattern tree

Investment Casting (cont.)

Figure 11.8 (textbook) Steps in investment casting: (3) the pattern


tree is coated with a thin layer of refractory material, (4) the full
mold is formed by covering the coated tree with sufficient
refractory material to make it rigid

7
Investment Casting (cont.)

Figure 11.8 (textbook) Steps in investment casting: (5) the mold is held
in an inverted position and heated to melt the wax and permit it to drip
out of the cavity, (6) the mold is preheated to a high temperature, the
molten metal is poured, and it solidifies

Investment Casting (cont.)

Figure 11.8 (textbook) Steps in investment casting: (7) the mold is


broken away from the finished casting and the parts are separated from
the sprue

8
Investment Casting

Figure 11.9 (textbook) A one‑piece compressor stator with


108 separate airfoils made by investment casting (photo
courtesy of Howmet Corp.).

Metals for Casting


• Most commercial castings are made of
alloys rather than pure metals
– Alloys are generally easier to cast, and
properties of product are better
• Casting alloys can be classified as:
– Ferrous: (1) gray cast iron, (2) nodular iron, (3)
white cast iron, (4) malleable iron, and (5) alloy
cast irons (∼ 1400°C or 2500°F) & (6) steel (1650°
C or 3000°F)
– Nonferrous: (1) Aluminum (660°C or 1220°F), (2)
Copper Alloys (1083°C or 1981°F), (3) Zinc Alloys
(419°C or 786°F), (4) others

9
SME Video Clip

• Next, let’s watch the SME


video clip about Casting
which came with the textbook
for classroom use ONLY…

10
E XTRUSION AND A NALYSIS OF P RESSURE D URING P ROCESS

MEC325/580, Spring 2010 I. Kao

Extrusion Problem: In an direct extrusion process, pressure needs to be applied to extrude a billet of length
L0 = 75 mm and diameter D0 = 25 mm with an extrusion ratio of rx = 4.0. The die angle is α = 90◦ .
The billet material has the following parameters for the plastic flow stress equation: K = 415 M P a and
n = 0.18. Use the Johnson’s formula with a = 0.8 and b = 1.5.

1. Determine the ram pressures needed for the extrusion process at the following lengths:
L = 75, 50, 25, 0 mm

2. Based on the results in Part (1), plot the pressure-stroke curve. What is your conclusion about such
curve?

Solution : Use the Johnson’s formula with


p = Ȳf ǫx (1)
where ǫx = a + b ln rx , with a = 0.8 and b = 1.5. Thus,
ǫ = ln rx = ln 4.0 = 1.3893
ǫx = 0.8 + 1.5(ln rx ) = 2.8795
415(1.3863)0.18
Ȳf = = 373 M P a
(1 + 0.18)

1. Use the die angle of α = 90◦ , the billet material is to be forced through the die opening almost
immediately. The ram pressures are calculated in the following at the respective lengths.
At L = 75 mm the ram pressure is
2(75)
 
p = 373 2.8795 + = 3312 M P a (2)
25
where the additional pressure due to friction was added in the term 2(75)/25.
Repeat the calculation for L = 50, 25, 0 mm, we find

2(50)
 
p = 373 2.8795 + = 2566 M P a
25
2(25)
 
p = 373 2.8795 + = 1820 M P a
25
2(0)
 
p = 373 2.8795 + = 1074 M P a
25

2. The ram stroke is (L0 − L). The pressure-stroke curve is plotted in Figure 1.
It is noted that the pressure required for the indirect extrusion is constant, as shown in Figure 1, and it
is equal to the pressure of the direct extrusion at the end when L = 0 mm.

1
Direct extrusion in solid line; Indirect in dashed line

3000

2500
Ram pressure (MPa)

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Ram stroke (mm)
Figure 1: The pressure-stroke curves of direct and indirect extrusion processes are in solid and dashed lines,
respectively.

2
ME325/580 SME DVD Video: Forging

Spring 2010 I. Kao

1. Forgibility is valued in
• Excellent
• Good
• Fair
• Poor or low
2. Forgibility depends on
• Metal’s/alloy’s composition
• Crystal structure
• Mechanical properties
3. Materials rank high in forgibility
• Aluminum alloys
• Copper alloys
• Magnesium alloys
• Carbon steel
• Low and high alloy steel
• Nickel alloys
• Titanium alloys
4. There are two primary types of forging
• Open die forging
• Impression die forging or close die forging
5. In open die forging, flat, V-shaped and semi-round dies are commonly used. Other auxiliary
tools are also used
• Saddles
• Blocks
• Mandrels
• Punches
6. Handling used for various purposes of open forging
• Work piece transfer
• Manipulating during forging
• Off-handing of finished forgings
7. Close-die forging performing may include
• Edging
• Blocking
• Finish-forging
8. Lubricant serves for
• Minimize friction
• Minimize abrasion
• Minimize heat loss
• Enhance metal flow
• Permits the release of forging from dies

1
9. Related forging processes include
• Seamless ring rolling
• Hot die forging
• Isothermal forging

2
MEC 325/580 Handout: Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Spring 2010 I. Kao

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) is a language for communicating engineering


design specifications. GD&T includes all the symbols, definitions, mathematical formulae, and
application rules necessary to embody a variable engineering language. It conveys both the
nominal dimensions (ideal geometry), and the tolerance for a part. It is now the predominant
language used worldwide as well as the standard language approved by the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the
United States Department of Defense (DoD). GD&T is the language that designers should use to
translate design requirements into measurable specifications.

The following American National Standards define GD&T’s vocabulary and provide its
grammatical rules.

• ASME Y14.5M-1994, Dimensioning and Tolerancing


• ASME Y14.5.1M-1994, Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Principles
• ASME Y14.41-2003, Digital Product Definition Data Practices

These are often referred to as the “Y14.5” and “the Math Standards,” respectively.

Usage of GD&T and why do we use GD&T


The following drawing is an example for the identification of hole location.

Figure 1: Drawing showing distance to ideal hole location

1
A drawing which does not use GD&T (Figure 2) can be potentially misunderstood and fabricated
incorrectly (see Figure 3 for the illustration).

Figure 2: Drawing that does not use GD&T

Figure 3: Manufactured part that conforms to the drawing without GD&T in Figure 2

2
GD&T provides unique, unambiguous meaning for each control, precluding each person’s
having his own competing interpretation. GD&T is simply a means of controlling surfaces more
precisely and unambiguously. See Figure 4 for an illustration.

Figure 4: Drawing that uses GD&T with unique and unambiguous interpretation

More information and a list of symbols of GD&T can be found in the reference [1].

ASME Y14.41-2003 Standard for CAD


ASME Y14.41-2003 standard is an extension of the Y14.5 standard for 2-dimensional drawings
to 3D computer-aided design (CAD) environments. The standard also provides a guide for CAD
software developers working on improved modeling and annotation practices for the engineering
community. ASME Y14.41 sets forth the requirements for tolerances, dimensional data, and
other annotations, and advances the capabilities of Y14.5. Y14.41 defines the exceptions as well
as additional requirements to existing ASME standards for using product definition data or
drawings in 3-D digital format. [2]

The standard is separated into 3 industrial practices: (i) Models Only: These portions cover the
practices, requirements, and interpretation of the CAD data when there is no engineering
drawing. While ASME Y14.41-2003 is commonly called the “solid model standard,” this is
misleading. The standard was intentionally written for different user levels; (ii) Models and
Drawing: These portions cover what is commonly called “reduced content drawings” or

3
“minimally dimensioned drawings,” where an engineering drawing is available, but does not
contain all the necessary information for producing the part or assembly; (iii) Drawings only:
These portions of the standard allow the historical practices of using engineering drawings to
define a product. However, this standard adds to the practices defined in ASME Y14.5 for
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing with some additional symbols, the use of axinometric
views as dimensionable views, and the concept of supplemental geometry–all of which can help
to clarify the drawing and its interpretation. [3]

Part of the materials in this handout have been taken from the following reference.

Reference:
[1] Walter M. Stites and Paul Drake, Jr., “Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook,” Editor
Paul J. Drake, Jr., Ch. 5, McGraw-Hill, 1999
[2] ASME Y14.41-2003 Standard on Digital Product Definition Data Practices, ISBN:
0791828107, 2003
[3] Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASME_Y14.41-2003

4
MEC325/580 Handout: Introduction of Rapid Prototyping
Spring 2010 I. Kao

1. What is Rapid Prototyping?


The idea behind Rapid Prototyping (RP) is to have a machine or machines that can create a
desired solid model directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) file without any human
intervention. A 3-D model is decomposed into multiple 2-dimensional layers with the use of
computer software, and a machine will then manufacture the model one layer at a time. When
the layers are sequentially stacked up and connected, a 3D model will emerge at the end of the
fabrication process.
Since its development in the mid 1980’s numerous Rapid Prototyping1 methods have been
devised. One of the first machine that was devised to fabricate rapid prototypes was the stereo
lithography which used laser to solidify 2D features of a solid model layer by layer in a polymer
liquid bath. Many other methods have since come out. Some of the more common methods
include:
• Stereo Lithography (SLA)
• Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
• Laminated Object Modeling (LOM)
• Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

The RP technique was initially designed to make prototypes quickly for the designers to
evaluate the design and to revise as needed. Owing to the typically high cost of making
prototypes and discarding them after initial evaluation to render the final design, the RP methods
feature the advantages of short time to fabricate and low cost for prototyping. Since then, some
machines, especially those use the laser sintering approach, have been revised and designed to
include metal powder metallurgy with bonder (e.g., resin) and baking process to cure metal
solids with near shape and strength. Nevertheless, this type of efforts still cannot replace the
conventional process of machining. From its inception, the RP technique was not meant to
replace the conventional manufacturing, and it appears that it will not in the foreseeable future.
In many cases where actual parts are required for design consideration, RP is better than the
“virtual” prototyping in which computer is used to view and manipulate solids from different
angles to simulate the design. For example, in the design of ink refilling of an ink-jet printer
cartridge in which the cartridge was decapitated and replaced by a new polymer cap, after
replacing the sponges and inks inside the ink compartments, through ultrasonic welding process.
The physical prototype of the cap design is crucial and needed to actually mesh with the ink
cartridge for the inspection of the statistical range of the parameters of cartridges. A virtual
prototype, no matter how sophisticated it may be, just will not do.
In the following, we briefly explain each of the methods for rapid prototyping.

1
In a broader context, sometimes the “free-form machining” (FFM) is used to refer to these types of
forming processes, distinct from the conventional machining or forming processes.

1
1.1 Stereo Lithography (SLA)
The stereo lithography (SLA or STL) process is based on the principle of curing or hardening a
liquid photo polymer into a specific shape. A laser is used to focus on spot-curing the polymer,
providing the necessary energy to polymerization. Based on the Beer-Lambert law, the exposure
decreases exponentially with depth according to the rule
−z / D p
E(z) = E 0 (1)
where E is the exposure in energy per area, E0 is the exposure at the resin surface (z=0), and Dp
is the “penetration depth” at the laser wavelength and is a property of the resin. At the surface
depth, the polymer is sufficiently
€ exposed for it to gel, or
−C d / D p
Ec = E0 (2)
where Ec is the critical threshold exposure and Cd is the cure depth. Thus, the cure depth is given
by the following equation
€ ⎛ E ⎞
Cd = Dp ⎜ 0 ⎟ (3)
⎝ E c ⎠
The cure depth represents the thickness in which the resin has polymerized into a gel, but it does
not have high strength at this state. Thus, the controlling software will slightly overlaps the
cured volumes, but curing under
€ fluorescent lamps is often necessary as a finishing operation.
Stereo lithography has a vat container with a platform on which the part to be fabricated can
be raised or lowered vertically. This vat is filled with a photo-curable liquid acrylate polymer, a
mixture of acrylic monomers, oligomers (polymer intermediates), and a phtoinitiator. A laser,
generating an ultraviolet beam, is then focused along a selected surface area of photopolymer at
surface to lay out the required feature. As these 2D features are laid, the platform is lowered to
expose a fresh layer of liquid ready for the next layer of 2D features. Successive operations will
render the final 3D solid.
Depending on the capacity of the machine, the cost ranges from $100,000 to $500,000, with
cost of liquid polymer at $300 per gallon. The fume released by the liquid polymer during the
fabrication process needs to be vented out for health consideration. One major area of application
for stereo lithography is in the making of molds and dies for casting and injection molding.
1.2 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Selective laser sintering is a process based on the sintering of polymer and metallic powders
selectively into an individual object. Two cylinders are used in the process chamber: (i) part-
build cylinder which is lowered incrementally to where the sintered part is formed, and (ii)
powder-feed cylinder which is raised incrementally to supply powder to the part-build cylinder
through a roller mechanism. A thin layer is first deposited in the part-build cylinder. A laser
beam, guided by the process-control computer is then focused on that layer, tracing and melting
(or for metal, sintering) a particular cross-section, which then quickly solidifies into a solid mass.
This is repeated for layers after layers of 2D slices of features of the solid. At the end, the loose
particles are shaken off and the part recovered.
Typical cost of a SLS machine is about $500,000.

2
1.3 Laminated Object Modeling (LOM)
Lamination implies a laying down of layers that are adhesively bonded to one another.
Laminated Object Modeling (LOM) uses layers of paper or plastic sheets with glue on one side
to produce parts sheet by sheet. The adhesion process can be done by laser beam through
heating, or simply by gluing. The excess materials are removed manually. LOM usually uses
materials of thickness about 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) although materials as thin as 0.05mm (0.002 in.)
have been used.
One example of such system is the SilverScreen+ JP 5 system which uses back-glue papers
and a cutter on a printer setup to cut (or print onto) the papers into series of 2D features, to be
glued together to make 3D solids. This type of systems can be very inexpensive.
1.4 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
In a Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process, a platform is used to move in the vertical (Z)
direction to raise or lower the part to be made, and a nozzle assembly with both model and
support materials controlled by a XY table is used to trace and lay out molten polymer filament
through nozzles to make solid parts layer by layer. The support material is constructed as part of
the slicing algorithm to ensure that overhanging features of the solid part is supported throughout
the fabrication process. More details will follow in the next section.

2. Rapid Prototyping Using the FDM 3000


2.1 What is FDM?
The FDM rapid prototyping machines use the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) method to
create prototypes. Fused Deposition Modeling is a process whereby the layers of the model are
created by forcing a special material filament through a heating system, causing the material to
melt into a smooth hot molten paste, which is then forced through a delivery nozzle, and emerges
as a thin ribbon of hot paste. The nozzle is guided along the XY plane, depositing the ribbon at
desired positions to form a layer. After completing one layer, the entire model is lowered. The
machine will then deposit another layer on top of the previous one.
Fused Deposition Modeling uses two different materials to manufacture a model; the first
material is called the model material, and is what the final model will consist of, the second
material is called the support material, this material is laid underneath any overhanging parts of
the model so that the model will not collapse during fabrication. The temperature of the P-400
set includes P-400 ABS model material (Tm=270ºF) and P-400 water-soluble support material
(Tm=235ºF) under an envelop temperature of 70ºF.
Each material is delivered through its own nozzle, which are both mounted on the underside
of the of the FDM head. Apart from two nozzles, the head contains two heating elements, two
thermocouples, two motors and one solenoid actuator. The two motors force the two materials
into the two heating elements, and then through the delivery nozzles. The solenoid actuator
lowers the support nozzle below the level of the model nozzle every time support material is
needed.

3
2.1.1 Motion, the Head and the Z-table
The head can only move in the XY-plain. To accomplish this, the head is mounted on sliders for
motion in the X-direction, while the sliders are mounted on rollers for motion in the Y-direction.
Both X and Y motions are cable-driven.
Vertical or Z-directional motion is accomplished with the use of the z-table. The model is
build directly onto the sponge insert in the z-table, thus when the z-table is lowered so will the
model. The z-table is moved with the use of 4 lead screws.
2.1.2 Materials
A range of plastics and waxes can be used to create models. Different materials display different
physical properties, with each material having its own melting and envelope temperatures. The
envelope temperature is the temperature of the air inside the FDM, and is set to the optimal
solidification temperature of the materials. As a result of the required envelope temperature for a
specific material, all model and support materials come as a couple and should not be mixed.
One particularly interesting model-support combination is that of the P400 ABS model and
P400 water-soluble support. The P400 support material can be removed by means of submerging
the finished part in an ultrasonic bath consisting of a heated-water-chemical solution. The
ultrasound breaks down the support and dissolves it away until only the model remains. This
enable very complicated models to be created, models that could not be created by conventional
machinery.
2.1.3 Nozzles (Tips)
The nozzles come in three different combinations pairs. They are classified according to the
diameter of the outlet opening and are as follows, 0.010", 0.012" and 0.016". All the nozzles are
coded with the use of rings around their lower surface. The codes can be found in the user
manuals.
2.2 Steps Required to Create a Prototype on FDM 3000
The block diagram below shows the basic steps required to create a prototype.

Solid Modeling
(I-DEAS or others)
• Create a Solid Model STL File

InsightV34
• Position & Scale STL
• Slice STL File SSL File
• Add Support and Base
• Edit Curves
• Create Roads
SML File

Model FDM 3000


• Fabricate Model

4
2.2.1 Computer Aided Design and the STL file
First of all, a solid model of the prototype must be designed using any solid modeling package
such as I-DEAS or AutoCAD or ProEngineer. Once this model is complete, it must undergo a
process known as tessellation in order to become an STL file (STereoLithography File).
Tessellation is an approximation of the solid model surface; it is accomplished by breaking the
surface of the solid model into hundreds of small, interconnected triangles, each with a normal
vector pointing outward from the solid. Most solid modeling software will automatically create
an STL file if prompted by the user.
Note: Step by step instructions on how to create an STL file using I-DEAS can be found in
the User Manual.
2.2.2 Procedures to fabricate the rapid prototype with your STL file
Note: You are expected to do this part with the assistance of a staff or TA. You should NOT
attempt the following procedures alone!
(a) Start the FDM3000 machine. Check if the temperatures of the Model and Support are set
correct. Incase they are not, then wait till they reach the required temperature.
(b) In the selection display on the machine, select Model and try to load the model. Confirm
that the Model is flowing smooth. Similarly confirm that the support is also flowing
smooth.
(c) On the PC: Go to ‘Start’, then go to ‘Programs’ and then run the ‘InsightV34’ and select
Insight.
(d) Go to ‘File’ menu option. Select ‘Open’ and select ‘STL’ option and open your STL file.
You would see your model on the screen.
(e) Now go to ‘Orient STL’ option in the software menu. Then rotate the model so that you
obtain the orientation in which you want to make the model. Select the orientation such
that the support needed is minimum.
(f) Click (Slice icon).
(g) Click (Support icon).
(h) Click (Toolpath icon).
(i) Click (Build icon).
(j) Click Build icon one more time.

