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A GUIDE

TO
WASTEWATER
TREATMENT

Case studies Included

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CONTENTS
SECTION PAGE

1  INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 0 

1.1  Wastewater sources, composition and flow rate estimation ................................................................. 1


1.1.1  Domestic wastewater ........................................................................................................ 1 
1.1.2  Industrial Wastewater ....................................................................................................... 2 
1.2  Water Quality Standard-Measures of Water Quality- When is water contaminated ............................ 3
1.2.1  Dissolved oxygen .............................................................................................................. 3 
1.2.2  Biochemical oxygen demand............................................................................................ 4 
1.2.3  Solids ................................................................................................................................. 5 

FIGURE1  CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS (BASED ON FILTRATION)


(VESILIND & ROOKE, 2003) ............................................................................................. 5 

1.2.4  Nitrogen............................................................................................................................. 5 
1.2.5  Phosphorous ...................................................................................................................... 6 
1.2.6  Bacteriological measurements .......................................................................................... 6 
1.3  Wastewater characteristics .................................................................................................................... 7
1.3.1  Physical characteristics of wastewater ............................................................................. 8 
1.3.2  Chemical wastewater characteristics ................................................................................ 9 
1.3.3  Biological Characteristics of Wastewaters ..................................................................... 11 
1.4  Effects of Untreated liquid effluents ................................................................................................... 12
1.4.1  Health effects .................................................................................................................. 12 
1.4.2  Increase in the B.O.D. & C.O.D. content of water bodies ............................................. 13 
1.4.3  Increase in nutrient content ............................................................................................. 13 
1.4.4  Increase of soil deposition .............................................................................................. 14 
1.4.5  Effects of odours ............................................................................................................. 14 
1.4.6  Effects of Increased Temperatures ................................................................................. 14 
1.5  Wastewater collection systems ........................................................................................................... 15
1.5.1  Sanitary sewer systems ................................................................................................... 16 
1.5.2  Storm sewer systems ....................................................................................................... 16 
1.5.3  Combined sewer systems ................................................................................................ 17 
1.5.4  Collection System Components...................................................................................... 17 

FIGURE2  (A) JUNCTION BOXES (B) INTERCEPTOR PIPES (DRINAN &


WHITING, 2001) ................................................................................................................. 18 

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2  WASTE WATER TREATMENT METHODS ........................................................ 18 

FIGURE3  TYPICAL STAGES IN THE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT OF


SEWAGE 19 

FIGURE4 .............................................................................................................................. 20 

constituent.................................................................................................................................................... 20
Unit operation or process ............................................................................................................................. 20
Suspended Solids ......................................................................................................................................... 20

3  INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT METHODS .............................. 22 

3.1  Physical/chemical treatment methods ................................................................................................. 23


3.1.1  Screening ......................................................................................................................... 23 

FIGURE5  INCLINED BAR SCREEN ........................................................................... 24 

FIGURE6  CURVED BAR SCREEN .............................................................................. 25 

FIGURE7  RADIAL BAR SCREEN ............................................................................... 25 

FIGURE8  STEP TYPE SCREEN ................................................................................... 25 

FIGURE9  BRUSH TYPE SCREEN ............................................................................... 26 

3.1.2  Sedimentation.................................................................................................................. 26 

FIGURE10  CIRCULAR AND RECTANGULAR SETTLING TANKS .................. 26 

FIGURE11  PRIMARY CLARIFIER ELEVATION VIEW ...................................... 27 

FIGURE12  PRIMARY CLARIFIER PLAN VIEW ................................................... 27 

FIGURE13  SUCTION TUBE CLARIFIER ELEVATION ....................................... 27 

FIGURE14  PICKET FENCE SLUDGE THICKENER ............................................. 28 

3.1.3  Flotation and Skimming ................................................................................................. 28 

FIGURE15 ............................................................................................................................ 29 

3.2  Chemical treatment methods............................................................................................................... 29


3.2.1  Chlorination .................................................................................................................... 30 

FIGURE16  CHLORINATOR ....................................................................................... 30 

3.2.2  Ozonation ........................................................................................................................ 31 

FIGURE17  OZONE WATER TREATED AREA ...................................................... 31 

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FIGURE18  OZONATOR .............................................................................................. 32 

3.3  Biological treatment methods ............................................................................................................. 32


3.3.1  Activated-sludge Process ................................................................................................ 34 

FIGURE19  AN AERATION BASIN (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006) ...... 35 

FIGURE20  DENITRIFICATION SYSTEMS: (A) SINGLE-SLUDGE SYSTEM.


(B) MULTISLUDGE SYSTEM (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006). ................... 36 

FIGURE21  DENITRIFICATION SYSTEM: BARDENPHO PROCESS (PEPPER,


GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006). ............................................................................................ 37 

3.3.2  Trickling Filters .............................................................................................................. 38 

FIGURE22  (A) A UNIT OF PLASTIC MATERIAL USED TO CREATE A


BIOFILTER. THE DIAMETER OF EACH HOLE IS APPROXIMATELY 5 CM. (B)
A TRICKLING BIOFILTER OR BIOTOWER. THIS IS COMPOSED OF MANY
PLASTIC UNITS STACKED UPON EACH OTHER. DIMENSIONS OF THE
BIOFILTER MAY BE 20 M DIAMETER BY 10–30 M DEPTH (PEPPER, GERBA, &
RUSSEAU, 2006).................................................................................................................. 39 

3.3.3  Oxidation Ponds .............................................................................................................. 40 

FIGURE23  AN OXIDATION POND. TYPICALLY THESE ARE ONLY 1–2


METERS DEEP AND SMALL IN AREA. ....................................................................... 40 

3.3.4  Aerobic ponds ................................................................................................................. 40 

FIGURE24  AEROBIC WASTE POND PROFILE (PEPPER, GERBA, &


RUSSEAU, 2006).................................................................................................................. 41 

3.3.5  Anaerobic ponds ............................................................................................................. 41 

FIGURE25  ANAEROBIC WASTE POND PROFILE (PEPPER, GERBA, &


RUSSEAU, 2006).................................................................................................................. 41 

3.3.6  Facultative ponds ............................................................................................................ 41 

FIGURE26  MICROBIOLOGY OF FACULTATIVE POND (PEPPER, GERBA, &


RUSSEAU, 2006).................................................................................................................. 42 

3.3.7  Aerated lagoons or ponds ............................................................................................... 42 

4  INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 44 

4.1  Fibers Categorization .......................................................................................................................... 44

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FIGURE27  SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF DIFFERENT PROCESSING SECTORS
IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY (RAMESH BABU, 2007) ....................................................... 45 

4.1.1  Cultivating and harvesting .............................................................................................. 46 


4.1.2  Preparatory Processes ..................................................................................................... 46 
4.1.3  Spinning- Yarn manufacture .......................................................................................... 46 
4.1.4  Weaving- Fabric manufacture ........................................................................................ 47 
4.1.5  Finishing- Processing of Textiles ................................................................................... 47 
4.2  Textile Industry Chemicals ................................................................................................................. 49
Hydrophobic/ Oleophobic Agents ............................................................................................ 52 
1.5.5 ............................................................................................................................................... 52 
1.5.6  Antistatic    Agents .......................................................................................................... 52 
1.1.1 ............................................................................................................................................... 52 
1.5.7  Oxidative compounds ..................................................................................................... 52 
4.3  The origin of textile effluents ............................................................................................................. 53
4.3.1  Colour .............................................................................................................................. 53 
4.3.2  Persistent Organics.......................................................................................................... 53 
4.3.3  AOX and heavy metals ................................................................................................... 54 
4.3.4  Toxicants ......................................................................................................................... 54 
4.3.5  Surfactants ....................................................................................................................... 54 
4.3.6  Temperature .................................................................................................................... 55 
4.4  Waste disposed from each section ...................................................................................................... 57
4.5  Treatment Methods ............................................................................................................................. 57
4.5.1  Primary treatments .......................................................................................................... 58 

FIGURE28  MECHANICAL WASTEWATER SCREENING (HH AG, 2005) ....... 58 

4.5.2  Secondary treatments ...................................................................................................... 60 

FIGURE29 ............................................................................................................................ 61 

FIGURE30  COMPACT CHEMICALLY ENHANCED-TRICKLING FILTER


SYSTEM (AHMED, 2006) .................................................................................................. 63 

FIGURE31  ACTIVATED SLUDGE (BABU B.V., 2008) ........................................... 64 

FIGURE32 ............................................................................................................................ 64 

FIGURE33 ............................................................................................................................ 67 

FIGURE34  SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS


FOR PHOTOCATALYTIC REACTION ......................................................................... 70 

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FIGURE35  ADSORPTION COLUMN........................................................................ 71 

FIGURE36  SCHEMATICS OF A THERMAL EVAPORATOR ............................. 71 

4.6  Example 1 - WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS IN TEXTILE FINISHING


MILLS ......................................................................................................................................................... 71

FIGURE37  SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE TEXTILE FINISHING MILL


SHOWING DIFFERENT SECTIONS .............................................................................. 72 

4.7  Example 2- Textile Wastewater Treatment Plant ............................................................................... 74


4.7.1  Plant operation ................................................................................................................ 75 

FIGURE38  AMARAVATHI COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT ..... 78 

5  INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 79 

5.1  EFFLUENT SOURCE ........................................................................................................................ 80

FIGURE39  OIL STORAGE TANK ............................................................................. 81 

5.3  EFFLUENT PARAMETERS ............................................................................................................. 81


5.4  EFFLUENT TREATMENT ............................................................................................................... 83
5.4.1  PRE TREATMENT ........................................................................................................ 83 
5.4.2  PRIMARY TREATMENT ............................................................................................. 84 

FIGURE40  PROCESS DIAGRAM OF TREATMENT METHODS SOURCE:


STEFAN T. O, 2008 ............................................................................................................. 84 

5.4.3  SECONDARY TREATMENT....................................................................................... 84 


5.4.4  TERTIARY TREATMENT ........................................................................................... 84 
5.5  LEGISLATION .................................................................................................................................. 85

FIGURE41  FIG. 1 DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION SYSTEM................................ 87 

FIGURE42  FIG. 2 HYDRO-CYCLONE SEPARATOR............................................ 88 

FIGURE43  API OIL-WATER SEPARATOR ............................................................ 89 

FIGURE44  A TYPICAL BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PLANT ........................... 90 

5.7  LIQUID EFFLUENT MONITORING ............................................................................................... 90

FIGURE45  WASTE WATER ANALYSIS LABORATORY .................................... 91 

6  LEGISLATIONS ON TEXTILE INDUSTRY CASE STUDY:.............................. 95 

7  LEGISLATIONS......................................................................................................... 96 

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8  REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 99 

vii
1 INTRODUCTION
Liquid effluents refer to water discharged from a community after it has been contaminated
by various uses. It is often referred to as wastewater and it is combination of water removed
from residences, institutions, industrial establishments, and surface and ground waters
(Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991). It consists of 99.94 percent water by weight and the remaining
0.06 percent is suspended or dissolved material (Shun & Lee, 2000).

In the United States in the early 19th century, liquid effluents from residences, commercial
premises and industries were generally discharged in to large bodies of water on to land
directly without treatment. However, as the cities got larger, population increased and the
demand for land became higher. Waste could no longer be dumped into the land untreated. A
similar method was also being applied in the UK. Most settlements of old were located where
there was easy access to water supply. However, as the clean water was used up, it was
replaced by used dirty water. The polluted water was then sent back into the homes for use.
Population explosion of urban areas produced massive outbreak of cholera and in 1848 and
14,000 people died of the disease. However, at this time there was no link between polluted
water and disease. It was not until 1852 that a link was made between the polluted water and
disease. Soon after this, laws were then enacted and certain actions were carried out. For
instance in the London, efforts were made to clean up the river Thames which was regarded
as biologically dead. Water from the Thames was first treated before being sent to homes for
use. The water was also treated after use before being discharged back into the Thames.
Today, the river Thames is considered as one of the cleanest rivers to run through a city (Read
& Vickridge, 1997).

Today, in most modern cities, wastewater is treated before being discharged in to natural
water bodies. In the US, 15,000 wastewater treatment plants treat approximately 150 billion
liters of wastewater per day (Pepper, Gerba, & russeau, 2006). In this chapter, a brief
introduction into wastewater, its sources, water quality standards, its effect and collection
mechanism is described. Brief notes are also given to describe some references that can be
consulted for more detailed information.

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Wastewater sources, composition and flow rate estimation

Wastewater is usually generated from residences, institutions and commercial houses,


industries, farms, and run-offs from storms. Waste waters from residences, institutions,
commercial houses, and farms are referred to as domestic wastewaters. However, recently
farmers are required to set up on-site treatment systems for animal waste (Ministry for the
Environment of Manatu Mo Te Taiao, 2009). Industrial wastewaters are sometimes treated
separately but this depends on the type of industry and the size of the community. Most
communities collect and treat both domestic and industrial wastewaters together in municipal
wastewater treatment plants. Below is a brief introduction into some of the sources of
wastewaters, their composition and flow rate.

1.1.1 Domestic wastewater


The components of domestic wastewater are; wastewater from homes, commercial places,
water from rain runoff and infiltration wastewater (Kiely, 1997). Residential wastewater
usually comprises of water from toilets, laundry, washing dishes etc and they are usually
referred to as sewage. They can also be divided into two groups; Black water-which is
basically water from toilets and Grey water which is water from every other source like
kitchen sinks. Humans excrete 100–500 grams wet weight of faeces and 1–1.3 Liters of urine
per person per day.

The composition and concentration of domestic water varies depending on the time of the
day, the day of the week, the month of the year and other conditions (Metacalf & Eddy Inc,
1991). Table 1 gives a data of typical composition of domestic wastewater. The composition
refers to the amount of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants present1.

To reduce the load of water in the treatment plant, some countries separate the pipe network
for rain runoff from the main sewer water body. However, some countries do not have such
and it will be too expensive to embark on the project of creating new sewer networks

1
 For details on the composition of domestic wastewater further reading can be carried out in the book by 
(Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991) 
1
TABLE 1 Typical composition of untreated domestic wastewater (Pepper, Gerba, &
russeau, 2006).
CONTAMINANTS CONCENTRATION (mg/l)
LOW MODERATE HIGH
Solids, total 720 1200 350 720 1200
Dissolved, total 250 250 500 850
500 850
Volatile 105 200 325 105 200 325
Suspended solids 100 100 220 350
220 350
Volatile 80 164 275 80 164 275
Settleable solids 5 10 5 10 20
20
Biochemical oxygen 110 220 400
demanda 110 220 400
Total organic carbon 80 160 290
80 160 290
Chemical oxygen 250 500 1000
demand 250 500 1000
Nitrogen (total as N) 20 40 85
20 40 85
Organic 8 15 35 8 15 35
Free ammonia 12 25 12 25 50
50
Nitrites 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nitrates 0 0 0 0 0 0
Phosphorous (total as 4 8 15
P) 4 8 15
Organic 1 3 5 1 3 5
Inorganic 3 5 10 3 5 10
5-day, 20°C (BOD,
20°C).

1.1.2 Industrial Wastewater


This is wastewater generated from industrial processes. The wastewater generated from
industries varies in flow and composition depending on the type of industries. Metacalf &

2
Eddy Inc. (1991) suggest that for industries with little or no wet processes, the estimated flow
is about 1000 – 1500 gal/acre.d (9-14 m3/ha . d) for light industries and 1500-3000 gal/acre . d
(14-28m3/ha . d) for medium industrial development. Generally, to determine the wastewater
flow from an industry, a flow duration curve is created by taking measurements from the
wastewater streams continuously using automatic continuous flow recorders. However, as this
is expensive and time consuming, adequate measurements can also be obtained by using
autosampling-autoanalytical equipments (Kiely, 1997).

As mentioned earlier, wastewater composition from industries vary and before treatment
processes can be set up, waste flow diagrams or mass balance of waste flows and
characteristics have to be carried out. Kiely, (1997) identifies five major steps required in the
survey;
• Identifying the unique process from start to finish
• Identifying the liquid waste streams
• Calculating flows of all wastewater streams
• Determining the pollutant load of all wastewater streams
• Analysing the pollutant load for the most suitable parameter to identify the waste
stream

Water Quality Standard-Measures of Water Quality- When is water contaminated

The quality of water is relative to its use. What may be considered as a pollutant for a
particular water use may be of importance in another application. For example, organics in
water help to support plant and animal life. However, organics in water will have an adverse
effect if the water were to be used in a cooling tower (Vesilind & Rooke, 2003). The standard
reference for water quality based on physical, chemical and biological characteristics is
“Standard Methods for Examination of water and wastewater” The book is a compilation of
test methods for measuring water quality. Some of the parameters measured are discussed
below.

