Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS b. Marriages between Filipino citizens abroad (Art.

10)
c. Contents of application (Art.11)
I. INTRODUCTION TO THE CIVIL CODE d. Documents required for issuance (Art.12)
A. Effect and application of laws. (Art. 15 and 17) (1-18 e. Additional requirement if party previously married (Art.
CC) 13)
Case: Tanada vs. Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446 f. Parental consent (Art. 14, 16)
g. Parental advice (Art. 15, 16)
B. Human Relations. (Art. 19, 20, 21 and 26) h. Publication (Art. 17)
Case: Albenson Enterprise vs. CA, 217 SCRA 16 i. In case of alleged impediment (Art. 18)
j. Fees (Art.19)
II. PERSONS k. Validity (Art.20)
A. Civil Personality l. Certificate of capacity (Art. 21)
i. Civil Personality Case: People vs. Janssen, 54 Phil 176
1. General Provisions (Art. 37, CC) 2. Marriages exempt from license requirement
a. Juridical capacity a. In articulo mortis (Art. 27, 29, 30, 31, 32)
b. Capacity to act b. Remote locations (Art.28, 29, 30)
bi. Restrictions on capacity to act (Art. 38) c. Among ethnic groups (Art.33)
bii. Circumstances modifying capacity to act (Art. 39) d. Cohabitation for 5 years (Art.34)
Cases: Standard Oil Co. vs. Arenas, 19 Phil. 363 Case: Cosca vs. Palaypayon, 237 SCRA
Mercado vs. Espiritu, 37 Phil. 215 Manzano vs. Sanchez, AM no. MTJ00-1329, March 8, 2001
Bambalan vs. Maramba, 51 Phil. 417 iii. Ceremony
Braganza vs. Villa Abrille, 105 Phil. 456 1. Form (Art.6)
2. Natural Persons Note: Marriage certificate (Art. 22, 23)
a. Commencement of civil personality (Art. 40, CC) 2. Venue (Art. 8)
b. Extinguishment of civil personality (Art. 42, CC) Cases: Martinez v. Tan, 12 Phil 731
Survivorship (Art.43, CC) Madrilejo v. De Leon, 55 Phil 1
Case: Geluz vs. CA, 2 SCRA 8 Balogbog v. CA, 259 SCRA 269
3. Juridical Persons
a. Enumeration (Art. 44, CC) C. Effect of non-compliance with requisites. (Art. 4, Family
b. Governing laws (Art. 45, 47, CC) Code)
c. Rights and obligations (Art. 46, CC) a. Absence of an essential requisite: void
ii. Citizenship and Domicile b. Absence of a formal requisite: void
Case: Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, 248 SCRA 300 Exception: good faith (Art. 35.2)
c. Defect in an essential requisite: voidable (Art.45)
III. THE CONSTITUTION AND THE REGULATION d. Irregularity in a formal requisite:
OF FAMILY RELATIONS Liablibility of person responsible for irregularity (Sec. 38, Act
A. The Family (Art. 15, 1987 Constitution) No. 3613)

B. Policy of protection and government support to family. D. Presumption of Marriage. (Art. 220, CC; Sec. 3 (aa),
(Art. 2 Sec. 12, 1987 Constitution) Rule 131, ROC)
Cases: Trinidad vs. CA, 289 SCRA 188
C. Equal Protection. (Art. 2, Sec. 14: Article 2, Section 1, Vda. De Jacob v. CA, 312 SCRA 772*
1987 Constitution)
E. Marriage solemnized outside the Philippines. (Art. 26)
IV. MARRIAGE a. General rule: lex loci celebrationis
A. Definition and Nature of Marriage (Art. 1, Family Code) b. Exceptions: Minority, bigamy/polygamy, mistake of
Breach of Promise to Marry (Arts. 19-21. 2176, CC) identity, psychological incapacity, incest, public policy, same
Cases: Wassmer vs. Velez, 12 SCRA 648 sex
Tanjanco vs. CA, 18 SCRA 994
De Jesus vs. Syquia, 58 Phil 866 F. Divorce of a Filipino by an alien spouse. (Art. 26)
Gashem Shookat Baksh vs. CA, 219 SCRA 115 Case: Tenchavez vs. Escano, 15 SCRA 25
Constantino vs. Mendez, 209 SCRA 18 Pilapil vs. Ibay-Somera 174 SCRA 653 (1989)
In Re Santiago, 70 Phil 66 Llorente vs. CA G.R. 124371, 23 November 2000
Selanova vs. Mendoza, 64 SCRA 69
V. VOID AND VOIDABLE MARRIAGES
B. Requisites of Marriage. A. Void marriages
a. Essential (Art. 2) a. Grounds
i. Legal capacity: male and female i. Minority
1. Persons who may contract marriage (Art. 5, 21) (Art.35.1)
2. Impediments to contracting marriage (Art. 37, 38) ii. No
ii. Consent freely given authority of solemnizing officer (Art.35.2)
Case: People vs. Santiago, 61 Phil. 68 Exception: good faith of one party
b. Formal (Art. 3) iii. No license
i. Authority of solemnizing officer (Art. 7, 10, 31, (Art. 35.3)
32, 35 (2) Exception: marriages exempt from license requirement (Art.