5
(k) Next, on the FDM machine press the pause button so that the pause light will start
blinking and the door will open. Now you can set the nozzle position at appropriate place
so that your part is made on desired location on the supporting plate. You can set the X
and Y positions it by pressing the appropriate buttons on the panel of the FDM machine.
You can also set Z by first selected Z axis button. Set Z such that the model nozzle just
touches the surface of the fixture plate.
(l) After setting the nozzle at appropriate position close the door of the machine and press
the pause button. The door will get locked and the machine will start making the model.
(m) Wait near the machine till it finished making the part.
(n) After the solid model is made, the door would get unlocked. Then open the door and
remove the model from the machine very carefully. Using the ultrasonic water bath and
appropriate tools to remove the support material from the prototype. Apply proper post-
fabrication processes, if necessary, such as polishing the model by sand paper or painting.
(o) Don’t forget to turn off the machine after you have finished your work.
(p) Ask the TA to inspect and sign you off.

2.2.3 FDM 3000


The SML file can now be inputted into the FDM 3000. The FDM 3000 will follow the Roads
created during the generation of the SML file.
Although a large part of the fabrication is autonomous, the FDM sill requires an operator,
especially during the first layers of a model. Furthermore, the FDM 3000 requires constant
maintenance and cleaning. Due to the nature of Fused Deposition Modeling, the nozzles, head
and envelope of the FDM require thorough cleaning after every model. Calibration and general
lubrication are also commonly required.

6
ME325/580 SME Video: Turning & Lathe Basics

Spring 2010 I. Kao

Turning is an operation where the work rotates with tool feeding. The size and work capacity are
determined by:
• Swing
• Distance between centers

I. The Engine Lathe – requires means to (1) hold and rotating the workpiece, and (2) hold and
move the cutting tool
• Spindle, headstock
• Speed & feed controls
• Engine lathe workholding
• Chucks
• Collets
• Between centers turning
• Carriage, “Z” axis
• Cross slide, “X” axis
• Compound rest
• Tool post
• Tailstock

II. Lathe Operations


External turning operations:
• Straight turning
• Taper turning
• Contour turning
• Forming
• Chamfering
• Grooving
• Thread chasing
• Facing
Holemaking includes holemaking and hole finishing operations:
• Holemaking
• Reaming
• Boring
• Tapping
Separating or cutting operations:
• Parting off – or called cut-off
• Picking off

1
III. Lathe Types
• Engine Lathe
• Electronic engine lathe
• NC lathe
• 2 axis, single turret CNC lathe – CNC lathe can achieve accurate and identical parts
except for tool wear and materials discrepancy
• 2 turret, 4 axis CNC lathe
• Turn mill CNC turning machine
• Subspindle CNC lathe
• Twin opposed CNC lathe
• Automatic screw machine
• CNC swiss type automatic lathe
• Vertical turret lathe (VTL)

IV. Workholding in Turning


• Bar stock loader
• Hand loading
• Between centers workholding
• Workholding for castings
• Gantry loading systems

V. Tool Arrangement
• Turrets – typically holds 6-14 tools
• Gang tooling – e.g., 4-10 tools in a slide

VI. Operating Parameters and Process Variables


• Cutting speed – the speed at which the surface of the work moves past the cutting tool;
the speed changes as the tool moves (in or mm / min)
• Feed rate – the speed at which tool advances into the part longitudinally (in or mm / rev)
• Depth of cut – the thickness of material removed from work surface

VII. Factors Affecting Process Variables


• Machinability of work materials
• Materials and geometry of cutting tool
• The angle at which the cutting tool enters the work
• The type of operation
• The horsepower and conditions of the lathe
All of which should be used for selecting the turning speed and feed.

Total time: 22:05 (19:40 without the Review)

2
Chapter 20
Sheet Metalworking
Part V: Metal Forming and Sheet Metal
Working

Groover “Manufacturing Processes”

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

SHEET METALWORKING

!  Three Basic Processes


1.  Cutting Operations
2.  Bending Operations
3.  Drawing
!  Other Sheet Metal Forming Operations
1.  Dies and Presses for Sheet Metal Processes
2.  Sheet Metal Operations Not Performed on Presses
3.  Bending of Tube Stock

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Sheet Metalworking Defined

Cutting and forming operations performed on relatively


thin sheets of metal
!  Thickness of sheet metal = 0.4 mm (1/64 in) to 6 mm
(1/4 in)
!  Thickness of plate stock > 6 mm
!  Operations usually performed as cold working

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Sheet and Plate Metal Products

!  Sheet and plate metal parts for consumer and


industrial products such as
!  Automobiles and trucks
!  Airplanes
!  Railway cars and locomotives
!  Farm and construction equipment
!  Small and large appliances
!  Office furniture
!  Computers and office equipment

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Sheet Metalworking Terminology

!  Punch䇳and䇳die – tooling to perform cutting,


bending, and drawing
!  Stamping press – machine tool that performs
most sheet metal operations
!  Stampings – sheet metal products

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Three Basic Types of Sheet


Metal Processes
1.  Cutting
!  Shearing to separate large sheets
!  Blanking to cut part perimeters out of sheet metal
!  Punching to make holes in sheet metal
2.  Bending
!  Straining sheet around a straight axis
3.  Drawing
!  Forming of sheet into convex or concave shapes

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Sheet Metal Cutting

(1) Just before punch contacts work; (2) punch pushes into
work, causing plastic deformation; (3) punch penetrates into
work causing a smooth cut surface; and (4) fracture is
initiated at opposing cutting edges to separate the sheet

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Characteristics of Sheared Edge

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Blanking and Punching

!  Blanking (a) - sheet metal cutting to separate piece


(called a blank) from surrounding stock
!  Punching (b) - similar to blanking except cut piece is
scrap, called a slug

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Clearance in Sheet Metal Cutting

Distance between punch cutting edge and die cutting


edge
!  Typical values range between 4% and 8% of stock
thickness
!  If too small, fracture lines pass each other,
causing double burnishing and larger force
!  If too large, metal is pinched between cutting
edges and excessive burr results

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Clearance in Sheet Metal Cutting

!  Recommended clearance is calculated by:


c = at
where c = clearance; a = allowance; and t = stock
thickness
!  Allowance a is determined according to type of metal

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Sheet Metal Groups Allowances

Metal group a
1100S and 5052S aluminum alloys, all 0.045
tempers
2024ST and 6061ST aluminum alloys; brass, 0.060
soft cold rolled steel, soft stainless steel

Cold rolled steel, half hard; stainless steel, 0.075


half hard and full hard

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Punch and Die Sizes

!  For a round blank of diameter Db:


!  Blanking punch diameter = Db 䇳 2c
!  Blanking die diameter = Db
where c = clearance
!  For a round hole of diameter Dh:
!  Hole punch diameter = Dh
!  Hole die diameter = Dh + 2c
where c = clearance

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Punch and Die Sizes

!  Die size determines


blank size Db
!  Punch size
determines hole
size Dh
!  c = clearance

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Angular Clearance

!  Purpose: allows slug or blank to drop through die


!  Typical values: 0.25° to 1.5° on each side

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Cutting Forces

!  Important for determining press size (tonnage)


F = S t L = (0.7) Sut t L
where S = shear strength of metal; Sut = ultimate
tensile strength of metal; t = stock thickness, and L =
length of cut edge

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Example of Cutting

Problem: A sheet metal under cutting process has the


following parameters: hole=1”-dia; thickness=!”;
Sut=140,000 psi. Estimate the force required for
cutting.

!  Solution: Fmax= (0.7)(140,000)(!) (" "1) = 38,500 lb


= 19.25 tons = 170,000 Newtons

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Sheet Metal Bending

(a) Straining of sheet metal around a straight axis to take a


permanent bend
(b) Metal on inside of neutral plane is compressed, while
metal on outside of neutral plane is stretched

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Types of Sheet Metal Bending

!  V䇳bending - performed with a V䇳shaped die


!  Edge bending - performed with a wiping die

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
V-Bending

(1) Before bending


(2) After bending
!  Application notes:
!  Low production
!  Performed on a
press brake
!  V-dies are simple
and inexpensive

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Edge Bending

(1) Before bending


(2) After bending
!  Application notes:
!  High production
!  Pressure pad
required
!  Dies are more
complicated and
costly

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Stretching during Bending

!  If bend radius is small relative to stock thickness,


metal tends to stretch during bending
!  Important to estimate amount of stretching, so final
part length = specified dimension
!  Problem: to determine the length of neutral axis of the
part before bending

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Bend Allowance Formula

where Ab = bend allowance; ! = bend angle; R= bend


radius; t = stock thickness; and Kba is factor to
estimate stretching
!  If R < 2t, Kba = 0.33
!  If R ! 2t, Kba = 0.50

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Handout & Example

!  (See Handout)
!  Equations and example to calculate
!  the Bend Allowance
!  the Bending Force
!  the Springback

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Drawing

Sheet metal forming to make cup䇳shaped, box䇳shaped,


or other complex䇳curved, hollow䇳shaped parts
!  Sheet metal blank is positioned over die cavity and
then punch pushes metal into opening
!  Products: beverage cans, ammunition shells,
automobile body panels
!  Also known as deep drawing (to distinguish it from
wire and bar drawing)

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Deep Drawing of a Soda Can

!  (See the Soda Can Manufacture PPT)

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Shapes other than Cylindrical
Cups

!  Each of the following shapes presents its own unique


technical problems in drawing
!  Square or rectangular boxes (as in sinks)
!  Stepped cups
!  Cones
!  Cups with spherical rather than flat bases
!  Irregular curved forms (as in automobile body
panels)

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Other Sheet Metal Forming on


Presses

!  Other sheet metal forming operations performed on


conventional presses can be classified as
!  Operations performed with metal tooling
!  Operations performed with flexible rubber tooling

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Ironing

!  Achieves thinning and elongation of wall in a drawn


cup: (1) start of process; (2) during process

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Embossing

!  Creates indentations in sheet, such as raised (or


indented) lettering or strengthening ribs
!  (a) Punch and die configuration during pressing; (b)
finished part with embossed ribs

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Guerin Process

(1) before and (2) after

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Tools for the Sheet Metalworking


Processes

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Punch and Die Components

!  Components of a punch and die for a blanking operation

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Stamping Press

!  Components of a
typical mechanical
drive stamping
press

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Gap Frame Press

!  Gap frame press for


sheet metalworking
(photo courtesy of E.
W. Bliss Co.)
!  Capacity = 1350 kN
(150 tons)

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Press Brake

!  Press brake (photo


courtesy of Niagara
Machine & Tool
Works)
!  Bed width = 9.15 m
(30 ft)
!  Capacity = 11,200 kN
(1250 tons)

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
CNC Turret Press

!  Computer
numerical
control turret
press (photo
courtesy of
Strippet, Inc.)

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

CNC Turret Press Parts

!  Sheet metal parts


produced on a
turret press,
showing variety of
hole shapes
possible (photo
courtesy of
Strippet Inc.)

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Straight-Sided Frame Press

!  Straight䇳sided frame
press (photo courtesy of
Greenerd Press &
Machine Company, Inc.)

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Power and Drive Systems

!  Hydraulic presses - use a large piston and cylinder to


drive the ram
!  Longer ram stroke than mechanical types
!  Suited to deep drawing
!  Slower than mechanical drives
!  Mechanical presses – convert rotation of motor to
linear motion of ram
!  High forces at bottom of stroke
!  Suited to blanking and punching

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Operations Not Performed on
Presses

!  Stretch forming
!  Roll bending and forming
!  Spinning
!  High䇳energy䇳rate forming processes

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
MEC580: H ANDOUT ON THE L EAST-S QUARES B EST F IT A LGORITHM
MEC580 Spring 2010 I. Kao

1 Introduction
In engineering applications, experiments are often conducted with multiple sets of data points for best curve
fitting. If the case when the governing equation between the two parameters is linear, the “linear regression”
algorithm can be applied. However, such linear regression method can not be applied directly if the equation
is in a power equation form, such as that in the Taylor’s equation for tool wear:
v Tn = C (1)
Equation (1) is a standard nonlinear power equation. In the case of equation presented in equation (1), we
can take logarithmic relationship of the variables and make a linear equation in the log-log coordinates, as
expressed in the following equation
log v + n log T = log C (2)
Equation (2) represents a line in the (log T, log v) space.
In the next section, a standard technique for determining the least-squares best fit solution is presented
as a matrix solution.

2 Algorithm of the Weighted Least-Squares Fit for Power Equations


Equation (2) is a result of taking logarithmic form of equation (1). It can be re-arranged in the following
form
log v = log C + ζ log T (3)
where ζ = −n.
With a total of i data sets of (v, T ) from experiments, we can re-arrange equation (3) in the following
matrix form for least-squares fit
y = Ax (4)
where
log v1 1 log T1
   
 log v2   1 log T2  
log C

y =  ..  A =  .. .. x = (5)
   
ζ

 .  . . 
log vi 1 log Ti
The least-squares solution of x in equation (4) can be obtained using the Penrose-Moore generalized inverse
that minimizes the norm of errors in y [3]. That is,
x = A∗ y (6)
where the superscript ‘*’ denotes the generalized inverse. The left inverse is used in equation (6); i.e.,
A∗ = (AT A)−1 AT .
Equation (6) minimizes the norm of the squared errors in y = log v instead of v. In order to compensate
for such discrepancy, we utilize a weighted least-squares fit of the following form
x = (WA)∗ Wy (7)
where the weighting matrix is W = diag[ey1 . . . eyi ] = diag[v1 . . . vi ] that corrects the logarithmic scale
of the norm of squared errors to be minimized.
The equation and derivation presented in this section can also be found in references [1, 2].

1
3 Example: Experimental Results and Curve Fitting
An example is used in this section to illustrate the application of the LS fit equations in (6) and (7). We will
use relationship between the tool speed and tool life, as characterized in the Taylor’s equation in (1). The
experimental results are tabulated in the following:

exp data velocity, v tool life, T


set 1 400 m/min 100 min
set 2 300 m/min 240 min
set 3 200 m/min 820 min

When the three data sets are used to find the LS solution of the exponent, n, and constant, C, we can
obtain the following terms based on the experimental data and equations (6) and (7). We have

1 2.0000 2.6021 400.0 0 0


     

A =  1 2.3802  y =  2.4771  W= 0 300.0 0  (8)


1 2.9138 2.3010 0 0 200.0

The generalized inverse of A and WA are


   
2.8217 0.6283 −2.4500 8.8962 −2.1113 −9.6255
A∗ = (WA)∗ = × 10−3 (9)
−1.0235 −0.1213 1.1448 −3.3497 1.4018 4.5967

Substituting into equations (6) and (7), respectively, we obtain

without weighting: n = 0.3295; C = 1824.3 (10)


with weighting: n = 0.3293; C = 1822.7 (11)

It is noted that equations (10) and (11) differ only slightly. Thus, either solution is acceptable. We will adopt

v (T )0.3293 = 1823 (12)

where v has a unit of m/min and T is in minutes.


If a fourth data set was added via experiments with

exp data velocity, v tool life, T


set 1 400 m/min 100 min
set 2 300 m/min 240 min
set 3 200 m/min 820 min
set 4 50 m/min 54, 000 min

Employing the same procedures above, by including the additional data, we obtain:

without weighting: n = 0.3306; C = 1836.1 (13)


with weighting: n = 0.3298; C = 1827.0 (14)

It is noted that the solution in equation (14) with the weighting matrix renders a result that is more consistent
with those in equations (10) and (11). This is because the addition of the weighting matrix will restore the
scales of v and T in the LS fitting, instead of using the logarithmic scales of log v and log T .
The results of equation (14) are plotted in Figure 1, to compare with the raw data points in a log-log
plot.

2
4
10

3
10

2
10

1
10
0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10
Figure 1: Comparison between the raw data (indicated by ’o’) and the results of the weighted least-squares
best fit using the power equation (1) and LS fit equation (7).

References
[1] N. Xydas and I. Kao, “Modeling of contact mechanics and friction limit surface for soft fingers with
experimental results,” International Journal of Robotic Research, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 941–950, September
1999.

[2] I. Kao and F. Yang, Stiffness and Contact Mechanics for Soft Fingers in Grasping and Manipulation to
appear on the IEEE Transactions of Robotics and Automation, 2004

[3] G. Strang, Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Academic Press, 2nd edition, 1980.

3
Manufacturing Frontiers

National Science Foundation


Directorate for Engineering

Adnan Akay

Manufacturing Contribution to
US GDP

Source: National Association of Manufacturers,


U.S. Department of Commerce
Manufacturing Contribution to
US GDP and Employment
Data Source: US Dept of Labor, NAM GDP
calculations using 1982 constant-weighted
price index

Issues & Drivers

!  Competition – emerging economies


!  Enabling technologies
!  Environment, sustainability, resource issues
!  Socio-economics
!  Regulations

EU Manufuture!
Response

!  New products and service with high added


values
!  New business models
!  Emerging manufacturing sciences and
engineering

EU Manufuture!

Manufacturing Research:
Example Directions

(P.Gouma-SUNY SB)!
!  Improving decision making (tolerancing, fixturing,
tool path optimization)

!  New processes (nanomanufacturing, lithography,


solid freeform fabrication)

!  Metrology and process monitoring (nanometrology)

!  Predictive modeling (incorporation of uncertainty)

(J. Lee-Ohio State U)! (S. Girshik-U. Minnesota)!


