']
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1
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,)
:)
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Table of Con tents
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CopyrightlPub lisher/Editor/Disclaimer ii
Preface VlJ
Acknowledgments ix
Suggestions for Improvement / Errata Notifi cation xi
Introduction I
How to Use This Document 2
Notation 3
Definitions 18
I Example 8
Example 9
Vertical Irregular ity Type 5a
Vertical Irregularity Type 5a
§12.3.2.2
§12.3.3.1
52
54
Introduction to Horizontal Irregularities §12.3.2.1 58
I Example 10 Horizontal Irregularity Typ e Ia and Type Ib
Example I I Horizontal Irregularity Type 2
.. §12.3.2.1..
§12.3.2.1
59
63
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EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION ASCE/SEI 705 PAGE
Example 23
Along the Same Axis
Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force
§I 2.2.3.2
§12.8.3
92
93
I
Example 24
Example 25
Horizontal Distribution of Shear
Amplification of Accident al Torsion
§12.8.4
§I2.8.4.3
97
102 I
Example 26 Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §I 2.3.3.3 106
Example 27
Example 28
Elements Supporting Disconti nuous Walls or Frames
Soil Pressure at Foundati ons
§12.3.3.3
§2.4
I 10
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§I2.I3.4 I I3
Example 29
Example 30
Drift
Story Drift Lim itations
§12.8.6
§ 12.12
I 16
I 19
I
Exampl e 31
Example 32
Vertical Seismic Load Effect.
Design Response Spectrum
§12.4.2.2
§11.4.5
121
124 I
Example 33 Dual Systems §12.2.5. I 126
Example 34
Example 35
Lateral Forces for OneStory Wall Panels
OutofPlane Seismic Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel
§12.11
§12.11. I
129 I
Example 36 Rigid Equipment..
§I2.11.2
§I 3.3.1
133
137 I
Example 37 Flexible Equipment §13.3.1 140
Example 38
Example 39
Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments
Deformation Compatibility for Seismic Design
§I3.3.2 143 I
Example 40
Categories D, E, and F .·
Adjoining Rigid Elements
§ I2.12.4
§12.7.4
145
148 I
Example 4 1 Exterior Elements: Wall Panel §I3.5 .3 150
Exampl e 42
Example 43
Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel.
Beam Horizontal Tie Force
§13.5.3
§12.1.3
153
160
I
Example 44 Collector Elements §12.10.2 162
Example 45 OutofPlane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry §12.11.2 I
Walls to Flexible Diaphragms §12.11.2.1 165
Example 46
Example 47
Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms
Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx :
§ 12.11.2.1 167
I
Lowrise §12.10 .1.1 170
Example 48 Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx : I
Highrise §12.10.1 174
Example 49 Building Separations §12.12.3 176
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iv 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Table of Conten ts
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2006 IB C Structural/Seismic D esign Man ual, Vol. I V
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vi 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Preface
This document is the initial volume in the threevolume 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design
I Manual, It has been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of California
(SEAOC) with funding provided by SEAOC. Its purpose is to provide guidance on the
interpretation and use of the seismic requirements in the 2006 l llfem ational Building Code
(IBC), published by the International Code Council , Inc., and SEAOC's 2005 Recommended
Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (also called the Blue Book).
The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual was developed to fill a void that exists
between the commentary of the Blue Book, which explains the basis for the code provisions,
and everyday structural engineering design practice . The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic
Design Manual illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. Volume 1: Code
Application Examples, provides stepbystep examples for using individual code provisions,
such as computing base shear or building period . Volumes 1I and lIl: Building Design
Examples, furnish examples of seismic design of common types of buildings. In Volumes"
and III, important aspects of whole buildings are designed to show, calculationby
calculation, how the various seismic requirements of the code are implemented in a realistic
design.
The examples in the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual do not necessarily illustrate
I the only appropriate methods of design and analysis. Proper engineering judgment should
always be exercised when applying these examples to real projects. The 20061BC
Structural/Seismic Design Manual is not meant to establish a minimum standard of care but;
I instead, presents reasonable approaches to solving problems typically encountered in
structural /seismic design .
1 The example problem numbers used in the prior Seismic Design Manual  2000 IEC
Volume I code application problems have been retained herein to provide easy reference to
compare revised code requirements.
I SEAOC, NCSEA and ICC intend to update the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual
I Project Managers
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The 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual Volume J was written by a group of highly
qualified structural engineers. They were selected by a steering committee set up by the
SEAOC Board of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with
structural engineering practice and seismic design. The consultants for Volumes I, II, and III
are:
A number of SEAOC members and other structural engineers helped check the examples in
this volume. During its development, drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals.
Their help was sought in review of code interpretations as well as 'detailed checking of the
numerical computations.
I' _.
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•• L...
Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during
the development of the document. The 20042005 and 20052006 committees reviewed
the document and provided many helpful comments and suggestions. Their assistance is
gratefully acknowledged.
ICC
I
In keep ing with SEAOC's and NCSEA's Mission Statemen ts: "to adva nce the structural
engineering profession" and "to provide structural engineers with the most current
informa tion and tools to improve their practice," SEAOC and NCSEA plan to upd ate this I
document as structural/seismic requirements change and new research and better
understand ing of building performa nce in earthqu akes becomes ava ilable.
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Comm ents and suggestions for improvements are welcome and shou ld be sent to
the following:
I
Structural Engi neers Association of Cal ifornia (SEAOC)
A ttention : Executive Director
14 14 K Street, Suite 260
I
Sacramento, California 95814
Telephone: (9 16) 4471198 ; Fax : (916) 9322209
Ema il: leeiWseaoc.org; Web address: www .seaoc .org
SEAOC and NCSEA have made a substantial effort to "ensure that the information in this
document is accurate. In the event that corrections or clarifi cations are needed, these will be I
posted on the SEAOC web site at h/lP://11 1111'.seaoc.org or on the ICC website at
http:// wll1l..iccsaf e.org. SEAOC. ati ts sole discretion, mayor may not issue written
errata I
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x 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic DesIgn Manual, Vol. I
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Introduction
1
Volume I of the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual: Code App lication Examples
deals with interpretation and use of the structural/seismic provisions of the 2006
lntem ational Building Code'" (!BC). The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is
intended to help the reader understand and correctly use the mc structural/seismic provisions
and to provide clear, concise, and graphic guidance on the application of specific provisions
of the code. It primarily addresses the major structural/seismic provisions of the !BC, with
interpretation of specific provisions and examples highl ighting their proper application.
The 2006 !BC has had structural provisions removed from its text and has referenced several
national standards documents for structural design provisions. The primary referenced
document is ASCE/SEI 705, which contains the "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
Other Structures." ASCE/SEI 705 is referenced for load and deformation design demands on
structural elements, National Material design standards (such as ACI, AISC, MSJC and
I NOS) are then referenced to take the structural load demands from ASCE/SEI 705 and
perform specific materia l designs.
I some provision ofSEAOC 's 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary
(Blue Book) that are app licable. When differences between the !BC and Blue Book are
significant they are brought to the attention of the reader.
I The 2006 lBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual is intended for use by practicing structural
engineers and structural designers, building departments, other plan review agencies , and
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual , Vol. I 1
Ho w to Use This Do cum ent
]
• :JC . .'>; 1
The various code application examp les of Volume I are organized by topic consistent with
previous editions. To find an example for a particular provision of the code, look at the
upper, outer come r of each page, or in the table of contents. I
Generally, the ASCE/SEI 705 notation is used throughout. Som e other notation is defined in
the followi ng pages, or in the examples. I
Reference to ASCE/SEI 705 sections and formulas is abbreviated. For example, "ASCE/SE I
705 §6.4.2" is given as §6.4.2 with ASCE/SEI 705 being understood. " Equation (12 .83)" I
is designated (Eq 12.83) in the righthand margins. Similarly, the phrase "T 12.31" is
understood to be ASCE/SEI 705 Table 12.31, and "F 2215 " is understood to be Figure 22
15. Throughout the document, reference to specific code provisions and equations is given in
I
the righthand margin under the category Code Reference.
Generally, the examples are presented in the following format. First, there is a statement
of the example to be solved, including given information, diagram s, and sketches. This is
followed by the "Calculations and Discussion" section, which provides the solution to the
example and appropriate discussion to assist the reader. Finally, many of the examples have
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a third section designated "Commentary." In this section, comm ents and discussion
on the example and related material are made. Commentary is intended to provide a better
understanding of the exampl e and/or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information
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generated in the example.
In general, the Volume I examples focus entirely on use of speci fic provisions of the code.
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No building design is illustrated . Building design examples are given in Volumes II and III.
The 2006 lEe Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 IBC, and the
I
referenced Standard ASCE/SEI 705 unless otherwise indicated. Occasionally, reference is
made to othe r codes and standards (e.g., 2005 AISC Steel Construction Manual 13th Edition,
ACI 31805, or 2005 NOS). When this is done, these documents are clearly ident ified.
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2 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Notation
The following notations are used in this document. These are generally consistent with those
used in ASCE/SEI 705 and other Standards such as ACI and AISC. Some new notations
have also been added . The reader is cautio ned that the same notation may be used more than
once and may carry entire ly different mean ings in different situations, For example, E can
mean the tabulated elastic modulus under the AISC definition (steel) or it can mean the
earthquake load under § 12.4.2 of ASCE /SEI 705 . When the same notation is used in two or
more definitions, each definition is prefaced with a brief descript ion in parentheses (e.g.,
steel or loads) before the definition is given.
I transverse reinforcement
AI flange area
I Ag = gross area of section
Ai = the floor area in square feet of the diaphragm level immediately abo ve
I the story under consideration
Ask = area of skin reinforceme nt per unit height in one side face
AT = tributary area
I
Av = area of shear reinforcement within a distance s, or area of shear
reinforcement perpendicular to flexura l tension reinforcement within a
distance s for deep flexural members
br = flange width
I accommodate  §13.3.2
Fa = axial comp ressive stress that would be permitted if axial force alone
existed
Fa = flood load I
=
Fb bending stress that would be permitted if bending moment alone
existed I
FaM = nominal strength of the base material to be welded
I
Fexx = classification number of weld metal (minimum specified streng th)
F,. = long period site coefficient (at 1.0 second period) see § 11.4.3
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F, = the design lateral force applied at Level x
I
r, = the lateral force induced at any Level i  § 12.8.3
L = live load, except rooflive load, including any permitted live load
I
reduction (i.e, reduced design live load). Live load related internal
moments or forces. Concentrated impact loads
I
Lo = unreduced design live load
Ie (steel RBS) length of radius cut in beam flange for red uced beam
section (RBS) design
1 t: length of a compression member in a frame, measured from center to
center of the joints in the frame
/;, = distance from column centerl ine to centerline of hinge for reduced
bending strength (RBS) connection design
Leveln = that level that is upperm ost in the main portion of the structure
Mpr = (steel RBS) probable plastic moment at the reduced beam section
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(RBS)
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M, = (concrete) moment due to loads causing appreciable sway
M, = torsional moment I
M,a = accidental torsional moment
P si = FyA
p" = (steel) nominal axial strength ofa column, or required axial strength
on a column or a link
I R = rain load
R)' = ratio of expected yield strength F)'c to the minimum specified yield
I strength Fy
S = snow load I
So = design spectral response acceleration
=
=
0.6 (SosITo) T + 0.4 (Sos), for T less than or equal to To
(SOl ) 1 T, for T greater than T,
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Sos = 5% damped, design, spectral response acceleration parameter at short
period (i.e., 0.2 seconds) = (2/3) S,«..  § 11.4.4
s'IIS = MCE, 5% damped, spectral response acce leration parameter for short I
periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) = FoS,. adj usted for site class effects
If = thickness of flange
I
tw = thickness of web
V the tota l design seismic lateral force or shear at the base of the building
or structure
Vpa = nominal shear streng th of an active link modified by the axial load
magnitude
Vpx the portion of the seismic shear force at the level of the diaphragm,
=
wp the weigh t of the smaller portion of the structure
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wp = the weight of the diaphragm and other elemen ts of the structure
tributary to the diap hragm
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lVp:c = the weigh t of the diaphragm and elements tributary thereto at
Level x, includ ing ap plicable portions of other loads defined in 1
§12.7.2 I
y = heigh t of lower support attachm ent at Level Yas measured from the
base
I area
= the ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story between
Level x and x I
I lightweight" concrete
O,WE the average of the displacements at the extreme points of the structure
I
at Level x
Active Fault/Active Fault Trace. A fault for which there is an average historic slip rate of
I mm per year or more and geologic evidence of seismic activity within Holocene (past I 1,000
years) times. Active fault traces are designated by the appropriate regulatory agency and/or
registered design professional subject to identification by a geologic report.
Allowable Stress Design. A method of proportioning structural members, such that elastically
computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable
stresses (also called working stress design).
Attachments, Seismic. Means by which components and their supports are secured or
connected to the seismicforeeresisting system of the structure. Such attachments include
anchor bolts, welded connections and mechan ical fasteners.
Balcony, Exterior. An exterior floor projecting from and supported by a structure without
additional independent supports.
Base. The level at which the horizontal seismic ground motions are considered to be imparted
I to the structure.
Boundary Elements. Chords and collectors at diaphragm and shear wall edges, interior
openings, discontinuities, and reentrant corners.
Boundary Members. Portions along wall and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal
and transverse reinforcement and/or structural steel members.
Brittle. Systems, members, materials and connections that do not exhibit significan t energy
I dissipation capacity in the inelastic range.
Cantilevered Column System. A structural system relying on column elements that cantilever
I from a fixed base and have minimal rotational resistance capacity at the top with lateral forces
applied essentially at the top and are used for lateral resistance.