Case: Navarro vs. Domagtoy, 129 SCRA 259 27-34)
ii. License Cases: Republic vs. CA, 236 SCRA 257
1. General rule: required Ninal Bayadog, supra
a. Issuance (Art. 9, 24)
iv. Ocampo vs. Florenciano, supra
Bigamous/polygamous (Art.35.4) Contreras vs. Macaraig, 33 SCRA 222
Exception: absence of prior spouse (Art.41) Somosa-Ramos vs. Vamenta, 46 SCRA 11
Case: Republic vs. CA, supra b. Persons entitled to file action for annulment (Art. 47)
v. Mistake of c. Prescriptive periods (Art. 47)
identity (Art. 35.5) d. Ratification (Art. 45.1, 45.2, 45.3)
vi. Non-
compliance with recording requirements ( Art. 35.6, 40,52, 53) C. Common provisions: Effects
vii. a. Safeguards against collusion (Art. 48)
Psychological incapacity (Art.36) b. Support and custody during pendency of action (Art.49)
Cases: Republic vs. Nolasca, 220 SCRA 20 c. Application of Arts. 43.2, 43.3, 43.4, 43.5 and Art. 44 to
Republic vs.Matias-Dagdag, G.R. No. 109975 marriages declared void ab ignition or annulled by final
Republic, Santos vs. Bedia-Santos, 240 SCRA 20 judgment under Art. 40 and 45
Chi-Ming Tsoi vs. CA, 266 SCRA 324 d. Delivery of presumptive legitimes (Art. 51)
Marcos vs. Marcos, G.R. No. 136490 e. Recording requirement (Art. 52)
Antonio vs. Reyes, G.R. No. 155880 f. Effects on children (Art. 54)
Perez-Ferraris vs. Ferraris, G.R. No. 162368 g. Name and surname (Art.371)
Bier vs. Bier, G.R. No. 173294
Te vs. Te, G.R. No. 161793 VI. LEGAL SEPARATION
viii. Incest (Art. A. Grounds (Art. 55)
37) Cases: Gandionco vs. Penaranda, 155 SCRA 725
ix. Public policy Dela Cruz vs. Dela Cruz, 22 SCRA 333
(Art. 38) Partosa-Jo vs. CA, 216 SCRA 692
x. Catch-all:
absence of any essential or formal requisite (Art.4) B. Defenses (Art. 56)
b. Prescriptive period of action/defense for declaration of Cases: People vs. Sansano, 59 Phil. 73
absolute nullity Ocampo vs. Florenciano 107 Phil. 35
(Art. 39 as amended by E.O 227 and by RA 8533) Brown vs. Yambao, 102 Phil. 168
c. Judicial declaration of nullity (Art. 40) Bugayong vs. Ginez 100 Phil. 620
Cases: Domingo vs. CA 226 SCRA 572 Matubis vs. Parexedes, 109 Phil. 620
Wiegel vs. Sempio-Diy 143 SCRA 499
Valdes vs. RTC, 260 SCRA 221 C. Prescriptive Period (Art. 57)
Nicdao Carino vs. Yee Carino, G.R. No. 132529
Mercado vs. Mercado, G.R. No. 137110 D. Other requirements
d. Bigamous marriage when prior spouse has been absent a. Steps towards reconciliation (Art. 58)
(Art.41) b. Safeguards against collusion (Art. 60)
i. General Cases: Ocampo vs. Florenciano 107 Phil. 35
rule on bigamous marriages (Art. 35.4) Somosa-Ramos vs. Vamenta, 46 SCRA 11
ii. Waiting Contreras vs. Macaraeg, 33 SCRA 222
period
iii. Waiting E. Consequence of filing of petitions for legal separation
period under extraordinary circumstances (Art. 391, CC) a. Entitlement to live separately (Art. 61)
iv. Declaration b. Administration of absolute community/conjugal
of presumptive death partnership property (Art. 61)
v. c. Custody and support (Art. 62 and 49)
Reappearance of prior spouse (Art. 42) Cases:De la Vina vs. Villareal, 41 Phil 13
vi. Effect of Reyes vs. Ines-Luciano, 88 SCRA 803
termination of subsequent marriage (Art. 43) Lapuz-Sy vs Eufemio, 43 SCRA 177
vii. Effect if both
spouses of subsequent marriage in bad faith (Art.44) F. Effects of decree
Case: Nicdao Carino vs. Yee Carino, supra a. Separate bed and board (Art. 63.1)
Mercado vs. Mercado, supra b. Dissolution and liquidation of community property (Art.
63.2 and 43.2)
B. Voidable marriages c. Custody (Arts. 63.3 and 213)
a. Grounds d. Effects on succession (Art. 63.4)
i. No parental consent where required (Art. 45.1) e. Revocation of donations/insurance benefit (Art.64)
ii. Unsound mind (Art.45.2) 1. Manner of revoking
iii. Fraud (Art.45.3) 2. Prescriptive period
iv. Force, intimidation, undue influence (Art. 45.4) f. Name and surname (Art. 372, CC)
v. Impotence (Art. 45.5) Cases: Matute vs. Macadalo, 99 Phil 340
Cases: Jimenez vs. Canizares Laperal vs. Republic, 6 SCRA 357
Menciano vs. San Jose Banez vs. Banez, 23 January 2003
vi. Serious incurable sexually transmissible disease Macadangdang vs. CA, 108 SCRA 314
(Art.45.6)
vii. Catch-all: Defect in any essential requisite (Art.4) G. Reconciliation
Cases: Aquino vs. Delizo, 109 Phil 21 a. Joint manifestation (Art. 65)
Anaya vs. Palaroan, 36 SCRA 97 b. Consequences (Art. 66)
Buccat vs. Mangonon de Buccat, 72 Phil 19 c. Option to revive property regime (Art. 67)
Ruiz vs. Atienza 40 O.G. 1903
VII. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS BETWEEN Carlos vs. Abelardo April 9, 2002
HUSBAND AND WIFE 5. Administration (Art. 124-125)
A. Personal obligation of spouses (Art. 68) Cases: Felipe vs. Heirs of Maximo Aldon 120 SCRA 268
Tintigan vs. Tintigan 100 SCRA 619
B. Fixing of family domicile. (Art. 69) Guiang vs. CA 291 SCRA 372
C. Joint responsibility of Support (Art. 70, compare with Art. Relucio vs. Lopez 373 SCRA 578
11 of CC; Art. 199-200) Jader-Manalo vs. Camaisa 374 SCRA 498