Challenge: Manufacturing Across Scales

Manufacturing Miniaturization Trends

Macro!Meso!Micro!!
Nano-Manufacturing!
Manufacturing Automation

Imin Kao
Professor
Department of Mechanical
Engineering
SUNY at Stony Brook

Manufacturing Automation
•  Manufacturing Automation
–  Fixed automation
–  Flexible automation
–  Agile automation
–  …
•  Societal Impacts
–  (name impacts …; See the next page)
•  Positioning System & Accuracy
–  (See Handout)
Impacts of Automation
•  Increased production rate
•  Reduction of labor (economic impact on
society)
•  Societal impact on labor force
•  Technological innovation
•  Precision & repeatability in production
•  Hostile/hazardous environment
•  24-hour operation
•  …

Concurrent Engineering
•  Concurrent Engineering
–  History & perspectives
–  What is it?
–  Famous case studies
•  Design for X
–  Design for assembly
–  Design for manufacturing/manufacturability
–  Design for XXX
CE vs. Traditional Prod. Dev.
(a) Traditional
product
development

(b) Product
development
using
Concurrent
Engineering

Programmable Automation Systems


•  Numerical control (NC) and CNC
–  Presented earlier …
•  Industrial robots
–  History
–  Kinematics
–  Robotic programming language (RPL)
–  Workspace or work envelope
•  Programmable login control (PLC)
–  Automation on manufacturing floors
Introduction to Robotics
•  “Robot” – history and origin
–  1920 by Czech author K. !apek in his play
R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal robots); from
Czech word “robota” meaning “worker”
–  Webster Dictionary: “An automated apparatus
or device that performs functions ordinarily
ascribed to humans or operates with what
appears to be almost human intelligence”

Robots: Fiction or Reality?


•  Ahead of Its Time?
–  Star Wars: C3-PO like humanoid?
–  The six-million dollar man?
•  Today
–  AIBO pet robot (a dog which can learn)
–  HONDA’s ASIMO humanoid robot
•  Speed: 2 km/h; hand load: 2~5kg/hand; weight:
130~210 kg; height: 160~182 cm
–  Others
Robotics Research Today
Robotics Research Today:

1.  Where are we now?


2.  Where is the robotics research heading
to?
3.  Different fields of robotics research

Classification of Robots
•  By Coordinate System
1.  Cylindrical coordinate robots
2.  Spherical coordinate robots
3.  Jointed arm (articulated) robots
4.  Cartesian coordinate robots
•  By Mechanism Types
1.  Revolute
2.  Prismatic
Kinematics of a 2-link robot arm
•  A 2-link SCARA (Selectively Compliant
Arm for Robotic Assembly)
–  Kinematics: forward and inverse kinematics
–  Joint space and tool (Cartesian) space
–  Workspace consideration

(see handout: 2-link-robot.pdf )

Workspace of a SCARA Robot


Workspace Synthesis

Robot Programming Language


•  Robot Programming Language (RPL)
–  High-level macro language to control motions
of a robot
•  Examples:
–  Adept: V++
–  IBM: AML (A manufacturing language)
–  RobotWorld: RAIL
–  …
RPL Example
PL1:NEW 0; -- PAYLOAD SET TO DEFAULT SLOWSPEED:SUBR; -- Z DOWN & SLOW SPEED
PL2:NEW 15; -- PAYLOAD SET TO 50% ZMOVE(HGT2);
LIN1:NEW 0; -- LINEAR OFF PAYLOAD(PL2);
LIN2:NEW 20; -- LINEAR(20)
ZMOVE(HGT3);
END; -- END SLOWSPEED SUBROUTINE
PT1:NEW PT(-132.95,490.45,0,-27); -- COORDINATE
PT2:NEW PT(-161.55,521.20,0,-27); -- POSITIONS
PT3:NEW PT(-187.05,553.90,0,-27); -- FOR PICKUP:SUBR; -- GRASP, Z UP & LINEAR ON
PT4:NEW PT(-214.95,583.80,0,-27); -- POINTS GRASP;
PT5:NEW PT(-457.50,201.15,0,-27); -- 1 THROUGH 8 DELAY(1.0);
PT6:NEW PT(-483.85,236.10,0,-27); ZMOVE(HGT2);
PT7:NEW PT(-512.70,264.50,0,-27); PAYLOAD(PL1);
PT8:NEW PT(-541.35,297.75,0,-27); ZMOVE(HGT1);
HOME:NEW PT(650,0,0,0); -- HOME POSITION LINEAR(LIN2);
END; -- END PICKUP SUBROUTINE
HGT1:NEW 0;
HGT2:NEW -90;
DROPOFF:SUBR; -- RELEASE & Z UP
HGT3:NEW -184.0;
RELEASE;
DELAY(1.0);
MAIN:SUBR; -- MANUFACTURING SUBROUTINE
ZMOVE(HGT2);
PAYLOAD(PL1);
FASTSPEED:SUBR; -- DEFAULT SPEEDS & LINEAR
OFF ZMOVE(HGT1);
LINEAR(LIN1); END; -- END DROPOFF SUBROUTINE
PAYLOAD(PL1);
END; -- END FASTSPEED SUBROUTINE

RPL Example (cont.)


FASTSPEED; -- MOVES FROM POSITION 1 TO 5
PMOVE(PT1);
SLOWSPEED;
PICKUP;
PMOVE(PT5);
SLOWSPEED;
DROPOFF;

FASTSPEED; -- MOVES FROM POSITION 2 TO 6


PMOVE(PT2);
SLOWSPEED;
PICKUP;
PMOVE(PT6);
SLOWSPEED;
DROPOFF;

ME325/580 SME Video: Milling & Machining Center

Spring 2010 I. Kao

Milling is a highly versatile machining process that uses the relative motion between the rotating
multiple edge cutters and the workpiece to generate flat and curved surfaces. It is an interrupted
cutting process. The capabilities of a milling machine or machining center are measured by:
• Motor horsepower
• Maximum spindle speed
• Spindle taper size
• Work table capacity
• Travel capacity

I. The Knee Mill – for tool making, prototyping, low-volume production


• Knee & column
• Vertical traverse crank
• Saddle, cross traverse handle
• Table, table traverse handle
• Ram
• Milling head
• Quill, spindle, quill feed hand lever – quill is non-rotating; spindle rotates
• Knee mill toolholding
• Knee mill workholding
• Power feed controls
• Digital readouts
• CNC knee mill

II. The Machining Center


1. Advantages of CNC over manual milling
• Consistency
• Repeatability
• Fast
• Simulation can be used to verify the tool path before actual cut
2. Tool changing in machining centers
• Most machining centers have 20 ~ 40 tools installed
3. The vertical machining centers (VMC)
• Spindle in vertical position
• Usually the work is done on single surface
• 4-axis: x (table direction), y (in and out), z (vertical), and B axis (rotation)
4. The horizontal machining centers (HMC)
• Spindle in horizontal orientation
• Preferred in machining heavy boxy parts
• 4-axis: x (table movement), y (head up and down), z (in and out), and B axis (rotation)

1
5. The universal machining centers (UMC)
• Spindle can tilt, swivel, assume horizontal and vertical orientations – in a compound
angles
• Preferred in machining heavy boxy parts
• 4-axis: x (table movement), y (head up and down), z (in and out), and B axis (rotation)

III. Milling Cutters and Operations – rotary tool with multiple cutting tools

1. Flat surface and square shoulders


• Face milling – tool can be 3” to 2’ in diameter
• Square shoulder milling
2. Edges, shoulders and grooves
• Edges – one or two surfaces, or called edging
• Shoulders – usually two surfaces
• Grooves – closed at one end or open at both ends
• Peripheral cutters – for long cutting or slots
• End milling
• Grooving cutters
• Chamfering
3. Pockets and contours
• Pocket milling
• Contour milling – for die or mold making

IV. Workholding in CNC Milling


• T-slots – on the CNC table
• Tombstones
• Multi-vises

V. Workchanging
• Manual workchanging
• Multiple fixturing on long bed
• Pallet changer
• Touch trigger probe – probes are stored in the tool magazine, used to inspect the part
before it is removed to ensure the dimension is right
• Tool presetting

VI. Operating Parameters


• Cutting speed – speed at which the tool edge enters the cut, range 40-1000 surface/min
• Feed rate – linear distance the tool travels in one cutter revolution; note it is different
from the table speed
• Axial depth of cut – distance the tool is set under the uncut surface

2
• Radial depth of cut – distance of work surface engaged by the tool, the width of work
surface involved. For steel 1 H.P. of power can remove 1 in3/min; for aluminum 4
in3/min.

VII. Horsepower factors and operating parameters


Power required for operations varies with the following parameters:
• Amount of material removed
• Chip thickness
• Cutter geometry
• Workpiece materials
• Speed

Total time: 22:42 (20:00 without the Review)

3
Taguchi Methods!

Taguchi Methods Lecture (I)


•  “Taguchi Methods” refer to a
collection of
– Non-dynamic methods in product
design
– Dynamic method
– Newest: Mohalanobis-Taguchi
method

Taguchi Methods!

Taguchi Methods Lecture (II)


•  Non-Dynamic Taguchi Method (Handouts on
bboard)!
–  ASME magazine: vol. 14, no. 8, December 1994!
– His visit to ASME after the one-day workshop at Stony
Brook!
–  Introduction & parameter design!
–  Orthogonal arrays!
–  Case study 1: canon example!
–  Case study 2: RL circuit design!
– With Excel spreadsheet for calculation!
– Handout for further details!
Taguchi Methods
Myth? Or Good Engineering?

Professor Imin Kao!


Department of Mechanical Engineering!
SUNY at Stony Brook!
Phone: 631-632-8308 kao@mal.eng.sunysb.edu!

Taguchi Methods!

Quality Engineering

“Quality Is The Loss A Product Causes To!


Society After Being Shipped,!
Other Than Any Losses Caused By!
Its Intrinsic Functions.”!

!! ! !-- by Dr. Genichi Taguchi!


Taguchi Methods!

Loss Function
Products That Meet Tolerance Also Inflict A Loss!

where x is the value of the quality characteristic!


! m is the target value!
! k=A/!2 with A= cost to handle a defective; !=tolerance!

Taguchi Methods!

How to Reduce Loss: 2 steps

Starting ! ! Reduce ! !
Place on!
Conditions ! Variation ! Target!
Taguchi Methods!

R & D Activities

Robust!
Technology!

Taguchi Methods!

Parameter Design

•  Control Factors!
–  Factors you can and want to control during
manufacturing and during use!
–  e.g., gun powder, angle of incline!
•  Noise Factors!
–  Factors you cannot or do not want to
control during manufacturing or during use!
–  e.g. temperature, wind, uncertainties!
Taguchi Methods!

Sources of Noises
!  Inner Noise!
–  Material or dimensional deterioration!
–  A function of time or usage!

!  Outer Noise!
–  Conditions such as temperature, humility, voltage!
!  Unit-to-Unit Variation!
–  Variation in manufacturing under same conditions!
–  Such as parts in different locations of an oven!

Taguchi Methods!

Comparison Between
Traditional and Taguchi Methods

Traditional Methods:! Taguchi Methods:!


Remove cause of defect! Reduce effects of cause!

Traditional approaches may be


expensive or impossible or may be
more difficult to implement!
Taguchi Methods!

Case Studies

Parameter Design!
1.  Canon Example!
–  A system with well-known mechanics
model : to design for target distance!
2.  Circuit Design Example!
–  A simple RL circuit: to maintain constant
level of current output!

Taguchi Methods!

Orthogonal Arrays in
Experimental Design
"  L4,
L8, L9, L12, L16, L18, L27, and L36!
"  Recommended: L9 and L18!
–  Number of experiments: 9 and 18!
–  Number of readings: product array!

"  Product Array:!


–  inner array: control factors!
–  outer array: noise factors!
Taguchi Methods!

Parameter Design:
Definition of S/N Ratios

Professor Imin Kao, Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook; kao@mal.eng.sunysb.edu!

Taguchi Methods!

Smaller-the-Better Criterion
Definition of S/N Ratios

Professor Imin Kao, Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook; kao@mal.eng.sunysb.edu!
Taguchi Methods!

Larger-the-Better Criterion
Definition of S/N Ratios

Professor Imin Kao, Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook; kao@mal.eng.sunysb.edu!

Taguchi Methods!

Nominal-the-Best Criterion
Definition of S/N Ratios

Professor Imin Kao, Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook; kao@mal.eng.sunysb.edu!
Orthogonal Arrays for
Taguchi Methods
Manufacturing Automation Laboratory
Department of Mechanical Engineering
SUNY at Stony Brook
Stony Brook, NY 11794-2300

Abstract

This article contains the orthogonal arrays that are listed in Appendix 3 of the “Taguchi Methods:
Research and Development”. The book is Volume One of the Quality Engineering Series, published by
the ASI Press.
According to Dr. Taguchi, however, only
 ,  , and 
are preferred for parameter design.


1 The orthogonal array

The  orthogonal array is for 3 control factors, each with two-level variations. This is denoted as  .

  
No.     
1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2
3 2 1 2
4 2 2 1

Table 1:   orthogonal array

1

2 The orthogonal array

The  orthogonal array is for 7 control factors, each with two-level variations. This is denoted as   .

    
No.            
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
4 1 2 2 2 2 1 1
5 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
6 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
7 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
8 2 2 1 2 1 1 2

Table 2:  orthogonal array


3 The orthogonal array

The 
orthogonal array is for 4 control factors, with 4 three-level variations. This is denoted as  
   .

  
No.        
1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2
3 1 3 3 3
4 2 1 2 3
5 2 2 3 1
6 2 3 1 2
7 3 1 3 2
8 3 2 1 3
9 3 3 2 1

Table 3: 
orthogonal array

2

4 The orthogonal array

The   orthogonal array is for 11 control factors, with 11 two-level variations. This is denoted as       .
    
No.                 
   
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2
4 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
5 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1
6 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1
7 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1
8 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2
9 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1
10 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2
11 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2
12 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1

Table 4:   orthogonal array

3

5 The orthogonal array

The   orthogonal array is for 15 control factors, with 15 two-level variations. This is denoted as        .
     
No.              
           
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
4 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
5 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
6 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
7 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1
8 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
9 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
10 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
11 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
12 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2
13 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
14 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
15 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2
16 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1

Table 5:   orthogonal array

4

6 The orthogonal array

The    orthogonal
 array is for 8 control factors, with 1 two-level and 7 three-level variations. This is denoted
as  

   .

     
No.                 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 3
5 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 1
6 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2
7 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 3
8 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 1
9 1 3 3 1 3 2 1 2
10 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1
11 2 1 2 1 1 3 3 2
12 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 3
13 2 2 1 2 3 1 3 2
14 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 3
15 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 1
16 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 2
17 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 3
18 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 1

Table 6:   orthogonal array

5

7 The orthogonal array

The   orthogognal array is for 13 contrl factors, with 13 three level variations. This is denoted as        .
     
No.              
       
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
5 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1
6 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2
7 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 2
8 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 3
9 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
10 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
11 2 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1
12 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
13 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2
14 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 3
15 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 1
16 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 1
17 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2
18 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 3
19 3 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2
20 3 1 3 2 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3
21 3 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1
22 3 2 1 3 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 1
23 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 3 2
24 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 3
25 3 3 2 1 1 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 3
26 3 3 2 1 2 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 1
27 3 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 1 3 1 3 2

Table 7:   orthogonal array

6

8 The orthogonal array

The  
 orthogognal array  
is for 23 contrl factors, with 11 two level variations and 12 three level variations.
  .
This is denoted as  

        
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1
4 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 1
5 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1
6 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1
7 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 1
8 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 1 2 1
9 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 1
10 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 1
11 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 2 1 3 1 3 2 1 3 2 2 1 1
12 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 1
13 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 2
14 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 2
15 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 2
16 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 3 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 2 2
17 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 3 2 2 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 2 2 2
18 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 2 2
19 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 2
20 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 3 1 2 1 2 2
21 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 1 3 2 2 2 3 1 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 2
22 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 1 2
23 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 2
24 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 2
25 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 3
26 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 3
27 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 3
28 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 3
29 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 3
30 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 2 3
31 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 3
32 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3
33 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 3
34 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 3
35 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 2 1 3
36 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 3

Table 8:   orthogonal array

References

[1] G. Taguchi System of Experimental Design, vols. 1 and 2 Quality Resources, Dearborn Michigan, vol. 1
and 2, 1991

[2] G. Taguchi and S. Konishi Taguchi Methods – Research and Development ASI press, vol. 1 in Quality
Engineering Series, 1992

7
MEC325/580 Orthogonal Cutting Model I. Kao

Vc
Vs Tool
: shear plane angle
chip : rake angle
: clearance angle
V chip or relief angle
t0: depth of cut
tc tc tc: chip thickness
r= t0/tc: chip thickness ratio

t0 t0
workpiece
shear plane
shear deformation cutting edge of tool
to form chips

shear deformation approximated


by a series of parallel plates Tool
sliding against one another thickness of plate
to form the chips shear strain A B
AC AD+DC
(Idealized assumption) BD BD C
chips = parallel shear plates
A B

shear plane
D
C
MEC325/580 Forces in the Orthogonal Cutting Model I. Kao

R = total force acting on chip


R’= force imposed by the work on the chip
(R = R’)
R”= force measured by the dynamometer
Tool Fs: shear force Tool
Fn: normal force to shear
R F : friction force
chip F N : normal force to friction chip
Fc: cutting force
Ft: thrust force

N
Fs Fc

Fn Ft

R’
R”
Permanent-Mold
Casting
Manufacturing Processes –– Podcast Series

Imin Kao, Professor


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering and App. Sci.
SUNY at Stony Brook

Metal Casting

1
Permanent Mold Casting Processes
• Economic disadvantage of expendable mold
casting: a new mold is required for every
casting
• In permanent mold casting, the mold is reused
many times
• The processes include:
– Basic permanent mold casting
– Die casting
– Centrifugal casting

Permanent Mold Casting

2
Permanent Mold Casting

Figure 11.10 (textbook) Steps in permanent mold casting: (2) cores (if
used) are inserted and mold is closed, (3) molten metal is poured into
the mold, where it solidifies.