1.1.3 Dissolved oxygen


This is a very important parameter in the determination of water quality. Water devoid of
oxygen will have odours and facilitate anaerobic conditions which will also result in odours

3
and loss of aquatic life. The oxygen content can be measured using an oxygen probe and
meter (Vesilind & Rooke, 2003).

1.1.4 Biochemical oxygen demand


This is another very important parameter. It is a measures of both the rate at which oxygen is
used up by microorganisms to break down organic matter and the amount of organic matter
present in the water. In wastewater treatment, removal of BOD is essential as if left untreated
and the rate of oxygen consumption is greater than re-oxygenation from the atmosphere
unfavourable conditions will develop in the water body the wastewater is being discharged
into.

The BOD in wastewater can be detected using the standard BOD test known as the 5-day
BOD test which is run at 20°C for five days. The test is also carried out in the dark to prevent
algae from producing oxygen. However, the test is not accurate as it depends on the use of
oxygen by microorganisms. Other tests that have been employed are determination of
chemical oxygen demand (COD test) and Total Oraganic Carbon (TOC test). The COD test
makes use of strong oxidants to destroy the organic compounds present in the wastewater. It
is based on the assumption that all the organics are destroyed. The organics present can then
be estimated from stoichiometry. The TOC test measures the total carbon content of the
wastewater. This is done by injecting the sample wastewater into a heating coil and measuring
the amount of carbon dioxide gas produce and relating it stoichiometrically to the amount of
carbon. Since the test does not measure the organic food material alone, the %5 day test is
still used for the determination of BOD (Vesilind & Rooke, 2003).

The BOD content for most domestic wastewater discharge is approximately between 150 and
250 mg/L but that of industrial wastewater maybe as high as 30,000mg/L (Vesilind & Rooke,
2003). The BOD test carried out to;

• To determine the amount of oxygen that will be required for biological treatment of
the organic matter present in a wastewater
• To determine the size of the waste treatment facility needed
• To assess the efficiency of treatment processes, and
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• To determine compliance with wastewater discharge permits.

1.1.5 Solids
In wastewater, anything other than water or gas is classified as solids. However, the basic
definition for solids is anything that remains after evaporation at 103°C (Vesilind & Rooke,
2003). These solids are often referred to as Total solids. They can be classified into two
groups based on filtration; suspendes solids and dissolved solids( as shown on figure 1.1). If
left untreated, these solids can serve as serious pollutants leading to several effects which will
be discussed later.

Total

Suspended Dissolved

FIGURE1 CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS (BASED ON FILTRATION)


(VESILIND & ROOKE, 2003)

To determine the amount of total solids present, a known volume of wastewater is placed on
an evaporating dish until all the water has evaporated. The total solids is expressed in
milligrams per liter. As the name implies, dissolved solids are those components that dissolve
in the water and will crystallize upon evaporation. Solids can also be classified in another
way based on combustion into; volatile suspended solids and fixed suspended solids. Volatile
suspended solids are generally organic in nature and a considered to combust at about 600°C.

1.1.6 Nitrogen
The presence of Nitrogen in wastewater being discharged untreated into a water body can
cause euthrophication (presence of excess nutrients leading to the increase in microbial life).
Nitrogen is an important element in biological reactions and is present in the organic form (i.e
as amino acids and amines) and in ammonia form. It oxidises to nitrate reducing the oxygen
levels in the stream.
Nitrogen presence can be detected analytically by calorimetric techniques. A known sample
of wastewater can be reacted with Nessler reagent (a solution of potassium mercuric iodide).
A yellow-brown colloid is formed and then it indicates the presence of Nitrogen. The precise
amount can’t be determined from photometric analysis of the colloid.

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1.1.7 Phosphorous
Phosphorous is the limiting nutrient that prevents euthrophication and limits the rate of
metabolic activity. If allowed to exceed natural limits can disrupt the ecological balance of the
water body (Vesilind & Rooke, 2003).

1.1.8 Bacteriological measurements


Pathogens are organisms that cause illness and their determination is very important.
However, the detection of pathogens is challenging for some reasons: Each pathogen has a
specific detection procedure. Also, their concentration is so small as to make detection
difficult. Yet, the presence of one or two of these organisms in water may be sufficient to
cause infection (Vesilind & Rooke, 2003). In the United states pathogens of importance
include Salmonella, Shigella, the hepatitis virus, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lambilia,
Crptosporidium, and Escherichia coli H57 strain2. Some of these pathogens cause gastro
intestinal disease and sometimes can lead to death. As mentioned earlier, it is impossible to
measure all the pathogens carried by wastewater hus an indicator is used to define the
bacteriological water quality. The most commonly used indicators are a group of microbes
called coliforms (Vesilind & Rooke, 2003). Coliforms have five important attributes which is
why they have become universal indicators;

• They are normal inhabitants of the digestive tracts of warm-blooded animals;


• They exist in abundance and thus are not difficult to find
• They are easily detected
• They are generally harmless except in unusual circumstances
• The can survive longer than most known pathogens

The amount of coliforms in water can be measured by passing a known amount of water
through a sterile filter, then placing the filter in a Petri dish and soaking it with sterile agar
solution that promotes the growth of coliforms alone. The number of dark blue-green dots
formed after 24 or 48 hours indicates the coliform colonies present and it is expressed as
coliforms/100mL. The removal of coliforms has become perfected by most wastewater
treatment plant and the US EPA is tending towards the use of enterococci as an indication for

2
 For more information on the disease caused by each pathogen consult (Vesilind & Rooke, 2003). 
6
contamination. Table 2 below shows some of the pathogenic organisms found in water and
their typical concentration.

TABLE 2 Types and numbers of microorganisms typically found in untreated


domestic wastewater (Pepper, Gerba, & russeau, 2006)3.

ORGANISM CONCENTRATION (per ml)


Total coliform 105–106
Fecal coliform 104–105
Fecal streptococci 103–104
Enterococci 102–103
Shigella Present
Salmonella 100–102
Clostridium perfringens 101–103
Giardia cysts 10_1–102
Cryptosporidium cysts 10_1–101
Helminth ova 10_2–101
Enteric virus 101–102

The objective of wastewater treatment is to prevent the receiving water body from being
contaminated by reducing;
• Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
• Total suspended solids (TSS)
• Nitrogen and Phosphorous
• Faecal coliforms
However, other objectives may be set depending on the country and the legislation set up
regarding the disposal of wastewater.

Wastewater characteristics
A combination of domestic and industrial wastewater is often referred to as municipal
wastewater. Some countries have separate sewer networks for domestic and industrial
effluents. However, in most countries the sewer systems are combined. In order to ensure that

3
 (Pepper, Gerba, & russeau, 2006) this book contains detailed information on test that are used to detect 
amount of BOD, COD and TOD. It also contains detailed calculations and example. The book generally looks into 
all forms of environmental pollution with a chapter dedicated to water pollution. 
7
toxic substances are not released into the municipal wastewater system, industrial wastewaters
have to be pre-treated to a certain standard depending on the country (Hammer, 1986).

In order to effectively collect, treat and dispose of wastewater an understanding of the basic
characteristics of wastewater is essential. Wastewater is characterised in terms of;
• Physical
• Chemical
• Biological

However, some of these characteristics are interrelated. For example, temperature is a


physical property but affects both the biological activity and the solubility of gases in
wastewater (Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991). A summary of the characteristics is shown on Table
1.2. However some properties will be discussed briefly below.

1.1.9 Physical characteristics of wastewater


1.1.9.1 Solids in wastewater
Solids can exist in water either as suspended or dissolved solids as mentioned earlier. They
are made up of organic or inorganic particles or immiscible liquids like oils and grease. The
total solid content in wastewater is regarded as the residue upon evaporation at 103 to 105°C
(Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991). They are often characterised by their size distribution, state and
chemical characteristics. Solids are of importance in wastewater treatment as they serve as
adsorption sites for micro organisms and chemicals and thus reduce the efficiency of
treatment (Drinan & Whiting, 2001). Domestic wastewaters usually contain suspended solids
that are organic in nature while industrial wastewaters contain a diverse variety of both
organic and inorganic pollutants. Solids can be removed by primary sedimentation. However
for particles of size 0.001 to 1 µm, secondary methods can be used to remove the solids
(Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991). The TSS standards for primary and secondary effluents are
usually set at 30 and 12 mg/L (Shun & Lee, 2000)4

1.1.9.2 Colour
The colour of waste water indicates how septic the waste is. At the initial stages, the
wastewater is brownish or light grey in colour. As it flows further down the collection system,
anaerobic reactions occur and it becomes dark grey or black in colour (Drinan & Whiting,

4
 Shun & Lee, 2000 gives more detials on how to measure total suspended solids in wastewater and it also 
includes detailed calculations and examples. 
8
2001).

1.1.9.3 Odour
Treatment basins, clarifiers, aeration basins, and contact tanks are some of sources where bad
odour is generated in a wastewater treatment plant. Odours are generated from the anaerobic
decomposition of organic compounds in wastewater. The units are normally covered to
prevent the odours from escaping. However explosive gases may ensue and cause problems.
Thus the units are vented to a scrubber to prevent that (Drinan & Whiting, 2001). Odours can
be detected using olfactory systems. (Koe & Tan, 1998) in their work came up with a method
to quantify wastewater odour strength using an olfactometer and a first order model5.
Although there are four independent factors for the characterisation of odours: intensity,
character, hedonics and detectability, the only factor commonly used in statutory development
is detectability (Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991).

1.1.9.4 Temperature
The temperature of the wastewater is a very important parameter as it affects the rate of both
the chemical and biological treatment. If temperatures are high, the solubility of the chemicals
for treatment increases and microbial action is more effective. However if temperatures are
low, microbial activity is slow and more chemicals will be required (Drinan & Whiting,
2001).
1.1.10 Chemical wastewater characteristics

The chemical characteristics of wastewater refers to the total dissolved solids (TSD) which
comprises majorly of alkaline minerals, organics, PH, chlorides and nutrients. They are
related to the solvent capabilities of the wastewater (Drinan & Whiting, 2001).

1.1.10.1 Total dissolved solids


These are the solid compounds that remain as residue after the wastewater has been filtered
and has undergone evaporation. They can be removed from wastewater by filtration and
evaporation, and also by electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, or ion-exchange (Drinan &

5
 A method of quantifying the odor strength of wastewater samples has been investigated. Wastewater 
samples from two locations of a wastewater treatment plant were collected and subjected to air stripping. The 
off‐gas odor concentration was measured by a dynamic olfactometer at various time intervals. Applying a first 
order model to the decay of odorous substances in the wastewater under air stripping, the initial odor strength 
of the wastewater was determined. The model was found to be acceptable under five different air‐stripping 
rates studied. (Koe & Tan, 1998) 
9
Whiting, 2001). As discussed earlier they can be grouped into total suspended solids(TSS)
and total dissolved solids(TDS). Each group can then be further divided into volatile and
fixed fractions (Shun & Lee, 2000).

1.1.10.2 Metals
Metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, zinc,mercury, and others are of great concern in
wastewater treatment because they are very toxic. And if discharged untreated can lead to
severe complications and even death. Not only are they toxic, but the can greatly reduce the
removal efficiency of some biological process (e.g. activated sludge process). The can be
removed via chemical treatment and their presence in wastewater streams often increase the
cost of the wastewater treatment plant. Their major source are from industrial wastes (Drinan
& Whiting, 2001).

1.1.10.3 Organic Matter


Wastewater contains organic compounds which have their roots from both the plant and the
animal kingdom. According to Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991, "In wastewater of medium
strength, about 75% of the suspended solids and 40% of the filterable solids are organic in
nature," Also organic compounds synthesised by man are found in wastewater. The
compounds are usually made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Compounds like sulphur,
phosphorous,nitrogen and iron. The major organic compounds found in wastewaters are;
proteins, carbohydrates, urea, fats and oils. The manmade compounds found are pesticides,
surfactants and volatile organic compounds. As a result of industrialisation the amount of
synthetic organic compounds in wastewaters are rapidly increasing. However, these
compounds are not easily removed from wastewaters by biological treatment. Detailed brief
description of some of these compounds can be found in (Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991) and
(Drinan & Whiting, 2001)6.

1.1.10.4 pH
This is an indication of the hydrogen ion concentration present in the wastewater. The PH
affects the chemical and biological processes in wastewater treatment. For instance, if the pH
is high, the amount of chlorine required for the disinfection process will be greatly increased

6
 (Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991) contains more details on types of organic compounds and the measurement of 
these organic constituents. 
10
(Drinan & Whiting, 2001).

1.1.10.5 Nutrients
These are inorganic compounds that are essential to the growth and reproduction of plants and
animals. The nutrients of greatest concern in wastewater treatment are nitrogen and
phosphorous. Other nutrients include carbon, sulfur, calcium, iron, potassium, manganese,
cobalt, and boron. The presence of nitrogen and phosphorous in surface waters is an
indication of wastewater contamination. Their presence can lead to the growth of unwanted
plants like algae and euthrophication. Typical ranges of nitrogen concentration in domestic
raw wastewater are 25-85 mg/L for total nitrogen (the sum of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and
organic nitrogen) and for phosphorus its 2 - 20 mg/L, which includes 1-5 mg/L of organic
phosphorus and 1-15 mg/L of inorganic phosphorus (Shun & Lee, 2000).

1.1.11 Biological Characteristics of Wastewaters


Wastewater contains millions of microorganisms per milliliter. However many or these
organisms are harmless. The water becomes contaminated with dangerous pathogens from
waste discharged from people who are infected with them. Although micro organisms are
used in various treatment processes, the final effluent discharge most not carry dangerous
levels of pathogens. Basic orgfanisms of interest are bacteria, parasitic worms, protozoa,
viruses and algae (Drinan & Whiting, 2001). Below is a brief description of these organisms.

1.1.11.1 Bacteria
Bacteria is common place in wastewater treatment procrsses. However the presence of some
type of bacteria may cause gastrointestinal disorders.

1.1.11.2 Protozoa
These are single celled organisms that are widely distributed and highly adaptable. They are
active participants of the activated sludge process. However they have to be revoved either by
sedimation or filtration. Although most protozoans are harmless, two categories Entamoeba

11
histolytica (amebiasis), and Giardia lamblia (giardiasis) are considered as very harmful. The
levels of protozoa should be kept minimal in effluents.

1.1.11.3 Viruses
The presence of virus in wastewater is of great concer. This is because viruses are very small
and cannot be easiliy removed by filtratio. Also, viruses remain inactive until they find a host
and can reenter the water supply further downstream. Finally, testing for viruses is limited as
there are limited methods available.

1.1.11.4 Algae
Algaes grow in fresh water, saltwater and ppolluted water. They are usually found at the
surface as they require light for they metabolism. They are often used in waste water
treatments like fluculative and aerobic ponds to generate oxygen. However, their growth is
not easy to control, they encourage the formation of suspended solids and die of when the
wheather is cold

1.1.11.5 Worms (Helminths)


These are organisms that metabolise organic compounds aerobically. They are indicators that
a water body has been contaminated by wastewater. Parasitic worms like helminths are
transmitted to humans via contact with untreated wastewater.

Effects of Untreated liquid effluents


The discharge of untreated effluents into local water may lead to several unwanted situations
like the destruction of aquatic life, contaminations of drinking water which will lead to illness
or even death, bad odours etc. Below some of the effects of untreated wastewater will be
discussed.

1.1.12 Health effects

Of all the effects the health effects of untreated wastewaters are one of the most important
ones. The first set of legislations on wastewater effluent discharge was focused towards their
effect on human health. Wastewater contains millions of bacteria that originate from human

12
faeces. However most are harmless. The organisms that may cause diseases are called
pathogens. Contact with the contaminated water may lead to disease such as typhoid, cholera
and gastrointestinal problems. The main class of viruses of concern are enteric viruses, which
cause gastro-enteritis; for example, calcivirus (Norwalk virus), rotavirus, enterovirus (polio
and meningitis) and hepatitis (Ministry for the Environment of Manatu Mo Te Taiao, 2009).

Asides from bacteria and viruses, other substances present in wastewater may lead to bad
health or even death. For instance, compounds like mercury, volatile organic compounds,
zinc, pesticides and other chemicals. Some of these compounds exist naturally but human
activities have increased their concentration in natural water systems. They may not have
immediate effects but may bio-accumulate in food and cause complications. According to the
Ministry for the Environment of Manatu Mo Te Taiao, some ivestigations are being carried
out to investigate the ability of some of these compounds to act as endocrine disruptor.
Endocrine distruptors are chemicals that when absorbed into the body mimics or hinders the
normal functions of hormones in the body.