6. Dissolution (Art. 126-128)
D. Household management. (Art. 71, compare with Art. 115 7. Liquidation (Art. 129-133)
of CC) Case: Santero vs. CFI of Cavite 153 SCRA 728

E. Exercise of Profession (Art. 73, compare with Art. 117, E. Separation of Property and Administration of Common
CC) Property by One Spouse
(See RA 7192, Women in Development & Nation-Building Act) 1. Judicial Separation (Art. 134-135)
Cases: Garcia vs. Manzano 103 Phil 798
F. Use of Surname (Art. 370, 373, 377, 378, CC) Partosa-Jo vs. CA 216 SCRA 692
(see RA 9048- Change of Name) De la Cruz vs. De la Cruz 22 SCRA 333
2. Voluntary Separation (Art. 136)
G. Relief (Art. 72) Cases: Bernas 14 SCRA 327
Cases: Gotia vs. Campos Rueda 35 Phil 252 Lacson vs. San Jose 24 SCRA 837
Lacson vs. Jose Lacson 24 SCRA 3. Liquidation and Dissolution of Property (Art. 137 142)
Tenchavez vs. Escano 17 SCRA 674 4. Sole Administration of other spouse’s property ( Art. 142)
Ty vs. CA, Nov. 27 2000
Lilius vs. Manila Road Co 59 Phil 758 F. Regime of Separate Property (Art. 143-146)
Narag vs. Narag 291 SCRA 451
Dadivas vs. Villanueva 52 Phil 952 G. Property Regimes of Unions without Marriage (Art147-
Atilano vs. Chua Ching Beng 103 Phil 255 148)
Del Rosario vs. Del Rosario 46 OG 611 Cases: Agapatay vs. Palang 276 SCRA 340
Silva vs. Peralta 110 Phil 57 Yaptinchay vs. Torres 28 SCRA 489
Arroyo vs. Vasquez de Arroyo 42 Phil 54 Vda. De Conseguera vs. GSIS 27 SCRA 315
Perez vs. Perez 109 Phil 657 Valdes vs. RTC
(See also RA 9262, Anti-Violence against Women and Carino vs. Carino
Children Act)
IX. THE FAMILY
VIII. PROPERTY RELATIONS A. Members of a Family
A. General Provisions, Marriage Settlements (Art. 74-81) 1. Nature (Art. 149-151; Art. 2035 CC)
Cases: Mendoza vs. CA 19 SCRA 756
B. Donations Proper Nuptials (Art. 82-87) Mendoza vs. Bionson 80 SCRA 82
(Compare with Ordinary Donations, Art. 752-782, Tittle 3, Book Guerrero vs. RTC 229 SCRA 274
3 of CC) Hontiveros vs. RTC 309 SCRA 340 (1999)
2. Support (Art. 195-208)
C. Absolute Community of Property a. Support (Art. 194)
1. General provisions (Art. 88-90) b. Persons obliged to give support (Art.195-196)
2. Community Property and Exclusions (Arts. 91-92) c. Order of liability (Art.199)
3. Charges and obligations (Art. 94-95) d. Properties liable for support (Art.197)
4. Administration and enjoyment (Art. 96) e. Support pendent lite (Art.198, 203)
5. Disposition and Waivers (Art. 89, 77, 97-98) f. Division and order in case of joint obligation (Art. 200)
6. Liquidation (Art. 102-104) g. Amount, demandability, manner of fulfillment,
Cases: Onas vs. Javillo 59 Phil 733 adjustments (Art. 201-204, 208)
Vda. De Delizo vs. Delizo 69 SCRA 216 h. Exemption from attachment, exception to the rules (Art.
205, 208)
D. Conjugal Partnership of Gains i. Support by third persons (Art. 206-207)
1. General provisions (105-108) Cases: De Asis vs. Ca, 303 SCRA 176
2. Exclusive property (109-115) Lim vs. Lim G.R. No. 163209, October 30, 2009
Cases: Rodriguez vs. De la Cruz 8 Phil 665 3. Funerals (Art. 305-310, CC)
People’s Bank and Trust Co. vs. Register of Deeds, 60 Phil
167 B. The Family Home
Philippine Sugar Estates vs. Poizat 48 Phil 536 Cases: Siari Valley Estates vs. Lucasan 97 Phil 987
Castro vs. Miat, Feb. 11, 2003 Modequillo vs. Breva 185 SCRA 766
3. Conjugal Partnership Property (Arts. 116-120) Taneo vs. CA 304 SCRA 308
Cases: Jocson vs. CA 170 SCRA 333
Francisco vs. CA 299 SCRA 188 X. PATERNITY AND FILIATION
Zulueta vs. Pan Am 49 SCRA 1 A. Kinds of filiations. (Art. 163)
Mendoza vs. Reyes 124 SCRA 154 Cases: Perido vs. Perido 63 SCRA 97
4. Charges and Obligations (art. 121-123) Liyao vs. Liyao March 7, 2002
Cases: Javier vs. Osmena 34 Phil 336
Perez vs. Lantin 23 SCRA 637 B. Legitimate Children. (Art. 146)
DBP vs. Adil 161 SCRA 307 1. Impugning legitimacy
Ayala Investment vs. Ching 286 SCRA 273 (1998) Cases: Andal vs. Macaraig 89 Phil 165
Jao vs. CA 152 SCRA 359 Republic vs. Wong 209 SCRA 189
Macadangdang vs. CA 100 SCRA 73 Republic vs. Hernandez 253 SCRA 509
Chua Keng Giap vs. TAC 166 SCRA 451 7. Rescission (Sec. 19, 20)
Republic vs. Labrador 305 SCRA 438 8. Violations and penalties (Sec. 21, 22)
People vs. Tumimpad 235 SCRA 483 9. Miscellaneous (Sec. 1, 23-28)
Benitez-Badua vs. CA 299 SCRA 468
Lumain de Aparicho vs. Paraguay 150 SCRA 279 B. Inter-Country Adoption
2. How to prove filiations’ RA 8043, Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 and its IRR
Cases: Constantino vs. Mendez 209 SCRA 18 Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation
Mendoza vs. CA 201 SCRA 675 in respect of Inter-Country Adoption
Heirs of R. Banas vs. Heirs of B. Banas 134 SCRA 260
Uyguanco vs. CA 178 SCRA 684 XII. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF PARENTS
Mariategui vs. CA 205 SCRA 675 A. General Provisions (Art. 209-215)
Acebedo vs. Arquero March 11, 2003 (See RA 8972 (Solo Parents Welfare Act)
3. Action to claim legitimacy Cases: Dempsey vs. RTC 164 SCRA 384