Advantages and Limitations


• Advantages of permanent mold casting:
– Good dimensional control and surface finish
– More rapid solidification caused by the cold metal
mold results in a finer grain structure, so castings are
stronger
• Limitations:
– Generally limited to metals of lower melting point
– Simpler part geometries compared to sand casting
because of need to open the mold
– High cost of mold

3
Die Casting
A permanent mold casting process in which
molten metal is injected into mold cavity under
high pressure
• Pressure is maintained during solidification,
then mold is opened and part is removed
• Molds in this casting operation are called dies;
hence the name die casting
• Use of high pressure to force metal into die
cavity is what distinguishes this from other
permanent mold processes

Die Casting Machines


• Designed to hold and accurately close two
mold halves and keep them closed while
liquid metal is forced into cavity
• Two main types:
1. Hot‑chamber machine: Metal is melted in a
container, and a piston injects liquid metal under
high pressure into the die
2. Cold‑chamber machine: Molten metal is poured
into unheated chamber from external melting
container, and a piston injects metal under high
pressure into die cavity

4
Hot-Chamber Die Casting

Cold‑Chamber Die Casting

(2)

5
Molds for Die Casting
• Usually made of tool steel, mold steel, or
maraging steel
• Tungsten and molybdenum (good refractory
qualities) used to die cast steel and cast iron
• Ejector pins required to remove part from
die when it opens
• Lubricants must be sprayed into cavities to
prevent sticking

Advantages and Limitations


• Advantages of die casting:
– Economical for large production quantities
– Good accuracy and surface finish
– Thin sections are possible
– Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good
strength to casting
• Disadvantages:
– Generally limited to metals with low melting points
– Part geometry must allow removal from die

6
Metals for Casting
• Most commercial castings are made of
alloys rather than pure metals
– Alloys are generally easier to cast, and
properties of product are better
• Casting alloys can be classified as:
– Ferrous: (1) gray cast iron, (2) nodular iron, (3)
white cast iron, (4) malleable iron, and (5) alloy
cast irons (∼ 1400°C or 2500°F) & (6) steel (1650°
C or 3000°F)
– Nonferrous: (1) Aluminum (660°C or 1220°F), (2)
Copper Alloys (1083°C or 1981°F), (3) Zinc Alloys
(419°C or 786°F), (4) others

SME Video Clip

• Next, let’s watch the SME


video clip about Die Casting
which came with the textbook
for classroom use ONLY…

7
ME325/580 H ANDOUT: I RON -C ARBON P HASE D IAGRAM

MEC325/580, Spring 2010 I. Kao

Iron-Carbon or Fe-Fe3 C phase diagram: Iron-Carbon phase diagram (also called the iron and iron carbide
phase diagram), as shown in the following figure, is an equilibrium diagram of iron and carbon that is very
useful in dealing with steel and heat treatment.
1800
steel cast iron

1600
1539oC (2802oF)
δ Liquid
1400
1394oC (2541oF) Liquid+graphite
eutectic
Temperature, oC

γ+liquid
4.30%
1252oC

γ
1200
1154oC (2109oF)
2.11% Fe3C
1000

912oC (1674oF) eutectoid γ+graphite


0.77% (solid)
800
α+γ
α 727oC (1341oF)
0.022%
600
α+graphite
(solid)
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.67
% Carbon (C)

Figure 1: The equilibrium phase diagram of iron and iron-carbon

As shown in Figure 1, at carbon composition of 2.11% the diagram is partitioned into regions of steel
(%C < 2.11%) and cast iron (%C > 2.11%). Within the region of steel, it can be further broken into two
regions, divided by the eutectoid line with carbon composition of 0.77% (some use 0.80% or 0.83%): (i)
hypo-eutectoid (%C < 0.77%), and (ii) hyper-eutectoid (%C > 0.77%).

The Fe-C phase diagram has one eutectic state at 1154◦ C with 4.30% of carbon (some use 1130◦ C and
4.0%) at which the alloy transforms from liquid to γ-austenite and Fe3 C-graphite. In addition, it also has
one eutectoid state at 727◦ C with 0.77% of carbon (some use 723◦ C and 0.80% or 0.83%) at which the
alloy transitions from one solid (γ-austenite) to two solids (α-ferrite and Fe3 C-graphite).

Remarks:
(i) Phases α and δ are both ferrite (BCC). The α-ferrite (or simply ferrite) is stable at room temperature;
whereas the δ-ferrite is only stable at high temperature. Phase γ is austenite (FCC).

1
(ii) α → γ: The transition for pure iron from BCC to FCC takes place at 912◦ C.

(iii) γ → δ: The transition for pure iron from FCC to BCC takes place at 1394◦ C.

(iv) Pure iron melts at 1539◦ C.

(v) Fe3 C-graphite is cementite, also called carbide, and is hard and brittle.

Figure 2 illustrates the equilibrium cooling of a hypoeutectoid (which means “less than eutectoid” in
Greek) steel alloy and the changes of phases as it cools to different regions of the phase diagram. The mi-
crostructures of the hypoeutectoid alloy are illustrated at different temperatures, as shown in the figure. The
phase changes from γ-austenite to (α-ferrite+γ-austenite) to (α-ferrite+Fe3 C-graphite) as the temperature is
decreased. While at the state with co-existence of α-ferrite and γ-austenite, the percentage of each can be
calculated using the inverse lever rule. In the following, an example is used for illustration.

1000
γ γ

γ γ γ γ + Fe3C
M γ
900
γ
γ γ α

800 α+γ γ γ
Temperature (oC)

α γ γ
700 O

600 Fe3C
} Pearlite

Proeutectoid α
Eutectoid α

500
α + Fe3C

400
0 1.0 2.0
Composition (wt% C)

Figure 2: Hypoeutectoid alloy in the equilibrium phase diagram and the phase change subject to equilibrium
cooling.

Example: Given the Fe-Fe3 C phase diagram in Figure 1, calculate the phases present for a 1020 steel at the
following temperatures:
(a) T = 1600◦ C

(b) T = 1200◦ C

(c) T = 728◦ C

2
(d) T = 710◦ C

(e) T = 400◦ C

Solution: The 1020 steel has a carbon content of %C = 0.20% at the hypo-eutectoid region to the left of
the eutectoid state. Figure 1 will be employed to perform the following calculation.

(a) At T = 1600◦ C, it is in liquid state.

(b) At T = 1200◦ C, γ-austenite exists as a single-phase state.

(c) At T = 728◦ C, just above the temperature at the eutectoid point (T = 727◦ C, shown in the figure),
two phases exist: α-ferrite and γ-austenite. The percentage can be determined by the inverse lever
rule.
0.77 − 0.20
α-ferrite = = 76.2% (1)
0.77 − 0.022
0.20 − 0.022
γ-austenite = = 23.8% (2)
0.77 − 0.022
A zoom-in view of the eutectoid region is shown in Figure 2, and can be used for the application of
the inverse lever rule as demonstrated in equations (1) and (2).

(d) At T = 710◦ C, just below the temperature at the eutectoid point, a small amount of Fe3 C-graphite
(cementite) will precipitate following the solubility line from 0.022% carbon at 727◦ C to 0.022%
carbon at room temperature. The percentage of α-ferrite and Fe3 C-graphite are:
6.67 − 0.20
α-ferrite = = 97.3% (3)
6.67 − 0.022
0.20 − 0.022
F e3 C-graphite = = 2.7% (4)
6.67 − 0.022

(e) At T = 400◦ C: Similar to Part (d), the percentages are:


6.67 − 0.20
α-ferrite = = 97.0% (5)
6.67 − 0.0
0.20 − 0.0
F e3 C-graphite = = 3.0% (6)
6.67 − 0.0
The results are not very different from those in Part (d), showing a slight increase in the Fe3 C precip-
itation.

3
ME325/580 Handout: Copper-Nickel Phase Diagram

Spring 2010 I. Kao

Phase diagram is an equilibrium diagram showing the way an alloy forms. The equilibrium
diagram for the binary copper-nickel alloy is illustrated on the next page. For example, “Monel,”
which resists saltwater corrosion, has 67% nickel and 33% copper shown in the diagram and is
used in packaging beverages and foods. It has a range of working temperatures from –100° to
400°F (–75° to 205°C).
The Copper-Nickel phase diagram shown on the next page is the simplest phase diagram. The
illustration of its usage will be presented in the following with an example. The temperature
under consideration is at T=1260°C. Several states are considered and discussed in the following.
(I) At T=1260°C and under equilibrium condition, there are three possible states, as follows.
(1) When the percentage of Ni is smaller than 36%  Liquid state
(2) When the percentage of Ni is larger than 62%  Solid state
(3) When the percentage of Ni is between 36% and 62%  co-existence of Liquid and
Solid
(II) When liquid and solid co-exist, the following “inverse lever rule” should be applied to
determine the percentage of solid (and percentage of liquid) in the co-existing state.
The Inverse Lever Rule is defined to determine the contents of solid and liquid when they co-
exist within specific temperature range. Here, we use an example of 50% Ni and 50% Cu alloy
at the temperature of 1260°C, as shown in the following diagram, for the illustration of this rule.

LC LC (50 − 36)% 14
The % of solid at the state C is: = = = = 53.8% (1)
LS (LC + CS) (62 − 36)% 26

CS CS (62 − 50)% 12
The % of liquid at the state C is: = = = = 46.2% (2)
LS (LC + CS) (62 − 36)% 26

Note the ratios formulated in equation (1) and (2). Based on the results in the equations, the
percentage of solid at 1260°C with 50%Ni-50%Cu alloy is 53.8%, and with 46.2% liquid. For
€ both liquid and solid co-exist from 1210°C to 1316°C, as shown
this alloy with 50%Ni-50%Cu,
in the figure. The percentage of solid and liquid can be determined by equations (1) and (2) at
any given temperature within this range for the 50%Ni-50%Cu alloy. The verification of results
is on the next page.
In the preceding analysis, we consider different compositions of Cu and Ni at a constant given
temperature (1260°C). Similarly, we can also consider a given alloying composition and vary
the temperatures to acquire and analyze different states at different temperatures. For example,
with the alloy composition of 67% nickel and 33% copper, as the temperature cools down from
liquid state, it transitions to co-existence of liquid and solid at 2510°F and becomes complete
solid as the temperature cools further to 2320°F. Thereafter, the alloy becomes entirely solid.

1
Verification of the results:
Because the solid and liquid states at 1260°C have their own respective percentage of Ni and Cu,
we can use the information to verify the answers obtained in equations (1) and (2). It can be
obtained from the figure that at 1260°C

the solid state of this alloy has 62% of Ni and 38% of Cu (point S)
the liquid state of this alloy has 36% of Ni and 64% of Cu (point L)

Thus, the total percentage of the Ni is the sum of the that in the solid and liquid states. That is,

total % of Ni = (53.8%) x 62% + (46.2%) x 36% = 50%

This is as expected since the total weight percentage of the Ni element in the alloy remains 50%
and cannot be changed. Similarly, the total percentage of Cu is

total % of Cu = (53.8%) x 38% + (46.2%) x 64% = 50%


as expected.

2
ME325/580 Handout: Tin-Lead Phase Diagram

Spring 2010 I. Kao

The equilibrium diagrams for binary alloys can assume different shapes. For example, the
copper-nickel alloy is very simple with only three regions, as discussed earlier. The following is
the phase diagram for tin-lead (Sn-Pb) alloy, which has α and β phases as well as combinations
of them with liquid and solid phases. A few important observations are in order.

(1) The freezing point of pure tin (point C) is 232ºC. As the alloying element (or impurity) of
lead is added, the freezing point is decreased (just like the way that salt lowers the freezing
point of water). This trend of lowering freezing point is shown in CB curve. The same is
true for pure lead (point A; 327ºC) and the curve AB with decreasing freezing point.
The point of intersection between the curves AB and BC (i.e., point B) indicates the eutectic
mixture at 61.9% tin (Sn) and 38.1% lead (Pb). The eutectic composition gives rise to the
lowest possible temperature of solidification for the Sn-Pb binary alloy. The eutectic
temperature of this binary alloy is 183ºC.

1
(2) In the two freezing zones ABD and CBF, the alloy is “pasty.” In other words, they contain
both liquid and solid phases. Taking region ABD as an example, crystals of composition
α will be forming whilst the rest of the alloy is still liquid. These crystals will grow into
dendritic structure (similar to the formation of ice crystals in water with pointy tips) until
such time as the alloy solidifies completely. Then the granular structure will consist of α
dendrite cores in a β crystal mix. Because the β crystals form virtually instantaneously as the
alloy temperature drops below 183ºC, they tend to be small. The resulting alloy is
characterized by a coarse grained structure (large α, small β) and tends to be mechanically
weaker and a poorer conductor. It does have its usage, however. A good example is
plumber’s solder (34%Sn+66%Pb). In this case, electrical conductivity is not an issue, and
the extended pasty stage is advantageous for making “wiped” joints.
(3) The tin-lead binary alloy diagram contains a eutectic point, unlike the Cu-Ni alloy which
does not have one. Electronic solder made of 62%Sn and 38%Pb, or called the eutectic
solder, not only has the lowest melting point and reverts from liquid to solid (and vice versa)
virtually instantaneously (point B on the phase diagram).
In addition, it has lowest melting point at 183ºC, which makes it ideal for electronic grade
solder. The electronic grade solder alloys, or eutectic solder, fall in a narrow band ranging
from 60%Sn+40%Pb to 65%Sn+35%Pb.
(4) The crystal structure of eutectic solder alloys consists of fine equally sized grains of α and β
(because they have limited time to grow) with no evidence of potentially strength-reducing
dendritic core. This fine grain structure also maintains a high degree of electrical
conductivity—a characteristic that lends itself to becoming an ideal electronic solder.
(5) The inverse lever rule discussed previously also can be applied in the regions indicated above
based on the same rules used in the Cu-Ni phase diagram.

2
ME325/580 SME DVD Video: Plastic Finishing

Spring 2010 I. Kao

1. Injected molded parts are produced from two types of plastics


• Thermoplastic
• Thermoset
2. The finishing include
• Degating
• Deflashing
• Cleaning
• Decorating
3. Sprue bushing directs the molten material from the injection machine’s nozzle either directly
into the mold cavity or into the mold’s runner system.
4. Degating is the process to move the parts from gate and runner system.
5. To remove the need for manual or automatic degating, Runner-less Injection Mold should be
designed. These molds include
• Hot Sprue Gated Mold
• Hot Runner Mold
• Insulated Runner Mold
6. Flashing can occur both internally and externally. The primary flash removal or deflashing
include:
• Cutting and trimming
• Media blasting
• Cryogenic deflashing
7. Cleaning is the process to remove residues from the molding process by soaking or spraying
parts in a mild detergent solution.
8. The method of decorating molded parts include:
• Molded-in decorations
• Applied decorations
9. The most common methods of applied decorations include:
• Painting
• Plating
• Vacuum metallizing
• Pad printing
• Hot stamping
• Silk Screening
• Fill and Wipe
10. Variety of paints
• Epoxies
• Polyurethane
• Enamels
• Acrylics
• Latexes

1
11. Painting methods
• Conventional air spraying
• High volume/low pressure spraying
• Flow coating
12. Plating is the chemical or electro-chemical deposit of a thin metal layer to the surface or
substrate of a plastic part.
13. Plastic parts are prepared for Electroless Plating operation by submersion in
• a sulfured chromic acid bath
• an activated bath
• an accelerated bath
14. Vacuum metallizer is a physical process of depositing a metal layer on the plastic part
surface.
15. In Pad Printing, ink core paint is pick it up by a silicon rubber transfer pad from a plate
(Cliché) to the plastic part. Pad Printing is use extensively because of its ability to:
• Print on a range of part surfaces and part geometry
• Reproduce fine image detail
• Wet-on-wet printing of multiple colors
16. Hot stamping uses heating silicon rubber dies to forcing from the foil film carrier into the
surface of the plastic part.

2
ME325/580 SME DVD: Plastic Injection Molding

Spring 2010 I. Kao

1. Plastic – Any natural or synthetic polymer that has a high molecular weight
2. Injection molding is the most common method of produce part out of plastic material.
3. Injection molding is extremely versatile process that can produce parts with
• Holes
• Springs
• Threads
• Hinges
4. Injection molded parts can be:
• Simple vs. Complex
• Solid vs. Foam
• Reinforced vs. Filled
• Small vs. Large
• Thick vs. Thin
• Flexible vs. Rigid
5. The process involves molten plastic injected at high pressure into the mold shaped into the
form of the part. Once the plastic cools and solidifies, the mold opens and the part is ejected.
6. There are four primary elements that influence the plastic injection process:
• Molder
• Material
• Injection machine
• Mold
7. All injection molding machines are a combination of two systems:
• An injection system
• Clamping system
8. An injection system heats the thermoplastic material to its appropriate viscosity or flow
ability and then forcefully injects it into the mold.
9. There are two types of injection mechanisms:
• Reciprocating screw (most common)
• Two stage screw
10. The main parts of the reciprocating screw injection system are
• Hopper
• Reciprocating screw
• Injection barrel
• Hydraulic motor
• Injection cylinder

1
11. The reciprocating screw consists of three zones
• Feed zone
• Melt zone
• Metering zone
12. The function of the injection molding machine-clamping system is to keep the plastic
material from leaking out or flashing at the parting line of the mould cavity and core. The
clamping system of some of the injection-molding machine has two configurations:
• Fully hydraulic system
• Toggle system
13. Platens are thick blocks of tough steel which will not deflect significantly to affect the
injection process. The platens include:
• Stationary platen
• Movable platen
• Rear stationary platen
14. Injection molding machines are designated by there clamp tonnage which is the amount of
ceiling force a machine can produce against the high pressure generated during the injection
process.
15. The injection mold both determines shape of the part, and acts as a heat exchanger. In
addition, the injection mold vents the trapped air/gas and ejects the cooled parts.
16. The speed of the injection molding machine is determined by the mold cooling system.
17. Efficient cooling is one of the most significant factors of the injection molding process.
18. The mold design includes:
• Cold-runner two-plate mold
• Cold runner three-plate mold
• Hot-runner mold
• Insulated runner mold.
19. Types of gates used in a runner system:
• Edge gate
• Submarine gate
• Tap gate
• Ring gate
• Fan gate
20. Vents are used to remove air displaced by the incoming flow of material. The size and
location of the vents are established by:
• Part geometry
• Gate location
• Type of injection material
• Viscosity of material
• Rate of injection
21. The type and location of machine controls are dependent on the injection molding machines.
These controls can vary from electromagnetic relays and timers to computer driven solid-
state devices.