I Collector. A diaphragm or shear wall element parallel to the applied load that collects and
transfers shear forces to the verticalforeeresisting elements or distributes forces within a
diaphragm or shear wall.
I Component. A part or element of an architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural system.
Component, equipment. A mechanical or electrical component or element that is part
I of a mechanical and/or electrical system within or without a building system.
Component, flexible. Component, including its attachments, having a fundamental
period greater than 0.06 second .
I
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 17
Definitions
1
Component, rigid. Component, including its attachments, having a fundamental
period less than or equal to 0.06 second .
I
Confined Region. The portion of a reinforced concrete component in which the concrete is
confined by closely spaced special transverse reinforcement restraining the concrete in
1
directions perpendicular to the applied stress.
Coupling Beam. A beam that is used to connect adjacent concrete wall piers to make them act
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together as a unit to resist lateral forces. .
Dead Loads. The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building, including
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but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, builtin partitions, finishes, cladding,
and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed service equipment, I
including the weight of cranes.
Deck. An exterior floor supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjacent structure, and/or J
posts, piers, or other independent supports .
1 Displacement.
Design Displacement. The design earthquake lateral displacement, exclud ing
additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion , required for design of the
isolation system.
Total Design Displacement. The design earthquake lateral displacement, including
additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion. required for design of the
isolation system.
Total Maximum Displacement. The maximum considered earthquake lateral
displacement, including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion,
required for verification of the stability of the isolation system or elements thereof,
design of building separations, and vertical load testing of isolator unit prototype.
Displacement Restraint System. A collect ion of structural elements that limits lateral
displacement of seismically isolated structu res due to the maximum considered earthquake.
Duration of Load. The period of continuous application of a given load, or the aggregate of
periods of intermittent applications of the same load.
Effective Stiffness. The value of the lateral force in the isolation system, or an element
thereof, divided by the corresponding lateral displacement.
Element
Ductile element. An element capable of sustaining large cyclic deformations beyond the
attainment of its strength.
Limited ductile element. An element that is capable of sustaining moderate cyclic
deformations beyond the attainment of nominal strength without significant loss of
strength.
Nonductile element. An element having a mode of failure that results in an abrupt loss
I of resistance when the element is deformed beyond the deformation corresponding to the
development of its nominal strength . Nonductile elements cannot reliably sustain
significant deformation beyond that attained at their nominal strength.
I Equipment Support. Those structural members or assemblies of members or manufactured
elements, including braces, frames, lugs, snubbers, hangers, or saddles that transmit gravity load
I and operating load between the equipment and the structure.
Essential Facilities. Buildings and other structures that are intended to remain operational in the
I event of extreme environmental loading from flood, wind, snow, or earthquakes.
Frame, Moment. I
Intermediate moment frame (IMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are
capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members.
Ordinary moment frame (OMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are I
capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis ofthe members.
Special moment frame (SMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are
capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members. I
Frame System.
Building frame system. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
I
system providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by shear
walls or braced frames.
Dual frame system. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
I
system providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by a
momentresisting frame and shear walls or braced frames.
Space frame system. A structural system composed of interconnected members, other
I
than bearing walls , that is capable of supporting vertical loads and that also may provide
resistance to seismic forces . I
Gravity Load (W). The total dead load and applicable portions of other loads as defined in
§§ 12.7.2 and 12.14.8.1. I
Hazardous Contents. A material that is highly toxic or potentially explosive and in sufficient
quantity to pose a significant lifesafety threat to the general public if an uncontrolled release
were to occur.
I
Impact Load. The load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles, and
other similar forces and kinetic loads, pressure, and possible surcharge from fixed or moving
I
loads.
Importance Factor. A factor assigned to each structure according to its occupancy category
I
as prescribed in §11.5.1.
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20 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Definitions
Inverted Pendulumtype Structures. Structures that have a large portion of their mass
concentrated near the top and, thus, have essentially one degree of freedom in horizontal
translation. The structures are usually Tshaped with a single column supporting the beams or
framing at the top.
Isolation Interface. The boundary between the upper portion of the structure, which is
isolated , and the lower portion of the structure, which moves rigidly with the ground.
Isolation System. The collection of structural elements that includes individual isolator units,
I structural elements that transfer force between elements of the isolation system and
connections to other structural elements.
Isolator Unit. A horizontally flexible and vertically stiff structural element of the isolation
system that permits large lateral deformations under design seismic load. An isolator unit may
be used either as part of or in addition to the weightsupporting system of the building.
Joint. A portion ofa column bounded by the highest and lowest surfaces of the other members
framing into it.
Limit State. A condition beyond which' a structure or member becomes unfit for service and is
judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe
(strength limit state).
Live Loads. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structu re
and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load,
earthquake load, flood load,ordead load.
I Live Loads (Roof), Those loads produced I) during maintenance by workers, equipment, and
materials; and 2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by
I people .
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). A method of proportioning structural members
I and their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is
reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. The term "LRFD" is
used in the design of steel and wood structures.
I Load Factor. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nomin al load, for
uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability
I that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously,
Loads. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials, occupants and
I their possessions, environmental effect, differential movement, and restrained dimensional
changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small
magnitude. Other loads are variable loads (see also "Nominal loads").
I Loads Effects. Forces and deformations produced in structural members by the applied loads.
Maximum Considered Earthquake. The most severe earthquake effects considered by this
code.
Nominal Loads. The magnitudes of the loads specified in this chapter (dead, live, soil, wind,
snow, rain, flood, and earthquake.)
Resistance Factor. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the
I
nominal strength and the manner and consequences of failure (also called strength reduction
factor). I
Seismic Design Category. A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy
category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site, see § 11.4.
Seismicfo rceresisting system. The part of the structural system that has been considered in
the design to provide the required resistance to the seismic forces prescribed herein. I
Seism ic Forces. The assumed forces prescribed herein, related to the response of the structure
to earthqua ke motions, to be used in the design of the structure and its components. I
Seism ic Response Coefficient . Coefficient C" as determined from §12.8.
I
Shallow Anc hors. Shallow anchors are those with embedme ntlengthtodiameter ratios of
less than 8.
I
Shear Pa nel. A floor, roof, or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.
Shea r Wa ll. A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall.
I
Shear Wa llframe Interactive System. A structural system that uses combination s of shear
walls and frames designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their rigidities, considering
I
interaction between shear walls and frames on all levels.
Site Class . A classification assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their
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engineering properties as defined in § 11.4.2.
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22 200 6 IBC Structural/Seis mic D esign Manua l, Vol. 1
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1 Dennltions
1 Site Coefficients. The values of Fa and F indicated in Tables 11.41 and 11.42, respect ively.
"
Special Transverse Reinforcement. Reinforcement composed of spirals, closed stirrups, or
hoops and supplementary crossties provided to restrain the concrete and qualify the portion of
the componen t, where used, as a confined region.
Story Drift Ratio. The story drift divided by the story height.
Strength, Nom ina l. The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads, as
determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and formulas
derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of
scaled models, allowing for modeling effects and differenc es between laboratory and field
conditions.
Strength Design. A method of proportion ing structural members such that the computed
forces produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength
(also called load and resistance factor design.) The term "strength design" is used in the design
of concrete and masonry structural elements.
Torsiona l Force Distrib utio n. The distribu tion of horizontal seismic forces through a rigid
diaphragm when the center of mass of the structure at the level under consideration does not
coincide with the center of rigidity (sometimes referred to as a diaphragm rotation).
To ughness. The ability of a material to absorb energy without losing significant strength .
Wall, Loadbearing. Any wall meeting either of the follow ing classifications:
I. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot
(1459 N/m) of vertica l load in addition to its own weight.
2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot
(2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
W indres traint Seismic System. The collection of structural elements that provides restraint
of the seismicisolatedstructure for wind loads. The windrestraint system may be either an
integral part of isolator units or a separate device.
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Determine the importan ce factors and the seismic design category for a faci lity given the
following information.
S DS = 1.17
SOl = 0.70
SI = 0.75
[!J Building category and importance factors for general occupancy and for
one build ing to be used for emergency shelter
From Table 1\.5 1, " Importance Factors ," for the given occupancy category, the general
category is II. The occupancy category is used to determine the "Se ismic Design Category,"
§ 11 .6 1. The one building to be used for an emergency shelter is Category IV.
The importance fac tors for seismic loads are from Table 11 .51. Importance factors for snow
loads are from Table 74. Importance factors for wind loads are from Table 61.
*Note that for Occupancy Categories I, II, and III having S, equal to or greater than 0.75 (recall Sj =
I
0.75 ), the building shall be assigned to SDC E. Also for Occupancy Category IV having S, ~ 0.75,
the building shall be assigned to SDC F. I
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26 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. 1
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Ex am p le 1 • Earth q u ake Lo ad Co m b i n ations: St rength Des ign §12. 4.2 .3
This example demonstrates the application of the strength design load combinations that
involve the seismi c load E given in § 12.4;2.3 . This will be done for the momentresisting
frame structure shown below.
8 Ds = 1.10
I = 1.0
P = 1.3
II = 0.5
Snow load S = 0
A B
D
, / // / r r • / rrr>
Beam AB and Column CD are elements of the special momentresisting fram e.
Structural ana lysis has provi ded the follow ing beam moments at A, and the
column axial loads and moments at C due to dead load, office building live load,
and left toright ( ~) and righttoleft () directio ns oflateral seismic loading.
Sign Convention: Positive moment induces flexural tension on the bottom side of a beam and
at the right side of a column. Positi ve axial load induces compression . Note that for the
pa rticular location of Column CD, the seism ic Axial Load and Moment at C are both
positive fo r the lefttoright ( ~) load ing and are both negative for the rightto Ieft ()
loading. This is not necessarily true for the other elements of the structure.
I
[LJ Governing strength design seismic load combinations
1
1.2D + I.OE + 0.5L ... (Note 0.2S =0) (Comb . 5)
when the algebraic sign, ±, of QE is taken as the same as that for D, and
I
E =PQE  0.2SDSD I
when the algebraic sign, ±, of QE is taken as opposite to that for D. I
For the given values of: p = 1.3, SDS= 1.10, the load combinations are I
1.2D + 1.3QE+ (0.2)( I.I)D + 0.5L = 1.42D + 1.3QE+ 0.5L (Comb. 5)
I
when the signs of QEand D are the same, and
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28 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
I
I Example 1 • Earthqua ke Lo ad Combinations: Stren g th Design §1 2. 4.2.3
0.68D + 1.3QE
I
MA = 1.42 ( 100) + 1.3 (120) + 0.5(50) = 323 kipft
I
I ~ For the governing load combination when the signs of Q£ and D are opposite
I 0.68 D + 1.3QE
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2006 IBC Structural/Se ism ic Design Manual, Vol. I 29
§12.4.2.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design
I
[!J Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the I
design of column section at C for seismic load combinations
The seismic load combinations using the definitions of E given by Equations 12.41
through 12.44 can be used for the design requirement of a single action such as the
moment at beam end A, but they cannot be used for interactive pairs of actions such
as the axial load and moment at the column section C. These pairs must occur I
simultaneously because of a common load combination. For example , both the axial
load and the moment must be due to a common direction of the lateral seismic
loading and a common sense of the vertical seismic acceleration effect represented by I
0.2 SDsD. There can be cases where the axial load algebraic signs are the same for QE
and D, while the moment algebraic signs are different. This condition would prohibit
the use of the same load combination for both axial load and moment. I
To include the algebraic signs of the individual actions, the directional property of the
lateral seismic load effect QE, and the independent reversible property of the vertical
I
seismic load effect 0.2 SDsD, it is proposed to use
(Note : a factor of 0.5 applies to L if L :0: 100 psf [except at garages and public
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assembIy areas])
For the specific values of p = 1.3 and SDS = l.l 0, the load combinations provide the
I
following values for MA , and the interaction pair Pc and Me. Note that the interaction
pair Pc and Me must occur simultaneously at a specific load combination of gravity I
load, and lateral and vertical seismic load effects. The interaction design of the
column section must satisfy all of the eight pairs of P e and Me from the seismic load
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30 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 1 a Earthq uake L oad Co m b i n ations : Strength Des i g n §1 2.4 .2 .3
combinations along with the pairs from the gravity load combinations and wind load
combinati ons.
The govern ing va lues are und erlined fo r MA [sam e as det erm ined in Part (2) ] and for the
interaction pairs of Pc and Me required for the design of the column section at C.
...
The eight seismic load combinations resulting from the proposed definition of E pro vid e an
automatic method of considering the individual algebraic signs of the load actions, the
direction of the lateral seismic load, and the independent ± action of 0.2 SDCD. There is no
nee d to use the "same sign" and "opposite sign" limitations of Equations 12 .42 and 12.43
since all possible com binations are represented . Thi s is imp ortant for interactive pa irs of
actions that must be evaluated for a common load combination.
When the Modal Respo nse Spectrum Analysis' procedure of § 12.9 is used, the algebraic signs
of seismic load actions are lost because of the process of combining the individual modal
responses. The signs to be used for an interaction pair of actions due to a given direction of
lateral loading can be obtained from the primary mode response where the prim ary mode is
the mode having the largest participation fac tor for the given direction of lateral seism ic
loading. Or, alternatively, the signs can be obtained from the equivalent lateral force
procedure of § 12.8.
:
The code permits the use of allowable stress design for the design of wood members and
their fastenings (ASCE/SEI 705 §2.4 and § 12.4.2.3). Section 2.4 defines the basic load
combinations for allowable stress design.
This example illustrates the application ofthis method for the plywood shear wall shown
below. The wall is a bearing and shear wall in a light wood framed build ing.