4. Rights to legitimate children Santos vs. CA 242 SCRA 407
Cases: Republic vs. CA 300 SCRA 1998 Cang vs. CA 296 SCRA 128
De Asis vs. CA 303 SCRA 176 David vs. CA 250 SCRA 82
Espiritu vs. CA 242 SCRA 362 (1995)
C. Illegitimate Children. Perez vs. CA 255 SCRA 661 (1996)
1. Proof of filiations (Art. 175)
Cases: Leuterio vs. CA 197 SCRA 369 B. Substitute and Special Parental Authority (Art. 216-219)
Uyguanco vs. CA Cases: Palisoc vs. Brillantes 41 SCRA 548
Aruego vs. Ca 254 SCRA 150 Amadora vs. CA 160 SCRA 315
Jison vs. CA 286 SCRA 495 St. Mary;s Academy vs. Carpitanos Jan. 23, 2000
Alberto vs. CA 232 SCRA 745 Vancil vs. Belmes 358 SCRA 707
2. Rights of illegitimate children
RA 9255, amending Art. 176 C. Effects of Parental Authority (Art. 220-226)
RA 8972, Solo Parents Welfare Act Cases: Cabanas vs. Pilapil 58 SCRA 94
Cases: David vs. CA 250 SCRA 82 Libi vs. IAC 214 SCRA 816
People vs. Namaya 246 SCRA 646 Lindain vs. CA 212 SCRA 725
Mossesgeld vs. CA 300 SCRA 464 People vs. Silvano 309 SCRA 362
Republic vs. Abadilla 302 SCRA 358
Republic vs. Vicencio 300 SCRA 138 D. Suspension or Termination of Parental Authority (Art.
Gan vs. Reyes May 28, 2002 225-235)
Tonog vs. Ca Feb. 7, 2002 (See Sec. 5-10, 27-28, 31-c, RA 7610 Anti-Child Abuse Act)
Case: Chua vs. Cabangbang 27 SCRA 791
D. Legitimated Children. (Art. 177-182) Abiera vs. Orin 8 Phil 193
Cases: De los Santos vs. Luciano 60 Phil 328 Cortes vs. Castillo 41 Phil 466
Ramirez vs. Gmur 42 Phil 855
E. Summary Procedures (Art. 249-252)
XI. ADOPTION (See RA 8369 Family Courts Act of 1997)
A. Domestic Adoption
(RA 8552 and its IRR, Procedural Rules on Adoption, AM No. F. Rights of Parents
02-6-02-SC) Cases: Silva vs. CA and Gonzales 275 SCRA 604
(RA 9523, An Act Requiring the Certification of the DSWD to London vs. BCC October 10, 2002
Declare a Child Legally Available for Adoption as a Pre-
requisite for Adoption Proceedings) XIII. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CHILDREN
1. Policies (Sec. 2) Arts. 356-364, 375-376, CC
Case: Republic vs. CA, Bobiles 205 SCRA 356 Art. 129(a), 211, par. 2, 213, 226, FC
2. Definition of terms (Sec. 3) Arts. 3 and 4, P.D. 603
3. Pre-adoption services (Sec. 4, 5, 6)
4. Eligibility
a. Who may adopt (Sec. 7)
b. Who may be adopted (Sec. 8)
c. Required consents (Sec. 9)
Cases: In re Adoption of Edwin Villa 21 SCRA 399
Republic vs. Toledano and Spouses Clave 233 SCRA 9
Republic vs. Miller 306 SCRA 183
5. Procedures (Sec. 10, 11, 12, 15)
Cases: Lazatin vs. Campos 92 SCAR 250
Santos vs. Aranzanso 16 SCRA 344
DSWD vs. Belen 275 SCRA 645
6. Decree of adoption (Sec. 13, 14)
a. Effect on parental authority (Sec. 16)
b. Legitimacy (Sec. 17)
c. Succession (Sec.18)
Cases: Tamargo vs. CA SCRA 518
Sayson vs. CA 205 SCRA 321
- Tolentino v. Comelec, 41 SCRA 702
Constitutional Law Syllabus
Judicial Review of Amendments
- Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 30
POLITICAL LAW - Sanidad v. Comelec, 73 SCRA 333
Defined
- People v. Perfecto, 43 Phil. 887 Power of Judicial Review
- Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77 - Marbury v. Madison, 5 US 137, 2 L.Ed. 60
- Defensor-Santiago v. Guingona, GR 134577, Nov. 18,
THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION 1998
Nature of the Constitution - Francisco v. House of Representatives, GR 160261,
Definition; Nov. 10, 2003
Classification; Judicial Supremacy vs. Constitutional Supremacy
Qualities and essential parts of a good written Constitution Political vs. Justiciable Question
- Baker v. Carr, 396 US 186
- Nixon v. US, 506 US 224
Ratification / Political vs. Justiciable Question - Goldwater v. Carter, 444 US 996, 62 L.Ed.2d 428
- Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 33 - Sanidad v. Comelec, 73 SCRA 333
- Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001
- Brillantes v. Concepcion, GR 163193, June 15, 2004
Constitutional Construction Presumption of Constitutionality
- Perfecto v. Meer, 85 Phil. 552 - Lim v. Pacquing, GR 115044, Jan. 27, 1995
- Endencia v. David, 93 Phil. 696
- Nitafan v. Commisioner of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA Requisites of Judicial Review:
284
Self-executing provisions 1. Actual Case or Controversy
- Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, GR 122156, Feb. 3, 1997 - Board of Optometry v. Colet, GR 122241, July 30, 1996
- Mariano v. Comelec, 242 SCRA 211
Constitutional History - Fernandez v. Torres, 215 SCRA 489
Pre-1935 Constitution - La Bugal-B’laan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR
Schurman Commission; Taft Commission; Spooner 127882, Jan. 27, 2004
Amendment; Philippine Bill of 1902
Jones Law of 1916; Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 Ripeness
1935 Constitution - City of Los Angeles v. Lyons, 461 US 95, 75 L.Ed.2d
Declaration of Martial Law 675
- Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183
Mootness
1973 Constitution - David v. Macapagal-Arroyo (PP1017), GR 171396,
- Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 33 May 3, 2006
1986 Snap Presidential Election - La Bugal-B’laan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR
- Philippine Bar Association. v. Comelec, 140 SCRA 127882, Dec. 1, 2004
455 - DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 US 312, 40 L.Ed.2d 164
People Power Revolt
Proclamation No. 1, Feb. 25, 1986
Proc. No. 3, Mar. 25, 1986 2. Proper Party
- Lawyers League v. Aquino, GR 73748, May 22, Conventional Standing
1986 - Warth v. Seldin, 422 US 490, 45 L.Ed.2d. 343
- In re: Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160 Representative Standing
Freedom Constitution Jus Tertii standing
- Craig v. Boren, 429 US 190, 50 L.Ed.2d. 397
1987 Constitution Transcendental importance to the public
- In re: Letter of Reynato Puno, June 29, 1992, 210 SCRA - Tatad v. Garcia, 243 SCRA 436
Effectivity of the 1987 Constitution - Kilosbayan v. Guingona, 232 SCRA 110
- De Leon v. Esguerra, 153 SCRA 602 - Kilosbayan v. Morato, 246 SCRA 540
- Kilosbayan v. Morato (Recon.), GR 118910, Nov. 16,
Amendment Process 1995
Amendment vs. Revision Standing of members of Congress
Procedure - Philconsa v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506
1. Proposal - Bagatsing v. Committee on Privatization, GR 112399,
a. By Congress July 14, 1995
b. By a Constitutional Convention Standing of Integrated Bar of the Philippines
Theories on Position of Constitutional - IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000
Convention Standing of the Government to question its own laws
c. By the People thru Initiative - People v. Vera, 65 Phil. 56
RA 6735 Taxpayer’s Suits
- Defensor-Santiago v. Comelec, GR - Bayan v. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570, October 10,
127325, March 19, 1997 2000
2. Ratification - Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835, August 14,
Doctrine of Proper Submission 2000
3. Question must be raised at the earliest possible opportunity 4. Sovereignty
Effects of Change in sovereignty
4. Constitutional question must the very "lis mota" of the case - People v. Perfecto, 43 Phil. 887
Doctrine of Purposeful Hesitation - Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77
- Drilon v. Lim, GR 112497, Aug. 4, 1994 Effects of Belligerent Occupation
Functions of Judicial Review Doctrine of Jus Postliminium
Effects of Declaration of Unconstitutionality Dominium vs. Imperium
Doctrine of Operative Fact Derogation of Philippine Sovereignty; The Visiting Forces
- Republic v. CA, GR 79732, Nov. 8, 1993 Agreement
- Bayan v. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570, October 10,
CONCEPT OF STATE 2000

1. People Doctrine of State Immunity


Basis
Citizenship - U.S.A. vs. Reyes, March 1, 1993
Distinguished from nationality
Modes of Acquiring citizenship Immunity of Foreign States & Diplomats
Citizens of the Philippines Principle of par in parem non habet imperium
- Moy Ya Lim Yao v. Commissioner of Immigration, 41 Process of Suggestion
SCRA 292 - The Holy See v. RTC, GR 101949, Dec. 1, 1994
- Djumantan v. Domingo, Jan. 30, 1995 Determination of Immunity by the Department of Foreign
Election of Philippine citizenship Affairs
- In re: Vicente Ching, Bar Matter No. 914, October 1, - Liang v. People, G.R. No. 125865, January 28, 2000
1999
Doctrine of implied election Immunity of International Organizations and Agencies
- Co v. HRET, G.R. No. 92191-92, July 30, 1991 - SEAFDEC v. NLRC, 241 SCRA 580
Natural-born citizens - Callado v. IRRI, 244 SCRA 210
- Bengson v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, 2001 - DFA v. NLRC, Sept. 18, 1996
- Tecson v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004
Dual citizenship & dual allegiance Immunity of Government Agencies
- Mercado v. Manzano, GR 135083, May 26, 1999 Incorporated
Res judicata in citizenship cases Municipal Corporations
Doctrine of Indelible Allegiance - Municipality of San Fernando v. Judge Firme,
Naturalization 195 SCRA 692
- Republic v. De la Rosa, 232 SCRA 785 Unincorporated
If principal function is governmental
Loss of citizenship - Farolan v. CTA 217 SCRA 298
- By naturalization in a foreign country If proprietary suable
- Frivaldo v. Comelec, 174 SCRA 245
- Labo v. Comelec, 176 SCRA 1 Suits against Public Officers
- By express renunciation or expatriation - City of Angeles v. CA, Aug. 28,1996
- Yu v. Defensor-Santiago, 169 SCRA 364 - Veterans Manpower v. CA, 214 SCRA 286
Reacquisition of citizenship, RA 8171 - Wylie v. Rarang, 209 SCRA 357
Retroactivity of Repatriation
- Frivaldo v. Comelec, 257 SCRA 727, June 28, Consent to be sued
1996 Express Consent
Suffrage - Republic v. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424
- Akbayan Youth v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147066, March General Law
26, 2001 - CA 327; PD 1445; Art. 2180; Act No. 3038
- Makalintal v. Comelec, GR 157013, July 10, 2003 Special Law
- Meritt v. Gov't. of the Phil. Islands, 34 Phil.