2
22. These computers not only control the process but also perform several other function such as
• Quality control
• Real-time reject recognition
• Fault analysis
• Record keeping
• Instant/accurate setup

23. Additionally computers are used for the design and generation of injection mold.

3
ME325/580 SME DVD: Plastic Machining and Assembly

Spring 2010 Imin Kao

1. Plastic parts are most commonly produced by:


• Injection molding
• Thermo-forming
• Blow molding
2. Machining and assembly operations can be performed on plastic parts for structural and
aesthetic purposes. These operations are used on parts produced from two types of plastics:
• Thermoplastic
• Thermosets
3. Thermoplastics undergo a reversible change from solids to liquids when heated and can be
reused continuously
4. Thermosets undergo a chemical reaction between two reagents when heated and cannot be
re-softened or reused
5. Key differences between machining plastics and metals:
• Thermal expansion of plastics is ten times greater than metals.
• The rate of heat loss for plastics is lower when compared to metals.
• Plastics are more elastic and have lower melting temperatures than metals.
6. Due to the range of plastic materials responding differently to machining, plastic materials
are typically divided into three categories:
• Soft plastic
• Hard plastic
• Reinforced plastic
7. The primary types of operations used to machine plastics include:
• Sawing
• Milling
• Drilling
• Turing
• Water jet cutting
• Laser cutting
8. Frictional heat does not dissipate easily through a plastic work-piece; the part surface finish
may be affected if allowed to reach the softening point. Excessive heat buildup can also dull
the cutting tool; therefore coolants are used to reduce heat.
9. Typical coolants used for machining plastics include:
• Clean compressed air (aides with chip removal as well)
• Mist sprays
• Water soluble oils
• Light cutting oils

1
10. Functions of coolant:
• Lubricate the cut
• Cool the drilling point
• Flush the chips
11. Water-jet cutting employs the force of a high pressure water stream. Characteristics for
water-jet cutting include:
• A pressure range between 20,000 to 60,000 psi
• No heat or dust are generated
• Can be used to cut abrasive material allowing the cutting of the most difficult plastics
12. Laser cutting is used when a fine polished, ultra smooth finish is required on a plastic part.
The two most common types of lasers include:
• CO2 gas laser
• YAG solid-state laser
13. The most common methods of assembling plastic components together include the use of:
• Snap fits
• Hinges
• Mechanical fasteners
• Bonding
• Welding
14. Snap fits are integral fasteners that are molded into plastic parts which lock into place when
assembled. Common types of snap fits include:
• Cantilever arm beam snap fits
• Annual ring snap fits
• Hinges
15. Hinges are used for assemblies requiring repeated opening and closing and divided into three
categories:
• One piece integral hinges
• Two piece integral hinges
• Multi-part hinges
16. Two types of mechanical fastening:
• Threaded fasteners
• Non-threaded fasteners
17. Mechanical fasteners are frequently used because:
• Low cost of assembling
• They can hold similar or dissimilar plastic part components together
18. The use of bonding methods in joining plastic components together are widespread and
include:
• Adhesive bonding
• Solvent bonding

2
19. Welding is the joining of thermoplastic components together. Welding provides exceptional
joints that are as strong as the surrounding plastics. The various types of welding include:
• Spin welding
• Hot-gas
• Ultrasonic
• Vibration
• Staking
20. Ultrasonic welding uses high frequency, longitudinal, and mechanical vibrations to weld
thermoplastic components together. The primary elements of a ultrasonic welding system
include:
• Power supply
• Converter
• Booster
• Horn
21. Staking is the method of applying energy against a thermoplastic protrusion that is passed
through a component ready to be assembled. Staking is performed using two primary
methods:
• Heat Staking – the energy is applied using a heated probe that impacts and melts the
protrusion and forms a head to assemble the components
• Ultrasonic Staking – the energy is applied using an ultrasonic tool or horn that causes
friction and resultant melting of the protrusion for assembly

3
Manufacturing Automation:
Programmable Logic Controller
(PLC)

Imin Kao
Professor
Department of Mechanical
Engineering
SUNY at Stony Brook

Programmable Logic Controller


•  History of PLC
–  First introduced in 1970
–  Used for automated factory which provide
system reliability, product quality, information
flow, reduced costs, efficiency, and flexibility
–  Today's PLC are designed using the latest in
microprocessor design and electronic circuitry
which provides reliable operation in industry
applications
Advantages Over Other Devices
•  PLC offers many advantages over other
control devices such as relay, electrical
timers/counters. Advantages include
–  Improved reliability
–  Smaller space required
–  Easier to maintain
–  Reusable
–  Reprogrammable if requirements change
–  More flexible-performs more functions

Schematic of PLC

I/O CPU &


Memory Programmer

User Supplied
Field Devices Basic PLC Block Diagram
Nomenclature & Example

(See handout)

Ladder Logic Diagram


•  Example of
programming PLC
using a ladder login
diagram
MEC326/580 H ANDOUT: P OSITIONING S YSTEMS AND ACCURACY

MEC325/580, Spring 2010 I. Kao

This handout discusses the positioning systems and accuracy [1]. Positioning systems, depending on their
control scheme, can be broken into two categories: (i) open-loop positioning systems, and (ii) closed-loop
positioning systems. Furthermore, they can also be either linear positioning or rotational positioning. Most
electromechanical motors are rotary, with some capable of delivering linear motion directly. For closed-loop
positioning system, encoders (both rotary and linear) are typically used to provide the positions for feedback
control. In the following, positioning and accuracy of motorized systems are discussed.

Open-Loop Positioning: Stepper motors are typically used for open-loop linear or rotary systems. For
example, a XY table utilizing two leadscrews in orthogonal directions to index (x, y) position on a plane
can be made an open-loop positioning system. The step angle is determined by the stepper motor—usually
comes in 1.8◦ or 0.9◦ . For example, a 0.9◦ stepper motor has a total of 400 steps per revolution. The
following equation relates the step angle and number of steps of a stepper motor.
360◦
α= (1)
ns
where α is the step angle in degrees and ns is the total number of steps in one full revolution of the motor.
In the previous example, we have ns = 400 and α = 0.9◦ .

Note that a open-loop positioning system counts on the motor to rotate without slip. If the motor slips
and misses counts (which can take place when the load is larger than the rated load and the torque generated
cannot consistently move from one step to another), the positioning error will accumulated.

The resolution (or the smallest linear displacement or control resolution) of the leadscrew driven by a
stepper motor can be determined by the following equation.
 α  lp
r = lp = (2)
360 ns
where l is 1 for single-thread screw, 2 for double-thread screw, · · · etc, and p is the pitch of the leadscrew
measuring the axial distance between two adjacent threads in the unit of inch/rev or mm/rev. Equation
(2) corresponds to one step of the stepper motor, and thus is the resolution of the linear positioning. The
total number of pulses, Np , (one pulse per step) needed for the required linear displacement, x, is
x x ns
Np = = (3)
r lp
The corresponding angle of rotation for the stepper motor is
x
θ = Np α = 360◦ (4)
lp
where the unit of θ is degree. The total number of revolution is
x
Rev = (5)
lp

When continuous motion is required, typically at a constant speed, the following equation relates the
required linear speed with respect to the rotational speed of the stepper motor.
N
v= (l p) (6)
60

1
where v is the linear speed in inch/sec or mm/sec, and N is the rotational speed of the stepper motor in
RPM. Conversely, the constant rotational speed of motor required to keep a constant linear motion is
v
N = 60 (7)
lp

Closed-Loop Positioning: All closed-loop positioning systems require sensory information for feedback
control. Typical sensory information of angular or linear displacement is provided by optical encoders or
potentiometers. DC servo motors are often used with optical encoders for the control of angular or linear
position and speed. Sometimes, tachometers are also used to provide information of angular speed, based
on the fact that back emf is proportional to the speed of rotation. Equations that describe the motion and
analysis are similar to those in equations (1) to (7).

Example: A 1.8◦ -stepper motor is connected to a leadscrew via a coupler connection for motion control of
a platform mounted and carried by the leadscrew. The single-thread leadscrew has a pitch of 5 mm. The
platform is to move a distance of 70 mm at a top speed of 7 mm/sec. Answer the following questions.

1. What is the smallest linear displacement that this motion system can realize?

2. Determine the total angle of revolution of the stepper motor, as well as the number of pulses, required
to move the platform over the specified distance.

3. What is the required angular speed of the stepper motor in order to achieve the top speed of the linear
motion?

Solution: Note the leadscrew is single-thread; thus, l = 1 in equations (2) to (7). Since the step angle is
1.8◦ , equation (1) gives the total number of steps per a full revolution as
360
ns = = 200 (8)
1.8

1. The smallest linear displacement that this motion system can realize is the resolution given by equation
(2). That is,
 
1.8 p 5
r=p = 5/200 = 0.025 mm = 25 µm or r = = = 0.025 mm (9)
360 ns 200

2. To move the entire distance of 70 mm, the total angle of revolution and number of pulses required are
x 70
Np = = = 2, 800
r 0.025
θ = Np α = (2800)(1.8◦ ) = 5040◦ = 14 rev.

respectively.

3. The angular speed of the stepper motors is given by equation (7):


v 7
N = 60 × = 60 × = 84 RP M (10)
p 5

2
Precision in Positioning: Three important measures of precision in positioning are (i) control resolution,
(ii) accuracy, and (iii) repeatability.

Control resolution is defined as the distance separating two adjacent control points in the axis of move-
ment. The control resolution is determined by the pitch of leadscrew, gear ratio, step angles (in the case of
stepper motor), and the angles between slots in an encoder disk. For a stepper motor system without gear
reduction, the control resolution is the same as r given in equation (2). If digital encoders are used in a
control system, the number of bits also affects the resolution–known as the quantization effect. If B is the
number of bits in the storage register (for example, the number of bits in the representation of encoder data,
say a 12-bit encoder), then the number of control points into which the axis range can be divided is 2B .
For example, a 12-bit encoder has 212 = 4096 control points and 4095 equal divisions. Assuming that the
control points are separated equally within the range, we have
L
s= (11)
2B −1
where s is the control resolution of the computer control system in inch or mm, and L is the range of axis
in inch or mm. Similarly, if the range of consideration is angular displacement with a range of angle of Θ
(Θ ≤ 360◦ ), then the angular control resolution is
Θ
sΘ = (12)
2B −1

The resulting control resolution of the positioning system is the maximum of the two values; that is,
CR = M ax{r, s} (13)
where r and s are calculated from equations (2) and (11), respectively. In general, it is desirable that s ≤ r.
In modern sensor and computer technology, this is typically the case.

In an actual environment, many practical factors influence the performance of the control of systems.
These factors include the backlash in the leadscrews or ball screws, backlash in the gearing and transmission,
and deflection and elasticity due to loading. If assuming a normal distribution with mean value being
zero, we can define the random nature of accuracy of positioning systems by the 3-σ principle with ±3σ
encompassing 99.7% of the population.

Accuracy is thus defined in a worst-case scenario in which the desired target point lies exactly between
two adjacent control points. An illustration in Figure 1 helps to visualize the situation. If the target was
closer to one of the control points, then the control system can be moved to the closer control point and the
error would be smaller. The accuracy of any given axis of a positioning system is the maximum possible
error that can occur between the desired target point and the actual position taken by the system, using the
3σ range,
Accuracy = 0.5 CR + 3σ (14)
where CR is the control resolution given by equation (13), and σ is the standard deviation of the distribution
of errors.

Repeatability is defined as the capability of a positioning system to return to a given control point that
has been previously designated. Therefore, the repeatability is given by
Repeatability = ±3σ (15)

3
distribution of errors
Desired target
point
control control
point point
axis
accuracy=0.5(CR)+3σ repeatability= 3σ
control resolution= CR

Figure 1: Terminology for positioning and accuracy

Example: A closed-loop control system is assumed to have random errors which are normally distributed
(Gaussian) with a standard deviation of σ = 0.004 mm. The range of the workspace is 700 mm with 16-bit
storage register. The single-thread ball screw has a pitch of 5 mm, with a 1.8◦ -stepper motor. Determine (a)
control resolution, (b) accuracy, and (c) repeatability of the positioning system.

Solution: Apply the equations formulated above. For single-thread ball screw, l = 1.

(a) The deterministic resolution defined in equation (2) and quantization in equation (11) are
p 5
r = = = 0.025 mm
ns 200
L 700 700
s = = 16 = = 0.0107 mm
2B − 1 2 −1 65536 − 1
respectively. Since s < r, the control resolution is

CR = M ax{0.025, 0.0107} = 0.025 mm (16)

(b) The accuracy is given by equation (14),

Accuracy = 0.5(0.025) + 3(0.004) = 0.0245 mm (17)

(c) The repeatability is given by equation (15),

Repeatability = ±3(0.004) = ±0.012 mm (18)

References

[1] M. P. Groover Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: materials, processes, and systems Wiley,
second ed., 2002

4
Using Taguchi Methods in Circuit Design1
Manufacturing Automation Laboratory (MAL)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
SUNY at Stony Brook

1 Purpose

To design a simple circuit with a resistance, R, and self-inductance, L, so that the output current is at 10
amperes. The loss function, in terms of dollars, is estimated at $200 if the current deviates more than 4
amperes which will cause the circuit to cease functioning.

2 Theoretical Equations to Calculate Current y and Sensitivity

The output current subject to the RL circuit is given by the following equation.

V
y=p 2 (1)
R + (2πf L)2

where V is the input voltage, R is the resistance, f is the frequency, and L is the inductance. The following
terms are also defined:
1
m̂ = (y1 + y2 + · · · + yn )
n
1
Sm = (y1 + y2 + · · · + yn )2
n
1
Ve = (y 2 + y22 + · · · + yn2 − Sm )
n−1 1
The sensitivity is defined in this case (nominal-the-better) to be
1
S= (Sm − Ve ) (2)
n
with the signal-to-noise ratio
1 S m − Ve
η = 10 log (3)
n Ve
The loss function is defined as
A0 2
L= σ (4)
∆20
where A0 is the loss due to malfunction of this circuit, ∆0 is the function limit, and σ 2 is the variance.
1
The example was adapted from the Taguchi Methods – Research and Development.

1
Control factors Values selected for parameter design
Resistance (R) R1 = 0.5Ω R1 = 5.0Ω R1 = 9.5Ω
Inductance (L) L1 = 0.010H L1 = 0.020H L1 = 0.030H
Noise factors Values estimated for parameter design
Voltage (V ) 90 V 100 V 110 V
Frequency (f ) 50 Hz 55 Hz 60 Hz
R′ −10% 0 10%
L′ −10% 0 10%

Table 1: Values and estimated ranges of control and noise factors

Results S/N ratio Sensitivity


No. R L N1 N2 η S
1 1 1 21.5 38.4 7.6 29.2
2 1 2 10.8 19.4 7.5 23.2
3 1 3 7.2 13.0 7.4 19.7
4 2 1 13.1 20.7 9.7 24.3
5 2 2 9.0 15.2 8.5 21.4
6 2 3 6.6 11.5 8.0 18.8
7 3 1 8.0 12.2 10.4 20.0
8 3 2 6.8 10.7 9.8 18.6
9 3 3 5.5 9.1 8.9 17.0

Table 2: Calculation of S/N ratios and sensitivities

3 Specification of Design Parameters

In the parameter design, we first need to identify the control and noise factors. Control factors are the factors
that we can control or select freely. The noise factors are the ones that we can not or do not want to control,
such as the actual voltage and frequency of input power and the variations in the actual values of resistance
and inductance (assume that the actual values vary within certain ranges).

The control factors are the resistance, R, and inductance, L. Each control parameter is chosen to have
three levels in our analysis. The noise factors include the voltage of power input, V , and frequency, f ,
and the uncertainties of the resistor and inductor components which are assume to vary ±10% from their
nominal values. Table 1 summarizes the factors.

4 Parameter Design

Using the parameter design, we can calculate the signal-to-noise ratios and sensitivities using equations (2)
and (3). The results are tabulated in Table 2.

2
η S η S
R1 7.5 24.0 L1 9.2 24.5
R2 8.7 21.5 L2 8.6 21.1
R3 9.7 18.5 L3 8.1 18.5

Table 3: Factorial effects

Table 3 of average values are computed in order to compare the control factors of each level using the
S/N ratios, η, and sensitivities, S. From Table 3, we conclude that the optimal design is R3 L1 which has
the highest S/N ratios in R and L, respectively. In order to determine the difference between average output
and the target value, a confirmation experiment is performed. The currents are found to be y1 = 8.0A and
y2 = 12.2A with an average of 10.1. There is nearly no difference between the average and the target value
in this case and thus no further adjustment is needed. If, however, there is a large difference, the output will
need to be adjusted using a factor that has larger sensitivity but affects S/N less. Such a factor is called the
adjustment factor.

5 Loss Calculation

Using the loss function defined in equation (4) as a basis, we employ the following equation to calculate L
with a similar definition in order to obtain figures of loss function for the purpose of comparison. The loss
using parameter design is
A0 1 200 1
L = 2 η/10 = 2 = $1.14
∆0 10 4 101.04
This value is much smaller than $200.

If traditional design is chosen, i.e. R2 L2 , we obtain


200 1
L= = $1.76
42 100.85
The improvement by using the parameter design is $0.62 per each product – about 35% improvement.

6 Conclusion

The parameter design of the Taguchi Methods, when applied to this electronic design problem, yields satis-
factory results. The S/N ratio enhances the robustness of the product and reduces the loss. The quality of
design of this circuit is improved over the traditional solution.