1.1.13 Increase in the B.O.D. & C.O.D. content of water bodies

The discharge of untreated wastewater into springs, rivers and lakes will cause the BOD and
COD to rise. This will reduce the amount of oxygen available to aerobic (oxygen demanding)
aquatic animals like fish. Also this will encourage the growth of plants like algae and other
anaerobic organisms. Eventually, this will render the water body septic and biologically dead
(Weiner & Matthews, 2003)

1.1.14 Increase in nutrient content

Increased nutrient content (that is, organics from wastewater) will lead to algal bloom and
eutrophication. Nitrogen in the form of nitrate (NO3) in surface waters indicates
contamination with sewage and is an immediate health threat to both human and animal
infants (Drinan & Whiting, 2001). Excessive nitrate concentrations in drinking water can
cause death. The limiting factor for accelerated growth or some organisms is the absence of
nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus in the water body. These compounds exist in water
naturally but in limited quantities. An increased amount of these nutrients will cause the
accelerated growth of some toxic organisms like algae which will slowly lead the water body
to become septic.

13
1.1.15 Increase of soil deposition

Solids in water can have several harmful effects some of which are listed below
• Solids can cause unsightly floating scum
• They can sink to the bottom of the stream or river and form potentially hazardous mud
banks
• Most solids are organic in nature and upon decomposition create a demand for oxygen
• Floating solids serve as sites where pathogenic organism can hide and pose a threat to
human health.

1.1.16 Effects of odours

Odours although cause no direct physical harm to humans have great psychological effects
that may eventually lead to social and economic collapse in a community. Odours from
wastewater treatment plant can cause; loss of appetite, water intake, impaired respiration,
nausea, vomiting and mental perturbation. Offensive odours can also discourage capital
investment and lower socio-economic status of the community if left untreated. In a paper
prepared by Schiffman, et al., 2000, they proposed three paradigm which ambient odors may
produce health symptoms in communities with odorous manures and biosolids7. Many
communities have opposed the several wastewater treatment plant projects as a result of
public perception of odours.

1.1.17 Effects of Increased Temperatures

The temperatures of wastewater is usually higher than the atmospheric temperature and the
receiving water. High temperature decreases the solubility of oxygen. This combined with

7
Schiffman, et al., 2000, proposed three paradigm by which ambient odors may produce
health symptoms in communities with odorous manures and biosolids. This site summarises
the three paradigms
 
14
increased biochemical oxygen demand can greatly affect the oxygen content of the receiving
water body. Eventually this will affect the aquatic life of the waterbody. Decreasing fish
lifand supporting the growth of unwanted organisms.

Below shows a summary of some of the effects of pollutants contained in wastewater.

TABLE 3 Effects of pollutants in wastewater (Kiely, 1997)


Pollutants Effects
Soluble organics Deplete dissolved oxygen
Suspended solids Deplete dissolved oxygen and
release undesirable gases
Trace organics Affects taste odours and toxicity
Heavy metals Toxic to aquatic and human life
Colour and turbidity Affects aesthetics
Nutrients (N and P) Cause eutrophication
Refractory substances resistant to Toxic to aquatic life
biodegradation
Oil and floating substances Unsightly
Volatile substances e.g H2S and Air pollution
VOC

http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/riverthames/pollution.htm
dirty river thames
http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/wastewater/treatment/Pages/default.aspx

Wastewater collection systems


Wastewater collection systems are employed to transport wastewater form source to treatment
plant before disposal (Read & Vickridge, 1997). Collection systems are made up of a series of
network of pipes and pumping systems. In designing a collection system one must consider;

15
1. Health and Environmental aspect. That is the proposed collection system must not
pose a risk to human health and to the environmental.
2. The area the sewer network is going to service. The treatment plant must be adequate
in serving the allocated region.
3. The natural topography and drainage. Collection systems must be designed to take
advantage of the natural systems and thus reduce cost of installing pumps.

There are three main types of sewer networks (Kiely, 1997);


1. Sanitary sewer systems
2. Storm sewers
3. Combined sewer systems

Below is a description of each of these systems.

1.1.18 Sanitary sewer systems

For these systems, wastewaters generated from both domestic and industrial sources are
carried by separate systems of sewers to treatment plants while surface runoffs are carried of
by another set of systems to natural watercourses. This type of system is mostly adopted in
newer towns and cities (Read & Vickridge, 1997). Rain water washes contaminants from
roofs, streets and other areas, however the contaminant load is considered insignificant
compared to wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources (Hammer &
Hammer, Water and Wastewater Technology, 2008). Sanitary contains majorly human waste
as a result of the most important aspect of sanitary sewer design is the prevention of sewage
overflow (as they contain pathogens dangerous to human health) (Drinan & Whiting, 2001).

1.1.19 Storm sewer systems

These systems handle wastewaters generated from run-offs as a result of rainfall or melting
snow. They are becoming very important in developed and populated areas. This is because in
such areas, the ground is paved and this prevents water from naturally percolating and

16
recharging ground water. Instead, heavy run-offs result which carry large amounts of
contaminants (Drinan & Whiting, 2001).

Storm drains should be designed to handle contaminants like sand, silt and also sudden heavy
flows. Since they do not contain sewage, they can be discharged directly into the natural
environment although sometimes, primary treatment may be required (Hammer & Hammer,
2008).

1.1.20 Combined sewer systems

These are the oldest and most common type of collection system. For this type of system,
both surface runoffs and municipal wastewater are transported by the same pipe networks to
sewage treatment plants. This type of system is mostly found in older cities and towns (Read
& Vickridge, 1997)8. The systems are designed to accommodate large flows, especially those
resulting from heavy rain falls. However during storms, the system overflows and excess flow
above the plant capacity is bypassed into natural water bodies. This may become a health
hazard especially if water is used as supply for drinking water (Hammer & Hammer, 2008).
Typical storm water contains a BOD of 30mg/l while overflow from a combined sewer
contains contains 120mg/liter of BOD. Combined sewer overflows (CSO) are of great
concern. However, it is very expensive to change the entire sewer network and other methods
such as storage for later treatment are being explored (Shun & Lee, 2000).

1.1.21 Collection System Components

Most components of collection systems are built under streets easements, and right of way
and they are designed to meet considerations of population size, estimated flowrates,
minimum and maximum loads, velocity, slope depth, and need for additional system elements

8
 This book contains detailed information on the history, construction, hydraulics and design of sewer systems. 
Focusing mainly on sewer rehabilitation, repair, and management. 
17
to ensure adequate sy
ystem flows and access tto maintenannce (Drinan & Whiting, 2001).
A typicall community
y wastewaterr system connsists of:

• Building serv
vice that carries wastewaater from poiint of generaation to mainns
• M
Mains that carry the wastee to collectioon sewers
• C
Collectors/sub
b-collectors that carry waste
w to trunk
k lines
• Trrunk lines thhat carry wasstewater flow
ws to interceeptors
• Innterceptors thhat carry waaste to treatm
ment plant
• O
Other elemen
nts which maay include; liift stations, manholes,
m veents, junctionn boxes and
cllean out poin
nts. Fig 2 beelow shows interceptors
i and junctionn boxes.

(a) (b))

RE2 (A) JUNCTION


FIGUR J N BOXES (B) INTERCEPTOR
R PIPES (DRINAN
( &
WHITIN
NG, 2001)

2 STE WATE
WAS ER TREATMENT ME
ETHODS

Sewage treatment
t options may bee classified into
i groups of
o processess according to
t the functioon
they perfo
form and theiir complexitty:

18
Preliminary: this includes simple processes such as screening (usually by bar screens) and
grit removal. (through constant velocity channels) to remove the gross solid pollution.
Primary: usually plain sedimentation; simple settlement of the solid material in sewage can
reduce the polluting load by significant amounts.
Secondary: for further treatment and removal of common pollutants, usually by a biological
process.
Tertiary: usually for removal of specific pollutants e.g. nitrogen orphosphorous, or specific
industrial pollutants

FIGURE3 TYPICAL STAGES IN THE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT OF


SEWAGE

19
FIGURE4

Shown in table1 are some constituents found in wastewater and conventional water treatment
methods used to purify the water.

TABLE 4

CONSTITUENT UNIT OPERATION OR PROCESS

ƒ Screening
Suspended Solids

20
ƒ Grit removal
ƒ Sedimentation
ƒ High-rate clarification
ƒ Flotation
ƒ Chemical Precipitation
ƒ Depth Filtration
ƒ Surface Filtration
Biodegradable organics ƒ Aerobic suspended growth
variation
ƒ Aerobic attached growth variation
ƒ Aerobic suspended growth
variation
ƒ Aerobic attached growth variation
ƒ Lagoon variation
ƒ Physical chemical systems
ƒ Chemical oxidation
ƒ Advanced oxidation
ƒ Membrane filtration
Nitrogen ƒ Chemical oxidation
ƒ Suspended-growth nitrification and
denitrification variations
ƒ Fixed-film nitrification and
denitrification variations
ƒ Air stripping
ƒ Ion exchange
Phosphorous ƒ Chemical treatment
ƒ Biological phosphorous removal

Nitrogen and phosphorous ƒ Biological nutrient removal


variations
Pathogens ƒ Chlorine compounds
ƒ Chlorine dioxide
ƒ Ozone
ƒ Ultraviolet radiation (UV)
Colloidal and dissolved solids ƒ Membranes
ƒ Chemical Treatment

21
ƒ Carbon adsorption
ƒ Ion exchange
Volatile organic compounds ƒ Air stripping
ƒ Carbon adsorption
ƒ Advanced oxidation
Odours ƒ Chemical scrubbers
ƒ Carbon adsorption
ƒ Bio filters
ƒ Compost filters

3 INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT METHODS

The same way that you would know the steps of the process that you would be running in
industry, a critical study should be carried out to familiarize yourself with the wastewater to
find ways that the wastewater is generated in the plant.
Treatment methods can be divided into three general cases
- Physical/Chemical treatment methods
- Thermal Treatment methods
- Biological treatment methods

Waste water
treatment methods

Physical Chemical Biological

Sedimentation Chlorination Aerobic Anaerobic

Screening Ozonation
22
Neutralization Lagoons Lagoons

Coagulation Trickling Filtration Septic tanks


Equalization

Degassification

Flotation & skimming

3.1 Physical/chemical treatment methods


After its biological treatment the waste water is almost clean and fresh again. However, the
micro-organisms responsible for cleaning should now be kept in their individual basins and
not run off with all the rest. Physical chemical treatment methods encompass a wide variety of
technologies, including gravity separation, filtration, chemical precipitation, evaporation,
oxidation, reduction, air stripping, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, adsorption on other
media, electrolytic recovery and membrane separation.

Gravity separation is used to extract clean water when the waste is settled in the bottom of the
tank. There are three types of separation methods which uses the same principal. Clarifiers,
Oil water separators and catch basins and sumps.

3.1.1 Screening
Mechanical treatment is indispensable as the first process step of preliminary treatment for
both municipal and industrial wastewater applications. It removes the bulk of the non
biodegradable matter such as plastic, women materials, metallic items so that the subsequent
treatment stages are protected against damage/pollution or to relieve them. There are many
different types of screens in industry at present designed to suit different needs. Some
examples as stated in EPCO, Australia are Inclined bar, curved bar, radial bar, step type,
brush type, back-raked and static screens.

23
In operation in all these types, the sewage flows through the screen which approaches it from
the upstream side and after passing through exits from the downstream side. A mechanized
comb system is attached between the two side chains and is driven through a head shaft and
sprockets, to rake the screen periodically and the screenings collected are removed by a doctor
blade at the top of the comb travel as stared in [Epco, Australia]. These screenings are
dropped onto a skid plate which transports the screening down to a container.

FIGURE5 INCLINED BAR SCREEN

24
FIGURE6 CURVED BAR SCREEN

FIGURE7 RADIAL BAR SCREEN

FIGURE8 STEP TYPE SCREEN

25
FIGURE9 BRUSH TYPE SCREEN

3.1.2 Sedimentation
Sedimentation, a fundamental and widely used unit operation in waste-water treatment,
involves the gravitational settling of heavy particles suspended in a mixture, sedimentation
tanks are also known as clarifiers in the wastewater treatment industry. This process is used
for the removal of grit, particulate matter in the primary settling basin, biological floc in the
activated sludge settling basin, and chemical flow when the chemical coagulation process is
used.

FIGURE10 CIRCULAR AND RECTANGULAR SETTLING TANKS

Circular sedimentation tanks are preferred over rectangular tanks due to the ease of
maintenance, faster sludge removal and higher removal efficiencies. There is a scraper
mechanism adopted inside the tank which is used to collect the settled solids out of the tank
with the use of a pump. As stated by [Hammer 2004, pg 370] the scraper mechanism takes
different forms depending on which part of the treatment it is used for, i.e. primary, secondary
or tertiary. As further stated in circular sedimentation tanks these sludge scrapers are attached
to the rotating arm which scrapes the sludge towards the centre hopper where as in rectangular
tanks the scrapers are carried along in the tank bottom which collects the sludge into a hopper
which is situated at the influent end of the tank. There are 3 types of clarifiers which are
named as primary, secondary and tertiary tanks.

Primary tanks
The point at which the coarse solids and the grit are removed from the sewage stream is the
26
beginning of the primary process. The scraper mechanism as stated in [Epco] for primary
tanks would also be fitted with scum removal equipment to remove the floating matter and in
the primary stage as further stated approximately 65% of the organic solids and 35% pr the
BOD in the sewage is removed.

FIGURE11 PRIMARY CLARIFIER ELEVATION VIEW

FIGURE12 PRIMARY CLARIFIER PLAN VIEW

Secondary Tank

The water from the primary stage goes through some biological treatment and then enters the
secondary sedimentation which separates the mixed liquids and suspended solids and humus
sludge. The secondary clarifiers are fitted with scraper blades like in primary systems but
could also adapt a suction tube system as shown in the picture below. These systems also are
equipped with scum skimming systems.

FIGURE13 SUCTION TUBE CLARIFIER ELEVATION

Tertiary Tank

27
These systems often adapt simple sweeper chains but could also be fitted with the same
mechanisms as the primary and the secondary treatments. The final clarifiers are designed to
use with biological aeration. Activated sludge is withdrawn through suction pipes located
along the collector arm for rapid return to the aeration basin. Sludge thickeners and fermenters
are also used to scrape heavier sludges as shown in the figure.

FIGURE14 PICKET FENCE SLUDGE THICKENER

3.1.3 Flotation and Skimming

Effluent
Effluent

Float Discharge

Settled solids discharge

28
FIGURE15

Dissolved air flotation is achieved by releasing fine air bubbles that attach to sludge particles
and cause them to float. Small units tend to be rectangular for and fabricated using steel.
Larger units are circular and manufactured in steel or concrete. Waste activated sludge enters
the bottom of the flotation tank, where it is merged with recirculated flow that contains
compressed air. A portion of the clarified effluent is pressurized in a separate retention tank
under an air pressure of approximately 60 psi to force air into solution. On pressure release,
the air dissolved in the recirculated flow forms fine bubbles to the suspended solids. The
process underflow is returned to wastewater treatment, and the overflow, discharge by

3.2 Chemical treatment methods


This treatment method uses burning or exposure of wastewater to high temperatures to
destroy the waste. Some waste that is burned could be used to recover energy in industrial
furnace or cement kiln on site. Treatment facilities such as hazardous waste incinerators are
another mean of for wastewater treatment but isn’t cost effective if used in small businesses
as they are quite expensive, unless the facility generates a large amount of waste. Some
industries tend to use off site facilities to treat wastewater but it is among the last choices to
use such means. Wet air oxidation is another method used to treat waste water which is
difficult to treat by other means. But this demands a huge amount of energy which in the long
run is more cost effective if the wastewater is treated off site.

29
3.2.1 Chlorination
Chlorination is basically the process of adding liquid or gaseous chlorine in order to purify
water. This process isn’t solely used for disinfection; it is also used for odor control and
prevention of septicity, ammonia removal, destroying cyanides and phenols etc as stated by
the water quality and health council. The liquid form of chlorine which is generally more
expensive comes in the form of soluble salts (hypochlorites) while the gaseous form first
needs to be dissolved in water before it is used in the waste water industry.