Gravity loads
The following information is given.
ITnTTTTm
Plywood
Seismic Design Catego ry B shear wall
J = 1.0
P = 1.0
5 DS = 0.3
Determine the required design loads for shear capacity q and holddown capacity T
for the following load combinations.
I r ,. ... .,.,.~
§ 12.4.2 defines the seismic load effect E for use in load combinations as
(Eq 12.41)
(Eq 12.43)
I
= QE+ 0.06D when D and QE are in the same sense (Eq 12.44)
1 and E = PQE  0.2SosD
D +0.7E (Comb . 5)
I = D(I .O) + 0.7 (0.6D + QE)
I = D(J.O 0.968) + 0.75 L,.  0.525 QE for D and QE with the opposite sense
For the determination of design shear capacity, dead load and live load are not
involved, and all load combinations reduce to
For the design holddown tension capacity the governing load combination is
0.558D  0.7QE
For the wall boundary element compression capacity, the governing load combination
would be
1.042D + 0.7QE
Base shear and the resulting element seismic forces QE determined under §12.8.1
are on a strength design basis. For allowable stress design, QE must be factored by 0.7
as indicated.
QE = 4000 Ib
For the governing load combination ofO.7QE, the design unit shear is
This unit shear is used to determine the plywood thickness and nailing requirements
from lBe Table 2306.4.1, which gives allowable shear values for shorttime duration
loads due to wind or earthquake. For example, select 15/32 structural I sheeting
(plywood) with 10d common nails having a minimum penetration of 11/2 inches
I into 2x members with 6inch spacing of fasteners at panel edges; allowable shear of
340 plf.
Taking moments about point 0 at center of post at right side of wall with
E" = oQ£ = 4000 Ib, the value of the holddown tension force T due to horizontal
seismic forces is computed
T = 1816.39 Ib tension
Thu s:
c = 4295 Ib compression
1
I The tension value is used for the selection of the premanufactured holddown
elements. Manufacturer's catalogs commonly list holddown sizes with their "1.33 x
allowable" capacity values. Here the 1.33 value represents the allowed Load Duration
I factor for resisting seismic loads. This is not considered a stress increase (although it
has the same effect). Therefore, the catalog "1.33 x allowable" capacity values may
be used to select the appropriate holddown element.
I
I Equations 12.41 and 12.42 for E create algebraic sign problems in the
load combinations. It would be preferable to use
For a given building site, the maximum conside red earthquake spectral response
I
accelerations S, at short periods, and S) at Isecond period are given by the acceleration
contour maps in §22. This example illustrates the general procedure for determin ing the
design spectral response parameters Sos and SDl from the mapped values of Ss and 8). The
I
parameters Sos and So, are used to calculate the design base shear in §12.8 and the Design
Response Spectrum in § 11.4.5.  I
Note that by far the most accurate, easiest, and most effic ient way to obtain the spectral
design values is to use the USGS website iwww.eqhazmaps.usgs.govr. Given the longitude
and latitude of the site, the website provides va lues of Ss and S). The site longitude and
I
latitude can be obtained from an internet site such as u\I~"H'. geocode.com " by simply in
putting the address. I
From u\I'lI'\I'. geocode.com " it is determ ined that a building site near Sacramento, California
is located at Latitud e 38. 123° North and Longitude  121.123 (or 121.123 west). The soil
D D
I
profile is Site Class D.
. ""
,.. Code.8eference· "
For the given position (Near Sonora  NW of Sacramento, California) of 38° North
(Latit ude = 38.123°) and 121.123° West (Longitu de = 121.123'), USGS provides the
values of
5s = 46.2%g = 0.462g
5, = 20.3%g = O.203g
From the USGS for the given site class D, and Ss = 0.462g, 5\ = O.203g, the site coefficients
are as follows
Fa = 1.58 TII.41
I The adjusted maximum conside red earthqu ake spectral response accelerations (based
§11.4.3) are also given on the CD ROM as follows
011
I
I
I
= O. I I sec I
T, = SOl / 50s
= 0.27 / 0.49
I
= 0.55 sec I
Tt. 8 sec (F 22 15)
=
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38 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manu al, Vol. I
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Des ign Spectral R esponse A cc ele ra ti ons §11 A
Thus:
S. in g 's
0.5
S DS = 0.4 9g
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.18 ... .....
... ...
... ...  ... 
0. 1
o
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
To =0.11 sec T, =0.55 sec
= 0.D75
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But shall not be taken less than
I
Intro duction to Vertica l Irregul arities §12.3.2.2
,':
'. §12.3.2.2
Tab le 12.32 defines vertical structural irregularities and assigns analysis and design
procedures to each type and seismic design category. These irregularities can be divided into
two categories. The first, dyn amic forcedistribution irreg ularities, which are Types Ia, Ib, 2,
and 3. The second, irregularities in load path or force tran sfer, which are Types 4 and 5. The
vertical irregularities are
1 Ia. Stiffness Soft Story Irregu larity
Ib. Stiffness Extreme Soft Story Irregularity
2. Weight (mass) irregularity
3. Vertical geometric irregu larity
4. Inplane discontinuity in vertical latera lforceresisting element
Sa. Discontinu ity in Lateral Stength  Weak Story Irregularity
5b. Discontinui ty in Lateral Strength  Extreme Weak Story Irregularity
Structures in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F possessing dynamic force distribut ion
irregularities shall be analyzed using the dynamic analysis procedure (or moda l analysis
procedure) prescribed in §12.7. (Refer to Tab le 12.6.1) Structure Description 3. The vert ical
force distribution provided by § 12.8.3 may be assumed to be adequate for structures lacking
vertical irregulari ty Types Ia, Ib, 2, and 3. However, stiffness and mass discontinuities may
significantly affect the vertical distribution of forces and, for this reason the modal analysis
procedure, which can account for these discontinuities, is necessary.
Although designers may opt to use the dynamic analysis procedure and bypass checks for
irregularity Types Ia, Ib, 2, and 3, the reference sections listed in Tab le 12.32 should still be
checked for limitations and design requirements. Note that § 12.3.3.1 prohibits structures with
vertical irregularity Types Ib, Sa, or 5b for Seismic Design Categories E and F.
Ft + Fs J
10' ~ [';'==::;1';::=::::::;11     ;,. 0 " . 2.02
i:
F,  . .
.• / :
0', _1.75
I
10'
F,  . . DD /· Triangular
shape
"' :
;
.'"
!
I
0;\... 1.45 I
10'
F
, .. DD ./ , !
.'
!
/
DD .I,'
02" , .0B
' 0'
F i "
' 2'
'..
Actual shape
1 If the stiffness of the story meets at least one of the two criteria above, the structure is
deemed to have a soft story, and a modal analysis (§12.9) is generally required by Table
12.6 I.
The definition of soft story in the code compares values of the lateral stiffness of individual
stories. Generally , it is not practical to use stiffness properties unless these can be easily
determ ined. There are many structural configurations where the evaluat ion of story stiffness
is complex and is often not an available output from computer programs. Recogni zing that
the basic intent of this irregularity check is to determ ine if the lateralforce distribution will
I differ significantly from the pattern prescribed by §12.8.3, which assumes a prescribed shape
for the first dynamic mode of response, this type of irregularity can also be determined by
comparing values of drift ratios due to the prescr ibed lateral forces. This deformat ion
comparison may even be more effective than the stiffness comparison because the shape of
the first mode shape is often closely approximated by the structure displacements due to the
specified §12.8.3 force pattern . Floor level displacements and corresponding storydrift ratios
are directly available from computer programs. To compare displacements rather than
stiffness, it is necessary to use the reciprocal of the limitin g percentage ratios of 70 and 80
percent as they apply to story stiffness, or reverse their applicability to the story or stories
I above. The following example shows this equivalent use of the displacement propert ies.
I From the given displacements , story drifts and the storydrift rat io's values are determi ned.
The storydrift ratio is the story drift divided by the story height. These storydrift ra tios will
be used for the required comparisons because they better represent the changes in the slope
of the mode shape when there are significant differences in interstory heights. (Note: story
displacements can be used if the story heights are nearly equal.)
I In terms of the calculated storydrift ratios, the soft story occurs when one of the following
cond itions exists.
s s,.  Ii,.
I When 70 percent of " exceeds
h, h,
or
I When 80 percent of Ii,' exceeds I [(0,.• Ii,.)
, + (0,•  Ii,_. ) + (0, • Ii,)]
.•
h, 3 h, h, h,
I the storydrift ratios arc determi ned as
I ~= o ..
h, h,
=
(0.7 1 0)
144
= 0.00493
I t.,
 '=
0,.  0" = (1.08  0.71) = 0.00308
h, h, 120
I ~ = Ii,.  0,. = (1.45  1.08) = 0.00308
h, h, 120
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2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 43
§12. 3.2.2 Ex ample 4 • Vertical Irreg ularity Type 1
1
_t:J._, = Ii"  Ii" = (1.751.45) = 0.00250
Iz, s, 120
Note that 70 percent of first story drift is larger than second story drift. Alternately:
0.00493 > (0.00308 x 1.30 = 0.0040) . . . thus soft story.
Also note that structural irregularities of Types Ia, Ib, or 2 in Table 12.32 do not
apply where no storydrift ratio under design lateral force is greater than 130 percent
of the storydrift ratio of the next story above, §12.3.2.2, Exception 1.
0.80(~)
h,
= 0.80(0.00493) = 0.00394 > 0.00289 ... NG
I
Examp le 4 tI Vertical Irr egularity Type 1 §12.3.2.2
Recall from Table 12.32 for Ib , extreme soft story, reference §12.3.3. 1. This building is
SOC 0 , and is permitted, Structures having SDC E or F and also having vertical irregularity
Type Ib shall not be permitted.
Commentary
Section 12.8.6 requires that story drifts be computed using the maximum inelastic response
displac ements b.r , which include the deflection amplification factor Cd
s = Cdb. rr
(Eq 12.815)
x I
However, for the purpose of the story drift, or storydrift ratio, comparisons needed for soft
story determination, the displacement bxe due to the design seismic forces can be used as in
this example. In the exampl e above, only the first story was checked for possible softstory
vertical irregularity . In practice, all stories must be checked, unless a modal analysis is
performed. It is often convenient to create tables to facilitate this exerc ise, see Tables 4.1
and 4.2.
Sto ry Story Storydrift 0 .8x (S tory 0 .7x (S tory  Avg . of S tory drift Ratio Soft Story
Leve l Displacement Drift Rat io drift Ratio ) drift Ratio) of Next 3 Stories Status la
5 2.02 in 0.27 in 0.00225 0.00180 0.00 158 No
4 1.75 0 .30 0.00250 0.00200 0.00175 No
3 1.45 0.37 0 .00308 0.00 246 0.00216 No
2 1.08 0. 37 0 .0030 8 0.0024 6 0.00 21 6 0.0026 1 No
0.71 0.71 0.00493 0.00 394 0.00345 0 .00289 Yes
S tory S tory Storydrift 0 .7x (S tory 0 .6x (Story Avg, of Storydrift Ratio Soft Story
Level Disp lacement Drift ratio drift Ratio) dr ift Ratio) of Next 3 Stories Status lb
5 2.02 in 0.27 in 0 .00 225 0.001 58 0 .00 135 No
4 1.75 0 .30 0 .00250 0.00175 0.00150 No
3 1.45 0 .37 0 .00 30 8 0.002 16 0.001 85 No
2 1.08 0.37 0.00308 0.002 16 0.00185 0 .0026 1 No
0.71 0 .71 0.00493 0.00345 0.00296 0.00289 Ye s
...' a!nple 5
;V~rtical lrregularity Type 2 §12.3~2.2
The fivestory special moment frame office building has a heavy utility equipment
installation at Level 2. This results in the floor weight distribution shown below.
Ws = 90 k
W,= 110k
W, = 110 k
W,= 100k
. , .
:Calci!li!tions and Discussion Code Reference
A weight, or mass, vertical irregularity is considered to exist when the effective mass of any
story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story. However, this
requirement does not apply to the roof if the roof is lighter than the floor below. Note that it
does apply if the roof is heavier than the floor below.
Checking the effective mass of Level 2 against the effective mass of Levels 1 and 3
At Levell
1 I , • ..,
.Commentary
As in the case of vertical irregularity Type la or Ib, this Type 2 irregularity also results in a
1 primary mode shape that can be substantially different from the triangular shape and lateral
load distribution given by § 12.8.3. Consequently, the appropriate load distribution must be
determined by the modal analysis procedure of § 12.9, unless the irregular structure is not
more than two stories and is Occupancy Category l or II (see Table 12.61).
1
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2006 lac Structura l/Seismic De sign Manual, Vol. I 47
§12.3.2 .2 Ex ample 6 • Vertical Irregularity Type 3
ample 6
Vertic al Irregularity Typ e 3 § 12.3.2.2
The lateralforeeresisting system of the fivestory specia l moment frame building shown
below has a 25foot setback at the third, fourth, and fifth stories.
4@2S' 
100'
I..... ....
..... ...
Level
DDD
5
DDD
DDD
3
D.DDD
2
A vertical geometric irregularity is considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the
lateralforeeresisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in the adjacent
story. Onestory penthou ses are not subject to this requirement.
In this example, the setback of Level 3 must be checked. The ratios of the two levels are
,.
I Commentary
The more than l3 0percent change in width of the lateralforceresisting system between
adjacent stories could result in a primary mode shape that is substantially different from the
shape assumed for proper applications of Equation 12.8 11. If the change is a decrease in
width of the upper adjacent story (the usual situation), the mode shape difference can be
mitigated by designing for an increased stiffness in the story with a reduced width.