References

[1] G. Taguchi System of Experimental Design, vols. 1 and 2 Quality Resources, Dearborn Michigan, vol.
1 and 2, 1991

3
[2] G. Taguchi and S. Konishi Taguchi Methods – Research and Development ASI press, vol. 1 in Quality
Engineering Series, 1992

4
Taguchi Methods!

Case Study of Taguchi Methods:


RL circuit example

Professor Imin Kao!


Department of Mechanical Engineering!
SUNY at Stony Brook!
!
631-632-8308; email: kao@mal.eng.sunysb.edu

Taguchi Methods!

RL Circuit Design

!  Design RL circuit such that the current,


y, is at 10 A.!

!  The loss function is estimated at $200 if


current deviates more than 4A!
Taguchi Methods!

Control and Noise Factors

Taguchi Methods!

Calculating S/N Ratios

•  Apply Nominal-the-Best Criterion!


•  S/N ratio equation for 2 data points!
Taguchi Methods!

Parameter Design Using


Orthogonal Array

Taguchi Methods!

S/N Ratio: Factorial Effects

!  The
S/N ratios from the orthogonal
array!

!  The optimal design is R3L1 which has


highest S/N ratios in R and L!
!  Confirmation Run: y1=8.0A, y2=12.2A
with average at 10.1A!
ME325/580 H ANDOUT: S HEET-M ETAL B ENDING

MEC325/580, Spring 2010 I. Kao

Sheet-Metal Bending: This handout concerns the sheet metal bending process and analysis. [The material
is from “Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: materials, processes, and systems” by M. P. Groover,
Wiley, 2002; and other sources]

Bend Allowance: If the bend radius is small relative to stock thickness, the metal tends to stretch during
bending. It is important to be able to estimate the amount of stretching that occurs, if any, so that the final
part length will match the specified dimension. The problem is to determine the length of the neutral axis
before bending to account for stretching of the final bent section. This length is called the bend allowance,
and it can be estimated as follows:

   (1)

where
 = bend allowance (in or mm), ! 
#"  $ is the bend angle (in degrees),  is the bend
radius (in or mm),  is the stock thickness (in or mm), as shown in Figure 1(a), and % is a factor to estimate
'&
stretching. Note the term ($) *,+ is the bend angle in radians. The following design values are recommended
for - .
-  0 0/2/2139 1 if 54768
- if 5:768
(2)

This only applies when the bend radius is small relative to sheet thickness. An illustration is shown in
Figure 1.

F
punch
t
Af
Ai
Rf
Ri

die

  , which is the same


(a) During punch (b) After punch: springback

as that of the V-die, and becomes


;
Figure 1: Illustration of sheet-metal bending V-die. The included angle of the part is
after the springback.

Bending Force: The force required to perform bending depends on the geometry of the punch and die and
the strength, thickness, and width of the sheet metal. The maximum bending force can be estimated by the
following equation, based on bending of a simple beam

<=  ;?>AE @3B DC (3)


< >@ B
where is the bending force (in lb or N), is the tensile strength of the sheet metal (in psi or MPs),

the width of part in the direction of the bend axis (in or mm), is the stock thickness (in or mm), and
E is
is

1
the die opening dimension as defined in Figure 2. The constant ! ;
accounts for differences encountered in

.
an actual bending process. Its value depends on type of bending, as defined in the following
 " 

  ;;  0 /22/ 139 1
- for
   

- for
(4)

punch

D
die
D
V-die
wiping die
Figure 2: Illustration of die opening dimensions for V-bending and edge bending.

5 1     , 3 3 


Example: A sheet-metal blank is to be bent as shown in Figure 3. The metal has a modulus of elasticity
, yield strength , and tensile strength .
>@ ! 9, 3 3 
1.500 w=1.750
1.0

t=0.125 R=0.187
00

120 o

Figure 3: Example of sheet-metal bending

1. Determine the starting blank size, and


2. Calculate the bending force if a V-die will be used with a die opening dimension
E  / "$# .

Solution: Refer to the dimensions in Figure 3.

B  /&% 9'(# /29  / 3   . For an


included angle
  6 
1. The starting blank has a width of
, as shown, the bend angle is
) 
. Its length is equal to
. The value of - in equation (2) is
0.33 since 54768
. The bend allowance is obtained from equation (1)
 
   0/
*%  0/2131+ 0/ 6 9   0 / 6 1,-(#
Thus, the required length of the blank is
.  6 /29 3  0 / 6 1,  6 /&% 1,-(# /
2. The required bending force is obtained from equation (3) using ! ;  /2131 in equation (4) for V-die.

<  /2131  /&% 9   9 /, 3 3   0/ 6 9  C  6 1 -0/21


Thus,
(5)

2
Springback: When the bending pressure is removed at the end of the deformation operation, elastic energy
remains in the bent part, causing it to recover partially towards its original shape. This elastic recovery is
called springback, as shown in Figure 1, defined as the increase in the included angle of the bent part relative
to the included angle of the forming tool after the tool is removed. That is,
> = # ;  "  
 (6)

where
> is the springback,
 
is the included angle of the bending die tool, and
 ;
is the included angle
of the sheet-metal part after it is removed from the bending die, as shown in Figure 1.

Analysis of Spring Back in Bending of Sheet-Metal: The following empirical equation defines the amount
of springback in a bending operation on a sheet metal with the geometry shown in Figure 4.

 ;         " 1     
    
 (7)

where 
and  ;
are the bend radii before and after the spring back,  is the yield strength,
 is the Young’s

modulus, and is the thickness of the sheet metal.

t
A
i
Ri
θi
Rf

Figure 4: Springesback during the bending process of a sheet metal of thickness 

 ;
The springback defined in equation (6) is based on the included angle before and after the springback. It is
useful, however, to use the radii of curvature ( and  
in Figure 4) to represent the amount of springback.
To this end, we assume that the arc length of the curved bend is the same before and after springback, as

     
 ;  ;  8;  8;   ;   
shown in Figure 4; that is,

 (8)

Since
    "  and
#;   "  ; , we can write
#;  "  ;      "  ;    ;   
   (9)

Since  ;  and    4 , the springback is


>  #;  "    " ;     "
    (10)

3
 
Equation (10) depends on the ratio of
of the bending die tool .
   , which can be substituted by equation (7), and the included angle
In a design problem with synthesis, the radius of curvature of the bending die angle, , often needs to be  
designed in order to render the final radius at the desired value after springback. In this case, equation (7)
needs to be solved using an equation solver (root finder) or by iteration.
(
 9, 3 3  1   
Example: In a bending operation of a 1010 cold-drawn steel sheet metal of thickness  , with a yield   )
strength of and the Young’s modulus of , the radius of curvature of the bending die
6
tool is .

1. When the bending operation on the die tool is finished, what will be the final radius of the bend based
on equation (7), as the sheet metal is removed from the die tool?
 ?
springback as a function of the angle .
 
2. What is the springback as a function of the included angle of the bending die tool Plot the

Solution: Several equations in this section are employed to solve this problem.

1. Applying equation (7), we find

6 ;   9 , 3 3   9 , 3 3 
1     
   0 / , 6
0
 
6 
1     
  " 1 6 

Solve for  ;  6 / 939 .
2. Employing equation (10), we have
  " 0 / , 6 0
    "
>
 
If 
  & , the springback is >  0/ % 6  % / 6  . If    & , the springback is >  0/ 6  
6 /   . TheC springback as a function of the bending die angle (included  angle,   ) is plotted in Figure 5.

4
0.25

0.2

0.15
spingback

0.1

0.05

0
40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
include angle in degrees, Ai

Figure 5: Plot of springback as a function of the included angle

5
Shop Scheduling
with Many Parts

Imin Kao
Professor
Department of Mechanical
Engineering
SUNY at Stony Brook

Terminology
•  Sequencing:
–  The process of defining the order in which jobs
are to be run on a machine
•  Scheduling:
–  The process of adding start and finish time
information to the job order dictated by the
sequence

Sequence determines the schedule


Assumptions of Shop Scheduling
•  Each job is started on a machine as
soon as the job has finished all
predecessor operations and the
machine has completed all earlier job in
its sequence
•  All jobs are in the shop and ready for
processing at time zero (t =0)
•  Flow time = completion time

Definitions
•  Scheduling process variables:
–  N : the number of jobs to be scheduled
–  M : the number of machines; each job is
assumed to visit each machine once
–  Pij : set up and processing time of job i on
machine j (elements in the time matrix)
Objectives
①  Minimize average flow time
②  Minimize the time required to complete
all jobs (Cmax = makespan)!
③  Minimize average tardiness
④  Minimize maximum tardiness
⑤  Minimize the number of tardy jobs
Choice of “objective” depends on tasks
and requirements

Permutation Schedule
•  Assumptions:
–  All machines process jobs in the same order
–  Nearly the optimal solution for flow shops
•  Given the sequence, scheduling is:
①  At time 0, the first job is started on machine 1
②  As soon as this operation is completed, the
first job begins on machine 2 & the second
job begins on machine 1
③  Repeat 1 & 2 until the last job finishes on
machine M
Remarks
•  Permutation Scheduling: Need to
consider (N!) total of job sequences,
where N is the number of jobs
•  As N grows, (N!) grows even more!!
•  The Permutation Scheduling is not
suitable for too many jobs (N < 7~10)

N! = N (N-1)! … !2!1

Example: Shop Scheduling


•  Consider the set of jobs (N=3) and
processing times in the following time
matrix. The unit of time is in minutes.
M Lathe Milling Milling
N (m/c 1) (m/c 2) (m/c 3)
Job 1 2.0 3.5 1.5
Job 2 4.5 3.0 2.5
Job 3 1.5 1.5 5.0
Example (cont.)
•  Process variables:
–  N = 3 (number of jobs)
–  M = 3 (number of machines: lathe, milling,
milling machines)
•  Gantt Chart is used to illustrate the
permutation scheduling of each job
sequence
•  First example: use the job sequence of
{1, 2, 3}

Example: Job Seq={1,2,3}


M
Lathe (m/c 1) Milling (m/c 2) Milling (m/c 3)
N

Job 1 2.0 3.5 1.5


Job 2 4.5 3.0 2.5
Job 3 1.5 1.5 5.0
Job Sequence = { 1, 2, 3 }
m/c 1 Job 1 Job 2 Job 3

m/c 2 Job 1 Job 2 Job 3

m/c 3 Job 1 Job 2 Job 3


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
time (minutes)
Makespan = 17
Now, you do it …
M
Lathe (m/c 1) Milling (m/c 2) Milling (m/c 3)
N

Job 1 2.0 3.5 1.5


Job 2 4.5 3.0 2.5
Job 3 1.5 1.5 5.0
Job Sequence = { 3, 2, 1 }
m/c 1 Job 3 Job 2 Job 1
m/c 2 Job 3 Job 2 Job 1
m/c 3 Job 3 Job 2 Job 1

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
time (minutes)
Makespan = 14

About the Makespan


•  The “makespan” must accommodate:
①  The delay before the machine j can begin
processing
②  The total processing time on the machine j
③  The remaining processing time for the last job
after it leaves the machine j
•  Calculate the “theoretical” lower bound
(LB)j based on machine j!
Theoretical Lower Bound (LB)
•  A lower bound (LBj) based on machine j is
$ j "1 ' N $* M '*
LB j = min%# pir ( + # pij + min% # pir (
i *
i
& r =1 ) i=1 & r = j +1 *)
•  where pij is the (setup+processing) time of job i on
machine j, N is the number of jobs, and M is the
! number of machines. The largest lower bound
amongst all (LBj) is the lower bound for reference.
That is,
LBref = max{LB1, LB2 , ! , LBM }

Calculating Theoretical LB
M
Lathe (m/c 1) Milling (m/c 2) Milling (m/c 3)
N

Job 1 2.0 3.5 1.5


Job 2 4.5 3.0 2.5
Job 3 1.5 1.5 5.0
Machine 1 to 3 (j= 1, 2, 3)
(LB)1= 0+(2+4.5+1.5)+min{(3.5+1.5),(3+2.5),(1.5+5)}= 13
(LB)2= min{2,4.5,1.5}+(3.5+3+1.5)+min{1.5,2.5,5}= 11
(LB)3= min{(2+3.5),(4.5+3),(1.5+1.5)}+(1.5+2.5+5)+0= 12

LB = max{13,11,12} = 13 minutes
Remarks
•  The theoretical lower bound is 13
minutes. Thus, job sequence {1,2,3},
having makespan of 17 minutes, most
likely is not optimal/minimum
•  There are a total of 6 (3!=3!2!1=6)
permutations of job sequence.
•  The job sequence of {3,1,2} has a
makespan of 13.5 minutes ! minimum
makespan

Procedures of Permutation Scheduling


①  Establish the time matrix based on data/
time of machining, including set-up time
②  Determine (LB)1, (LB)2, … , (LB)M for the
M machines
③  Determine the theoretical lower bound
LBref = max{LB1, LB2 , ! , LBM }
④  Draw the Gantt chart based on permutation
scheduling (a total of N! Gantt charts)
!Note: there may be zero in the time matrix
ME325/580 Handout: Shop Scheduling with Many Products
Spring 2010 I. Kao

Consider the set of jobs and processing times shown in the following table for three jobs on three
machines. Generate the schedule assuming jobs are processed in the order of {1, 2, 3}. The unit
of the time in the following time matrix table is in minutes.

Milling (machine 1) Lathe (machine 2) Milling (machine 3)


Job 1 2.0 3.5 1.5
Job 2 4.5 3.0 2.5
Job 3 1.5 1.5 5.0

Solution:
The solution of the processing order {1, 2, 3} is summarized in the Gantt chart below. We start
by assigning job 1 to machine 1 at time 0. Since p11 =2.0, the operation lasts until 2.0 minutes.
Since all jobs must go to machine 1 first, the other machines are idle and the other jobs are
queued. At 2.0 minutes, job 1 is loaded onto machine 2 and machine 1 starts on job 2, the
second job in the sequence. Machine 2 finishes job 1, p12 =3.5 minutes later (time is now 5.5
min.). Machine 1 is still busy with job 2; thus, while job 1 is begun on machine 3, machine 2 is
idle, waiting for job 2. The remainder of the schedule is shown in the figure.
Note that the schedule reflects the rule that machine j starts job i when job i is finished on
machine (j−1) and all jobs with earlier locations in the schedule have finished with machine j.
Mach 1 Job 1 Job 2 job 3
Mach 2 Job 1 Job 2 job 3
Mach 3 job 1 Job 2 Job 3
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

A few observations are in order:


• Machine utilization probably can be made higher with less idle time via change of job
sequence.
• Makespan is 17 minutes for {1, 2, 3} job sequence: machine 1 takes 8 minutes; machine 2
takes 9 minutes; machine 3 takes 11.5 minutes.
• Lower bounds of time span can be established for reference of process scheduling efficiency.

1
Improve the efficiency and reduce makespan

The makespan must accommodate:


(1) the delay before the machine can begin processing
(2) the total processing time on the machine
(3) the remaining processing time for the last job after it leaves the machine

Thus, a lower bound (LBj) based on machine j is

⎧ j−1 ⎫ N ⎧ M ⎫
LB j = min ⎨∑ pir ⎬ + ∑ pij + min ⎨ ∑ pir ⎬
i ⎩r =1 ⎭ i=1 i ⎩r = j+1
⎭

where pij is the (setup+processing) time of job i on machine j, N is the number of jobs, and M is
the number of machines. The largest lower bound amongst all (LBj) is the lower bound for
reference. That is,

LBref = max{LB1, LB2 ,  , LBM }


where the (LBj) terms are obtained from the equation above. This LBref is the lower bound that is
used as a reference in your design.

In this example, the lower bounds can be calculated as follows.



Machines 1 to 3 (j=1, 2, 3):
LB1= 0 + (2.0+4.5+1.5) + min{(3.5+1.5), (3.0+2.5), (1.5+5.0)} = 0+8+5 = 13
LB2= min{2.0, 4.5, 1.5} + (3.5+3.0+1.5) + min{1.5, 2.5, 5.0} = 11
LB3= min{(2.0+3.5), (4.5+3.0), (1.5+1.5)} + 9 + 0 = 12

Therefore, the reference lower bound is LB=13 minutes. Since the makespan for the job order
{1, 2, 3} is 17 minutes, we suspect that it can be improved though we may not necessarily be
able to reduce the makespan to 13 minute – the lower bound.
There are 6 (3!= 3x2x1) permutations of the job order. Employ the same method to the other 5
permutations, we find that the most efficient scheduling is {3, 1, 2} with a makespan of 13.5
minutes.

Exercise: Try to follow the above procedure to confirm that the {3, 1, 2} is indeed the most
efficient scheduling with a makespan of 13.5 minutes.

2
MEC325/580 Handout: Viscosity for Industrial Slurry

I. Kao Spring 2010

Typical viscosity for slurry used in industrial processes


The slurry used here consists of glycol carrier with silicon carbide grits
at F400 grain size (average grain size is 17 microns). The mixing ratio
is in kilogram of silicon carbide grits vs. liter of carrier fluid. The
viscosity as a function of temperature also resembles the shape of curve
shown here.

20000
ratio=1.25
10000

5000
ratio=0.5
2000
ratio=1.0 ratio=0.75
1000

500

200

100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Shear rate (1/s)
MEC325/580: Food/Soda Cans
Manufacturing
Facts and Manufacturing Processes

Imin Kao, Professor


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering and App. Sci.
SUNY at Stony Brook

Prof. Imin Kao

Do You Know?
•  Formaldehyde is added to many food cans
•  The formaldehyde flavor legacy in can-
making
•  You should NEVER cook food with the can
•  A single can-tooling machine spits out 400
cans per minute
•  250 millions cans per day are consumed
(one can per person per day)
Prof. Imin Kao

Why Using Formaldehyde in Can?