There are a few reactions that occur in chlorination when used in the waste water industry.
When the chlorine is dissolved in water it firstly forms hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites.
Cl2 + H2O Æ HOCl + H + Cl
HOCl Æ OCl + H
As chlorine is an active oxidizing agent when added into waste water even in small amounts it
would react rapidly firstly with H2S, ferrous iron etc which are all compounds capable of
reducing. After all inorganic reducing matter is converted chlorine subsequently reacts with
the organic matter, ammonia or other nitrogeneous compounds to produce chloramines.
The device used for the control of the chlorine added is called the chlorinator.

FIGURE16 CHLORINATOR

http://www.backyardcitypools.com/chemicals/feeders/Hydrotools-Automatic-Chlorinator.htm

30
3.2.2 Ozonation

Before After

FIGURE17 OZONE WATER TREATED AREA

It is one of the modern methods used in wastewater treatment with a growing popularity. A
device known as the ozone generator is used to break down pollutants in the wastewater. The
ozone generator uses up the oxygen in the environment to produce ozone with the air of
ultraviolet radiation which is discharged by an electric field. This ozone which is known to be
highly reactive oxidise the bacteria, moulds and other pollutants in the wastewater.

As stated in the water pollution guide there are many advantages and disadvantages in using
ozone in wastewater treatment.

• Advantages:
o Effective killing of bacteria.
o Ease of extracting irons and sulphur compounds as they are oxidised.
o No nasty odours or residues hence precautions or measures for residue
treatment is not needed.
o As the oxygen to ozone conversion is a reversible reaction and the backward
reaction is fast the ozone converts back to oxygen instantly leaving no traces of
an oxygen use up.
• Disadvantages:

31
o This method is unreliable as it needs electricity to run and would not run
during an electric shortage and also costs money due to its power requirement.
o The treatment cannot remove dissolved minerals and salts.
o Ozone treatment can sometimes produce by-products such as bromate that can
harm human health if they are not controlled.

FIGURE18 OZONATOR

3.3 Biological treatment methods


Biological processes aid in the removal of non-settleable colloidal solids, inorganic
compounds and some organic matter with the aid of micro organisms. Biological processes
are often referred to as secondary wastewater treatment method as they aid in the removal of
biodegradable organic matter that could not be removed during primary treatment (Kiely,
1997). In wastewater treatment, the main objectives is the reduction of organic contents and
nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and also the removal of toxic organic compounds such
that the discharge to a water body should lead to little or no removal of oxygen in it by
bacterial action. During biological processes, organic pollutants are converted to less harmful
compounds like water and cell tissues. These can then be removed by gravity settling.
The commonly used biological treatment processes:
• Activated-sludge process
32
• Aerated lagoons
• Trickling filters
• Rotating biological contactors
• Stabilization ponds

Fundamentals of Biological wastewater treatment process


Biological treatment processes all take place in a vessel called a reactor and designers are
interested in the rate at which biodegradable compounds are removed from the inflow and
also, the rate of growth of the biomass in the reactor. (Benefield & Randal, 1980). The
biomass refers to the microbial body responsible for breaking down the pollutants. In
designing a biological process, it is very important to understand the nature and biochemical
activities carried out by the micro organism. Below, the types of micro organisms used and
their nutritional requirements will be mentioned briefly.

Important microorganisms
The important microorganisms in biological treatments are; Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa
and Rotifiers.
Bacteria are single- celled organisms that reproduce mainly by binary fission although some
species can produce asexually or by budding. They are made up of 80% water and 20% dry
material. They also vary widely in size and their growth is greatly affected by the conditions
of temperature and pH (Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991).
Fungi are multicellular organisms. Example of this is yeast. They can reproduce sexually or
asexually. They have the ability to withstand lower pH and Nitrogen levels than bacteria and
this makes them very important in wastewater treatment.

Algaes are unicellular or multicellular compounds. They are very important in wastewater
treatment processes because of their ability to generate oxygen from photosynthesis.
However, excess algae growth can lead to the biological death of a water body.
Protozoa and Rotifiers are single celled motile protists. Most protozoa are aerobic and are
generally larger than bacteria and alsoeat bacteria as an energy source. Thus are used to polish
effluents from biological waste treatments.

Rotifiers generally perform the same duties as protozoas in wastewater treatment. Their

33
presence indicates a highly efficient biological process (Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991).

Nutritional requirements
For micro organisms grow, reproduce and function efficiently they must have;
1. A source of energy
2. Source of carbon for synthesis of new cellular material
3. Source of inorganic nutrients such as Nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur, potassium
calcium and magnesium (Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991).

The carbon and energy sources are considered as substrate

3.3.1 Activated-sludge Process


This is one of the most popular biological treatments adopted in most countries and it is also
known as aeration-tank digestion. In this process, wastewater that has undergone primary
treatment is pumped into a large tank and mixed with bacteria rich slurry known as activated
sludge (Pepper, Gerba, & russeau, 2006). To encourage bacterial growth and decomposition
of the organic materials present, air or oxygen is pumped into the tank. The mixture is then
sent to a secondary settling tank where water is removed from the top and the bacteria rich
sludge is removed from the bottom. About 20 percent of the sludge is recycled back into the
primary aeration tank as inoculums while the remainder known as secondary sludge is
removed (Kiely, 1997). Fig below shows an aeration basin.

The activated sludge culture is made up of bacteria, protozoa, rotifiers and fungi. The bacteria
is mostly responsible for the break-down of organic material while the protozoa and rotifiers
remove the bacteria.

34
FIGURE19 AN AERATION BASIN (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006)

The content of the aeration tank is referred to as the mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS)
and the organic part of the MLSS is called the mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids
(MLVSS), which consists of the non-microbial organic matter as well as dead and living
microorganisms and cell debris (Kiely, 1997). The activated sludge process must be
controlled to maintain a proper ratio of substrate (organic load) to microorganisms or food-to-
microorganism ratio (F/M) (Pepper, Gerba, & russeau, 2006). This is expressed as BOD per
kilogram per day. It is expressed as:

/ [1]

where:
Q -flow rate of sewage in million gallons per day (MGD)
BOD5 - 5-day biochemical oxygen demand
MLSS - mixed-liquor suspended solids (mg/L)
V - volume of aeration tank (gallons)

It can thus be observed that the higher the wasting rate, the higher the food-micro organism
ratio. A low F/M ratio indicates that the micro organisms are starved and will tend to have
higher removal efficiencies. In conventional aeration tanks, the F/M ratio is 0.2–0.5 lb
BOD5/day/lb MLSS, but it can be higher (up to 1.5) for activated sludge when high-purity
oxygen is used (Hammer, 1986). The parameters that controll the operation of an activated
sludge process are;
• organic loading rates
• oxygen supply
• control and operation of the final settling tank

An important parameter to consider is the sludge settleability in the sludge tank. The biomass
must settle well in order for it to be returned to the aeration tank. The best conditions for
settling are achieved when carbon and energy sources are limited and the specific microbial
growth rate is local. Conditions that hinder effective settleability are sudden changes in
temperature, pH, absence of nutrients, and presence of toxic metals and organics. Another

35
important factor is the presence of filamentous bacteria. For effective settling, a residence
time of three or four days is required (Metacalf & Eddy Inc, 1991).
Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorous by activated sludge process
Activated sludge process can be modified such that they not only remove organic compounds
but can also remove nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous.
Nitrogen Removal
For nitrogen removal, the sludge is left to age for over four days to encourage nitrification of
ammonia to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria. The nitrogen is then removed via denitrification
process. Examples of avtivated sludge systems that have been modified for nitrogrn removal
are:
• Single sludge system
• Multisludge system and
• Bardenpho process

Figure below shows a schematic diagram of these processes9

FIGURE20 DENITRIFICATION SYSTEMS: (A) SINGLE-SLUDGE SYSTEM. (B)


MULTISLUDGE SYSTEM (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006).

9
 Pepper, Gerba, & russeau, 2006 can be consulted for more detailed information on each process. 
36
Phosphorous removal
Phosphorous can also be removed by modifying the activated sludge process. The process
involves an uptake of the phosphorous during the aerobic stage and the release during the
anaerobic stage. Two processes used are;

A/O (anaerobic/toxic) process: This process consist of and anaerobic zone upstream the
conventional aeration tank. In the aerobic phase, soluble phosphorus is taken up by bacteria
and is synthesised to polyphosphates and during the anaerobic stage, the phosphorus is
released by the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates formed.
Bardenpho process: This process can also be used for the removal of nitrogen
A schematic diagramof these process are shown on fig below

FIGURE21 DENITRIFICATION SYSTEM: BARDENPHO PROCESS (PEPPER,


GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006).

Design of an activated sludge process


In designing an activated sludge process, the following conditions are considered;
• Mixing regimes
• Load criteria
• Sludge viability
• Oxygen requirement
• Nutrient requirement
• Temperature
• Solid-liquid separation
• Effluent quality

37
Another very important consideration is the choice of reactor as this will define the geometry
of the reactor, the bath of effluent into the reactor and the mixing regime. There are two
mixing regimes applicable in the activated sludge process
(1) Plug-flow: in this type of regime, the wastewater flows into the reactor
(aeration tank) in an orderly fashion with no element of mixing.
(2) Complete mixing flow: Here, the reactor is constantly stirred and kept
uniform. This type of mixing is often referred to as steady state.

However, complete mixing or plugflow is not achieved in the reactor but the design has to
ensure that the conditions are almost met (Benefield & Randal, 1980)10.

3.3.2 Trickling Filters


This is one of the oldest biological treatment methods. However the main mechanism is not
filtration as the name suggest. Treatment is achieved by diffusion and microbial assimilation.
In the process, the effluent from the primary treatment is pumped through an overhead
sprayer onto a bed of stones or plastic where bacteria and other organism reside. As the
organic materials trickle past, the bacteria intercepts it and decomposes it aerobically. In
older trickling filter designs, the beds were made of stones. But these had the disadvantage of
limited depth of 3-10 ft, low void space, and requirement for structural design (Benefield &
Randal, 1980). However, in modern trickling filter designs, the bed is made up of plastic
units. Other materials that can be used are ceramic, hard coal. The most common type of
plastic bed used is polyvinyl chloride (PVC) because of their light weight. Other advantages
are the greater void space and larger specific area. The PVC are stacked in towers as shown
on fig below.

10
 Details on the design of activated sludge process and the associated kinetics involved can be found in this 
text. 
38
(a) (b)

FIGURE22 (A) A UNIT OF PLASTIC MATERIAL USED TO CREATE A


BIOFILTER. THE DIAMETER OF EACH HOLE IS APPROXIMATELY 5
CM. (B) A TRICKLING BIOFILTER OR BIOTOWER. THIS IS
COMPOSED OF MANY PLASTIC UNITS STACKED UPON EACH
OTHER. DIMENSIONS OF THE BIOFILTER MAY BE 20 M DIAMETER
BY 10–30 M DEPTH (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006).

As the organic matter passes through the filter, it is converted to a microbial biomass that
forms a bio film called zooleal on the filter surface. With time, the film thickens and the lower
part has limited access to oxygen and as a result film sloughs off ( also called sloughing) and
a new bio film is formed. Effluents from a trickling filter are sent to a clarifier for further
removal of solid compounds. A typical trickling filter had a BOD removal efficiency of 85%
(Pepper, Gerba, & russeau, 2006).

Two important properties of the filter media are;


The specific area of the media
The percent void space
The greater the surface area, the greater the amount of biomass per unit volume. Also, the
greater the void space, the higher the hydraulic loading can be without restricting oxygen

39
transfer (Benefield & Randal, 1980)11.

3.3.3 Oxidation Ponds


These are often referred to as sewage lagoons or stabilization ponds. They are the oldest of the
wastewater treatment process requiring huge land space. Here, the wastewater is detained for
a period of 1-4 weeks( sometimes longer) while microorganisms degrade the organic matter
in them. A tyoical oxidation pond is shown below on fig

FIGURE23 AN OXIDATION POND. TYPICALLY THESE ARE ONLY 1–2


METERS DEEP AND SMALL IN AREA.

There are four categories of osidation ponds which are often used in series: aerobic ponds,
anaerobic ponds, facultative ponds and aerated ponds.

3.3.4 Aerobic ponds


Here, the wastewater is detained for 3-5 days at a depth of about 1.5m to encourage the
growth of algae which in turn promotes the generation of oxygen. A section of an aerated
pond is shown on fig below.

11
 Detail design calculations for tricling filters can be found in Benefield & Randal, (1980) 
40
FIGURE24 AEROBIC WASTE POND PROFILE (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU,
2006)

3.3.5 Anaerobic ponds


These are about 1-10m deep and have a longer detention time of about 20 – 50 days. They are
normally used to treat wastewater with high BOD content and do not requireany form of
mechanical aeration. They also generate comparably small amount of sludge. Fig shows the
profile of an anaerobic pond.

FIGURE25 ANAEROBIC WASTE POND PROFILE (PEPPER, GERBA, &


RUSSEAU, 2006)

3.3.6 Facultative ponds


They are normally used for the treatment of domestic waste and they have a dentention time
of 5-30 days. These type of ponds range in depth from 1- 1.25 m and are is made up of three
sections: an upper aerated zone, a middle facultative zone, and a lower anaerobic zone as
shown on fig . The make use of both aerobic and anaerobic treatment.

41
FIGURE26 MICROBIOLOGY OF FACULTATIVE POND (PEPPER, GERBA, &
RUSSEAU, 2006)

3.3.7 Aerated lagoons or ponds

These are usually about 1-2 m deep with a detention time of less than 10 days. The removal
efficiency depends on the aeration time and temperature as well as the source of the
wastewater.

Limitations of oxidation ponds


Although oxidation ponds are cheap and require minimum technology, they have several
draw backs. Biodegradable organic matter and turbidity are not as effectively removed when
compare to the activated sludge process. Also, they have a potential for short circuiting and
detectable levels of pathogens can be found in their effluents.

This method is used to remove organic compounds from wastewater. It is most suitable for
wastewater that contains a relatively constant source of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
and very low concentrations of toxic metals. A surge tank to equalize wastewater flow and
concentration variations can help the treatment system work effectively. This is commonly
used to treat domestic sewage.

42
CASE STUDY 1:

43
4 INTRODUCTION

The textile industry is a major industry involved in the manufacture of textiles as the final
product. Textiles refer to the finished products of a production process involving the
conversion of fibres to fabrics and the material fabricated into clothes or other artifacts. The
production process requires the use of several chemicals and a large volume of water at
various stages of the production. Textile production is simply based on the conversion of
three types of fibres into yarn, yarn into fabric and then fabric into textiles. Fibres can be
classified into two major groups, namely natural and artificial fibres (man-made fibres).

4.1 Fibers Categorization

Natural Synthetic (Artificial)

Vegetable fibres (Plant origin) Man-made fibres (Artificial)

• Flax Nylon
• Hemp Polyester
• Jute Polyamides

Protein fibres (Animal origin)

• Wool
• Silk
• Angora

The production stages in a typical textile company includes: fibre production, fibre
processing, spinning, yarn production, fabric production and finishing. Due to the nature and
applicable technology of the production process, a high amount of water is consumed in
manufacturing of textiles that is consequently generating a considerable amount of
wastewater (Nemerow, 1978). Textile industries are a major source of effluent in the
environment. (Ghoveishi and Haghighi,2003).The major pollutant in textile wastewater are
high suspended solid, chemical oxygen demand, heat, colour, acidity and other soluble
substances (Venceslau et al. 1999, World Bank, 2007). Most of these pollutants are produced
from the finishing section.

The impacts resulting from textile industry on the environment have been recognisable for
some time both in terms of discharge of pollutants and the consumption of water and energy
(Lacasses and Baumann, 2006). Some significant impacts the textile industry has on the

44
environment have been identified as primary water consumption (80 – 100m3/ton of finished
textile) and wastewater discharge (115 – 175Kg of COD/ton of finished textile) a large range
of organic chemicals, low biogradability, color and salinity. These pollutants resulting from
the production process differ greatly in composition due to several factors (Bisschop and
spanjer, 2003).

Cotton is one of the mostly used fibres in textile manufacturing. It is an important natural
fibre which posses unique characteristics. The production process of textile from cotton
involves the following processing steps:

FIGURE27 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF DIFFERENT PROCESSING SECTORS


IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY (RAMESH BABU, 2007)

45
4.1.1 Cultivating and harvesting

This refers to the preliminary production process carried out to attain the raw material. Cotton
plants are cultivated and harvested upon maturity. They are usually grown anywhere in long,
hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity. Indian cotton, gossypium
arboreum is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing. American cotton,
gossypium hirsutum produces the longer staple needed for machine production. The cotton
bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers that remove the entire boll from
the plant. The cotton boll is the seed pods of the cotton plant, attached to each of the
thousands of seeds are fibres about 2.5 cm long.