2. Territory 311
Philippine Archipelago; Archipelago Doctrine; UN Implied Consent
Convention on the Law of the Sea When State commences litigation
- Froilan v. Pan Oriental Shipping, Sept. 30,
1954
3. Government When State enters into a business contract
Functions - USA v. Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487
Constituent vs. Ministrant Suability not outright liability
Laissez-faire vs. Welfare State - Meritt v. Gov't. of the Phil. Islands, 34 Phil. 311
Doctrine of Parens Patriae - Fontanilla v. Maliaman, 194 SCRA 486
- Gov't. of Phil. Islands v. Monte de Piedad, 35 Phil. Consent to be sued does not include consent to
728 execution
- Cabanas v. Pilapil, 58 SCRA 94 - Republic v. Villasor, 54 SCRA 84
Classification - Municipality of San Miguel v. Fernandez, 130
- De Jure SCRA 56
- De Facto - Municipality of Makati v. CA, 190 SCRA 206
- Lawyers League v. Aquino, GR 73748, May 22, 1986
Immunity cannot be used to perpetrate an injustice on a - Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil. 726
citizen Respect for human dignity and human rights
- Ministerio v. CFI of Cebu, 40 SCRA 464 Fundamental Equality of men and women
Promotion of health and ecology
PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES - Oposa v. Factoran, GR 1010183, July 30, 1993
Preamble Priority to education, science and technology
Republicanism Protection to labor
Manifestations Land Reform
1. Nemo est supra leges - Ass'n. of Small Land Owners v. Sec. of Agrarian
- Villavicencio v. Lukban, 39 Phil. 778 Reform, 175 SCRA 343
2. Rule of majority
3. Accountability of Public Officials Regalian Doctrine
4. Bill of Rights - Republic v. CA, CCP Intervenor, GR 103882, Nov.
5. Legislature cannot pass irrepealable laws 25, 1998
6. Separation of Powers - Cruz v. DENR Secretary, G.R. No. 135385,
Principle of Blending of Powers December 6, 2000
Principle of Checks and Balances - La Bugal-B’laan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR
- The Steel Seizure case, 343 US 579, 96 127882, Jan. 27, 2004
L.Ed. 1153
- Bowsher v. Synar, 478 US 714 Inalienable Lands of the Public Domain
- Senate v. Ermita (E.O.464), G.R. No. - Chavez v. PEA & AMARI, GR 133250, Nov. 11, 2003
169777
7. Non-delegation of powers Independent People's organizations
- Phil. Interisland Shipping Ass'n. v. CA, GR
100481, Jan. 22, 1997 Family and Youth
Potestas delegata non delegare potest - Meyer v. Nebraska, 263 US 393
Permissible Delegation - Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 US 510
a. Tariff Powers to the President - Wisconsin v. Yoder, 40 LW 4476
b. Emergency Powers to the President - Cabanas v. Pilapil, 58 SCRA 94
- First Emergency Powers cases, 84
Phil. 368 Self-reliant and independent national economy
- Second Emergency Powers cases, 92 - Tañada v. Angara (GATT case), GR 118295, May 2,
Phil. 603 1997
c. Delegation to the People Communication and information in nation-building
d. Delegation to Local Government Units
e. Delegation to the Administrative Bodies Autonomy of Local Governments
Power of Subordinate Legislation Decentralization of Administration vs. decentralization
- Miners Association v. Factoran, of Power
GR 98332, Jan. 16, 1995 - Limbonas v. Mangelin, 170 SCRA 786
Principle of Subdelegation of Powers - Basco v. PAGCOR, 197 SCRA 52
Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency
Tests for valid delegation Autonomous Region
a. Completeness Test - Disomangcop v. DPWH Secretary, GR 149848,
b. Sufficient Standard Test November 25, 2004
- Ynot v. IAC, 148 SCRA 659
- De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294 Indigenous Cultural Communities
Legislative standard need not be - Cruz v. DENR Secretary, G.R. No. 135385,
expressed December 6, 2000
- Hirabashi v. United States, 320 Honest public service and full public disclosure
US 99
- Chiongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
253 Legislative power
8. State Immunity (supra) Initiative, referendum and Recall
9. Election through popular will - Defensor-Santiago v. Comelec, GR 127325,
March 19, 1997
Act of State Indirect Initiative
Incorporation Clause - SBMA v. Comelec, Sept. 26, 1996
Conflict between municipal law and international law Recall
- Ichong v. Hernandez, 101 Phil. 115 - Garcia v. Comelec, Oct. 5, 1993
Civilian Supremacy Loss of confidence, a political question
- IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000 - Evardone v. Comelec, 204 SCRA 464, 472
Government to serve and protect the people Bicameralism vs. Unicameralism
People to defend the State
Separation of Church and State Senate (Composition; Qualifications; Term of office)
Independent Foreign Policy
Nuclear Free Philippines House of Representatives
Just and dynamic social order Composition (District Representatives; Party-list
Representatives)
Social Justice
Party-list Representatives Powers of Congress
- Veterans Federation Party v. Comelec, G.R. No. General Legislative Power
136781, October 6, 2000 Limitations
- Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party v. Substantive Limitations
Comelec, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001 Procedural Limitations
Apportionment of Legislative Districts One Bill, one subject
- Baker v. Carr, 369 US 186 - Guzman v. Comelec, G.R. No.