•  To kill bacteria!
–  Steel cans in 1940s use an emulsion (95% water
and 5% oil) for lubrication in mfg process
–  Certain bacteria eats oil in the emulsion, so the
biocide is added
–  Amount is not enough to cause health hazard, but
enough to taste
–  This results in the famous preservative flavor (e.g.,
in Budweiser)

Prof. Imin Kao

Formaldehyde Flavor Legacy


•  Why not use biocides without flavor?
–  Yes, mfg’ers do that in recent years (e.g., Miller
Genuine Draft and other similar brews)
•  Almost every new emulsion formula had to
be made to taste like formaldehyde or else
people aren’t going to accept it.
•  Are there any other things/additives in your
food or beer/soda cans?
Prof. Imin Kao

Polymer in Your Food Can


•  Polymer (in solvent) is spray-coated inside to
serve two functions:
–  Plasters any microscopic debris (resulting from mfg proc) to
the can wall and away from the food
–  Keeps the food from interacting with can material (e.g.,
tomato acid to corrode the can)
•  Don’t cook the food in the can when you go
camping!
–  Or else you will be eating polymer (since they degrade when
heated)
–  Typical consequence of such a culinary blunder: headaches
and constipation

Prof. Imin Kao

Soda Can Manufacturing


•  Soda can manufacturers are competing with
low-priced plastic and glass bottles
•  A single can-tooling machine can spit 400
cans a minute (i.e. 7 cans per second!!)
•  For one can per a person per day
–  Need 250 million cans per day
•  Employ the “Deep Drawing” process
Prof. Imin Kao

Manufacture of Aluminum Can


Starting Material: Shipment of
Canstock from a roll can to filler

Cupper Flanger

Bodymaker (inkl. Necker


domer and trimmer)

Washer Printer Printer Inside Inside coating


drier oven coating drier oven

Prof. Imin Kao

Manufacturing Process (I)

Source: J. E. Wang, Texas A&M University


Prof. Imin Kao

Manufacturing Process (II)

Source: J. E. Wang, Texas A&M University

Prof. Imin Kao

Finished Product of Can

Source: J. E. Wang, Texas A&M University


Prof. Imin Kao

Can Top: material and design

Source: J. E. Wang, Texas A&M University

Prof. Imin Kao

Video Clip (source: Discovery Channel)


Prof. Imin Kao

Process & Materials


•  Cost of mfg: $40 per 1,000 cans (4 cent @)
•  Major cost is on the lid of the can
–  Body made of AA3004 aluminum (Al 97.8%; Mg
1.0%) with a yield strength 170 MPa and tensile
strength 215 Mpa.
–  Lid made of a stronger aluminum alloy of AA5182
(Al 95.2%; Mg 4.5%) with a yield strength 395
MPa and tensile strength 420 Mpa.
•  The necking at the lid: to reduce cost of
material

Prof. Imin Kao

What Are You Paying?


•  A typical breakdown of what you are
paying in a can of soda:
–  4 cents for making the can (major cost:
magnesium aluminum alloy with higher ductility)
–  10 cents (or more) goes for advertising
–  Less than 1 cent for the 12 ounces of beverage!
•  That’s why the no-name brand soda sells for
much less in stores!
Prof. Imin Kao

Summary
•  Formaldehyde smell in food and beer cans
•  Do not cook food with the can when go
camping
•  Addition of polymer inside the can to
protect the can/food, and to enclose mfg
remains
•  How much are you paying in a can of soda
H ANDOUT ON S TATISTICAL P ROCESS C ONTROL (SPC)

MEC325/580, Spring 2010 I. Kao

1 Statistical Process Control and Methodology

The “statistical process control” (SPC) uses various statistical methods to assess and analyze variations in a
process. SPC keeps record of production data, histogram, process capability, and control charts. Two control
charts are most widely used in SPC, which will be discussed in Section 2.

There are two types of variations considered in SPC: (1) random variations and (2) assignable variations.
The former is present if the process is in statistical control; the latter indicates departure from statistical
control. The control charts are used to identify when the process has gone out of statistical control, thus
signaling that some corrective actions should be taken. A process is out of control if there are significant
changes in either process mean or process variability.

2 Control Charts of SPC

The use of control charts is a technique in which statistics computed from measured values of a certain process
characteristics are plotted over time to determine if the process remains in statistical control. The chart consists
of three horizontal lines: a center, a lower control limit (LCL), and a upper control limit (UCL), as shown in
Figure 1. The process is said to be out of statistical control if sample is out of these limits.

Two types of control charts are commonly used in SPC. They are the x̄-chart and the R-chart. The x̄-
chart plots the average measured value of a series of samples, with LCL and UCL bounds corresponding to
3σ standard variation; whereas, the R-chart plots the range of each sample, with its corresponding LCL and
UCL.

In SPC, samples are taken at every designated time period (e.g., every 15 minutes) and certain number of
measurements (or parts) are taken per each sample. The variable m denotes the number of samples, and n
is the number of measurements (d1 , d2 , · · · , dn ) per sample, or the sample size that is designated in Table 1.
Therefore, for each sample, we can compute
Pn
i=1 di
x̄ = (1)
n
R = max{d1 , · · · dn } − min{d1 , · · · dn } (2)

The mean values of x̄ and the range are thus


Pm
j=1 x̄j
¯ =
x̄ (3)
Pmm
j=1 Rj
R̄ = (4)
m

1
Table 1: Constants for the x̄ and R charts. Note that the “Sample size” (n) is the number of measurement per
each sample.

Sample size x̄-chart R-chart


n A2 D3 D4
3 1.023 0 2.574
4 0.729 0 2.282
5 0.577 0 2.114
6 0.483 0 2.004
7 0.419 0.076 1.924
8 0.373 0.136 1.864
9 0.337 0.184 1.816
10 0.308 0.223 1.777
11 0.29 0.26 1.74
12 0.27 0.28 1.72
13 0.25 0.31 1.69
14 0.24 0.33 1.67
15 0.22 0.35 1.65
16 0.21 0.36 1.64
17 0.20 0.38 1.62
18 0.19 0.39 1.61
19 0.19 0.40 1.60
20 0.18 0.41 1.59

The equations for computing the upper and lower bounds are:
(
¯ − A2 R̄
LCL = x̄ − 3σ = x̄
x̄ − chart: ¯ + A2 R̄ (5)
U CL = x̄ + 3σ = x̄
(
LCL = D3 R̄
R − chart: (6)
U CL = D4 R̄

where the constants: A2 , D3 , and D4 are listed in Table 1. Note that Table 1 is listed according to the sample
size n, or preferably called the number of measurement, not the number of samples m.

The procedure for constructing the charts is in the following.

1. Compute the mean (x̄) out of n measurements, and the range (R) for each of the m samples using
equations (1) and (2).

2. Compute the grand mean x̄ ¯ , which is the mean of the x̄ values for the m samples using equation (3).
This will be the center for the x̄-chart.

3. Compute R̄, which is the mean of the R values for the m samples using equation (4). This will be the
center for the R-chart.

4. Determine U CL and LCL, based on equations (5) and (6) and the constants listed in Table 1.

2
Sample number d1 d2 d3 d4
1 2.46 2.40 2.44 2.46
2 2.45 2.43 2.47 2.39
3 2.38 2.48 2.42 2.42
4 2.42 2.44 2.53 2.49
5 2.42 2.45 2.43 2.44
6 2.44 2.45 2.44 2.39
7 2.39 2.41 2.42 2.46
8 2.45 2.41 2.43 2.41
Table 2: SPC for 8 samples, each with 4 measurements

2.1 LCL and UCL with known mean and standard deviation

For some processes, the mean and standard deviation of the process may be known. Under such circumstances,
the parameters of the x̄-chart can be obtained as follows:

x̄ = µ (7)

LCL = µ − √ (8)
n

U CL = µ + √ (9)
n
where µ is the process mean, σ is the standard deviation of the process, n is the number of measurement (or
sample size), and √σn is the standard deviation of the sample mean.

Equations of LCL and U CL this section and the previous section have control limits set at 99.73% of the
samples at 3-sigma range.

3 An Example

Samples are collected from an extrusion process that is in statistical process control, and the diameter of the
extrudate is measured in cm. Eight samples are taken with a time interval of 15 minutes between each sample
for a duration of 2 hours. Four measurements (d1 to d4 ) are performed in each sample. The quantity x̄ is the
average of four measurements in each sample, and R is the range of measurements. The measurements are
tabulated in Table 2. Answer the following questions.

¯ , and the control limits (LCL and U CL) of the x̄-chart.


1. Find the grand average, x̄

2. Calculate the average of R, and the control limits (LCL and U CL) of the R-chart.

3. Construct the x̄-chart and R-chart.


4. Another sample was taken with four measurements as follows: {2.41, 2.50, 2.49, 2.55}. Determine if
the process is out of (statistical) control, based on the previously established control charts.

Solution: We first identify that the number of measurement per each sample (or sample size) is n = 4 with a
total number of 8 sample batches, m = 8. The average x̄ and the range R are calculated and shown in Table 3.

3
P
x̄ = ( di )/4 R
1 2.440 0.06
2 2.435 0.08
3 2.425 0.10
4 2.470 0.11
5 2.435 0.03
6 2.430 0.06
7 2.420 0.07
8 2.425 0.04
Table 3: The tabulated data for x̄ and R

From Table 3, we find


¯ = 2.435
x̄ R̄ = 0.06875 (10)

1. From the above results, equations (5) and (6), and Table 1 with 4 measurements per sample (or the
sample size), we have n = 4. Thus, we compute:

¯ = 2.435
x̄ (11)
LCL = 2.435 − (0.729) × 0.06875 = 2.3849 (12)
U CL = 2.435 + (0.729) × 0.06875 = 2.4851 (13)

The x̄-chart is plotted in Figure 1.

2. Similarly, we can compute for R-chart:

R̄ = 0.06875 (14)
LCL = D3 R̄ = 0 (15)
U CL = D4 R̄ = (2.282) × 0.06875 = 0.1569 (16)

The R-chart is plotted in Figure 1.

3. See Figure 1.

4. For the next sample with four measurements: 2.41, 2.50, 2.49, 2.55, we find
P4
i=1 di
x̄ = = 2.4875 R = 2.55 − 2.41 = 0.14 (17)
4
Hence, it is out of control (due to the x̄-chart).

4 Control Charts for Attributes

In addition to the x̄-chart and R-chart, two other charts are used for attributes. They are used to monitor the
number of defects present in sample, or the fraction of defect rate, for example, the number of defects per
automobile, existence or absence of flash in a plastic molding. Two types of charts are used: the p-chart and
the c-chart.

4
x-chart
2.490
2.480 UCL= 2.4851
2.470
2.460
2.450
2.440
2.430
2.435
2.420
2.410
2.400
2.390 LCL= 2.3849
2.380
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

R-chart
0.160

0.140
UCL= 0.1569

0.120

0.100

0.080
0.06875
0.060

0.040

0.020

0.000 LCL= 0.0


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Figure 1: The x̄-chart and R-chart

4.1 The p-chart

The p-chart plots the fraction defect rate in successive samples. The “p” stands for proportion which is defined
as
di
pi = (18)
n
for m samples of equal size n, where di is the number of defective items, and n is the number ofqparts in
p̄(1−p̄)
sample. The parameters are calculated based on binomial distribution with standard deviation σ = n .
For m samples of equal size n, the center and control limits are
Pm
i=1 pi
p̄ = (19)
ms
p̄(1 − p̄)
LCL = p̄ − 3 (20)
n
s
p̄(1 − p̄)
U CL = p̄ + 3 (21)
n

If LCL < 0 then use LCL = 0 in equation (20).

5
4.2 The c-chart

The c-chart plots the number of defects or flaws per sample. The c stands for count. The parameters of the
c-chart are based on the Poisson distribution. They are
Pm
i=1 ci
c̄ = (22)
m√
LCL = c̄ − 3 c̄ (23)

U CL = c̄ + 3 c̄ (24)

where ci is the number of imperfections or number of events occurring within a defined sample space (e.g.,
defects per car). If LCL < 0 then use LCL = 0 in equation (23).

References

[1] M. P. Groover Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: materials, processes, and systems Wiley, second
ed., 2002

[2] S. Kalpakjian and S. R. Schmid Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials Prentice Hall, fourth
ed., 2003

6
Statistical Process Control
(SPC)

Imin Kao
Professor
Department of Mechanical
Engineering
SUNY at Stony Brook

What is SPC?
•  SPC
–  is based on the 3-! principle
–  uses various statistical methods to assess and
analyze variations in a process
–  keeps record of production data, histogram,
process capability, and control charts
•  Two Types of Variations Considered
1.  Random variations
2.  Assignable variations
SPC and Control Charts
•  Control charts are used to identify when
the process has gone out of statistical
control ! require corrective action
•  A process is “out of control”, if there are
significant changes in
–  Process mean, or
–  Process variability

Control Charts
•  Three horizontal lines
–  Center
–  LCL: Lower control limit
–  UCL: Upper control limit
Control Chart: Types
•  Two Types:
–  The x " chart
–  The R-chart

Variables for Control Charts


•  SPC takes samples at designated time
interval (e.g., every 15 minutes)
•  Variables:
–  m: the number of samples
–  n: the number of measurement per sample (or
the sample size)
–  Example: takes samples every 15 minutes for 8
hours, each time with 8 parts in the sample !
m = 32; n = 8
Computing the Parameters
The n measurements are denoted as: d1, d2, … dn

Computing LCL and ULC


•  The LCL and UCL for the two charts
Constants for the Charts

Note: The tables is


based on the “Sample
size” (n, or the number
of measurement in
each sample), not “m”

Procedures
①  Compute the mean out of n
measurements, and the range R for
each of the m samples
②  Compute the grand mean for the m
samples ! center of the x-chart
③  Compute the mean of range for the m
samples ! center of the R-chart
④  Determine UCL and LCL to complete
the charts
Example
SPC for 8 samples, each with 4 measurements

Example (cont.)
Control Charts

UCL & LCL with known Std Dev


Control Charts for Attributes
•  The p-Chart
The proportion is defined as:

with

Control Charts for Attributes


•  The c-Chart
MEC325/580 Handout: Stainless Steel
Spring 2010 I. Kao

Supplementary Lecture about Stainless Steel

The corrosion resistance is imparted by the formation of a strong adherent chromium oxide on
the surface of metal. On the other hand, existence of carbon will form chromium carbide which
takes away ability for chromium to form the shielding chromium oxide. When the amount of
atomic chromium in solution exceeds 12%, improved corrosion resistance and outstanding
appearance are achieved. This category forms what has been commonly called the true stainless
steels.
Several classification schemes have been devised to categorize the stainless steel alloys. The
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) groups the metals by chemistry and assigns a three-digit
number that identifies the basic family and the particular alloy within that family. The following
table presents the AISI designation scheme for stainless steels and correlates it with the
microstructural families.
Series Alloys Structure Magnetic?
200 chromium, nickel, manganese, or nitrogen austenitic No
300 chromium, nickel austenitic No
400 chromium only ferritic or martensitic Yes
500 low chromium (<12%) martensitic Yes

The material can also be grouped by microstructural families. In general, there are five main
types as will be described in the following, although new stainless steel alloys have been
developed to meet special needs.
(1) Austenitic (200 and 300 series): These steels are generally composed of chromium, nickel,
and manganese in iron. Nickel is an austenite stabilizer, and with sufficient amounts of both
chromium and nickel, it is possible to produce a stainless steel in which austenite is the stable
structure at room temperature. Known as austenitic stainless steels, these alloys may cost
twice as much as the ferritic variety, with the added expense being attributed to the cost of
the alloying nickel and chromium. Manganese and nitrogen are also austenite stabilizers and
may be substituted for some of the nickel to produce a lower-cost, somewhat lower-quality
austenitic stainless steel. Austenitic stainless steels are nonmagnetic and are highly resistant
to corrosion in almost all media except hydrochloric acid and other halide acids and salts.
However, they are susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking. In addition, they may be polished
to a mirror finish and thus combine attractive appearance and corrosion resistance.
Formability is outstanding (characteristic of the FCC crystal structure), and these steel
strengthen considerably when cold worked. The popular 304 alloy, suited for all types of
dairy equipment, brewing industry, citrus and fruit juice industry, dye tanks, pipelines
buckets, dippers, and food processing industry, is also known as the 18-8 because of the
composition of 18% chromium and 8% nickel (18-8 also refers to 302, 303, 305, and 384).
Austenitic stainless steels are hardened by cold-working. They are most ductile of all
stainless steels, so they can be easily formed, although, with increasing cold work, their

1
formability is reduced. These steels are in a wide variety of applications, such as
kitchenware, fittings, welded construction, lightweight transportation equipment, furnace and
heat-exchanger parts, and components for severe chemical environment.
(2) Ferrite (400 series): These steels have a high chromium content—up to 27%. Chromium is a
ferrite stabilizer, the addition of chromium tending to increase the temperature range over
which ferrite is the stable structure. If sufficient chromium is added to the iron, and carbon is
kept low, an alloy can be produced that is ferrite at all temperatures below solidification.
These alloys are known as ferritic stainless steels. Such ferrite alloys are also the cheapest
type among stainless steels. They are magnetic and have good corrosion resistance.
Ferrite stainless steels possess rather poor ductility or formability because of the BCC crystal
structure (they have lower ductility than austenitic stainless steels), but they are readily
weldable. They are hardened by cold-working and are not heat-treatable. They are generally
used for nonstructural applications such as kitchen equipment and automotive trim.
(3) Martensitic (400 and 500 series): Most martensitic stainless steels do not contain nickel and
are hardenable by heat treatment. Their chromium content may be as much as 18%. If
increased strength is needed, the martensitic stainless steels should be considered. However,
caution should be taken to assure more than 12% chromium in solution. Slow cools may
allow the carbon and chromium to react and form chromium carbides. When this occurs, the
chromium is not available to react with oxygen and form the protective oxide. Thus the
martensitic stainless steels may only be “stainless” when in the martensitic condition (when
the chromium is trapped in atomic solution), and may be susceptible to red rust when
annealed or normalized for machining or fabrication. The martensitic stainless steel cost
about 1.5 times as much as the ferritic alloys, part of being due to the additional heat
treatment, which generally consists of an austenitization, quench, stress relief, and temper.
These stainless steels are magnetic.
Martensitic stainless steels have high strength, hardness, and fatigue resistance, good
ductility, and moderate corrosion resistance. They are typically used for cutlery, surgical
tools, instruments, valves, and springs.
(4) Precipitation-hardening (PH): A fourth and special class of stainless steels is the
precipitation-hardening variety. These steels contain chromium and nickel, along with
copper, aluminum, titanium, or molybdenum. These alloys are basically martensitic or
austenitic types, modified by the addition of alloying elements such as aluminum that permit
age hardening at relatively low temperatures. By adding age hardening to the existing
strengthening mechanisms, these materials are capable of attaining properties such as a 260-
ksi (1790-MPa) yield strength and 265-ksi (1825-MPa) tensile strength with a 2% elongation.