4.1.2 Preparatory Processes

• Opening and cleaning: The stage ensures the cleaning of the cotton bolls. A cotton
opener and picker are employed in the stage of preparation.
• Ginning: This refers to the process whereby the cotton seeds are separated from the
fibre and other contaminants such as leaves, in a Gin.

• Carding: the fibres are separated and then assembled into a loose strand (sliver or
tow) at the conclusion of this stage.

• Combing: this is used to remove the shorter fibres, creating a stronger yarn.

• Drawing: the fibres are straightened and it sliver form the combing process processed
into rovings

4.1.3 Spinning- Yarn manufacture

• Spinning: This is carried out in a spinning machine; the rovings are thinned, twisted
and wound onto the bobbin in preparation for fabric manufacture.
• Checking: This is the process where each of the bobbins is rewound to give a tighter
bobbin.

• Folding and twisting

Plying is done by pulling yarn from two or more bobbins and twisting it together, in
the opposite direction that that in which it was spun. Depending on the weight desired,
the cotton may or may not be plied, and the number of strands twisted together varies.

46
• Gassing

Gassing is the process of passing yarn, as distinct from fabric very rapidly through a
series of Bunsen gas flames in a gassing frame, in order to burn off the projecting
fibres and make the thread round and smooth and also brighter.

4.1.4 Weaving- Fabric manufacture

The weaving process uses a loom. The length-way threads are known as the warp, and the
cross way threads are known as the weft. The warp which must be strong needs to be
presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft, passes across the loom in a shuttle that carries
the yarn on a pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to
be wrapped onto a beam and onto pirns before weaving can commence.

• Winding

After being spun and plied, the cotton thread is taken to a warping room where the
winding machine takes the required length of yarn and winds it onto warper’s bobbins

• Sizing

This is a process whereby starch is added to the wrap to strengthening it.

• Drawing in or Looming
The process of drawing each end of the warp separately through the dents of the reed
and the eyes of the healds.

• Pirning (Processing the weft)

Pirn winding frame was used to transfer the weft from cheeses of yarn onto the pirns
that would fit into the shuttle

4.1.5 Finishing- Processing of Textiles

47
The grey cloth, woven cotton fabric in its loom-state, not only contains impurities, including
warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential.
Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing
processes.

• Desizing

Depending on the size that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid and
then rinsed, or enzymes may be used to break down the size.

• Scouring

Scouring, is a chemical washing process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural
wax and non-fibrous impurities (eg the remains of seed fragments) from the fibres and
any added soiling or dirt.

• Bleaching

Bleaching improves whiteness by removing natural coloration and remaining trace


impurities from the cotton; the degree of bleaching necessary is determined by the
required whiteness and absorbency.

• Mercerising

This is a further treatment process to improve the quality of the fabric. The fabric is
treated with caustic soda solution to cause swelling of the fibres. This results in
improved lustre, strength and dye affinity.

Singeing
Singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibres from the fabric to produce
smoothness. The fabric passes over brushes to raise the fibres, and then passes over a
plate heated by gas flames.

• Raising

48
During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth to lift the surface fibres,
thereby imparting hairiness, softness and warmth, as in flannelette.

• Calendering

Calendering is the third important mechanical process, in which the fabric is passed
between heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossed effects depending on
roller surface properties and relative speeds.

• Shrinking (Sanforizing)

Finally, mechanical shrinking (sometimes referred to as sanforizing), whereby the


fabric is forced to shrink width and/or lengthwise, creates a fabric in which any
residual tendency to shrink after subsequent laundering is minimal.

• Dyeing

Finally, cotton is an absorbent fibre which responds readily to colouration processes.


Dyeing, for instance, is commonly carried out with an anionic direct dye by
completely immersing the fabric (or yarn) in an aqueous dyebath according to a
prescribed procedure. For improved fastness to washing, rubbing and light, other dyes
such as vats and reactives are commonly used. These require more complex chemistry
during processing and are thus more expensive to apply.

• Printing

Printing, on the other hand, is the application of colour in the form of a paste or ink to
the surface of a fabric, in a predetermined pattern. It may be considered as localised
dyeing. Printing designs on to already dyed fabric is also possible.

4.2 Textile Industry Chemicals

49
Process Basic chemicals structure
chemicals

Cationic

Anionic
Washing detergent

Nonionic

Acid Dye

Basic Dye

Direct Dye

Dying
& Dye
Printing Vat Dye

Mordant
Dye

Reactive
Dye

50
Disperse

Azo Dye

Sulphur
Dye

Dye

Pigments

Dying
& Silicon
printing antifoam
Anti foam Non-silicon
antifoam

Natural Starch, Alginate, seeds such as acacia


Thickener CMC, PVA
Synthetic
Emulsion Oil in water (O/W)
Acrylate based CH2=CHCOO−
Butadiene acetate
Binders Vinyl acetate

Fixing Melamine-
Agent formaldehyde

51
Sodium
hypochlorite NaClO3
Calcium
Bleaching hypochlorite Ca(ClO2)2
Agent Hydrogen Peroxide
H2O2
non‐ionic  fatty acids, fatty esters and fatty amides 
surfactants 
cationic surfactants quaternary ammonium compounds, amido amines,
Softening
imidazolines
Agent
paraffin and polyethylene waxes
oregano-modified silicones
Wax-based repellents zirconium- & aluminium-based salts
Resin-based repellents condensed fatty compounds (amines,
Hydrophobic alcohols or acids)
/ Oleophobic Silicone repellents polysiloxane-active substances
Agents
Fluorochemical repellents Fluoroalkyl- acrylates /methacrylates
copolymers

Flame Inorganic FR agents Zirconium , Aluminium and Titanium salts


Retardants Halogenated FR agents Cl/ Br compounds
Finishing
Phosphor-organic FR PO* radicals
agents
1.1.22   quaternary ammonium

1.1.23 Antis compounds

tatic  phosphoric acid ester


    derivatives
Agen
ts 

Sizing Natural Starch, cellulosic derivatives (CMC), glue,


Agents gelatine, albumen
Synthetic Poly acrelytes, poly vinyl alcohol (PVA),
Styrene/Maleic acid copolymers
Desizing Enzymes Amylases
Agents 1.1.24 Oxidative  Sodium per sulphate, sodium bromite
compounds 

Acidic Agents Sulphuric/Hydrochloric acids

52
4.3 The origin of textile effluents
Based on both magnitude and complexity of the effluents composition, discharged from
textile industry, this sector is considered as one of the most polluting industries. Bleaching,
washing (or scouring) and those wet procedures undertaken within dyeing and finishing
sectors are at most responsible for the disposed effluents. Huge variety of dyes and chemicals
disposed in textile wastewater make it hard to be treated in conventional WWTPs. The nature
of textile wastewater is studied based on chemicals consumed and in terms of some general
parameters such as TS, TSS, BOD, COD, heavy metals, Phosphor and Nitrogen contents. The
main troublesome pollutants in textile waste can be categorized to dyes, persistent organics,
absorbable organic halogens (AOX), toxicants and surfactants (Vandevivere et al., 1998).

4.3.1 Colour
Chromagen is the central point of every dye that adheres to the fibre and absorbs the visible
light. There are about twelve different types of chromagens which are mainly (60-70%) azo
type and anthraquinone type. Dyes are basically resistant toward degradation; therefore,
majority of them are not biodegraded in aerobic activated sledges. Azo dyes stability under
aerated conditions strongly depends on the complexity of their chemical structure. Azo dyes
are readily reduced to amines that are amongst most carcinogenic chemical compounds.
Decolourization of reactive dyes is highly concerned because of three main reasons. First of
all reactive dyes have dominated the market by having about 20-30% of the total share,
because they are used for dyeing and printing cotton fibres. Secondly about 30% of reactive
dyes used is hydrolyzed and discharged into wastewater. At last the conventional wastewater
treatment plants that are mainly functioning based on aerobic degradation and sorption are
vulnerable in treating reactive and other anionic soluble dyes.

4.3.2 Persistent Organics


The persistent compounds exist in textile effluents are produced from different types of
chemicals; mainly include dyes, dyeing auxiliaries such as deflocculating agents
(naphtalenesulfunates or lignins), sequestering agents, phosphonates and polyacrylates,
antistatic agents for manmade fibres, preservatives (substituted phenol), fixing agents applied
in direct dyeing of cotton, carriers used in disperse dyeing of polyester and great amounts of
finishing chemicals applied for water-, moth- and fire- proofing. Although just small portions
of these chemicals are used in each stage, their great persistency against degradation makes
their treatment highly challenging.

53
4.3.3 AOX and heavy metals
Sodium hypochlorite has some priorities to H2O2 as a bleaching agent. It results in reasonably
better whiteness, lower cost and less structural damages caused by H radicals. However all
types of hypochlorite bleaching agents produce high amounts of absorbable organic halogens
(AOX)(in this case chloroform) that are highly toxic and carcinogenic. Also chemicals used
for moth proofing and shrink proofing of wools that contain chlorine in their structure
effectively contribute to AOX formation. There are also some reactive dyes that are basically
AOX.

Heavy metals present in textile wastewater causing another hardship in treating these waste.
Cr, Mg, Na, Zn, Cu, Ni and Ca are the most famous heavy metals that mainly exist in metal-
complex dyes and some chemical auxiliaries.

4.3.4 Toxicants
The heterotrophic activities are slowed down very slightly by textile wastewater in the
activated sludge; while the functioning of chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria is inhibited
significantly by these types of effluents. Therefore, inorganic compounds are hardly
biodegraded and oxidized and so several types of them remain as hazardous toxic matters in
the wastewater.

Moreover, great amounts of azo dyes, which can be easily reduced to aromatic amines,
metallic compounds remained from metal complex dyes and numerous finishing agents such
as cross linking, water and flame retardants and softeners that constitute aromatic compounds
in their chemical structures can be accounted as persistent toxic waste in the final textile
effluent.

4.3.5 Surfactants
Majority of textile wet processes such as washing and scouring, weaving, spinning, sizing,
desizing, printing, dyeing and most of the chemical finishing procedures consume great
amounts of surfactants. Alkyl phenol ethoxylates are the main non-ionic surfactants highly
used in different textile processes. These surfactants are biodegraded to alkyl phenols and
readily adsorbed to the sewage sludge, accumulate there and increase the regional sludge
54
concentration. The concentrations of up to 1000 ppm have been reported. Alkyl phenols are
much more hazardous and toxic than the ethoxylated compounds.

4.3.6 Temperature
The temperature of the wastewater obtained from textile wet processes is unusually higher
than what is disposed from other industries. Rinse waters used in dyeing and printing sectors
has temperatures of up to 90°c and result in high temperature wastewater of about 40°c.
Therefore a prior heat dissipation system is always necessary to reduce the effluent’s
temperature to 30°c or less before transferring the waste to the treatment cycle. This step can
significantly enhance the treatment efficiency.

The final textile wastewaters can be generally classified into three categories based on their
colour intensity and their COD content (Lin & Peng, 1993). The high strength wastewater has
a dark colour with very low transparency and COD concentration of more than 1600 mg/l.
The medium strength wastewater also has dark colour but with higher transparency and COD

concentration of between 800 and 1600 mg/l; while the COD concentration of the low
strength, light colour wastewater is mainly less than 800 mg/l.

TABLE 5 Characteristics of typical textile wastewater

55
Process  Wastewater  Residual wastes 
Fibre Preparation  little or none  Hard waste, packing waste, fibre 
waste 
Yarn Spinning  little or none  Sized yarn, packaging waste, 
cleaning and processing waste, 
fibre waste 
Slashing/Sizing  Size, metals, cleaning waste,  Un‐used starch based sizes, 
BOD, COD  packaging waste, fibre lint, yarn 
waste 
Weaving  little or none  Used‐oil, off‐spec fabric, yarn 
and fabric scraps, packaging 
waste 
Knitting  little or none  Yarn and fibre scraps, packaging 
waste,  off‐spec fabric 
Tufting  little or none  Yarn and fibre scraps, packaging 
waste,  off‐spec fabric 
Desizing  BOD from lubricants, synthetic  Cleaning materials such as 
size, water‐soluble sizes, anti  filters, rags, wipes; yarn waste, 
static compounds and biocides  fibre lint, packaging waste,  
maintenance and  cleaning 
wastes containing solvents 
Scouring  Insecticide and disinfectants,   
NaOH, pectin, oil, fats, wax, 
detergent, knitting lubricants,  Little or none residual waste 

spin finishes, spent solvents 
Bleaching  Sodium silicate or organic   
stabilizer, Hydrogen Peroxide, 
high PH  Little or none residual waste 

Singeing  little or none  Little or none residual waste 


Mercerizing  NaOH, High PH  Little or none residual waste 
Heat setting  little or none  Little or none residual waste 
Dyeing  Surfactants, Salts, Metals,   
organic processing assistance, 
toxics, Sulphide, BOD, spent  Little or none residual waste 
solvents, acidity/alkalinity. 
Printing  Urea, metals, colours, foam,   
BOD, heat, solvents, suspended 
solids  Little or none residual waste 
Finishing (cross‐linking, water  BOD, COD, spent solvents,  Packaging waste, fabric scraps 
proofing, flame retardant  toxics, suspended solids, Urea  and trimmings 
56
processing) 

Product Fabrication  little or none  Fibre scraps 

Class BOD COD PH SS Temperature Oil (mg/l) Conductivity


(mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (˚C) (μS cm-1)
High Strength 500 1500 10 250 28 50 2900

Medium 270 970 9 137 28 21 2500


Strength
Low Strength 100 460 10 91 31 10 2100

4.4 WASTE DISPOSED FROM EACH SECTION

List of the waste materials disposed from each sector in textile industry (Ramesh Babu, et al. 2007), (Yussuf,
2004)

4.5 Treatment Methods

57
The treatment methods applicable to the textile industry can be divided into three main
categories which are Primary, Secondary and Tertiary treatment methods. These treatment
methods are classified based on their simplicity and application in the industry

4.5.1 Primary treatments


4.5.1.1 Screening

Screening is an important but simple primary treatment that is applied for removing Coarse
suspended substances such as rib and rag parts, lints, yarns, fibres and pieces of fabric(Das,
2005). Mechanically cleaned fine screens and bar screens eliminate most of the fibres.
Preceding to the secondary treatments such as susceptible biological and oxidation processes
these suspended matters should be completely removed from the wastewater. Clog trickle
filters, carbon beads and seals are mainly used in this system.

FIGURE28 MECHANICAL WASTEWATER SCREENING (HH AG, 2005)

4.5.1.2 Sedimentation

The main goal of primary treatment (clarification or sedimentation) is removing floatable


solids and settling organics (Das, 2005). Sedimentation is considered as an efficient and
economic alternative to remove suspended material in textile effluent. Sedimentation and
clarification sectors are mostly capable of removing 25-35% BOD, 40-60% TSS and 90-95%
settling solids. Removing these great amounts of floatable, suspended and settling matters in
the primary treatment stages reduces the organic loading of wastewater transferred to other
treatment steps.

58
In this step the velocity of the wastewater is reduced by 1-2 ft/min rate, sedimentation and
floatation processes take place, and enhanced by slowing the wastewater flow (Ramesh Babu,
2008). In the sedimentation tanks floatable foam and grease and the settled sludge material
are collected respectively and then pumped to the disposal or transferred for further
treatments. Rectangular and centre-feed clarifiers are the most common types of equipments
used in this sector. In rectangular clarifiers the effluent flows horizontally from one side to the
other side and finally with help of a single bottom scrapper on a channel bridge or sets of
flights placed on parallel chains the settled sludge is transferred to a hopper. In the centre-feed
clarifiers the effluent is fed from the centre and flows outward. The sludge is collected from a
hopper in the middle of the tank bottom. In both types of clarifiers it is a surface skimmer that
is responsible for removing floatable matters (mainly oil and grease).

4.5.1.3 Equalization

Wastewater streams are gathered in a sump tanker. The rotating agitators and air compressors
are responsible for stirring the mixed effluents (Eswaramoorthi, 2009). In the case of using
compressed air flow the air is blown in high velocity from below of the sump tanker. The
conical bottom of the tanker enhances the efficiency of removing suspended solids which are
tiny fibres and accumulated colours, printing pastes and metallic compounds.