Similarl y, if the width decrease is in the lower adjacent story (the unusu al situation), the
Type la softstory irregularity can be avoided by a proportional increase in the stiffness of
the lower story. However, when the width decrease is in the lower story, there could be an
overturning momentloadtransfer discontinuity that would require a dynamic analysis per
) Table 12.61.
Note that if the frame elements in the bay between lines 4 and 5 were not included as part of
the designated lateralforceresisting system, the vertical geometric irregularity would not
exist.
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,Ex, mple 7
Vertical Irregularity Typ e 4 § 12.3.2.2
A concrete building has the building frame system shown below. The shear wall
between lines A and B has an inplane offset from the shear wall between lines C
and D.
Level
rrrT
< ~
IE
3@25'=75'
5
12'
 0
4
12'
e:
3
12'
12'
2
25'
00 50'
Shear wall
12'
A Type 4 vertical irregularity exists when there is an inplane offset of the lateralforce
resisting elements greater than the length of those elements . In this examp le, the left
side of the upper shear wall (between lines A and B) is offset 50 feet from the left
side of the lower shea r wall (between lines C and D). This 50foot offset is greater
than the 25foot length of the offset wall clements .
s: '"
C;ommentary
The intent of this irregularity check is to provide correction offorce transfer or load
path deficiencies. It should be noted that any inplane offset, even those less than or equal
to the length or bay width of the resisting element, can result in an overturning moment
loadtransfer discontinuity that requires the application of §12.3.3.3. When the offset
exceeds the length of the resisting element, there is also a shear transfer discontinuity
that requires application of § 12.3.3.4 for the strength of collector elements along the
offset. In this example, the columns under wall AB are subject to the prov isions of
§ 12.3.3.3, and the collector element between lines Band C at Level 2 is subject to the
provisions of § 12.3.3.4.
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2006 IBC Stru ctlirallSuismic D esign Manual. Vol. I 51
§12.3.2.2 Exa mple 8 • Ve rtIc al Irregu l ar ity Type 5a
IE. ampleB
Verfic a l l r r eg ularity Type 5a §12.3.2,,2
A concrete bearin gwall building has the typical transve rse shearwall configuration
sho wn be low. All walls in this direction are identical, and the individu al piers have
the shear contribution given below. Then , V, is the nominal shear strength calcu lated in
accordance with Chapter 19, and Vm is defined herein as the shear corresponding to the
development of the "nominal flexure strength also calculated in accordance with Chapter
19." Note that VII/ is not defined in ACI or Chapter 19.
Level J
A Type Sa weakstory discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less
than 80 percent of that in the story above. The story strength is the total strength of all
seismicforceresisting elements shari ng the story shear for the direction under consideration.
Using the smaller values of VII and VII/ given for each pier, the story strengths are
Check if firststory strength is less than 80 percent of that of the second story.
Check if firststory strength is less than 65 percent of that of the second story (Irregularity
Type 5b).
. . Therefore the lower story is not an extreme soft story, Irregularity Type 5b.
Commentary
An extreme weak story is prohibited (under §12.3.3.1) for structures more than two
stories or 30 feet in height if the "weak story" has a calculated strength ofless
than 80 percent of the story above . A weakstory condition is absolutely prohibited in
SDC E and F.
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2006 IBC Slructural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 53
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§12.3.3.1 Example 9 II Vertical Irregularity Type 5a
Example 9
Verticallrregulaljty Type Sa § 12.3.3.1
A fivestory building has a steel special momentresisting frame (SMRF). The frame
consists ofW24 beams and W14 columns with the following member strength
properties.
A o
A Type 5 weakstory discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80
percent of that of the story above (where it is less than 65 percent, an extreme weak story
exists) . The story strength is consi dered to be the total strength of all seismicforeeresisting
elements that share the story shea r for the directi on under consideration.
To determine if a weak story exists in the first story, the sums of the column shears
in the first and second storieswhen the member moment capacities are developed
by lateral loadingmust be determined and compared.
In this example, it is assumed that the beam moments at a beamcolumn joint are
distributed equally to the sections of the columns directly above and below the joint.
Given below are the calculations for first and second stories.
v a M. /2 =125 kipft
125 I
''
Clear height = 14 ft  2 ft = 12 ft
125+100
  = 187k'
.) "iPS
• o
12 v FOR SHEAR
Mf=100kip·ft
200 .........
Checking columns Band C for strong columnweak beam
considerations 250(+)250
2Mc = 400 < 2Jvfb = 500 200"
FOR MOMENT
:. Strong beamweak column condition exists.
200.. . . . .
Next, the shear in each column must be determined.
Note moment capacity of column governs over v
a Me = 200 kipft
200(+) 200
moment capacity of beam to determine shear. 200''
200 r '
Clear height = 14 ft  2 ft = 12 ft
G
First story strength = VA + VB + VD = 2(18.75) + 2(25.0) = 87.5 kips
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 55
§12.3.3.1 Example 9 • Ver tical Irregu larity Type 5a
FOR MOMEN T
:. strong columnweak beam condition exis ts.
""""
200
v
Mb I 2= 125 kipft ''
125
V."  tr
" D
 125 + 125 ?5
 _.
0 k'IpS
10
J
125
Mb I 2= 125 kipft
v
•
125" J
Check ing columns B and C for strong columnweak beam con siderations
FOR MOMENT
v
Me = 200 kipft 200 ........
Me =200 klpft
v 200 '"
•
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 57
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§ 12. 3.2.1 In tr oduction 10 Ho r/zonla /lrregularitles
Introduction to 1
Horizontal Irregularities §12.3.2.1
Horizontal structura l irregularities are identified in Table 12.31. There are five types of
1
horizontal irregularities:
la. Tor sional Irregularity  to be considered when diaphragms are not flexible as
determined in §12.3.1.2
lb . Extreme Torsional Irregularity  to be considered when diaphragms are not
flexib le as determined in §12.3.1.2
2. Reentrant Comer Irregularity. ]
3. Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity.
4. Outofplane Offsets Irregularity. I
5. Nonparallel Systems  Irregularity.
Type 1a and 1b. When the ratio of maximum story drift to average story drift exceeds the
I
given limit, there is the potential for an unbalance in the inelastic deformation demands at the
two extreme sides ofa story. As a consequence, the equivalent stiffness of the side
having maximum deformation will be reduced, and the eccentr icity between the
I
centers of mass and rigidity will be increased along with the corresponding torsions.
An amplification factor Ax is to be applied to the accidental torsion M'a to represent the
effects of this unbalanced stiffness, § I2.8.4. I to 12.8.4.3.
Type 2. The opening and closing deformation response or flapping action of the
projecting legs of the building plan adjace nt to reentrant comers can result in
I
concentrated forces at the comer point. Elements must be provided to transfer
these forces into the diaphragms. I
Type 3. Excessive openings in a diaphragm can result in a flexible diaphragm
response along with force concentrations and load path deficienci es at the I
boundari es of the openings. Elements must be provided to transfer the forces
into the diaphragm and the structural system.
I
Type 4. The outofplane offset irregularity represents the irregular load path category. In this
case, shears and overturning moments must be transferred from the level above the offset to
the level below the offset, and there is a horizontal offset in the load path for the shears. I
Type 5. The response deform ations and load patterns on a system with nonparallel
lateralforceresisting elements can have significant differences from those of a regular I
system. Further analysis of deformation and load behavior may be necessary.
I
58 2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eism ic Des ign Manu al, Vol. I
I
Example 10 a Horizontal Irregularity Type 1a and Type 1b §12.3.2.1
ri3fnple 1
oui on a/Irregulari ty Type 1a a nd ype'lb § 12.3,,2 .
OR,2
Level >
3
OR ,1
 7
drift, includ ing accidental tors ion effects, at one end of the structure transverse to
I an axis is more than 1.2 times the average of the story drifts of the two ends of the
structure, see § 12.8.6 for story drift determination
Referri ng to the above figure showing the displacements bJe due to the
prescribed lateral forces, this irregularity check is defined in terms of story
T 12.31
I
drift D.x = (bx  bxd at ends R (right) and L (left) of the structu re. Torsional
irregularity exists at Leve l x when I
where
I
I
Determining story drifts at Level 2 I
D.L,2 = 1.20  1.00 = 0.20 in
I
D.R.2 = 1.90  1.20 = 0.70 in
A
U al'g
= 0.20 + 0.70 = 0 45 .
. In
I
2
I
Checking 1.2 criteria I
D. """ = 0.7 = 1.55 > 1.2
D. a,, 0.45 I
:. Tors ional irregularity exis ts  Type Ia.
I
Check for extreme torsional irregulari ty
I
D. = 0_70
"!!!!.  = I .55 . .. thus, extreme torsion
. lrregu Ianty exists
.  T ype Ib. I
D. .", 0.45
A , = ( 1.90 )2= 0.98 < 1.0 ... Note Ax shall not be less than 1.0
 1.2(1.60)
:. use Ax = 1.0.
Commentary
In §12.8.4.3, there is the pro vision that the more severe loading shall be considered. The
interpretation of this for the case of the story drift and displacements to be used for the
I average values I'l.b",.g and bm·g is as follows . The most severe condition is when both bR,X and
bL,Xare computed for the same accidental centero fmass displacement that causes the
maximum displacement bmax. For the condition shown in this example where b RX = bma.n the
I centersofmass at all levels should be displaced by the accidental eccentricity to the right
side R, and both bR,X and bL..r should be evaluated for this load condition.
I Table 12.31 triggers a number of special design requirem ents for torsionally irregular
struc tures. In fact, if irregularity Type Ib (Extreme Tors ional Irregularity) is present,
§ 12.3.3.1 is triggered, which prohibits such structures for SOC E or F. It is important to
I recognize that torsionai irregularity is defined in terms of story drift I'l.." while the evaluatio n
of A.r by Equation 12.814 is, in terms of displacements bxc • There can be instances where the
storydrift values indicate torsional irregul arity and where the related displacement values
I produce an Ax value less than 1.0. This result is not the intent of the provision, and the value
of Ax used to determine acci dental torsion should not be less than 1.0.
I The displacement and storydrift values should be obtained by the equivalent lateralforce
method with the codeprescribed lateral forces. Theoret ically, if the dynam ic analysis
pro cedure were to be used, the values of I'l.ma.' and I'l.m.g would have to be found for each
dynamic mode, then combined by the appropriate SRSS or CQC procedures, and then scaled
to the codeprescribed base shear. However, in view of the complexity of this determination
and the judgmental nature of the 1.2 factor, it is reasoned that the equivalent static force
method is sufficiently accurate to detect torsional irregu larity and evaluate the Ax factor.
2006 lac Stru ctural/Se ismic D esign Manu al, Vol. I 61
§12.3 .2.1 Example 10 . Horizontal Irregularity Typ e 1a and Typ e 1b
J
If the dynamic analys is procedure is either elected or required, then § 12.7.3 requires the use
of a threedimensional model if there are any irregularities.
For cases oflarge eccentricity and low torsional rigidity, the static force procedure can resul t
in a negative displacement on one side and a positive on the other. For example, this occurs if
Du =  DAD in. and DR.3 = 1.80 in. The value of Dm'g in Equation 12.8 14 should be calculated 1
as the algebraic average .
When dy namic analysis is used, the algebraic average value Dm'g should be found for each I
mode, and the individual modal results must be properly combined to determ ine the total
response value for Dm .g •
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Example 11
orizontallrregularity T}'J e 2 §12.3.2.. 1
The plan configuration of a tenstory special moment frame building is as shown below.
G 0) ®
I I
4 @l2S= 100'
I
1<
0
0~o
N
@)
c<)
0
8
A Type 2 reentrant comer irregularity exists when the plan configuration of a structure and
its lateral foreeresisti ng system contain reentrant corners, where both projections of the
structure beyond a reentran t comer are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the
structure in the direction considered.
The plan configuration of this building, and its lateralforceresisting system, has reentrant
comer dime nsions as shown. For the sides on line I , the proj ection beyond the reentrant
comer is
100 ft  75ft = 25 ft
60 ft  40 ft = 20 ft
This is 20 or 33.3 percent of the 60ft plan dimension . . . More than 15 percent.
~ .
Commentary
Whenever the Type 2 reentrant comer irregularity exists, see the diaphragm design
requirements of §12.3.3.4 for SDC D, E, and F.
I
I
I
I
• a;8V»ple 12
Horizonfal lrregularity ype 3 §12.3.2 .1
A fivestory con crete building has a bearin g wall system located around the perimeter
of the buil ding. Lateral forces are resisted by the bearing walls acting as shear wa lls.
The floor plan of the second floor of the building is shown below. The symmetrically
placed op en area in the diaphragm is for an atrium , and has dimensions of 40 feet by 75 feet.
All diaphragms above the second floor are wi thout significant openings.
?~ 125'
~ ?
®
r IE
75'
~ 1
®
b
CD
® "
®
Second floor plan
A Type 3 diaphragm discontinu ity irregularity exists when diaphragms have abrupt
discontinuities or va riations in stiffness, including cutout or open are as comprising more than
50 percent of the gross enclosed area of the diaphragm, or changes in effect ive diaphragm
stiffness of more than 50 percen t from one story to the next.
The sti ffuess of the second floor diaphragm with its opening mu st be compared with
the stiffness of the solid diaphragm at the third floor. If the change in stiffness exceeds
50 percent, a diaphragm discontinu ity irregularity exists for the structure.
I
This comparison can be performed as follows . I
Find the simple beam mid span deflec tions L12 and L1J for the diaphragm s at Levels
2 and 3, respectively, due to a common distri buted load IV such as I kif.
w = 1 kif
. I
I
}
t:.~" '" ....
,


   
 ~
        .. .....