- Mariano v. Comelec, 242 SCRA 211 129118, July 19, 2000
- Montejo v. Comelec, GR 118702, Mar. 19, 1995 Sufficiency of Title
Gerrymandering - Phil. Judges Association v. Prado, GR
Doctrine of Equal Representation 105371, Nov. 11, 1993
- Chongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA 253
Qualifications Bills that must originate exclusively from the
- Marcos v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 300 House
- Aquino v. Comelec, Sept. 18, 1995 - Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, GR
Theory of legal impossibility 115455, Aug. 25, 1994
Natural-born - Decision on Motion for
- Bengson v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, Reconsideration, Oct. 30, 1995
2001 Three readings on separate days
Term of office Bicameral Conference Committee

Privileges Legislative Process


Freedom from Arrest Approval of Bills
Parliamentary Immunity Presidential veto
- Eastland v. US Servicemen's Fund, 421 US Pocket veto
491 Item veto
- Hutchinson v. Proxmire, 443 US 111 - Bengzon v. Drilon, 208 SCRA 133
- Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 714 Legislative veto; One-House Veto
Disqualifications and Inhibitions - Immigration Service v. Chadha, 462
Effect of Imprisonment US 919, 77 L.Ed.2d 317
- People v. Jalosjos, G.R. Nos. 132875-76, - Phil. Constitution Association v.
February 3, 2000 Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506
Sessions; Adjournment; Officers
- Santiago v. Guingona, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, Power of the Purse
2001 Implied limitations on appropriation measure
Quorum - Guingona v. Carague, 196 SCRA 221
- Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17 Constitutional limitations and rules
Rules of Proceedings Riders
- Arroyo v. De Venecia (Sin-taxes case), GR Sub rosa appropriation
127255, Aug. 14, 1997 Prohibition against transfer of appropriation
Discipline of members - Phil. Constitution Association v. Enriquez,
Suspension vs. Preventive Suspension 235 SCRA 506
- Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 128055. Power of Taxation
April 18, 2001 - McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 US (4 Wheat, 316)
Power of Legislative Investigation
Enrolled Bill Theory - Senate v. Ermita (E.O.464), G.R. No. 169777
- Mabanag v. Lopez Vito, 78 Phil. 1 - Bengzon v. Senate Blue Ribbon Committee, 203
- Casco Chemical v. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347 SCRA 767
Legislative Journal vs. Enrolled Bill Power to Punish contempt
- Arnault v. Nazareno, 87 Phil. 29
Electoral Tribunals - Arnault v. Balagtas, 97 Phil. 358
Composition Power to declare existence of state of war
- Bondoc v. Pineda, 201 SCRA 792 - The Prize cases, 67 US 635, 17 L.Ed. 459
- Abbas v. Senate Electoral Tribunal, 166 - Mora v. McNamara, 389 US 934, 19 L.Ed.2d 287
SCRA 651
Powers EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
- Aquino v. Comelec, Sept. 18, 1995 President and Vice-President
- Sampayan v. Daza, 213 SCRA 807 Qualifications
Jurisdiction over Proclamation Controversy Natural-born Citizen
- Caruncho v. Comelec, G.R. No. 135996, - Tecson v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004
September 30, 1999 Election
Congress as canvassing board
Commission on Appointments Supreme Court as Electoral Tribunal
Composition - Defensor-Santiago v. Ramos, PET Case no.
- Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789 001, Feb. 13, 1996
Powers Term of office
- Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 Privileges
Official residence
Salary - Carpio v. Executive Secretary, Feb. 14,
Presidential Immunity 1992
- In re: Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160 The Executive Secretary
- Beltran v. Makasiar, 167 SCRA 393 - Lacson-Magallanes v. Pano, 21 SCRA
- US v. Nixon, 418 US 683, 41 L.Ed.2d 1039 895
- Nixon v. Fitzgerald, 457 US 731
- Clinton v. Jones, 520 US 681, May 27, 1997 Military Powers
- Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, Commander-in-chief clause
2001 - Ex Parte Milligan, 71 US 2
- Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April - David v. Macapagal-Arroyo (PP1017), GR
3, 2001 171396, May 3, 2006
Prohibitions and inhibitions - Aquino v. Military Commission No. 2, 63
Rules on Succession SCRA 546
Vacancy at beginning of term - Olaguer v. Military Commission No. 34,
Vacancy during the term 150 SCRA 144
Temporary Disability - Carpio v. Executive Secretary, supra
Removal of the President
- Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, Calling Out the Armed Forces
2001 - IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August
- Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3, 15, 2000
2001
Declaration of State of Rebellion
Powers - Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, May
Executive Power 10, 2001
- Planas v. Gil, 67 Phil. 62 Declaration of martial law
- Myers, Administratrix v. United States, 272 - Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183
US 52
Legislative Powers Suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas
- Municipality of San Juan v. CA, Sept. 29, corpus
1997 - Barcelon v. Baker, 5 Phil. 87
- Ople v. Torres, GR 127685, July 23, 1998 - Montenegro v. Castañeda, 91 Phil. 882
Residual Powers - Lansang v. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448
- Marcos v. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 - Garcia-Padilla v. Enrile, 121 SCRA 472
Power to Determine National Policy
- The Steel Seizure case, 343 US 579, 96 Pardoning Power
L.Ed. 1153 - People v. Salle, 250 SCRA 581, Dec. 4, 1995
Prosecution of Crimes - Monsanto v. Factoran, 170 SCRA 190