They have good corrosion resistance and ductility, and they have high strength at elevated
temperatures. Their main application is in aircraft and aerospace structural components.

(5) Duplex structure: Duplex stainless steels contain between 21 to 25% chromium and 5 to 7%
nickel and are water quenched from a hot-working temperature that is between 1830 and
1920°F to produce a microstructure that is approximately half ferrite and half austenite. The
structure offers a higher yield strength and greater resistance to stress corrosion cracking than
either then austenitic or ferritic grades. These steels have a mixture of austenite and ferrite.

2
They have good strength, and they have higher resistance to both corrosion and stress-
corrosion cracking than do the 300 series of austenite steels. Typical applications are in
water-treatment plants and in heat-exchanger components.

(6) Other stainless steels: Still other stainless alloys have been developed to meet special needs.
Ordinary stainless steels are difficult to machine because of their work-hardening properties
and their tendency to seize during cutting. Special free-machining alloys have been produced
within each family, with addition of sulfur or selenium raising the machinability to
approximately that of a medium-carbon steel.

The following tables shows typical alloy compositions, structure, and usage for the first three
families of stainless steels.

TABLE: Typical Composition (in wt. %) of the ferritic, martensitic, and austenitic Stainless Steels
Element Ferritic Martensitic Austenitic
Carbon 0.08-0.20 0.15-1.2 0.03-0.25
Chromium 11-27 11.5-18 16-26
Manganese 1-1.5 1 2 (5.5-10)
Molybdenum some cases
Nickel 3.5-22
Phosphorus and sulfur Normal (0)
Silicon 1 1 1-2 (0)
Titanium Some cases

TABLE: Popular alloys structures and AISI designation for three primary types of stainless steel
AISI Type
Martensitic 410, 420, 440C
(Hardenable by heat treatment )
Ferritic 405, 430, 446
(More corrosion resistant than martensitic,
but not hardenable by heat treatment)
Austenitic 201, 202, 301, 302,
(best corrosion resistance, but hardenable 302B, 304L, 310,
only by cold working) 316, 321

TABLE: Key purpose and usage for different stainless steel alloys
Purpose and Usage AISI Types
General purpose 410, 430, 202, 302
Automobile parts 301, 409, 430, 434
Hardenable by heat treatment 410, 420, 440C
Hardenable by cold working 201, 301
For elevated-temperature service 446, 302B, 310

3
Modified for welding 405, 304L, 321
Superior corrosion resistance 316
Catalytic converters 409

Remarks:
(1) Sensitization: Problems with stainless steels are often due to the loss of corrosion resistance
(sensitization) when the amount of chromium in solution drops below 12%. Since chromium
depletion is usually caused by the formation of chromium carbides along grain boundaries,
and these carbides form at elevated temperatures, various means have been developed to
prevent their formation. One approach is to keep the carbon content of stainless steels as low
as possible, usually less than 0.10%. Another method is to tie up the carbon with small
amounts of “stabilizing” elements, such as titanium or niobium, that have a stronger affinity
for carbon than does chromium. Rapidly cooling of these metals through the carbide-
forming range of 900 to 1500°F (480 to 820°C) also works to prevent carbide formation.
(2) Embrittlement: Another problem with high-chromium stainless steels is an embrittlement that
occurs after long times at elevated temperatures. This is attributed to the formation of sigma
phase, a brittle compound that forms at elevated temperatures and coats grain boundaries,
thereby producing a brittle crack path through the metal. Stainless steels used in high-
temperature service should be checked periodically to detect sigma-phase formation.
(3) Passivation & surface treatment: According to ASTM A380, passivation is “the removal of
exogenous iron or iron compounds from the surface of stainless steel by means of a chemical
dissolution, most typically by a treatment with an acid solution that will remove the surface
contamination, it will not significantly affect the stainless itself.” In addition, it also
describes passivation as “the chemical treatment of stainless steel with a mild oxidant, such
as a nitric acid solution, for the purpose of enhancing the spontaneous formation of the
protective passive film.” Passivation is recommended where the surface must be free of iron.
Passivation can also aid in the rapid development of the passive surface layer on the steel, but
usually does not result in a marked change in appearance of the steel surface.
Passivation is performed with acid solutions (or pastes) to remove contaminants and promote
the formation of the passive film on a freshly created surface (for example, via grinding,
machining or mechanical damage). Common passivation treatments include nitric acid
(HNO3) solutions or pastes which will clean the steel surface of free iron contaminants.
Since dangerous acids are involved, only trained personnel can perform such process. In
addition, stainless steel pickling acids are highly corrosive to carbon steel, and should be
thoroughly removed by rinsing the component after completing the process, and/or neutralize
with alkali before the rising. Residual hydrofluoric acid will initiate pitting corrosion.

4
ME325/580 SME Video: Sheet Metal Stamping Dies & Processes

Spring 2010 I. Kao

1. Stamping dies are the tools that shape and cut sheet metal parts. The main manufacturing
requirement for most sheet metal applications is good formability. Sheet metal formability is
metal’s ability to deform into intricate shapes without defects in the finished part.
2. Types of deformation include
• Bending
• Stretching
• Drawing
3. Formability factors include
• Metal’s ductility
• Die design
• Stamping press
• Press speed
• Lubrication
• Sheet metal feeding mechanisms
• Monitoring/control systems
4. Most sheet metals range from thickness of 20 to 80 thousands. Low carbon or mild steels are
most commonly used in automotive industry. Aluminum and its alloys are most commonly
used nonferrous sheet metals.
5. Definitions of dies used in sheet metal forming
• As its generic term: Dies represent the entire press tooling used to cut and form metals.
• Dies refers to only the female part of the tooling. In this reference, the tooling includes:
punch, die, and die set.
6. Basic die operations:
• Cutting – shearing, blanking, hole punching, trimming
• Bending
• Forming – shape of punch and die is reproduced directly on the metal
• Drawing
• Squeezing
7. Two most common types of dies are cutting and forming dies.
8. Proper clearance needed for operation is determined by
• Material type
• Workpiece thickness
• Material temper
9. Factors determining the blankholder pressures vary from part to part but depend on
• draw reduction severity
• metal properties
• metal thickness
• die lubrication and other factors

1
10. Use of flanged edge for
• part appearance
• part rigidity
• edge strengthening
• metal thickness
• die lubrication & other factors
11. Four basic types of hems in hemming processes
• Flat hem
• Tear drop hem
• Open hem
• Rope hem (open and rope hems are used to join metal parts.)
12. Single station dies include: (1) compound dies, and (2) combination dies. Multiple station
dies include: (1) progressive dies, and (2) transfer dies.
13. Die lubrication’s main function is to minimize surface contact between the tolling and the
workpiece.
14. Effective lubrication results in
• controlled friction
• reduced force
• reduced power requirements
• reduced tooling stresses
15. Proper lubrication (1) extends tooling life, and (2) eliminates surface damage.
16. Choice of lubrication determined by
• operation type
• tooling design
• tooling materials
• metal to be formed
• press speed
• lubrication application method
17. Types of lubricants
• oil-based lubricants
• water soluble lubricants
• synthetic lubricants
18. Application methods for lubrication
• manual
• dip
• roller
• spraying
• flooding
19. stamping analysis: circular grid analysis (CGA) are usually used for stamp analysis. Others:
• metal flow
• tool/workpiece friction
• behavior properties of stamped materials

2
Total time: 19:43 (17:02 without the Review)

3
MEC325/580 H ANDOUT: TAYLOR ’ S T OOL W EAR E QUATION
Spring 2010 I. Kao

1 Introduction
The Taylor’s equation for tool wear is expressed in a power-law equation form, as follows

v Tn = C (1)

Equation (1) is a standard nonlinear power equation. In the case of equation presented in equation (1), we
can take logarithmic relationship of the variables and make a linear equation in the log-log coordinates, as
expressed in the following equation
log v + n log T = log C (2)
Equation (2) represents a line in the (log T, log v) space.
In the next sections, an example is given for finding the exponent n, and the coefficient, C, for a tool by
applying the Taylor equation for tool wear.

2 Finding Parameters of the Taylor’s Tool Wear Equation


Equation (2) is a result of taking logarithmic form of equation (1). At least two sets of experimental data of
tool speed and life are required to find the exponent n and the coefficient C. If the two experimental data
sets are given as (T1 , v1 ) and (T2 , v2 ), we can write equation (2) for the two data sets as

log v1 + n log T1 = log C (3)


log v2 + n log T2 = log C (4)

Equation (3) minus (4) renders the following

log v2 − log v1 log(v2 /v1 )


n= = (5)
log T1 − log T2 log(T1 /T2 )
Once the exponent n is obtained from equation (5), the result can be substituted into equation (1) to find the
coefficient C = v1 T1n .

3 Example: Experimental Results


Experiments were conducted to characterize the parameters of tool wear based on the Taylor’s equation.
The experimental results of the relationship between the tool speed and tool life are tabulated in the
following. The points are corresponding to the following figure (the first two circled points).

exp data tool life, T velocity, v


set 1 100 min 400 m/min
set 2 240 min 300 m/min

Applying the data of experiments in the table to equation (5), we obtain

log(300/400) −0.1249
n= = = 0.3286 (6)
log(100/240) −0.3802

1
Plot of Taylor’s tool life equation
3
10

speed of tool (m/min)

2
10
1 2 3
10 10 10
Tool life (min)
Figure 1: The raw data of experiments are indicated by ’o’. The results of equation of tool wear is plotted
as a line in the logarithmic space of log T versus log v.

Substituting into equation (1), we find C = 1817. Thus, the Taylor’s equation of tool wear is

v (T )0.3296 = 1817 (7)

where the tool speed v has a unit of m/min and the tool life T is in minutes.
The result of the tool life relationship in equation (7) is plotted in Figure 1, in logarithmic scale. The two
circles indicate the two sets of experimental measurements given in the table.

2
MEC325/580 Handout: Milling Process and Machines
Spring 2010 I. Kao

Milling—A machining operation in which a workpiece is fed past a rotating cylindrical tool with
multiple cutting edges.

Two (2) basic types of milling operations:


1. peripheral milling: the axis of tool is parallel to the surface being machined; the machining is
performed by cutting edges on the outside peripheral of the cutter.
2. face milling: the axis of cutter is perpendicular to the surface being machined; common type of end
mill found in machine shop.

An illustration of these two basic types of milling operations is shown in the following figure.

Classification of milling machines: Various classifications are used, as follows


1. Horizontal spindle (for peripheral milling) or Vertical spindle (for face milling, end mill, …)
2. Types including (i) knee and column (most common type), (ii) bed type, (iii) planer type, (iv) tracer
mills, and (v) CNC milling machines

Two forms of milling processes: up milling and down milling

Milling is an interrupted
cutting process wherein
entering and leaving the
cut subjects the tool to
impact loading, cyclic
heating, and cycle cutting
forces. Two common
types of milling
configurations are: up
milling (or conventional
milling) and down milling
(or climb milling). The
former has the tool and
workpiece moving in

1
opposite directions; whereas in the latter, the tool moves in the same direction as the work feed.

In up milling, the chip is very thin at the beginning, where the tooth contacts the work, and increases in
thickness, becoming a maximum where the tooth leaves the work.
Advantages include:
(1) The cutter tends to push the work along and lift it upward from the table. This action tends to
eliminate any effect of looseness in the feed screw and nut of the milling machine table and results
in a smooth cut.
(2) Tooth engagement is not a function of workpiece surface characteristics, and contamination or scale
on the surface does not affect tool life.
(3) There is a tendency for the tool to chatter.
Disadvantages include:
(1) The action also tends to loosen the work from the clamping device; therefore, greater clamping
forces must be employed.
(2) The smoothness of the generated surface depends greatly on the sharpness of the cutting edges.
(3) The chips can be carried into the newly machined surface, causing the surface finish to be poorer
(rougher) than in down milling.

In down milling, maximum chip thickness occurs close to the point at which the tooth contacts the work.
Because the relative motion tends to pull the workpiece into the cutter, any possibility of looseness in the
table feed screw must be eliminated if down milling is to be used. It should never be attempted on
machines that are not designed for this type of milling. Virtually all modern milling machines are capable
of doing down milling. Metals that readily work harden should be climb milled.
Advantages include:
(1) Because the material yields in approximately a tangential direction at the end of the tooth
engagement, there is less tendency (than when up milling is used) for the machined surface to show
toothmarks.
(2) The cutting process is smoother with less chatter.
(3) The cutting force tends to hold the work against the machine table, permitting lower clamping
forces, particularly for slender parts.
(4) Recommended for maximum cutter life when CNC machine tools are used.
(5) Suitable for finishing cuts, e.g., on aluminum.
Disadvantages include:
(1) The fact that the cutter teeth strike against the surface of the work at the beginning of each chip can
be a disadvantage if the workpiece has a hard surface, as casting sometimes does.
(2) The teeth may dull more rapidly.
(3) Because of the resulting high impact forces when the teeth engage the workpiece, this operation
must have a rigid setup, and backlash must be eliminated in the table feed mechanism.
(4) It is not suitable for workpiece having surface scale, such as hot-worked metals, forgings, and
castings – because the scale is hard and abrasive and causes excessive wear and damage to cutter
teeth, thus tool life can be short.

2
Probable Cause of Milling Problems and Cures
(cf. DeGarmo, et al. “Materials and Process in Manufacturing”)

Problem Probable Cause Cures

Chatter (vibration) 1. Lack of rigidity in machine, Use large arbors


fixture, arbor, or workpiece
2. Cutting load too great Decrease feed per tooth or number of teeth in contact
3. Dull cutter Sharpen or replace inserts
4. Poor lubrication Flood coolant
5. Straight-tooth cutter Use helical cutter
6. Radial relief too great
7. Rubbing, insufficient clearance Check tool angles

Loss of accuracy 1. High cutting load causing Decrease number of teeth in contact with work or feed
(cannot hold size) deflection per tooth
2. Chip packing, between teeth Adjust cutting fluid to wash chips out of teeth
3. Chips not cleaned away before
mounting new piece of work

Cutter rapidly dulls 1. Cutting load too great Decrease feed per tooth or number of teeth in contact
2. Insufficient coolant Add blending oil or coolant

Poor surface finish 1. Feed too high Check to see if all teeth are set at same height
2. Tool dull
3. Speed too low
4. Not enough cutter teeth

Cutter dig in 1. Radial relief too great Check to see that workpiece is not deflecting and is
(hogs into work) 2. Rake angle too large clamped securely
3. Improper speed

Work burns 1. Cut is too light Enlarge feed per tooth


2. Tool edge worn Sharpen cutter
3. Insufficient radial relief
4. Land too wide

Cutter burns 1. Not enough lubricant Add sulfur-based oil


2. Speed too high Reduce cutting speed
Flood coolant

Teeth breaking 1. Feed too high Decrease feed per tooth


Use cutter with more teeth
Reduce table feed rate

3
W IRE D RAWING P ROCESS AND A NALYSIS

MEC325/580, Spring 2010 I. Kao

Extrusion Problem: In a wire drawing process to reduce the diameter of a plain carbon steel wire from
D0 = 220 µm to Df = 175 µm in a cold working process, the angle of the die is α = 15◦ and the
coefficient of friction is µ = 0.1. The plastic strength of the material is K = 500 M P a with a strain
hardening exponent of n = 0.25. The tensile strength of the steel wire is Sut = 390 M P a.

1. Determine if the process is feasible?

2. If the drawing process is feasible, what is the force required for the wire drawing process?

3. Determine the safety margin of the drawing force versus the rupture force of the wire. Is this wire
drawing process safe?

Solution : First, we need to determine if the drawing process is feasible, based on the parameters given.

1. The maximum reduction per pass is


A0
= e = 2.71828 =⇒ rmax = 63.2% (1)
Af

A0 −Af D02 −Df2


Here, the reduction is r = A0 = D02
= 36.7%. Thus, the drawing process is feasible.

2. The drawing force is

µ A0
 
F = Af Ȳf 1 + φ ln
tan α Af
π 0.1
2  
= 175 × 10−6 × 3.29 × 108 1 + (0.9719)(0.4577)
4 tan 5◦
= 7.54 N
A0 500×106 (0.4577)0.25 D0 +Df
where ǫ = ln A f
= 0.4577, Ȳf = (1+0.25) = 329 M P a, D = 2 = 197.5 µm,
(D0 −Df )
Lc = 2 sin α = 258 µm, and φ = 0.88 + 0.12 LDc = 0.9719.

3. The force to rupture, depending on the tensile strength, is


π 2 π
Fr = Af · Sut = Df · Sut = (175 × 10−6 )(390 × 106 ) = 9.38 N (2)
4 4

Thus, the safety margin is


Fr − F 9.38 − 7.54
ns = = = 20% (3)
Fr 9.38
ME325/580 SME Video: Workholding

Spring 2010 I. Kao

Workholding includes any device used to grip and present the work piece to a cutting tool on a
machine tool. It includes
• clamps
• vises
• fixtures
• chucks
• others

I. Principles of workholding
1. Important process and/or properties of workholding
• Reference surface/datums
• Machinable surfaces
• Process accuracy
• Allowable cutting forces, feeds, and shapes
• Tool path, size, and shape
2. There are a total of 12 degrees-of-freedom (dof) to be constrained for locating. They include
three linear and three rotational dof each having two directions (+ and −).
3. 3-2-1 locational method: six points of contact
• 3 primary locators (constrain 5 dof)
• 2 secondary locators (constrain 3 dof)
• 1 tertiary locator (constrain 1 dof)
with additional clamping which takes care of the other 3 dof.

II. Milling and machining centers workholding


• Manual clamps
• Toggle clamps
• Vises & vises types
• Swivel bases
• Multi-vises
• Tombstone