 
~
. >
Deflected sha pe
I
w =1 kif
.... an Ie 13
rizontallrregularity TjIj e4 §12.3.2.1
10'
10'
o ® 0) @
~
0
I I I<E 25'
1
I.
10'
4 @25' o l 00' <
Eleva tion Line E
o
III
0)
2 " in
'" @
'"
[!J Determine it there is a Type 4 outatplane offset irregularity between the first
and second stories
An outofplane offset plan irregularity exists when there are discontinuities in a lateral
force path. For example: outofplane offsets of vertical lateral forceresisting elements such
as shear walls . The first story shear wall on line 0 has a 25foot outofplane offset to the
shear wall on line E at the second story and above . This constitutes an outofplane offset
irregularity, and the referenced sections in Tab le 12.3.2.1 apply to the design.
Examp le 14
H oriz on ta l Irregularity Type 5 §12.3.2.1
A tenstory building has the floor plan shown below at all levels. Special moment
resisting frames are located on the perimeter of the building on lines 1,4, A, and F.
0
0 in~
N
~ @;
~ M
·Ei.rample 15
Redunda ncy Factor p §12.3.4
The calculation of the redundancy factor p has changed considerably between earlier
codes (1997 UBC; 2000 and 2003 1BC; ASCE/SEI 702) and the ASC E/SEI 705 . Th e
calculation is in some ways simpler, although it nevertheless requir es some effort for
conditions that do not compl y with prescriptive requirements (unless the full penalty is
ASCE/SEI 705 permits the redundancy factor to be taken as 1.0 in the following
circ umstances (§12.3.4. 1):
I. Struc tures assig ned to Seismic Design Category B or C. (Note that the load
combinations that include the redundancy factor are not used for Seismic Design
Catego ry A.)
2. Drift calculation and Pdelta effects.
3. Design of nonstructural components.
4. Design of nonbuilding structures that are not similar to buildings.
5. Desig n of collector elements, splices and their connections for which the load
combinations with overstrength factor of §12.4.3.2 are used.
I 6. Desig n of members or connections where the load combi nat ions with overstrength
of §12.4.3.2 are required for des ign.
7. Diaphragm loads determined using Eq. 12.101 (note that this does not apply to
forces transferred through a diaphragm, such as due to an outofplane offs et in
the seismic load resisting system, and the higher p factor may apply as otherwise
I required).
8. Structures with damping systems designed in accordance wi th 18.
I Additionally, §12.3.4.2 ident ifies two other conditions in which p may be taken as 1.0.
Note that the criteria for these condi tions need only be met at floor levels in which more
I than 35percent of the base shea r is being resisted; for the top level or levels of taller
structures, the cond itions need not be met. The factor may be taken as 1.0 when either of
the conditions listed below is met. In all other conditions, p is taken as 1.0. There is no
\ longer a calcu lated p factor between the minimum and maximum value s.
I
I
Condition I
12.3.4.2(a) Configurations in which the removal of one element (as described below
in the summary of Table 12.33) will not result in an increase of more than 33percent
reduction in story shear strength or in an extreme torsional irregularity (as defined in
Table 12.31).
Condition II
12.3.4.2(b) Configurations with no plan irregularities at any level and with sufficient
perimeter braced frames, moment frames, or shearwalls. Sufficient perimeter bracing is
defined as at least two bays of seismic forceresisting perimeter framing on each side of
the structure in each orthogonal direction. For shear wall systems the number of bays is
calculated as the length of shear wall divided by the story height (two times the length of
shear wall divided by the story height for lightframed construction).
EXAMPLE
To illustrate the application of the method for establishing the redundancy factor, the
structure shown in Figure 15.1 will be analyzed.
Wall E Wall F
Stiffness K. Stiffness Kf
WaliA Walle
Stiffness Ko Stiffness x,
WailS WaliD
Stiffness Kn Stiffness K!
Wall G Wall H
Stiffness Kg Stiffness x,
Figure 151
70 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 15 " Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p §12 .3.4
Given information:
SDCD
One story, concrete shearwall building
For purposes of the required strength of the walls, the redundancy factor must be
determined and used in Equation 12.43 to determine the horizontal seismic load effect.
None of the conditions listed in §12.3.4.1 apply, and thus §12.3.4.2 must be used to
Because there are two bays of shear wall on each of the perimeter lines of resistance and
) the building is completely regular, §12.3.4.2(b) might allow a factor of 1.0. However, the
length of each shearwall bay is less than the story height, the number of bays as defined
by §12.3.4.2(b) is less than two, and thus the configuration does not automatically qualify
I for a redundancy factor of 1.0. The configuration will therefore be analyzed using the
method outlined in §12.3.4.2(a), name ly, by removing a wall and assessing the effect on
story shear strength and on building torsion . In this example Wall C will be removed.
Because of the symmetry of the system, the removal of one wall covers the cases of the
remova l of each of the other walls. In a more typical system, a separate check would need
to be performed for several (or even all) of the walls.
The effect on story shear strength can be considered in at least two ways. The most
conventional way to calculate the modified story shear strength is based on the modified
I elastic distribution of forces and the capacity of the most heavily stressed wall. Such an
analysis of the structure with all four bays present shows that the seismic forces in each
line of resistance (including the effects of accidental torsion) are 52.5percent of the base
I shear, with each bay on each line resisting 26.25percent; this distribution is shown in
Figure 15.2(a). If the stiffness of one line of resistance is reduced by half, the design
seismic forces change to 42percent resisted on the weaker line and on the stronger line;
I this distribution is shown in Figure 15.2(b). Thus the increase in the force on the most
heavily loaded bay is 42%/26.25% = 1.6, and the reduced force level causing yielding of
that wall is 1/1.6 = 62.5%. Using this method, then, the effect on story drift is assessed to
I be a decrease in capacity of 100%  62.5% = 37.5%, and thus the configuration would
not qualify for a p factor of 1.0.
23.75% 1 ~
26.25% 31%
1
$ $
(a) (b)
Figure 152
R. ~ ~ n, R. ~
$ $
R. ~j t ~ R. R. ~ t ~ R.
n, = 5% R. R u = 5% R. Ru = 32.5% R. e, = 32.5% R.
(a) (b)
Figure 153
72 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Examp le 15 • Reliab ility/Re dundancy Coefficient p §12.3.4
To qualify for a factor of 1.0, the system with one wall removed must also be checked
for an extreme torsional irregularity as defined in Table 12.31. For the example, using
the plastic mechanism analysis, the deflection in the direction ofloa ding is R,,1Kn• The
I additional deflection at each perimeter line due to rotation is 0.325RnlKn• This is less than
the 40percent maximum that is allowed by Table 12.3 1 before an extreme torsional
irregularity is deemed to exist. Thus, the configuration qualifies for a p factor of 1.0.
1
. xample 16
P.d Ita ERects §12.8.7
In highrise building design, 'important secondary moments and addi tional story drifts
can be developed in the lateralforceresisting system by Pdelta effec ts. Pdelta
effects are the result of the axial load P in a column being mov ed laterally by
horizontal displacements, thereby causing additional secondary column and girder
moments. The purpose of this example is to illustrate the procedure that must be used
to check the overall stabili ty of the frame system for such effects.
R =8
Cc/ = 5.5
1 = 1.0
,
,Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
where
b) = Cdb'r = 5.5(0.72) = 3.96 in (Eq 12.8 15)
I 1.0
Th is value is termed initial because it may need to be increased by the incremental factor
Gd = 1.0/(16) as determined in Part []] of this example.
where
I !:J. = initial design story drift in story x occurring simultaneously with CdT!,
I
Example 16 • Pdelta Effects §12.B.7
Check for story drift compliance in the first story §12. 8.7
,
Commentary
In § 12.8.7 the Pdelta effects on the design story drift and the design story shear are
evaluated by the follow ing procedure:
I. Given the initial design story drift /:;" = 0., 0".1 at story x: compute for each story x
the stability coefficient 8x given by Equation 12.8 16. For each story where 8., is
equal to, or greater than 0.10, compute the corresponding incremental factor relating
to P delta effects ad = 1/( I  8.,). This factor accounts for the multiplier effect due to
the initial story drift /:;., leading to another increment of story drift, leading to another
story drift, which would lead to yet another increment, etc. Thus both the drift and the
shear in the story would be increased by a factor equal to the series of I + 8 + 8 2 + 8 3
+ , which converges to 1(1  8) = ad. As a resu lt the initial story drift /:;" and story
shear V, need to be multiplied by the factor ad to represent the total final Pdelta
I effect.
I 2. The fina l resulting story drift IJ. ~ = ad IJ.., need s to comply with the drift limitations of
§12 .12.
3. In each story requiring consideration of Pdelta effects the initial story shears are
increased to ,':=
ad V" . The structural elements must be designed to resist the
resulting final story shears, overturning moments and element actions.
I Some computer programs for frame analysis state that Pdelta effects are incl uded directly in
the analysis. The engineer should verify that the total gravity load employed and the method
I used in these programs will provide results that are essentially equivalent to the augmented
story shear method described above.
I The provisions in §§ 12.8.6 and 12.8.7 for the evaluation of the final story drifts state that the
final story drift shall be ad times the initial drift IJ..
However, in a multistory building having 8 > 0.1 in more than one story, the initial story
shears in these stories are increased by the ad factor. This is equivalent to an added latera l
load equal to (a dI) V, applied to each story level having 8 > 0.1. Therefore the new story
drifts in the stories below would be inc reased not only by their own ad but by the added
lateral load effect from the stories above; thus , the fina l drifts should be found by a new
analysis with the added lateral loads equal to (ad  I) V" along with the initi al lateral loads on
the frame.
S DS = 0.45g
SOl = 0.28g
60'
I
J = 1.0
R =8
W = 1626 kips I
11" = 60 feet    '  '  '  '
I
To solve this example, follow these steps.
I
78 200 6 IBC Structural/ Se ismic Design Manual, Vol. I
I
Example 18 D Approximate Fundamental Period §12.8.2.1
h« = 33 feet
CT = 0.016 ; x = 0.9
To = CT(hnY = 0.0 16(33)°·9 = 0.37 sec
C T = 0.030 ; x = 0.75
29'
29'
~ TYP'
60'
I~~f" 45'
IE <
Front wall elevation Back wall elevation
For this structure, CT may be taken as 0.020 and x may be taken as 0.75, the values for "all
other buil dings"
~ Tiltup building 1
Consider a tiltup building 150 feet by 200 feet in plan that has a panelized wood roof and
the typical wall elevation shown below.
,
20'I ~I
' . . ~
• 4 
.
15'typ
4t H )
I "" ,~'" zo' ' " I
E )
CT = 0.020; X = 0.75
Typical wall elevation
I
T = CT(hn )' = 0.020(20)°·75 = 0.19 sec
I
This type of structural system has relatively rigid walls and a flexible roof diaphragm.
The code formula for period does not take into consideration the fact that the real
period of the building is highly dependent on the roof diaphragm construction. Thus ,
the period computed above is not a good estimate of the rea l fundamental period of
this type of building. It is acceptable, however, for use in determining design base
shear.
I
comm'fmtaf)'.
I
The fundamental period T of the building may also be established by analytical
procedures with the limitation given in §12.8.2.
I
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I
)
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82 2006 la c Structural/Seismic Design Man ual, Vol. I
I
Example 19 II Simplified Alternative Structural Des ign Procedure §12.14
Exam Ie 19
Simplified I ernettve Structura l Design Procedure § 12.14
Determine the seismic base shear and the seismic lateral forces for a threestory wood
structural panel wall buildin g using the simplified alternative structural design procedure.
Occupancy Category I
S DS = 1.0
TI( f ~ Effective
Seismic
R = 6X
W = 750 kips
Level
20'
+ 20'
1
12'
Weight, w,
150 kips
300 kips
12'
300 kips
12'
The follo wing is a comparison of simplified base shear with standard design base
I
shear. The standard method of determining the seismic base shear is
1
The distribution of seismic forces over the height of the structure is
n (IBe Eq 1642)
2: w,h;
i.. 1
Note: distribution exponent k = 1.0 for structures having a period of 0.5 second or
1 less.
"'xlix
Level .r h, U', w,h. F, Fju '.
}: wi"i
3 36 fl 150 kips 5 ,400 kipIt 0.333 38.4 kips 0.278
2 24 300 7 .200 0.444 5 1.2 0.185
I I 12 300 3.600
L II',", 16.200
0.222
L ~
25.6
115.4
0.093
The seismic base shear Vand lateral forces F" at each level except the roof are all less
than the simplified method , see table below . The principal advantage of the simplified
method is that period T need not be calculated and design story drift (). may be taken
as I percent of the story height, §12.14.7.5.
Lateral Force F.
% Difference
Level x Simplified Standard
3 27.7 kips 38.4 kips 72
2 55.4 51.2 108
55.4 25.6 216
Total 138.5 115.2 120
!~ample 20
'Combina tion of Structural Systems: Vertical '12.2.3.1
For the three systems shown below, determine the required R coefficient, no factor, Cd
factor, and related design base shear requirements.
[!J Steel Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF) over steel special
moment frame (SMF)
This combined system falls under vertical combinations of § 12.2.3.1. Because the rigid
framing system is above the flexible framing system, the exception for a twostage analysis
in § 12.2.3.1 cannot be used. Therefore, the structure in this direction must use the lowest
R = 6.0 and the largest no = 3.0. Recall that lithe floor and roof diaphragms could be
considered to be flexible, n u would be 2.5, per footnote g, Table 12.21.
~ Applicable criteria.
T his is a vertical combination of a flexibl e system over a more rigid system.
Under § 12.2.3.1, a twostage static analysi s may be used, provi ded the structures
conform to the following four requirements.