- Webb v. De Leon, 247 SCRA 652 - Garcia v. Chairman, COA, 226 SCRA 356
Creation of Preparatory Committee on Pardon vs. Amnesty
Constitutional Reforms Diplomatic Power
- Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835, - Dames & Moore v. Regan, 453 US 654
August 14, 2000 Treaties vs. Executive Agreements
Power to Impound
Appointing Power - Philconsa v. Enriquez, Aug. 19, 1994
Discretionary power
- Flores v. Drilon, GR 104732, June 22, JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
1993 Judicial Power
- Gordon v. Judge Santos, CA-GR Sp No. Expanded jurisdiction
48339, Aug. 21, 1998 Effect on the political question doctrine
- Gordon v. CA, GR 134900, Sept. 1, 1998 Jurisdiction
- Luego v. Civil Service Commission, 143 - Diaz v. CA, Dec. 5, 1994
SCRA 327 - First Lepanto Ceramics v. CA, Oct. 7, 1994
Classes of Appointment Constitutional Safeguards to insure independence of the
- Gaminde v. COA, G.R. No. 140335, Judiciary
December 13, 2000 Justices/judges may not be designated to any agency
Appointments subject to confirmation of performing non-judicial functions
Commission on Appointments Fiscal Autonomy
- Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 Power of Judicial Review
- Manalo v. Sistoza, GR 107369, Aug. 11, Appointment to the Judiciary
1999 Procedure for Appointment
Limitations on the Appointment Power Judicial and Bar Council
Power of Removal
Supreme Court
Composition
Power of Control En Banc & Division cases
Control vs. Supervision Fortich v. Corona, G.R. No. 131457, August 19,
- Drilon v. Lim, GR 112497, Aug. 4, 1994 1999
Alter-ego Principle or Doctrine of Qualified
Political Agency Powers
Supervision over the Judiciary Procedure
- Dolalas v. Office of the Ombudsman, Dec. 24, - Romulo v. Yniguez, 141 SCRA 263
1996 Impeachment and Criminal Prosecution
Rule-making powers - Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2,
- Maniago v. CA, 253 SCRA 674 2001
Mandatory Review of Death Penalty Cases - Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3,
- People v. Esparas, GR 120034, Aug. 20, 2001
1996
Writ of Amparo Sandiganbayan
Equipoise Doctrine Jurisdiction
Decisions of the Court - Lacson v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 128096,
- Nicos Industrial Corp. v. CA, 206 SCRA 127 January 20, 1999
- Prudential Bank v. Castro, 158 SCRA 646
Power to control execution of decision Ombudsman
- Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, GR 132601, Supervision and control
Jan. 19, 1999 - Acop v. Office of the Ombudsman, 248 SCRA
566
Tenure of Justices/Judges Prosecutorial Powers
- De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294 - Camanag v. Guerrero, GR 121017, Feb. 17, 1997
Removal and Discipline Power to issue subpoena; Form of complaint
- Maceda v. Ombudsman, GR 102781, Apr. 22, - Almonte v. Vasquez, 244 SCRA 266
1993 Power to Investigate Administrative Charges
- People v. Gacott, 246 SCRA 52 Concurrent with the Office of the President
Salaries - Hagad v. Dadole, 241 SCRA 242
- Perfecto v. Meer, 85 Phil. 552 Concurrent with the DOJ
- Endencia v. David, 93 Phil. 696 - Honasan v. DOJ Panel of Investigating
- Nitafan v. Commisioner of Internal Revenue, 152 Prosecutors, GR 159747, Apr. 13, 2004
SCRA 284 Power to investigate cases of ill-gotten wealth after
Feb. 25, 1996
INDEPENDENT CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION - Republic v. Sandiganbayan, Sept. 24, 1994
Safeguards to insure the independence of the Ombudsman for the Military
Commissions - Agbay v. Deputy Ombudsman for the Military,
Prohibition on appointment in an acting capacity G.R. No. 134503, July 2, 1999
- Brillantes v. Yorac, 192 SCRA 358
Disqualifications and Inhibitions Special Prosecutor
Decisions - Certiorari to the Supreme Court - Zaldivar v. Gonzales, 160 SCRA 843
- Galido v. Comelec, Jan. 18, 1991
- Reyes v. RTC, 244 SCRA 41 Commission on Human Rights
- Garces v. CA, July 17, 1996 Powers and Functions of the Commission
SC Revised Admin. Cir. 1-95 - Cariño v. CHR, GR 96681, Dec. 2, 1991
Civil Rights vs. Political Rights
1. Civil Service Commission - Simon v. CHR, 229 SCRA 117, Jan. 5, 1994
Scope of the Civil Service Fiscal Autonomy
- DOH v. NLRC, 251 SCRA 700 - CHR Employees Assn. v. CHR, GR No. 155336,
Approval of appointments Nov. 25, 2004
- Luego v. Civil Service Commission, 143 SCRA 327
- Ramonte v. CSC, 244 SCRA 498 Presidential Commission on Good Government
- Chavez v. PCGG, GR 130716, Dec. 9, 1998
2. Commission on Elections - Cojuangco v. Roxas, 195 SCRA 797
En Banc and Division cases - Republic v. Sandiganbayan, 258 SCRA 685
- Sarmiento v. Comelec, 212 SCRA 307 - Romualdez v. Sandiganbayan, 244 S 152
Powers and Functions
- Relampagos v. Cumba, 243 SCRA 690 Sequestration
- Loong v. Comelec, GR 133676, Apr. 14, 1999 - Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR 106244, Jan. 22,
Exclusive Original Jurisdiction and Appellate Jurisdiction 1997
- Guieb v. Fontanilla, 247 SCRA 348, Aug. 14, 1995
Special Registration of New Voters Order signed by only one commissioner
- Akbayan Youth v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147066, March - Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR 113420, Mar. 7,
26, 2001 1997
Imprescriptibility of Right of State to Recover Ill-gotten
Wealth
3. Commission on Audit - Presidential Committee on Behest Loans v.
- Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. COA, GR Desierto, G.R. No. 130140, October 25, 1999
101976, Jan. 29, 1993

ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS


Impeachment
Impeachable Officers
Grounds for Impeachment