4.5.1.4 Neutralisation

This is a process which entails the removal of excess acidity or alkalinity from the wastewater
by the treatment with a chemical of the opposite composition. The adjustment of the pH value
is the main criterion in the neutralisation process. Acidic wastewater i.e in the region of 0-6.9
can be neutralised with chemicals such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Sodium bi-carbonate
etc. A detailed table providing alternative chemicals suitable for neutralisation can be found in
Wastewater Engineering treatment and Reuse 4th edition, chapter 6)

In the textile industry, some of the chemicals used during production which may influence the
pH value of the wastewater are: Cationic Surfactant/Blend for Dyed Cellulosic fibres,
Polyester Acrylic and Blended fabrics these chemicals impart excellent soft feel on the
finished fabric. Anionic Surfactant /Strong Detergent the chemical acts as an emulsifier
/scouring and wetting Agent. Poly Vinyl Acetate Emulsion imparts handle stiffness with hard

59
feel on the finished fabric. A detailed source of textile chemicals their composition and
applications can be found in Textile processing chemicals available at
http://www.indiamart.com/atulitchemical/chemical.html

4.5.1.5 Mechanical Flocculation & Chemical Coagulation

Flocculation refers to the transport step which brings about the cohesion of destabilised
particles needed to form larger particles known as ‘flocs’. These are readily removed by
settling or filtration. The purpose of wastewater flocculation is the formation of flocs or
aggregates from finely divided particles which cannot be removed by simple sedimentation.

In the textile industry, the textile wastewater is passed through a tank under gentle stirring
addition of a chemical coagulant might be necessary to aid the floc formation. The resultant
effluent is usually a clear and free from colloidal particles such as sizing agents; suspended
particles etc. 80-90% removal of Total suspended solids can be achieved via this process. 40-
70% BOD removal can be achieved over a period of five days while COD removal can be up
to 60%. Das S. (Textile Effluent Treatment – A Solution to the Environmental Pollution)

4.5.2 Secondary treatments


Secondary treatments are used in succession to the primary treatment methods in the textile
industry. These methods are basically suitable for the removal of organics, BOD, COD, which
have not the removed by the primary methods

4.5.2.1 Aerated Lagoons


Lagoons are relatively shallow earthen basins with varying dept in the range of 2 – 5m.
Mechanical aerator provides oxygen for the biological treatment of the wastewater and to
keep the biological solids in suspension. These aerators are either floats or fixed platforms.
Aerated lagoons are operated on a flow-through basis or with solid recycles and three
principle types can be identified based on the manner in which the solids are handled.
These are:
1. Facultative partially mixed
2. Aerobic flow through with partial mixing
3. Aerobic with sold recycle and nominal complete mixing
The differences in the manner in which the solids are handled affect the treatment efficiency,

60
power requirement, hydraulic solid retention time, sludge disposal and environmental
consideration. An in-depth description of the behaviour of each of these lagoons can be
accessed from Wastewater Engineering 4th edition chapter 8 table 8-29.

In the textile industry, the effluent from the primary treatment methods are collected in these
earthen basins and treated for 2-6 days. The mechanical aerators ensure the oxidation of the
organics. Up to 99% of the BOD present in the wastewater can be removed via this process.
Aerobic lagoon with solid recycle essentially is the same as extended aeration activated-
sludge process but in an earthen basin.

Source: http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Surface-Aerated_Basin.png

FIGURE29
The process of design of lagoon basically consider these factors
a. BOD removal
b. Effluent characteristics
c. Temperature effects
d. Oxygen requirement
e. Energy requirements for mixing
f. Solid separation
In depth information of the aforementioned can also be found in Wastewater engineering 4th
edition.

4.5.2.2 Trickling filtration

Trickling filters typically have a rectangular or circular bed, with 1 to 3 meter depth, that is
filled of a well-graded media such as Gravels, Clinkers, Synthetic resins, Coal, PVC or
broken stone of sizes between 40 and 150 mm (Babu, 2008 and Das, 2005). The textile

61
wastewater is sprayed uniformly over the solid medium from a slowly rotating distributor
equipped by nozzles or orifices (such as rotary sprinkler). As the wastewater seeps through
the entire bed the growth of microorganisms (Larvae, worms or helminthes, algae, fungi,
bacteria and protozoa) accelerates. The organic compounds inside the wastewater are
consumed as the main nutrients for microorganisms and in the mean time oxygen is flowed in
a counter-current direction to that of wastewater flow to provide an aerated condition at the
outer side of the filter. All these together produce a gelatinous layer of aerobic
microorganisms and bacteria called “Zooglea” on the medium surface. By increasing the
amounts of nutrients and oxygen supplied, the thickness of the film increases and more
organics, nitrates, sulphates, carbon dioxide and other stable by-products are produced. Then
these materials coagulate at the feed side of the filter and subsequently removed from that
region. The following relationship simply shows the trickling procedure;

Organisms + Organics → Solid Wastes + CO + More Organisms

When the slime layer becomes extremely thick it blocks the wastewater flow through the solid
medium; therefore, it is cleaned up in the final settling tank. In some cases the filtered effluent
is circulated back to the main stream, once or twice, in order to enhance the overall efficiency
of the filtration process.

Trickling filtration is a cost effective method that requires low energy supply, forms small
portions of sludge and is suitable for treating biodegradable matters inside the effluents
(Ahmed, 2006). Moreover this technique has shown great results in removing ammonia from
the wastewater. The hybrid systems of trickling filtration and chemical methods have shown
advantageous features in wastewater treatment.

62
FIGURE30 COMPACT CHEMICALLY ENHANCED-TRICKLING FILTER
SYSTEM (AHMED, 2006)

4.5.2.3 Activated sludge

Biological treatments are all basically natural self purifying processes which are enforced by
some artificial bio compounds injected into the system (Ramesh Babu, 2007). Gaining the
original quality of the present aquatic environment is the ideal objective of these types of
treatments.

Activated sludge process is one of the most flexible biological oxidation techniques mainly
used for removing coarse solid organic compounds, colloids and dissolved solids from the
textile wastewater (Das, 2005). The elimination rate of oxidizable material processed in this
method is up to 90% (Babu B. V., 2008). In this process the effluent is aerated by some
aerobic microbial flocs that is suspended in a reaction tank. Subsequently the waste is
biodegraded to water and carbon dioxide molecules. The fast growing suspended microbial
floc is called Activated Sludge. The effluent and the activated sludge are separated from each
other by settling their mixture in the reaction tank. A portion of the sludge is reused and
injected to the tank to enhance the microbial reaction. The remaining sludge, in addition to
what is achieved from the primary sedimentation is digested in a sludge digester.

The main problem is that most of the dyes and chemicals used in the textile industry are not
highly biodegradable and using the activated sludge individually will not effectively reduce
the contamination of the wastewater. Therefore, this method is generally applied in
combination with other techniques or by adding adsorbents such as activated carbon or
bentonite clay to remove the toxic-organic matters and non-biodegradable components from
the textile effluent (Ramesh Babu, 2007). Subsequent oxidative chemical treatments or
reaction with organic flocculants are options can be applied in frequently after the biological
treatment.

Biological aerated filtration (BAF) is a biological treatment that has been developed recently
and takes advantage of aeration of a stationary organism as a medium.

63
FIGURE31 ACTIVATED SLUDGE (BABU B.V., 2008)

4.5.2.4 Oxidation ditch

A similar method of pre-treatment used in the textile industry in oxidative ditch method.
Oxidation ditch is an aerobic process similar to the activated sludge process. However, an
oxidation ditch is ring-shaped and is equipped with mechanical aeration devices. It could be
classified under biological treatment method and particularly suitable for treating BOD,
Alkalinity, TSS polluted wastewater.

http://www.gec.jp/JSIM_DATA/WATER/WATER_2/img/Fig_231-1.jpg

FIGURE32

4.5.2.5 Anaerobic digestion

64
In this step the sludge, which has been formed in the primary sedimentation process, and the
waste obtained from the humus tank are both digested and fermented slowly in reaction with
anaerobic bacteria in a sludge digester (Das, 2005). The sludge is maintained for 30 days in
this tank at pH of 7-8 and temperature of 35 ˚C. CO2, CH4 and small portions of NH3 are the
main final products of this process.

The textile sludge can be effectively treated by anaerobic digestion process (Asia et al., 2006).
Considerable reductions in nitrates, phosphates, COD, BOD and suspended solids have been
observed via processing the textile wastewater in this system. Gaining bio-fertilizer and
biogas as the final products makes this method more advantageous. Moreover, this method
has a relatively low operation costs in comparison with other secondary treatments.

There are many bacteria that are capable of decolourizing azo dyes under anaerobic
conditions (Georgiou, 2006). In the first stage the highly electrophilic azo bonds are broken
via bacterial reactions, the azo dye is decolorized and the aromatic amines are formed.
Basically the uncharged azo dyes in anoxic sediment environments tend to reduced to their
corresponding amine; Amines which are extremely carcinogenic, toxic and mutagenic.
Despite easy reduction of azo dyes under laboratory conditions, the complete molecular
mineralisation of these dyes is hard.

The main disadvantage of the conventional anaerobic biological techniques is the long
hydraulic residence time of sludge in the tank. This weakness leads to provide high volume
reactors due to long generation time of anaerobic bacteria (Georgiou, 2003). Therefore some
systems and methods are coupled to this method that prevent biomass from accumulation and
subsequently reduce the hydraulic residence time.

4.5.2.6 Oxidation techniques

Oxidation treatment methods are applicable to textile wastewater for the removal of colours,

65
BOD, COD etc. However, conventional oxidation techniques have been found quite
inefficient in the removal of colours which are mainly produced from insoluble dyes and
complex organic structure at low concentration. Therefore, advanced oxidation processes
have been applied to the treatment of wastewater in the textile industry. These processes
generate hydroxyl free radical by different techniques such as combination of ozone (O3)
Hydroxyl peroxide (H2O2) and Ultra-violet light The goal is to furnish hydroxyl ions to
destroy colours, complex organic pollutants and compounds which cannot be destroy by
conventional oxidation methods. A list of possible route of producing hydroxyl radicals are
shown in table 3. The Generation of hydroxyl radicals is quickened by combining O3, H2O2,
TiO2, UV radiation, electron-beam irradiation and ultrasound. The most promising are
O3/H2O2, O3/UV and H2O2/UV which hold efficient routes to oxidize textile wastewater.

TABLE 6

Source: Al-kdas A. et al. (2005)Treatment of textile wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes

4.5.2.7 Electrolytic precipitation

The use of electrolytic precipitation in the treatment of textile wastewater involves the
application of electric current to the wastewater in a cell. Electro-precipitation corresponds to
the use of an electrochemical reactor with membrane. This facilitates the removal of heavy
metals from the wastewater which are usually from dyestuffs. In the cell, the polluted
wastewater is maintained at the cathode side. When the system is started up the pH in anodic
part decreases by oxidation reaction of water to oxygen gas. On the other hand, in cathodic
part, hydrogen is released by reduction reaction of water. The pH in this part is slowly
increased until it reaches the precipitation pH of metal contained in the solution leading to the
removal of heavy metal from wastewater.

66
Source: http://www.chemistryexplained.com/images/chfa_02_img0277.jpg

FIGURE33
4.5.2.8 Membrane Process
Membrane separation, as an in-plant process, is a feasible method due to high water costs and
the importance of water profligate re-usage( Ramesh Babu, 2007). Membranes offer a great
way of reducing dyeing auxiliaries and hydrolysed dyes. Moreover, they play an essential role
in the decolouration of the effluent and descending BOD and COD levels of waste water.
Reverse osmosis, Nanofiltration, Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration are the main membrane
methods which are used in the textile industry. Qualitative characteristics of the final product
define the specific membrane method that should be used.

4.5.2.8.1 Reverse Osmosis


Reverse osmosis membranes typically have a retention rate of 90% or higher for ionic
compounds and enable superior permeate quality (Ghayeni et al., 1998). Reverse osmosis
facilitates the removal of chemical auxiliaries, hydrolyzed reactive dyes and mineral salts.
The waste from the dyeing sector can be decolourized via a single pass reverse osmosis. The
concentration of dissolved salt is highly important in this method and if it is increased the
osmotic pressure role becomes more significant.

4.5.2.8.2 Nanofiltration
Nanofiltration membranes retain dyeing auxiliaries, hydrolyzede reactive dyes, large
monovalent ions, devalentions and low molecular weight organic compounds (Ramesh Babu,
2007). The combination of a preceding adsorption process joined to a nanofiltration system
can be used effectively for treatment of coloured effluents. By decreasing the concentration

67
polarization of the waste in the adsorption process the quality of the final product, after
passing through the nanofilter, becomes much higher.

4.5.2.8.3 Ultra filtration


Ultra filtration is a good method for eliminating macromolecules and particles but it is a weak
technique in terms of removing polluting components such as dyes (only between 32% and
75%) (Ramesh Babu, 2007). The water treated by ultra filtration is rarely re-used as feed
water in the textile industry and especially not in those sensitive processes such as dyeing.
Ultra filtration can be used for enhancing a biological reactor performance or as a pre-
treatment, carried out before the reverse osmosis section.

4.5.2.8.4 Microfiltration
Microfiltration can be applied effectively for treating effluents containing pigment dyes and
the waste of the subsequent rinsing baths (Ghayeni et al., 1998). This method can be
considered as a suitable pre-treatment for micro and nanofiltration.

4.5.2.9 Electrochemical method

Inorganic salts and elevated levels of toxic colorants, present in textile effluent, are considered
as the main threads for the ecosystem (Sundaram, Kupferle), (Esteva, Silva, 2004)
Electrochemical oxidation technique, which has been developed in the 90’s, is a relatively
effective method in decolourization of the wastewater. No sludge formation, low or no
consumption of chemicals in this method and removal of some specific pollutants such as
polyaromatic organic compounds like anthraquinones all together make this method much
more advantageous to other traditional physical or chemical treatments. This method is
considered as an advanced oxidation technique. In both, Direct and Indirect Electrochemical
methods, the chemical structure of dyes and chemicals and the residence time of processing
the wastewater are amongst the main influential factors on the treatment efficiency
(Sanroman, et al., 2004).

The effects of some factors, such as the effluent conductivity, PH, addition of
polyelectrolytes, and Power requirement on the efficiency of electrochemical method have
been investigated (Lin & Peng, 1993). Based on these studies most the effluents obtained
from the finishing mill and dyeing sectors have the conductivities within the acceptable range
for electrochemical procedure and therefore no extra conductivity adjustment is required. The

68
common PH of 5 to 10, mainly exists in the textile wastewater, also doesn’t show any
negative influence on the process efficiency. The addition of 40 mg/l of polyaluminium
chloride (PAC) and providing power density of about 92.5 amp/m2 can result in higher
efficiency and a greater COD removal. Therefore, it can be concluded that Electrochemical
technique is an effective method for treating textile wastewater. However the main problem of
this method is the cost of electricity.

The Indirect electrochemical oxidation has been observed as an efficient technique to


complete colour and COD removal. In indirect Electrochemical method NaCl molecules,
present in textile wastewater, are used in order to form active chlorine based oxidants to
decolorize highly coloured azo-compounds at the anode (Sundaram, Kupferle).

4.5.2.9.1 Ion-Exchange

The main objective of this process is to clean the wastewater from the undesirable cations and
anions present in waste (Das, 2005). In this sector textile effluent is passed through the beds
which have already enriched by ion-exchange resins. These resins are responsible for
absorbing anions and cations inside the waste and exchange them by hydrogen and sodium
ions separated from the resins structures. The main Ion exchange resins in use today are those
synthetic polymeric materials which contain ionic groups of quaternary ammonium,
sulphonyl groups and etc. Ion-exchange treatment can be used for lowering COD, Reducing
the concentration of metallic ions such as Fe, reducing Alkalinity, conductivity, total hardness
SS and TSS of the textile effluent (Lin, Chen, 1996).

4.5.2.9.2 Photo catalytic

Photo catalytic treatment has been applied to textile wastewater polluted with colours,
dyestuffs and complex compounds. This is an advanced method to decolourize a broad range
of dyes and colour compounds comprising complex structures. In this process, photoactive
catalyst illuminates with UV light, generates highly reactive radical, which facilitates the
decomposition of pollutants. Titanium dioxide and Zinc oxide are particularly utilised as

69
photo catalysts. The work of Attia A.J. et al (2007) practically investigated the use of TiO2
and ZnO in the textile industry wastewater. Treatment followed screening and pre-treatment
to removed TSS and other solids. After which TiO2 and ZnO suspended in the polluted textile
wastewater are placed in a photoreaction cell.