Also note R is different for bearing wall systems versus building frame systems for special 1
reinforced concrete shear walls, see Table 12.21.
I
I
Check requirements of § 12.2.3.1 for a twostage analysis
a. The stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the stiffness of the upper
I
portion. For multistory upper or lower portions , the stiffness should be the
stiffness of the first mode. I
10,000 kipin > 10(175) = 1750 kipin ... o.k.
b. Period of entire structure is not greater than l.l times the period of upper structure
I
considered a separate structure fixed at the base.
I
Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical §12.2.3.1
R =8.0
n =3.0
p = 1.3
r VIrum.
 .......
8.0 /1.3
Design lower portion of the building frame Amplified Vllil m • =  Vllilme =1.03 Vllilme
6.0/1.0
system for the combined effects of amplified
reactions from the upper portion and lateral
forces due to the base shear for the lower
portion of the structure (using R = 6.0,
Q = 2.5, and p = 1.0 for the lower
portion).
The reactions from the upper portion shall be determined from the analysis of the upper portion
amplified by the ratio of (Rip) for the upper portion over (Rip) of the lower portion.
Note that for the basic seismic load combinations the factor p must still be applied to forces
corresponding to V lower.
I
Determine the R, Cd, and Q " values for each direction.
I
_   Shear wall
I
I
G I
Typ ical floor Plan
I
Lines A and D are special reinforced concrete shear walls (bearing wall system)
R = 5, Q" = 2.5, Cd= 5, Table 12.21 (AI) I
Lines I, 2, and 3 are special reinforced concret e moment frames
R =8.0, QQ= 3.0, Cd = 5.5 Table 12.21 (C5) I
!TI Determine the R value for each direction
I
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90 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Manual, Vol. I
I
Example 21 • Combination of Framing Systems in Different Directions §12 .2.2
., Y ,.
.Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
The provisions of § 12.2.2 require that where different seismicforeeresisting systems are
used along the two orthogonal axes of the structure, the appropriate response modification
coefficient R, system overstrength factor Q o' and deflection ampl ification factor Cd for each
system shall be used.
I ~'.
Commentary
Note that since this is SDC D, ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls are not permitted.
.... 
~
EX~mple22
COmbination of Structural Systems:
,, long the Same Axis §12.2.3.2
A onestory steel frame structure has the roof plan shown below. The structure is assigned to
Seismic Use Group 1.
' ,

' '
Roof Plan
Commentgl'Y
An exception is given for light frame , flexible diaphragm buildings of Occupancy Category I
or Il two stories or less in height. However, to qualify as a flex ible diaphragm, the lateral
deformation of the diaphragm must be more than two times the average story drift of the
associated story; see definition in § 12.3.1.3.
and
C,i)() 
 SOl
R
_ (0.28)
~ (0.75)
_
0.0467 for T S. TL (Eq 12.83)
/ 1.0
(Eq 12.84)
•
In addition, for structu res located where S, is equal to or greater than 0.6g, C, shall not be
less than
= 0.0467(1626 kips)
= 75.9 kips
I
I
ComtnimtcJry
I The So, value of 0.28g given in this example is based on an S, value of 0.2I g. If the S,
value were to have been equal or greater than 0.6g, then the lower bound on C, is
I 0.5/S,
Cs >
z:
 R (Eq 12.86)
'. ample 18
Appro~imate Fundamental Period § 12.8.2.1
Determine the period for each of the structures shown below usi ng the appropriate
fundament al period formula
(Eq 12.87)
The coefficient CT and the exponent x are dependent on the type of structural system used.
C r = 0.028; x = 0. 8 Grad e
Note : In the SEAOC Blue Book, base is defmed as the level at which earthq uake
motions are considered to be imparted, or the level at which the structure, as a
dynamic vibrator, is supported. For this structure the solution is the same.
1 Exampl e 23 ·
Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force § 12 .8.3
I
The following information
IS given.
' 2'
5 5 54k
, 4 22k
12'
'2'
3 4 22k
I 2 440k
' 2'
' 2'
4 65k
20'
(Eq 12.8 11 )
]
where
c I'X
= lVxhl
n (Eq 12.812) I
2: IV; hi
i I
]
Since there are nine levels above the ground, 11 = 9
Thus:
F = 233.8w,l1;
x •
~
LJ lV /Ii
,
i I
I
Find the distribution exponent k §12.8.3
The distribution exponent k is equal to 1.0 for buildings having a period of T s 0.5 seconds,
I
and is equal to 2.0 for buildings having a period oi T>: 2.5. For intermediate value of the
building period, k is determined by linear interpo lation.
I
Thus:
2.5
I
2.0
I
... 1.5
I
." 1.28
e
'C
~
0 1.0 I
0.5 I
o
o 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
I
1.06
Exponent, k
J
I
Examp le 23 • Verti cal Distribution of Seismic Force §12 .B.3
I Now:
@J Equation 12.812 is solved in the table below given V= 233.8 kips and k = 1.28
".f• •
U'.• wxhx
W./I.~
C~ , =  I F. = C••V
Level X ii, ( ft) (kips) kipIt LW/l i (kips) F/ w. = Su
9 116 ft 439 214 93.946 0. 116 27.3 0.127
8 104 382 405 154.710 0. 192 44.8 0.1 II
I 7
6
92
80
326
273
405
405
132.030
110.565
0.169
0. 137
38.3
32. 1
0.094
0.079
5 68 222 584 129.648 0. 161 37.6 0.064
4 56 173 422 73.006 0.09 1 21.2 0.050
3 44 127 422 53.594 0.067 15.5 0.037
2 32 84 440 36.960 0.04 6 10.8 0.024
I 20 46 465
~ =3762
21,390
~ = 806.289
0.027
1.004
6.2
233.2
0.013
I Commelltary
I Note that certain types of vertical irregularity can result in a dynamic response hav ing a load
distribution significantly different from that given in this section . Table 12.6 I lists the
minimum allowable analysis procedures for seismic design . Redundancy requ irements must
I also be evaluated once the type oflateralforceresisting system to be used is specified,
because this may require modification of the building framing system and vertical
distribution of horizontal forces as a result of changes in building period T.
I Often, the horizontal forces at each floor level are increased when p is greater than 1.0. Th is
is done to simplify the analysis of the framing members. The horizontal forces need not be
I increase d at each floor level whe n p is greater than 1.0, provided that, when stre ss check ing
the individual mem bers of the lateralforeeresisting system, the seismic forces are factored
by p. When checking building drift, p = 1.0 (§12.3.4.1) shall be used.
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2006 la c Stru ctur al/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 95
§ 12. 8. 3 Exampl e 23 • Vertica l Distr ibution of Se ism ic Forc e
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Structu res that have a vertical irregularity of Type Ia, Ib, 2, or 3 in Table 12.61, or plan
irregular ities of Type l a or Ib in Tab le 12.61, and having a height exceeding five stories or
I
65 feet may have significantly different force distributions. Structures exceeding 240 feet in
height shall require dynamic analysis. The configuration and final design of this structure
must be checked for these irregularities. Most structural analysis programs used today
I
perform this calculation, and it is rarely necessary to manually perform the calculations
shown above . However, it is recommended that these calculations be performe d to confirm I
the computer analysis and to gain insight to structural behavio r. Note that ( So )max is
approximately twice C , and S" = r <pSa from a modal analysis.
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96 2006 IBC Structural/S eism ic Des ign Man ual, Vol. I
I
Example 24 • HOlizontal Distribution of Shear §12.BA
1 EKa mp!e 2 4
:Horizontal Distribution of Shear §12.8.4
A singlestory building has a rigid roof diaphragm. See appendix to this example for a
proc edure for the distribution of lateral forces in structures with rigid diaphragms and
cross walls and/or frames of any orientation . Lateral forces in both directions are resisted
by shear walls. The mass of the roof can be consid ered to be uniformly distributed, and in
this example, the weight of the walls is neglected. In actu al pract ice, particularly with
concrete shear walls, the weight of the walls should be included in the determ ination of
the centerofmass (CM).
r y
0
~",,
A
40'
Roof diaphragm
YR
X
)
c
BO'
IE )1
Roof plan
I
Ex amp le 24 • Horizontal Distribu tion of Sh ear §1 2. 8A
A l ~ CR~
/ / /
A 20'
CR
fa
20'
• ...; ;
20'
60'
T= V(e:: eecc)
/ / /
V ~
C
VT,C C
R 300 .
V = A X (V) = x 100 = 75.0 kips
0.11 RA + RB 300 + 100
For the determination of torsional irregularity, the initial most severe tors ional shears,
V' and corresponding story drifts (so as to produce the lowest value of the average
story drift) will result from the large st ecce ntrici ty e + eacc • Thes e are
(NOTE: Th is is not the design force for Wall A, as accidental eccentricity here is used to
reduce the force).
)
The resulting displacem ents b', which for this singlestory building are also the story
drift values, are
)
b' = V~ = 52.5 = 0. 18 in
RA 300
= V~ = 47.5 = 0.48 in
RB 100
I
= 0.1 8 + 0.48 = 0.33 in
2 I
= b~ = 0.48 in
Section 12.8.4.3 requires the evaluation and application of the torsional amplification I
factor
I
A, = ( b"4' )' = ( 0.48 ) ' = 1.47 < 3.0 (IBC Eq 1644)
. 1.2." 1.2(0.33)
I
Note: the factor Ax is not calculated iteratively (i.e., it is not recalculated with amplified
torsion).
To account for the effects of torsional irregularity, §12.8.4.2 requires that the accidental
torsional moment, Ve.cc, be multiplied by the torsional amplification factor Ax.
The most severe total shears result from the use of V [e  .{,ed CC ] for VT,A and
V [e + A,eacc ] for VT•B
Total shear in each wall is the algebraic sum ofthc direct and torsiona l shear
components
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COmmentary
I Section 12.8.4.2 requires that the most severe load combination for each element shall be
considered for design . This load combination involves the direct and torsional shears,
I and the "most severe" condition is as follows.
I. Where the torsional shear has the same sense, and is therefore added to the direct shear,
the torsional shear shall be calculated using actual eccentricity plus the accidental
I eccentricity to give the largest additive torsional shear.
2. Where the torsional shear has the opposite sense to that of the direct shear and is to be
I subtracted, the torsion al shear must be based on the actua l eccentricity minus the
accidental eccentricity to give the smallest subtractive shear.
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The §12.8.4.3 requirement to multiply only the accidental torsion al moment by Ax differs
I significantly from the 2000 !Be. It restores the requirements of the 1997 UBC and 1999 Blue
Book.
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2006 IBC Str uct ural/Seismic D esign Manual, Vol. I 101
§12.8.4.3 Example 25 • Amplification of Accidental Tors i on
§ 12 .8.4.3
This example illustrates how to include the effects of accidental eccentricity in the lateral
force analysis of a multistory building. The structure is a fivestory reinforced concrete
building frame system. A threedimensional rigid diaphragm model has been formu lated
for the evaluation of element actions and deformations due to prescrib ed loading conditions.
Shear walls resist lateral forces in both directions.
f f f 4 @J20'=80'
® g II
b
N
@
@M
0 IN
Floor plan at Level x
The lateral seismic forces Fein the northsouth direction, structure dimensions, and
accidental eccentricity eacc for each Level x are given below.
Level.\" F. L. X es «: =0.05L.r
5 110.0 kips 80.0 ft 24.2 ft ± 4.0 ft
4 82.8 80.0 25. 1 ±4.0
3 65.1 80.0 27.8 ±4.0
2 42. 1 80.0 30.3 ±4 .0
I 23.0 80.0 3 1.5 ±4.0
In addition, for the given lateral seismic forces F, a computer analysis provides the I .
following results for the second story. Separate values are given for the application
of the forces F, at the centers of mass and the ±O.05Lx displacements as required by
§12.8.4.2. In this example, it is assumed for simplicity that the location of the center
ofmass CAtf.e is congruent with the center of rigidity at the level in question , resulting
in zero inherent at torsion.
Force F~ Position
x ,~ X rl  e... r X r~ + 00 e....:
I VA = 196.0 kips
I VB = 126.0 kips
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2006 IB C St ructur al/S eismic Design Ma nual, Vol. I 103
§ 12.8.4.3 Example 2S • Amp lification of Accidenta l Torsion J
Ax (Eq 12.814)
Where:
I
the average story displacement is computed as I
= 1.44+0.75 = 1.10 in
2 I
'
=
((1 .2)(1.10)
1.44
)= 1.19 in
,9 gmmentary
Example calculati ons were given for the second story. In practice, each story requi res
an evaluation of the most severe element actions and a check for the torsional irregularity
condition.
If torsional irregularity exists and Ax is greater than 1.0 at any level (or levels) ,
a second torsional analysis must be performed using the new accidental eccentricities.
However, it is 110/ required to find the resulting new Ax values and repeat the process a
second or third time (until the Ax converges to a constant or reaches the limit of 3.0). The
results of the first analysis with the use ofA., are sufficient for design purposes.
While this example involves wall shear evaluation, the same procedure applies to the
determination of the most severe element actions for any other lateralforeeresisting
system having rigid diaphragms.
When the dynamic analysis method of §12.9 is used, all the requirements of horizontal shear
distribution, given in §12.8.4, including torsion calculations that may be accounted for by
displacing the calculated centers of mass of each level (§12.8.4.1 and §12.8.4.2) also apply .
However, §12.9.5 states that amplification of accidental torsion, need not be amplified by Ax
where accidental torsional effects are included in the dynamic analysis model. Only the
accidental torsion is required to be amplified if torsional irregularity exists . Also note that Ax
is not required to exceed 3.0.
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ain~/e26
lements Supporting Discontinuous Systems
L~.f
Axial loads on column C
D = 40 kips
L = 20 kips 4 ,.,....,
QE = 100 kips
12'
12'
Column C
24" x 24"
f c =4000 psi
12'
•
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
This examp le demonstrates the loading criteria and detail ing required for elements
supporting discontinued or offset elements of a seismicforceresisting system .
Required strength
Because of the discontinuous configuration of the shear wall at the first story, the first
story columns on lines A and D must support the wall elements above this level. Column
C on line D is treat ed in this example. Because of symmetry, the column on line A would
have identica l requirements.
I Section 12.3.3.3 requires that the column shall have a design strength to resi st special
seismic load combination of § 12.4.3.2
where
E.. = Q" QE+ 0.2 SDS D = 2.5( 100) + 0.2( 1.10)(40) = 259 kips § 12.4.3.2 (Comb. 5)
or E.. = Q" QE  0.2 S DS D = 2.5( 100)  0.2( 1.10)(40) = 24 1 kips § 12.4.3 .2 (Comb. 7)
I and
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Cotpmentary
To transfer the shears from walls AB and CD to the firststory wall BC, collector
beams AB and CD are required at Levell . These would have to be designed
according to the requirements of § 12.10.2.
The load requirements of § 12.3.3.3 and relat ed sections of the relevant materials chapters
apply to the following vertical irregularities and vertical elements.
1,14"_ _ r t Column
It should be noted that for any of the supporting columns shown above, the load
demand Em of § 12.4.3.2 Equations 5 and 7 need not exceed the maximum force that
can be transferred to the element by the lateralforeeresisting system.
no = 3.0 sheathing J
Cd =4
/I = 0.5 I
Axial loads on the timber column under the Timber column
discontinuous portion of the shear wall are
I
Dead D = 6.0 kips
Live L = 3.0 kips
Seismic Q£ = ±7.0 kips
I
Determine the following. I
[!J Applicable load combinations
I
7. (0.9  0.2SDS)D + QoE
I
Appl icable load combinations for allowable strength design are:
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110 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 27 • Ele ments Supp or ting Discontinu ous Waifs or Fram es § 12.3 .3 .3
1
Required column desig n streng th (strength design)
In this shear wall, the timber column carries only axial loads. The appropriate dead,
live, and seismic loads are determined as
D = 6.0 kips
L = 3.0 kips
For the required strength design strength check, both load combinations must be checked.
P = 1.2D + L + Em
The load factor on L in combination 5 is permi tted to equal 0.5 for all occupancies in
I whic h L; is less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of garages or areas occupied
as places of public assembly.
I Commentary
I For strength design, the tim ber column must be checked for a compression load of31.0 kips
and a tension load of 14.3 kips.
I In making an allowable stress design check, § 12.4.3.3 permits use of an allowable stress
increase of 1.2. The 1.2 stress increase may be combined with the duration ofload increase
described in the NO S. The resulting design strength = (1.2)(1.0)( 1.33) (allowable stress
I desig n). This also applies to the mechanical holddown element required to resist the tension
load.
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I 2006 IB C Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol. I
§12.3.3.3 Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls or Frames
The purpose of the designstrength check is to confirm the ability of the column to carry I
higher and more realistic loads required by the discontinuity in the shear wall at the first
floor. This is done by increasing the normal seismic load in the column QE by the factor
Q o = 3.0 to calculate the maximum seismic load effect Em (§ 12.4.3). 1
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III le2
oil Pressure At Foundations §§2.4; 12.13.
Geotechnical investiga tion reports usua lly prov ide soilbearing pressures on an allowable
stress design basis while seismic forces in ASCE /SEI 705 and most concrete design
(ACI/31805, § 15.2.2 and R 15.2), are on a strength design basis. The purpose of this
exam ple is to illustrate footing design in this situation.
r
Seismic Design Category C
SDS = 1.0, / = 1.0 Grade
The loads given above follow the sign convention shown in the figure.
[L] Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure §2.4
The seismicforce reactions on the footing are based on strength design. However, allowable
stress design may be used for sizing the foundation using the load combinations given in
§2.4.1.
D + 0.7£ (Comb. 5)
D + 0.75(0.7E) (Comb. 5)
D + 0.75[0.7(0.75)£ + L] (Comb. 6)
Because foundation investigation reports for bu ild ings typically specify bearing
pre ssures on an allowable stress design basis, crit eria for determining footing size
are also on this basis.
Per § 12.4 .2.2, £ 1' = 0 for determ ining soil p ressure. Equation 12.4  I reduces to
(Eq 12.43)
For the san d class of material and footing depth of 4 feet, the allowable gross
foun dati on pressure pa from a sitespecific geotechnical investigation recommendation is
P = D + 0.75[0.7(0.75)£ + L] (Comb. 6)
1 = 50 + 0.75[0.7(0.75)40 + 30) = 88 kips
Equation 6 governs. The requ ired footing size is 88 kips/3.20 ksf = 27.5 sf
Use 5 ft, 3insquare footing. A = 27.6 sf
For the design of the concrete elements, strength design is used. The reduction in
overturning does not apply, and the vertical seismic load effec t is included
A uniform pressure of 115k/27.6 sf = 4.17 ksf should be used to determine the internal
forces of the footing. (Note that if the footing also resisted moments, the pressure would
I not be uniform.)
Note that this indicates uplift will occur. ASCE/SEI 705 does not require that foundation
I stability be maintained using strengthlevel seismic forces. This combination is only
used here to determine internal forces of concrete elements of the foundat ion. As it
Example 29
Drift §12"B.6
A fourstory special momentresisting frame (SMRF) building has the typical floor
plan as shown below. The typical elevation of Lines A through D is also shown, and
the structure does not have horizontal irregularity Types 1a or lb.
1 = 1.0
Cd = 5.5 Seism ic force
T = 0.60 sec
Level
DDD
4
12'
2 DDD 12'
DDD 12'
12'
Ty pical Elevati on
The following are the deflections (computed from static analysis  effects of Pdelta have
been checked) bxe at the centerofmass of each floor level. These values include both
translational and torsional (with accidental eccentricity) effects. As required by § 12.8.6.2,
b.~c has been determined in accordance with design forces based on the computed
fundamental perio d without the upper limit (CI/Ta ) of § 12.8.2.
Level 0"
4 1.51 in
1 3
2
1.03
.63
.30
o = CA,
.r I
= 5.56" = 5.50
1.0 se
CEq 12.815)
The refore:
Level 0.(1' 6,
4 1.51 in 8.31 in
3 1.03 5.67
I 2
1
0.63
0.30
3.47
1.65
I
~ Design story drift ~ in story 3 due to Ox
I Story 3 is located between Levels 2 and 3.
lEJralnple 30
Story Drift Limitations *12.12
For the design of new buildings, the code places limits on the design story drifts, /)..
The limits are based on the design earthquake displacement or deflection Ox and not
the elastic response deflections ext! corresponding to the design lateral forces of § 12.8.
In the example give n below, a fourstory steel special mo mentres isting frame (SMF)
structure has the design force deflections oxt! as shown. These have been determined
according to § 12.8, using a static, elastic analysis.
~ f ~
D
Occupancy Category I Deflected
6. e
Level shape '
4 2.44 In
Seismic Design Category D 12'
3 1.91
1 = 1.0 12'
2 1.36
12'
Cd = 5.5
0.79
16'
P = 1.3 0
= 5.5c5. tr = 5.50
1.0 oft!
Levels 4 , 3, and 2
Levell
For b. = Cl..  Cl.._I, check actual design story drifts against limits
Note that use of the drift limit of 0.02511 requires interior and exterior wall systems
to be detail to accommodate this drift per Table 12.121
. ,
Whenever the dynamic analysis procedure of § 12.9 is used, story drift should be determined
as the modal combination of the storydrift value for each mode.
Determination of story drift from the difference of the combined mode deflections may
produce erroneous results because differences in the combined modal displacements can be
less than the corresponding combined modal story drift.
Exal te 31
Vertical Seismic Load Effect §12.4.2.2
Find the vertical seismic load effect, E., on the nonprestressed canti lever beam shown
below.
(Eq 12.42)
(Eq 12.43)
E =0  0.2(1.0) D = 0.2D
= 1.2D + 1.0(0.2)(1.0)D + 0 + 0 I
=l.4D
I
= 1.4 (200 pit)
The beam must have strengths .pll;, and .pM. to resist these actions, and the
actions due to the applicable gravity load combinations.
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Section I J .4.5 provides the equations for the 5percent damped accele ration response
I
spectrum Sa for the period T intervals of
= [2.25T + 0.18]g
4. For T~ TL
sa  SDI TL _ 2.24 g
T2  ~
From this information the elastic design response spectrum for the site can be drawn as
shown in Figure 33.1 below, per Figure 11.41, in ASCE/SEI 705
So
0.45g
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_ _ __ :~ LI _ T
0.28g
0.18g
2006 IBC Structur al/S eis mi c Des ign Manual, Vol . , 125
§12.2.5.1 . example 33 II Dual Systems I
1
§ 12.2.5.1
I
This example illustrates the determination of design lateral forces for the two basic
elements of a dual system. §12.2.5.1 prescribes the following features for a dual system .
1
I. Resistance to lateral load is provided by the combination of the moment frames and by
shear walls or braced frames. Recall that the momentresisting frames provided must be
able to resist at least 25 percent of the design forces.
2. The two systems are designed to resist the total design base shear in proportion to
their relative rigidities. J
In present practice, the frame element design loads for a dual system are usually a
result of a computer analysis of the combined frameshear wall system. I
In this example, the Equivalent LateralForeeProcedure of § 12.8 has been used to determine
the seismic demand QE at point A in the dual system of the building shown below. I
This is the beam moment MQE . Shear wall
1 , 
:Calculations and Discussion CodeReference
J OJ Design criteria
According to the two listed requirements, the moment frame must be designed for the
greater value of either the Q E value due to the design base shear V loading on the
combined frame  shear wall system, or the Q~ value resulting from at least 25 percent
of the design forces. Th is 25percent requirement may be interpreted in two ways.
From the combined frameshear wall analysis with forces due to the design base shear
V = 400 kips, the portion VFofthe base shear resisted by the momentframe is equal
to the sum of the first story frame column shears in the direction ofl oading. For this
example, assume that
xa Ie 34
eteret orees for'OlleStar all Panels 12.11
This example illustrates the determi nation of the total design lateral seismic force
on a tiltup wall panel supported at its base and at the roof diaphragm level. Note that the
panel is a bearing wall and shear wall.
For the tiltup wall panel shown bel ow, determine the outofplane sei smi c forces
required for the design of the wall section. This is usually done for a representative
1foot width of the wall length, assuming a uniformly distributed outofplane
loading.
[!J Outo fpl ane fo rce for wall panel design §12 .11
Under § 12. I 1.1, the design lateral loading is determ ined using
Per § 12.1 1.2, the force must be taken as no less than 400 lb/ft SDsI, nor less than 280 Iblft
2006 IB C Str uctu ral/S eis mic D esig n Manual, Vol. I 129
§12.11 Ex ample 34 :I Lat eral Forc es for OneStory Wall Panels
Note that if the diaphragm is flexible , §12.l1.2. 1 requ ires the anchorage force (but not the
wall force) to be incre ased.
The force Fp is considered to be applied at the midheight (centroid) of the panel, but
this must be uniformly distributed between the base and the.top of parapet.
For the given SDS = 1.0 and J = 1.0, the wall panel seismi c force is
F p = OAO(1.0)(1.0)w = OAOw
The weight of the panel between the base and the top of the parapet is
The force F p is the total force on the panel. It acts at the centroid. For design of the
panel for outofplane forces, F p must be expressed as a distributed load,(p
40.0 plllft
4'
RR ·3 20
20'
184 3
Rs
384
When the uniform load is also applied to the parapet, the total force on the panel is
The shears and moments are the QE load actions for strength design. Note that the reaction
at the roof RR is not necessarily the face used for walltoroof anchorage design, see
rsc §1620.2.1.
I architectural components) be determined by Equation 13.31 with the Table 13.51 values of
The parapet is considered an elem ent with an attachment elevation at the rooflevel
z=h
I (Eq 13.31)
I F=
p
0.4 (2.5)(1.0)(1.0)
2.5
(1 + 2 20)w
20 p
I F p = 1.2Wp = 1.2 (400) = 480 lb/ft < 1.6 SDsIpWp = 640 lb/f] . . . o.k. (Eq 13.32)
4'
480 960
••f I ..... .
.,. 'I
Note that for a large portion ofthe lower southeast region of the USA (Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana,
Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida) the minimum wind forces may govern over the seismic
forces.
This example illustrates determination of outofplane seis mic forces for the design
of the twostory tiltup wall pane l shown below. A typical solid panel (no door or window
openings) is assume d. Wa lls span from floor to floor to roof. The typica l wall panel in this
building has no pilasters and the tiltup wall s are bearing walls. Th e ro of consists of 11/2
inch, 20gage metal deck ing on open web steel joists and has been determ ined to be a
flexible diaph ragm. The seco nd floor consists of Iinch, I Sgage compo site decking with a 2
II2inch ligh tweight conc rete topp ing. T his is considered a rig id diaphr agm .
S DS = 1.0 Wall
panel
J = 1.0 20'
16'
Wan section
Determ ine the fo llowing .
I [L] Outofplane forces for wall panel design
I = 45 .2 psf
For a repre sentative 1footwide strip of wall length, Fp is appl ied as a uniform load
~
2' ...
r
~
~
~
~
20'
~
~ ~
~
~
.... 16'
~
....