.
(A) gas container, (B) gas flow meter, (C) circulating water thermostat (D) magnetic stirrer (E) quartz cell, (G)
lenses, (H) low pressure mercury lamp, (I) power supply unit. (Attita, et al., 2007)

FIGURE34 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS


FOR PHOTOCATALYTIC REACTION

4.5.3.0 Adsorption

The use of adsorption treatment method for textile wastewater entails usually the use of
granular activated carbon for the exchange of pollutants between the two immiscible phases.
Owen’s work (1978) shows that adsorption is an economical and feasible route for
eliminating colour from textile wastewater. Also, recent studies have investigated the use of
powdered activated carbon in the removal of cationic and anionic dyestuffs such as methylene
blue, basic yellow etc from textile wastewater under different experimental conditions

70
FIGU
URE35 ADS
SORPTION
N COLUMN
N
Source: http://www.frreepatentsonlinne.com/662032
26-0-large.jpg

4.5.3.1 Thermal ev
vaporation

The treattment of texttile wastewaater has beenn equally doone with therrmal evaporrators’ sodiuum
per sulphhate has beenn reported too be more eco-friendly in the treatm
ment processs. The proceess
entails thhe heating of
o wastewatter in a vaccuum chamb
ber by the application of electriciity
through a heating fiilament. Thee evaporatedd componennt condensess on the subbstrate and is
selectivelly extracted through the vacuum sysstem.

RE36 SCHE
FIGUR EMATICS O
OF A THER
RMAL EVA
APORATOR
So
ource: http://ww
ww.icmm.csicc.es/fis/g/evapooracion_termica_in.gif

4.6 E
Example 1 - WASTEWAT
W TER CHA
ARACTERISTICS IN
N TEXTIL
LE
FINISHIING MILLS
S

The work
k of Savin and Butnaru haracteristicss of the wasstewater from
u (2008) shhows the ch
different sections of a textile finnishing mill and their correspondinng loading cooncentrationns.
This workk is thereforre presented in this reporrt as a case study.

This casee study illusstrates the obtainable


o poollutants froom a textile factory andd the possibble

71
degree of concentrations. The results of the wastewater samples presented in this case study
were collected over a period of two months while sampling and analysis were done to obtain a
daily average. The daily averages were subsequently subjected to statistically analysis and a
general average presented.

FIGURE37 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE TEXTILE FINISHING MILL


SHOWING DIFFERENT SECTIONS

Source: Savin and Butnaru /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 7 (2008)

(1. Burning Sector; 2. CH Station; 3. Bleaching Station; 4. Mercerization Section; 5. Thermo fixing
Section, 6. Chemicals Warehouse, 7. Dyestuff Warehouse; 8. Dyeing Sector; 9. Dyeing Gauge; 10. Printing
Sector; 11. Printing Warehouse; 12. Dressing Sector, 13. Wastewater Treatment Plant)
TABLE 7

72
Source: Savin and Butnaru /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 7 (2008)

The tables above show the concentrations of ten pollutants from different sections of the mill.
Fixed residue and COD predominately have the highest values. Tables 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12
shows that fixed residues and COD had values of 3840.4 and 2629.3 mg/L, 6590.9 and 2688.5
mg/L, 3877.2 and 2788.2mg/L, 2016 and 1907.8mg/L, 2178.3 and 3606.3mg/L, 358.6 and

73
1097mg/L respectively. This clearly shows that fixed residue was the most obtained pollutant
from most of the section of the textile mills.

4.7 EXAMPLE 2- TEXTILE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

Amaravathi Common Effluent Treatment Plant is an example of a real treatment plant that is
studied in this part in order to give a better idea about the more popular methods applied in
treating textile effluent (Das, 2005). Amaravathi plant has located in Karur, the north-central
of Tamil Nadu in India. The effluents of 43 different textile processing units are collected via
pipelines and all transferred to this plant. The following table provides useful information
about numbers and dimensions of the components exist in this plant.

TABLE 8
Components Numbers Dimensions (meter)
Screen Chamber 1 4×1×3.5
Receiving Sump 1 8×5.25
Equalization Tank 1 31×20×3
Flash Mixer 1 1.7×1.7×1.7
Clarriflocculator 1 12×3.3
Aeration Tank 2 23×16×3
2 22×16×3
Clarifier 2 13×4
Sludge well 1 6×3
Sludge Thickener 1 7×3.3
Centrifuge 1 7×4
Generator Room 1 7×3
Office/Lab 1 12×6.2 floors
Transformer Yard 1 14×7.5
Sludge Drying Beds 12 4.9×4.9

In this plant, equalization and neutralization sectors serve as the main preliminary treatments.
The next steps are sedimentation, floatation, screening and physical flocculation that are
considered as primary treatment methods. In the third step the waste is passed to the
secondary treatment section which constitutes of biological oxidation systems and facilitated
chemical/physical separation methods. The main objective of this unit is removing organic
compounds from the waste. In the final part the effluent is transferred to the tertiary treatment
unit which is very important in the means of polishing the waste treatment.

74
4.7.1 Plant operation
The collected waste from all those 43 textile factories is treated by passing through the
following stages:

1. Screen chamber
Large solids are removed by objective screens provided in this chamber to avoid clogging of
hydraulic system and abrasion of mechanical equipments

2. Collection tank
Effluents collected from the screening chamber are stored for a while in the collection tank
and then transferred to the equalization tank.

3. Equalization tank
Wastewater is stored for 8 to 12 hours in this tank for a homogeneous mixing. Therefore the
concentration of the effluent becomes constant that subsequently results in more constant pH
in all parts of the waste stream. The effluent gets neutralized in this system and the shock
loading on the next treatment unit is reduced. The settling of solids is also eliminated by
continuous mixing of the wastewater in the equalization tank.

4. Flash mixer
In this part the following coagulants are added to the effluent;
Coagulant Concentration (ppm) Effects
Lime 800-1000 Raise the pH 8-9
Ferrous Sulphate 200-300 Remove colour
Poly electrolyte 0.2 Settle the suspended solids

In the Flash mixer the above mentioned flocculates are added to the homogenized waste
stream via rapid mixing. This process results in micro flocs production.

5. Clarriflocculator
In this part the wastewater is stirred continuously. The overflowed water is passed to the
aeration tank to settle down the solid wastes, collect them separately and finally dry them.
Flocculation part is responsible for mixing the wastewater slowly, producing maro flocs

75
settling particles in the clarifier zone. Settled solids such as primary sludge are transferred to
the sludge dyeing beds.

6. Aeration tank
A thin film of wastewater is passed over the staircase arrangement. In this part the direct
Aeration of the waste leads to great reduction in BOD which has calculated to be up to 90%.

7. Clarifier
This part receives the biological sludge. Subsequently the treated wastewater is accepted by
Bureau of Indian standard is disposed to rivers via pipelines.

8. Sludge thickener
The input wastewater constitute of 60% water and 40% solids. The centrifugal system
provided in this part reduces the water content of the mixture and changes the constitution to
40% of water and 60% of solids. By repeating this process the solids are slowly separated
from water.

9. Drying beds
In this section the sludge obtained from primary and secondary units are subjected to solar
evaporation to be dried. The magnitude amounts of died sludge after treatment is collected
and packed in polyethylene bags and covered in water proof sheets. This bulk of sludge
should be disposed in an offsite location stated by the State Pollution Control of Tamil Nadu,
India.

TABLE 9 Hazardous waste


Hazardous Quantity State of waste Type of Hazard Mode of storage and
waste generated disposal
per day
Packed in polyethylene bags
sludge 2.5 mT solid Chemical covered with water proof
sludge sheets

TABLE 10 Effluent Quality Management (average for a month)


Quality parameters Inlet water Outlet water

76
pH 6-10 6.5-8.5
Biological Oxygen demand 100-150 mg/l 20-30 mg/l
Chemical Oxygen Demand 300-400 mg/l 140-250 mg/l
Total Dissolved solids 2500-3000 mg/l 1800-2100 mg/l
Suspended Solids 70-200 mg/l 50-90 mg/l
Chlorides 1000-1500 mg/l 700-1000 mg/l
Sulphites 1-2 mg/l Nil

TABLE 11 Regulatory Standards to which effluent needs to be treated


Quality parameters Tolerance limits
pH 5.5-9
Biological Oxygen demand 30 mg/l
Chemical Oxygen Demand 250 mg/l
Total Dissolved solids 2100 mg/l
Suspended Solids 100 mg/l
Chlorides 1000 mg/l
Sulphites Nil

The following figure provides a schematic diagram of the Amaravathi Common Effluent
Treatment Plant.

77
CASE STUDY 2:
FIGURE38 AMARAVATHI COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT

78
5 INTRODUCTION

One of the most difficult pollutions to control are those not discharged at point source but
those which enters surface water through water that runs over urban or agricultural land or
mineral rich areas (Gray,2005). Essentially, these pollutants do not originate from a single
point (Diffused) and among which are pollutants from oil and other hydrocarbons. Against
this background, the focus of this section is to understudy discharges from a typical oil
storage facility in Nigeria with the view to identifying the source, input measuring parameters
and standards, treatment technologies, monitoring, management techniques and legislations.
The ideas are to overview current practices and recommend ways of improving the system in
other to reduce and/or manage liquid effluent to acceptable standards as stipulated by
legislation. The oil storage depot uses substantial volume of water in their operations which
are discharged as surface water coupled with oil from leakages and handling. To a large
degree, wastewater discharge is hazardous to human health, damage aquatic live and alter the
environment. On the whole, liquid effluent are treated to assert physical and chemical quality
to ensure that degradation standards are not exceeded before it is discharged to the
environment or recycled (Mark J. H, 2001).

79
5.1 EFFLUENT SOURCE
The characteristic of an industrial effluent is to a large extent dependent on the diverse
activities going in the environment. However not peculiar with diffuse source, there are
several environmental problems associated with liquid effluent which can be defined by the
toxicity, groundwater contamination (sediment), nuisance in the form of surface water,
change in taste of portable water supplies and contamination of urban streams (Gray, 2005).
The hot spot of discharge in an oil storage facility are namely;
• Discharge from car maintenance

• Floating , production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessels

• Waste oil disposal

• Spill from handling

• Road run-off and industrial run-off

• Domestic sanitary wastewater from toilets, sinks, showers and laundries. The volume
and concentration of which dependent on time, facility occupancy and operational
conditions (Nigerian Manual of Petroleum Laws, 1969).

Substantial amount of discharge also arises from the storage tanks containing oil and process
water which is allowed in other balance the vessel as well as provide a platform for removal
of any external impurities that may be associated with the oil. This is majorly associated with
routine clean up exercise where the process water contaminated with oil and other impurities
in the storage tanks are flushed. Other significant causes of wastewater include equipment
failure, leakages, malfunctioning oil separators, spills arising from overfilling of tanks and
leakages from loading. These contaminants are usually picked by process water and rainwater
of which may be routed to sea or river and a subsequent impact on the aquatic environment if
unmanaged. Minor leakages within the facility are usually contained using dust or
bioremediation techniques which encourage the growth of micro organism by degrading the
oil molecules (Harrison, 1995). In a case of major spill, the oil is scooped or skimmed for
recovery. However, the remaining part is flushed with pressurised water and further collected
via sewer manhole or storm drain and channelled to the settling tank through an interceptor in
form of a bar screen to remove large materials such as sticks, plastic material, rock bits and

80
paper. The essence is to capture materials capable of damaging equipment for treatment and
properly disposed while other material that floats is skimmed from the surface of the
separation tank. the combination of process water and sewage is known as clarified water
which is treated to eliminate or reduce the waste content to acceptable levels before it finally
discharged as effluent (Obot et al., 2007)

FIGURE39 OIL STORAGE TANK

5.3 EFFLUENT PARAMETERS


The nature of pollutants determines potential control options in the sense that there can be
variable elemental pollutants from difference sources. The composition of pollutants in
wastewater discharge in an oil depot includes; acids, alkalis (pH), oil (free and dissolved),
sulphides, ammonia/nitrates, cyanides, heavy metals, heat, other organic materials,
nutrients, settle-able solids, colour, toxic compounds, taste and odour producers (Stephan T.
O, 2008).

Table 12 depicts the composition of effluent, characteristics and exposure limits in an oil

81
storage facility in line with the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and the
Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR). Basically, these parameters relates to the oil
storage facility for a maximum period of 24hours. It is worthy of that contaminant analysis of
oil and wastewater is quite associated with business interest and as such, it is not readily given
out as it is regulated by various laws and standards with compliance being a major issue.

TABLE 12 Liquid effluent Parameter

Effluent Characteristics Exposure Limits, Maximum/day


BOD, mg/l 10
COD, mg/l 40
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), mg/l <2000
Total Suspended Solids (TSS), mg/l 30
Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) mg/l 10
Turbidity 10
PH 6.6-8.5
o
Temperature, C 30
Sulphide as H2S (mg/1) 0.2
Ammonia (NH4+), mg/l 0.2
Lead 0.05
Phenols (Total), mgl 0.5
Cyanide, mg/l as CN 0.05
Chromium Cr+6,mg/l 0.03
Total Chromium mg/I 0.3
Pb+2, mg/I 0.05
Total Iron (Fe), mg/I 1
2
Cu+ , mg/1 1.5
2
Zn+ ,mg/1 1
Hg 0.1
Odour Not detected

Source: Nigerian Manual of Petroleum Laws, 1969


Empirically, the total levels of contamination are assessed by the following parameters;
• Total suspended solids, finely divided solid matter suspended in water
• Total dissolved salts
• Total inorganic salts dissolved in water
• Chemical oxygen demand (COD), amount of oxygen consumed in chemical oxidation

82
• Biological oxygen demand (BOD) index representing content of biodegradable
substances in the water
• Total organic carbon determination of all organic carbon present and total nitrogen
determination of all nitrogen

5.4 EFFLUENT TREATMENT


Wastewater can be eliminate d or reduced to the barest minimum at source. This however cuts
down on the amount of liquid effluent to be treatment before it is discharged into the river
environment. Treatment procedures methods includes; pre-treatment, primary, secondary and
tertiary treatment. The schematics of treatment procedures is as shown in Fig #

5.4.1 PRE TREATMENT


Liquid effluent Pre treatment involves stripping of sour water being collected and screened
and then it is sent for further treatment. At this stage oil and wastewater undergoes two pre
treatment processes namely; neutralization and emulsion breaking before it is sent to the
primary treatment facility (DPR, 2008)

Neutralisation: this is the basic reaction between acid and alkali used to adjust the PH of
wastewater before it is discharged. It a necessary step towards ensuring proper condition
before oxidation – reduction reaction which is used for precipitation of heavy metal as
hydroxide and more so, for clarification and better adsorption.

Emulsion breaking: the breaking up of emulsions is a necessary step used to separate oil and
water by batch process. The spend emulsions are collected in a tank equipped with agitators
and skimmers with the tank content at fixed position for 2-8hrs to allow for time to rise to the
surface before it is removed. The tank is further agitated and emulsion breaking chemicals
like coagulants, flocculants and wetting agent are added. Further more, free oil is separated by
gravity separators or liquid-liquid cyclones and thereafter, the PH is adjusted before the
wastewater is clarified using flotation (DPR, 2008), (Stefan T. O, 2008).

83
5.4.2 PRIMARY TREATMENT
This is the first major stage of treatment following pre treatment and involves;
• Screening: to remove large objects like stones or sticks using gravity separators which
are capable of blocking the inlet tank.
• Grit chamber: slows down flow to allow for grit fall out
• Clarifiers: the effluent is passed through gravity separators or corrugated plate
interceptors with sufficient residence time to allow free oil to rise to the surface and
skimmed off as shown in Fig 39.

FIGURE40 PROCESS DIAGRAM OF TREATMENT METHODS


SOURCE: STEFAN T. O, 2008

5.4.3 SECONDARY TREATMENT


The dissolved and colloidal organic matter is oxidized by micro organism followed by air
flotation or filtration to remove fine oil droplets from water (Gray, 2005). The basic idea
being that oil droplets are carried to the surface by small gas bubbles resulting from the
introduction of air to the system. Further more, the bubbles attach themselves to oil globules
or suspended particles and floated to the surface. Chemicals such as coagulants, acid and or
alkalis are added to promote more removal and on the other hand, oil is filtered from the
aqueous stream through a sand or anthracite medium. It then backwashed to prevent high
pressure drop and to remove oil collected (Stefan T. O, 2008).

5.4.4 TERTIARY TREATMENT


Further treatment ensures the removal of the remaining BOD, suspended particles, bacteria,
specific toxic compounds or nutrients through biological treatment (Gray, 2005). This
involves the use of micro organism to break down organic material with aeration and agitation
84
and then, allow solid to settle out. Most commonly used is activated sludge which is
continually re circulated back to the aeration tank to maintain residual dissolved oxygen in
other to increase the rate of decomposition and biological growth. The wastewater and the
bacteria-containing activated sludge are held in contact at substantial residence time to
stabilize the incoming organic material and more so, to achieve the desired effluent quality.
The mixture is then directed to the settling tank where the bacteria are separated from the
water and the waste is discharged while the bacteria are recycled (Stefan T. O, 2008).

5.5 LEGISLATION
The department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and Federal Environmental Protection
Agency (FEPA) are two regulatory bodies respectively established in 1970 and 1988 under
the law of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (Nigeria Manual of Petroleum Laws, 1969). The
latter is charged with the overall responsibility of protecting and developing the general
environment and DPR basically is concerned with monitoring and enforcing standards and
guidelines as it relates to the oil and gas industry. The general standard and regulation for oil
and gas operations are a combination of laws for environmental pollution and governed by
principal legislation of Petroleum Act 1969, the Mineral Oils (Safety) Regulation of 1963, the
Petroleum Regulations 1967; the Oil in Navigable Waters Decree Regulations 1968 ; the Oil
Pipeline Ordinance of 1956 as amended by the Oil Pipeline Act 1965 and; the Petroleum
Refining Regulations 1974 which prohibits the direct discharge of oily wastewater from
general industrial oil handling facilities onshore or offshore unto land, public drain, sewer and
water bodies (fresh, brackish, tidal or non-tidal, swamp, coastal or offshore waters) used for
domestic consumption, or as may affect micro-fauna activities (Federal Govt. of Nigeria,
1990,FEPA, 1971)

The pollution control measures as specified in the guidelines and standards of these
respective regulations in Nigeria, takes into consideration the treatment necessary to satisfy
the set limitations for quality of the oily waste water from oil production, storage and
offloading operations, prior to disposal, with special attention to;
• Effluent limitations
• Water quality for industrial water uses at point of in-take
• Industry emission limitations
• Noise exposure limitations
• Management of solid and hazardous wastes

85
• Pollution abatement techniques

CHALLENGES AND WAYS OF IMPROVING THE SYSTEM


The forgoing case points to a few challenges bordering around point of collection of oily
wastewater and the treatment procedure before discharge to the environment. The scenario is
a bit peculiar as compliance to standard procedure is hardly followed. Furthermore,
substantial amount of leaked oil is lost, reason being the absence of good channel of passage
for onward transfer to separation tank, spill on sand and consequent impact on plant and
animal. Against this stand point, the following recommendation is made;
• In view of good containment of spill and leakages, the holding environment for oil
storage facility should be floored and with gutters created for proper drainage and
collection and recovery
• Strict compliance to standards and regulation is crucial considering the huge negative
impact of non compliance
• Persistent training and update of the best available techniques as applicable to other
international communities

5.6 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES


Petroleum and related products handling facilities is known to be one of the highest industrial
sectors that generate the largest volume of liquid effluent. However, in offshore operations the
effect of effluent discharged may be diluted using chemicals like (surfactants, foaming agents,
demulsifiers, emulsion breaker and coagulating agents) which is subsequently dissipated by
currents further reducing/minimising the hazards and effects to the environment. Meanwhile,
liquid effluents to be discharged on land or into brackish waters may undergo a well
programmed treatment procedure using technologies as may be approved by DPR, following
the guidelines and standards procedures for contaminant concentrations, quantity of oily in
wastewater, loading rates into the environment and the condition of the accepting water body.
Producers of the oily wastewater however are responsible for managing their discharges as
best available technology is advised to take advantage of the following (FGN, 1988);
• gas flotation devices,
• parallel or tilted plate coalescers,
• loose or fibrous media filtration,
• gravity separation and,
• Chemicals addition to assist oil-water separation.
86
The following technologies are applicable in Nigeria based on the recommendation of DPR;
Air flotation devices: This is of the oldest method for the removal of solids, oil and grease
from wastewater, where gravity settlement may inappropriate. It is the production of air
bubbles, which enhances the natural tendency of some materials to float by carrying
wastewater contaminants to the surface of the tank for removal by mechanical skimming or
removed by suction. The process is defined by the method(s) by which air is supplied, which
could be vacuum flotation, induced air floatation or dissolve air floatation. The dissolve air
floatation device (DAF) is the most common system used in industrial sectors. As can be seen
in figure 1 below, the waste stream is first pressurized with air in a closed tank.
After passing through a pressure-reduction valve, the wastewater enters the flotation tank
where, due to the sudden reduction in pressure, minute air bubbles in the order of 50- 100
microns in diameter are formed which adhere to the particles and are carried to the surface
(Environment Agency,1990).

Source: FAO of the United Nations, 1996

FIGURE41 FIG. 1 DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION SYSTEM

Centrifugal separators: This technique is often used to thicken sludge where concentrations
greater than 5% are required. The denser water phase is moved to the outer region by means
of the centrifugal forces obtained by inducing a rotating fluid flow. The lighter oily materials
collect near the vortex core and are subsequently removed. This requires the oil collecting
mechanism to be designed to remove a small column of oil at the centre line to be effective in
oil-in-water emulsions. Example of this separator is hydro cyclones as depicted in the figure
below (Environment Agency 1990; Ital Traco SRL).

87
Source: NETAFIM, 2009

FIGURE42 FIG. 2 HYDRO-CYCLONE SEPARATOR

Emulsion separators: This are systems that can be used for enhancing oil droplet jointure
such as granular media filter and coalescing media. In this technique, separation of the water
and oil is simply due the specific gravity difference of the two liquids. However, a separator
cannot easily separate water and oil that exists as an emulsion, in other words, the water and
oil must be as free liquids in the separator, as exemplified in the granular media pressure filter
(Sjöblom, 2001; ITAL TRACO SRL).

Gravity separators: This technique is simply based on the specific gravity difference
between the oil and wastewater. The easiest way to separate one liquid in another is just to let
it sit in place. In most cases it will sooner or later coalesce, settle out and form two distinct
layers with the help of gravity. An example of this technology is the API oil-water separator,
which is a rectangular system designed to contain and separate large volume of oil and
suspended solids from wastewater effluents of oil refinery, petrochemical plants, chemical
plants and in other industrial sources. Figure 1 below, depicts a typical API oil-water
separator. As earlier seen, the API separator works under gravitational effect, designed by
Stokes law, which defines oil droplets on the basis of size and density. The separator is
designed based on the specific gravity difference between the oil and the wastewater. The API
separator allows the oil settle at the top, with the wastewater in the middle, between the oil
and the solids that settles at the bottom. The oil is usually skimmed off, and reprocessed,
while the water layer is sent onward for further treatment for removal of any residual oil, and
biological treatment to remove the undesirable dissolved chemical compounds.(API,1990)

88
Source: American Petroleum Institute, February 1990

FIGURE43 API OIL-WATER SEPARATOR

Use of Biotechnology : This system involves the use of biologically micro-organisms for the
degrading and treatment of the dissolved oil and other chemically stabilized emulsions that
can pose severe problems to the environment, if discharged. The petroleum refineries and
most major oil treatment facilities, implore this method too, with the system being more
effective, if high dilution and pre-treatment is achievable, due to the fact that too much oil in
the wastewater, could result to more problem for the biological system as it is absorbed by the
microorganism quicker than can be metabolized.

The figure below shows a typical schematic of a biological plant. Biologically treated
effluents usually contain less than 15 ppm of oil. (ITAL TRACO SRL)

89
Source: ITALTRACO SRL

FIGURE44 A TYPICAL BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PLANT

5.7 LIQUID EFFLUENT MONITORING


Regulatory bodies of different countries, have various set guidelines for monitoring of
effluents from all industrial and domestic sectors, with the basic objective of having a zero
percent effluent. In order to carry out effect monitoring of liquid effluent in oil handling
facilities, there is need for frequent sampling in the life of the plants operation, especially
during start up conditions, so as to establish a record of consistencies in view to lay down
legislative parameters limit, and this can be achieved with the analysis of the sample collected
and result determined in a given lab, as shown below. Liquid effluents should be monitored
daily or periodically for all the parameters listed, as well as heavy metals too, when the need
arises. The tabulation below is a typical guideline on effluent monitoring in the petroleum
refining sector.

90
Source: http://www.indiamart.com/mettexlaboratories/laboratory-testing-services.html

FIGURE45 WASTE WATER ANALYSIS LABORATORY

Monitoring data should be analyzed and reviewed at regular intervals and compared with the
operating standards so that any necessary corrective actions can be taken. Records of
monitoring results should be kept in an acceptable format. The results should be reported to
the responsible authorities and relevant parties, as required.

TABLE 13 MONITORING REQUIREMENTS FOR PETROLEUM REFINING


PROCESSES EFFLUENT DISCHARGE

DISCHARGE MONITORING REQUIREMENTS


TYPE
PARAMETER/EFFLUENT MONITORING COMMENTS
CHARACTERISTIC FREQUENCY
1.Treated Volume/Discharge Rate Daily
process/oily pH “
waste waters Temperature “
Electrical Conductivity Salinity as “
-
(Cl ) “
Total Hydrocarbon Contents “
Total organic Carbon TOC)
BTEX & PAH's Once per week
Total Suspended Solids (TSS) “
Total Dissolved Solids(TDS) “

91
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) “
Biochemical Oxygen Demand “
(BODS) “
Dissolved oxygen “
Phenols “
Cyanide (Total) “
Sulphide (as H2S) “
Ammonia (as NH4+) “
Total Phosphorous(as PO4-) “
Total Nitrogen (as NO3-) “
Surfactants “
Sulphate as(S04-) “
Mercaptans “
Heavy Metals e.g. Ni, Cr+6, Cd, “
+3
Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, V, Fe ,C03- “
H C03 “
Naphthalene “
Acetanaphthalene
Anthracene “
Benz(a) anthracene “
Phenanthrene Fluorenthene “
3,4 Benzofluorenthene
Fluorene As requested
Vinyl Chloride
2,4-Dimenthyl Phenol
2, Methyl Phenol “
4, Methyl Phenol “
1-Chloro-m-cresol “
Pryene “
Chrysene “
Components of all “
Catalysts “
2 Surface Drainage Volume Daily
& Storm water pH Once per week
Conductivity “
Salinity “
Total Hydrocarbon Contents “
Turbidity “

92
3 Oil/Product Tank Quantity/Weight During Tank
Sludges; Oily pH Cleanout/desludging
Sludges Total Hydrocarbon And other activities
Content
Heavy Metals e .g. Ni, Cr+6,
Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, V. Fe+3,
and Ti, LSA/NORM
4 Sanitary Wastes Discharge Rate, Daily During discharge
Water Residual Chlorine
Total Coliform Bacteria
BOD5
Dissolved Oxygen
Total Suspended
Solid
Source: Environmental Guidelines and Standards For The Petroleum Industry In Nigeria
(EGASPIN)

93
LEGISLATIONS

94
6 LEGISLATIONS ON TEXTILE INDUSTRY CASE STUDY:

The Indian textile industries are bound under the ISO: 14001 Environmental Management
System. The textile industries in India have proved to be under these limitations. The case
study deals about an industry in the southern part of India which is quite successful in having
its limits as per the ISO standards. The Indian legislations are amended by keeping the
following key points in view:
• Conserving natural resources by effective management of energy, water and
other important resources.
• Reduced COD and BOD of waste water.
• Reduced environmental impacts of recycling, reuse, etc.
• Motivation in people or employees of the industry on protecting environment.

Indian textile market is a well recognised all over the world and is one of the biggest
manufacturing countries in the world. The garments are exported to most parts of the world.
As the demands grow, the country’s production annually is also growing; this in turn makes
the Governing legislations to amend the regulations on industrial outlets.

TABLE 14 The list of the exports from India to different countries:

Country Million USD


USA 1988
UK 588
Canada 179
France 532
Germany 508
Italy 216
Spain 149
UAE 43.6
Australia 5.0
South Africa 4.8
Source: Indian National Textile Workers Federation

The private organisation studied in the case study has good adaptation of newer trends to

95
avoid contradicting with the legislation put up the Government of India. According to
V.Jaganathan, the secretary of the Indian National Textile Workers Federation the textile
industries in India have been spending more than 20% of their overall process money on
waste water treatment.

The various acts amended in India so far are as follows:


• Silk textiles undertaking act, 1972
• Textiles undertaking act, 1983
• Jute companies act,1985
• The handloom act 1985
• Textiles undertakings act 1995

These are some of the acts which had mentioned about the waste water standards and there
were a few timely changes in the limitations and standards.

7 LEGISLATIONS
It was in the early 20th century when certain parts of the world made a taught to put
limitations and regulations and fix a boundary for the industries using water bodies for their
waste outlet.
During 1900 the US government made a few legislations keeping the water qualities in mind,
the main objectives were:
• Removal of Suspended solids and floatable material in the waste water.
• Treatment of bio-degradable composition in the waste water.
• Elimination of pathogenic organisms.

However a report in the early 1950s mentioned that the industries are not following the
legislative limitations to a very good extent. This enforced the implementation of strict acts
and boundaries on the industries. This led to the amendment of Federal Water Pollution
Control Act in 1972, which was also known as the Clean Water Act. This was one of the
major moves by the US environmental agencies, which had some drastic changes on the
waste treatment techniques. Due to this amendment the industries had to implement newer
trends for waste water treatment to see to that they are not violating the rules put under the
Clean Water Act.

The main objective of the Clean Water Act was to maintain the chemical, physical and
biological integrity of the Nations waters. This was also known to be the most major Act

96
passed by the US government as this is a basis to the new technologies and the current ones as
well.
According to Section 304(d) of The Public Law 92-500, the US Environmental Protection
Agency published its definition of secondary treatment in 1973. But major revisions were
made regarding treatment of sewer wastes and regarding the standards allowed after treatment
in 1985.
Then soon after in the year 1987, the Water Quality Act was amended. This was known to be
a major revision to the Clean Water Act.

The main objectives of the Water Quality Act were to:


• Strengthening of federal water quality regulations.
• Amending the CWA’s formal sludge control program.
• Providing funding for state and EPA studies for defining the sources of
pollutants.
• Priorities and permit requirements for storm water.
• Construction grants and financing publicly owned treatment works.

This has been the present act under use and is been amended in terms of standard levels of
pollutants allowed after treatment.

The EU prospective on textile industries:


Water pollution legislations started to amend from the 1970s in the European unions. They
basically have three major considerations or can be put down as three main pillars of the
legislations on textile waste water treatment.
• “Directives on waste water treatment and on nitrates from agricultural process,
1991” (The Nitrates Directive 91/676/EEC)
• “Flagship of EU Water Policy and Legislation, 2000” (Water Framework
Directive)

The directive was mainly to maintain the water qualities in the water resources like the rivers
and seas which were polluted very severely due to the industrial let-outs and the toxic
elements present in the industrial wastes.
The standards mentioned by the above directives are:
Biological Oxygen Demand – 25 mg/l
Chemical Oxygen Demand – 125 mg/l
Total Nitrogen – 15 mg/l
97
Total Phosphorus – 2 mg/l
There are a several ambitious environmental objectives and deadlines set by the Urban Waste
Water Treatment Directive till date. The European Commission has amended the legislation
as to implement these deadlines one by one in a step by step procedure. The previous reports
concluded as follows:

• The actions on maintaining the water quality in the rivers:


• Reduction of BOD levels by 20 to 30 %
• Reduction of total phosphorus by 30 to 35 %
• Total nitrogen levels to be cut down to 40%

• The actions on maintaining the water quality in the seas: Improved water
qualities in Baltic Sea and Mediterranean Sea.
• Member states like Austria, Denmark and Germany have shown improvements
in water qualities compared to previous years by using step by step
implementation.
• In the future more advanced treatment technologies have to be implemented
for maintaining the water qualities.

There are several other countries which deal with treatment standards in different ways
according to their present situations. Some of the under developing countries have no strict
rules. Having strict limitations and restrictions will definitely affect the development of the
industry in turn affects the development of the country. Therefore these limitations may vary
for some developing countries like the Asian countries, etc.
Some of the standards mentioned recently by one of the developed countries in been
mentioned in the table which follows the data. It is clear that these standards are not as low as
they are in some developed countries.

One of the major countries dealing with the textiles is Bangladesh, a small country in Asian
Sub-Continent. Below are the few standards mentioned by the Government of Bangladesh.

TABLE 15

98
Source: The Environmental Conservation Rules 1997.

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