.... ~
For the purpose of wall design, the required shears and moments may be evaluated
by using reaction va lues base d on the tributary area for the lft strip
16 ft ) 1"
R 1(  2YP= 8(45.2) = 362 1b
R, [C:) (2;)}';' ~
+ 18(45.2) ~ 814 Ib
Note that the 2foothigh parapet must be des igned for the seismic force F p specified
in § 13.3.1, with height z at parapet centroid 37 ft, Gp = 2.5 and Rp = 2.5
r, = 0.8 8 s/wl\'
D (Eq 12.111)
Th e design forc e per anchor is Fp times the anchor spacing. For example
if the spacing is at 4 feet, the anchor mus t be designed for (10 85) (4 ft) = 4340 lb.
For the case of rigid diaphragms the anchorage force is given by the greater
of the following:
z = ft
16 = the height of the anchorage of the rigid diaphragm attachment,
and Wp is the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor
F = 0.4(1.0)(1.0)(1.0) [I + 2
p 2.5
(.!i)]
36
IV
p
)
= 0.302Wp = 0.302(2034) = 615 plf
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For flexible or rigid diaphr agms for all seismic design categories (SDCs), the seismic outof
plane forces for the design of the wall are not dependent on the height of the wall in
relati onship to the total height of the building, §12.11.
For flexible diaphragms of SDCs A and B, the seismic anchorage forces are given in I
§12.11.2 and for SDCs C, D, E, and F, the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.11.2.1.
For rigid diaphragms of SDCs A and B, the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.11.2. I
For rigid diaphragms of SDCs C, D, E, and F, the seismic anchorage forces are given in
§12.11.2.
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136 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 36 • RIgid Equipment § 13. 3. 1
Example 36
Rigid Equipmen §13.3.1
Thi s example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments
of rigid equipment (see commentary). Att achment, as used in the code, means those
components, including anchorage, bracing, and support mountings, that "attach" the
equipment to the structure.
The threestory building structure shown below has rigid electrical equipment supported
on nond uctile porcelain insulators that provide anchorage to the structure. Identical
equipment is located at the base and at the roof of the building.
12'
(Eq 13.31)
Values of Q p and Rp are given in Table 13.61. Also note that for shallow
expansion anchors Rp = 1.5, see §13.4.2.
T 13.61
Check r, s 0.3 SDs l p W p = 0.3 (1. 1) (1.0) 10 = 3.3 kips (Eq 13.33)
Zx = h; = 36 ft
pommentary
The definition of a rigid component (e.g. , item of equipment) is given in § 11.2. Rigid
equipment (including its attachments; anchorages, bracing, and support mountings)
that has a period less than or equal to 0.06 seconds.
The fundamental period Tp for mechanical and electrical equipment shall be determined by
the formula given in § 13.6.2
(Eq 13.61)
Where:
g = acceleration of gravity in inches/sec/
Kp = stiffness of resilient support system
Tp = component fundamental period
IVp = component operating weight
The component anchorage design force Fp (i.e., the force in the connected part)
is a function of l/Rp , where Rp = 1.5 for shallow anchors, (see § 13.4.2).
I unit, the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of § 13.
Note that § 13.2.5 allows testing as an alternative to the analytical methods of § 13. Testing
should comply with ICCES AC I56.
Section 13.1.3 requires a component importance factor greate r than 1.0 (lp = 1.5) for the following .
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§ 13.3.1
This example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments
of flexible equipment, see commentary. Attachment as used in the code means those
components, including anchorage, bracing, and support mountings, that "attach" the
equipment to the structure.
The threestory building structure shown below has flexible airhandling equipment
supp orted by a ductile anchorage system. Anchor bolts in the floor slab meet the
embedment length requirements. Identical equipment is located at the base and at
the roof of the building.
~ '/DUClileall achmenls
Level
Roof
Seismic Design Category D
12'
SDS= 1. I 2
Ip = 1.0
W; = 10 kips 12'
'~ wp
/ / / , / / / / /
CEq 13.31)
Values of ap and Rp are given in Tabl e 13.61. Sin ce the equ ipment is flexible and
has limited defonnability elements and attachm ents
Section 13.3.1 has a requirement that Fp be not less than 0.3 SvslpWp (Eq 13.33)
z = h = 36 ft
I p (2.5/1.0) 36 p
I Sect ion 13.3.1 states that Fp nee d not exceed 1.6 Sos JpWp CEq 13.3 2)
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20061BC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol. / 14 1
§13.3.1 Example 37 • Flexible Equipment 1
'commentary
The definition of flexible equipment is given in § 11 .2. Flexible equipment (including its
attachments anchorages, bracing, and support mountings), has a period greater than 0.06 I
second .
It should be noted that the component anchorage design force, Fp (i.e., the force in the I
connected part), is a function of l/Rp , where anchorage of any kind is shallow (see § 13.4.2).
Generally, only equipment anchorage or components need be designed for seismic forces. I
Where the equipment, which can be either flexible or rigid, comes mounted on a supporting
frame that is part of the manufactured unit, then the supporting frame must also meet the
seismic design requirements of §13.3. I
Also note that §13.2.1 requires that, "Architectural, mechanical, and electrical components
supports and attachments shall comply with the sections referenced in Table 13.21."
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Those architectural, mechanical, and electrical systems and their components that are part of
a designated seismic system, as defined in §13.2.1, shall be qualified by either test or
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calculation. A certificate of compliance shall be submitted to both the registered design
professional in responsible charge of the design of the designated seismic system and the
building official for review and approval. ICC ES has published Acceptance Criteria (AC
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156) that addresses the qualification test to satisfy the referenced code requirements.
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A component importance factor greater than 1.0 (Ip = 1.5) is required for the following. I
• Life safety component required to function after an earthquake
•
•
Components of hazardous materials
Occupancy Category IV components needed for continued operation of the facility
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142 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 38 II Relative Mo tion of Eq uipment Attachments §13.3.2
Exa o11J Ie 38
e a i ve otion 0 S uipment ttachments 13.3.2
Section 13.3.2 requires that the design of equipment attachments in buildings have the
effects of the relative displacement of attachment points considered in the lateral force
design . This example illustrates appl ication ofthis requ irement.
A unique control panel fram e is attached to the floor framing at Levels 2 and 3
of the special steel moment frame building show n below.
,~ r"",
(}xAe = I.OR in 4
by Ae 0.72 in 12'
R = 8.0 3
Cd = 5.5 12'
6 aA = O.015hx s.,
2
Level v
12'
whe re
b xA = b x,.w C d = 5.94 in
bxAe= 1.08 in
C d = 5.50
0.72 in
6.1'..1('=
Cd = 5.50
!1 6.48
= (x  y ) E.t.L = (432  288)  = 2.26 (Eq 13.36)
hn 432
where
x = 36 ft x 12 = 432 in
y =24ftxI2=288in
!1 a :l = 0.0 15 h« = 0.015 (432) = 6.48 in
hsx = 36 ft x 12 = 432 in
Thus : D p = 1.98 in
Dp
4
_ 6EIDp _ 6(10 x 10 )(1.98)  5792 ki . l<tf
M
M~(~_
 H2  (144)2  . Ipm
v 57,29
 2M _    0795
. kiipS : H
I
H 72 I
I M
v ... ~
6EID 2M
M=P
2
v=
H H
The attachment details, including the body and anchorage of connectors, should follow the
applicable requirements of § 13.4. For example, if the anchorage is provided by shallow
anchor bolts, then Rp = 1.5.
0 ~~=
fffff
0
ff ?
5
Seismic Design Ca tegory D
I lixc = 0.57 in
R = 8.0 ~
I ' SRCMF
r:l l J"jV
Cd = 5.5
Column section = 12 in x 12 in
Column clear heig ht = 12 ft
\ Concre te E; = 3 x 10J ksi
1 = 1.25
Elevation L10e E
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Find the follo wing.
The moment induced in the ordinary column due to the maximum inelastic response
displacement Ox on line E mu st be determined. 1
For purposes of this example, a fixedfixed condition is used for simplicity. In actual
applications, column moment is usually determined from a frame analysis.
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h = 12 ft x 12 inches = 144 in I
3
= bd
12
= 12 (12) 3 = 1728 in 4
12 I
The cracked sec tion moment of inertia Ie can be appro ximated as 50 percent of the
gross section 19 . Section 2 1.1 1 of ACI 31 805 impl ies that the stiffness of elements that I
are part of the lateralforeeresisting system shall be reduced  a common approach is to
use one half of the gross section properties. This requirement also applies to elements
that are not part of the lateralforeeresisting system, I
I
= .s.
2
. 4
= 864 In I
M eol
= 6(3 x 10
3
)(864 )(2.51)
(144)2
= 1883 kipin I
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Detailing requirements for ordinary column.
Section 21.11.1 of ACI 31 805 requires that frame members, such as the column, that are
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assumed not to be part of the late ralforeeresisting sys tem must be det ailed according to
ACI §2 1. 11.2 or §2 1.11.3, depending on the magnitude of the moments induced by ox. I
146 200 6 IBC Stru c tura l/ Se is mi c Des ig n Man ual , Vol. I
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E~ample 39 " Deformation Com p atibility i or Seismic Design Categories D, E. an d F §12.12.4
Gommentary
1 In actual applications, the flat plate slab must be checked for flexure and punchin g shear due
to gravity loads and the frame analysis actions induced by ox.
Note that this example problem shows only one way to configure this structure  that is to
combine a ductile SRCMRF with an ordinary, or nonductile, interior column. ACI
requirements for this configuration stress that the nonduc tile interior column must resist the
structure lateral deformation by strength alone.
However, the code also permits an altern ative way to configure this structure  by combining
the ductile SRCMRF with ductile interio r columns. In this configuration, if interior concrete
columns are detailed according to the requirements of ACI 3 I8 §21.11.3, then design
moments resulting from lateral structure seismic displacements need not be calculated for
that column at all.
The concrete special reinforced concrete momentresisting frame (SRCMF) shown below is
restrained by the partial height infill wall that is not considered to be a part ofthe seismic
forceres isting system. The infill is solid mas onry and has no prov ision for an expansion jo int I
at the column faces. The des ign story drift t; was computed according to the procedure given
in §12.8.6.
f
Seismic Design Category D
t; = 2.5 in
Column properties
f: = 3000 psi 3
Inrlll wall
Typ ical elevation
E, = 3 x 10 ksi
4
Ac = 144 in
t, = 854 in4 I
Determin e the following .
I
[::LJ Deformation compatibility criteria
~ Approximate column shear
3)(854)(2
v = l2E,Ill. = 12(3 x 10 .5) = 205.9 ki s
col 11 3 (72)3 P
Because the SRCMF is the primary lateralforeeresisting system, I:>. has been determined
by neglecting the stiffness of the rigid masonry.
The induced column shear stress is '1;,., = 1447 psi. This is approximately 26ff:
Ac
and would result in column shear failure. Therefore, a gap must be provided betwee n the
column faces and the infill walls. Alternately, it would be necessary to either design the
column for the induced shears and moments caused by the infill wall, or demonstrate that
the wall will fail before the column is damaged. Generally, it is far easier (and more reliable)
to provide a gap sufficie ntly wide to accommodate 1:>..
For this example, with the restraining wall height equal to one half the column height, the
gap should be greater than or equal to 1:>./2 = 1.25 in. If this were provided, the column
clear height would be 144 inches, with resulting column shear
3)(854
I, V,I =
12(3 x 10 3
)(2.5) =
25 . 7 kiIpS. ThiIS IS oneerg
. hthofthe restrame
. d coIumn
c" (144)
shear of205 kips, and correspon ds to a column shear stress of approximately 3.3JJ:.
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,Commentary
I It is also possib le that the restraint of the infill walls could cause an irregularity, such as a
building torsional irregularity . This should be evaluated if such restraints are present.
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§13.5.3
Th is example illustrates the determinat ion of the design lateral se ism ic forc e Fp
on an ext erior element of a building , in this case an exterior wall panel.
A fivestory moment frame building is shown below. The cladding on the exterior
of the bu ilding consists of precast reinforced concrete wall panels.
Level
The following informa tion is given.
5
12'
Seismic Design Category D
4 Ty pical
I = 1.0 12'
exlerior
panel
S DS=1.0
Panel size: I I ft 11 in by 19 ft 11 in 3
Panel thickness: 6in 12'
Panel weight: Wp = 14.4 kips
2
12'
12'
For design of ext erior elements, such as the wall panels on a building, that are
attached to the building at two levels, design lateral seismic forc es are determined
from Equation 13.34. Th e panels are attached at the two elevations ZL and z., '
Th e intent of the code is to pro vide a val ue of F p that represents the average of the
acc eleration inputs from the tw o attachment locations. This can be taken as the average
of the two ~} values at z equal to ZL and z" .
=
O.4nPSOS IJ' [1 + 2'::, ] ~, > 0.3 SDslpW (Eq 13.31)
Rp 11
Z" =47 ft
ZL = 37 ft
11 = ft
F
pL 2.5
[I 2 60
= 0.4 (1.0)(1.0)(1.0) + (37)] W = 0.357 W:
p P
I Check: Fp4 > 0.3 SDslpH'p = 0.3( 1.0)(1.0)Wp = 0.3Wp . . . o.k. (Eq 13.33)
I Z" =Ilft
ZL =0
h = 60 ft
1
Check that Fpu is greater than 0.3 SvsIpWp
1
Fpu = 0.3(1.0)(1.0)Wp = 0.30Wp . . . not o.k.
Note that the design of the panel may be controlled by nonseismic load conditions of the
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fabrication process, transportation, and installation . Also note that the forces induced by
disp lacement Dp from Equation 13.35 need to be checked per § 13.3.2.1.
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xample42
Exterior ons ruc turei all Elements: reces Panel §13.5.3
Th is example illustrates the det ermination of the total design seismic lateral force for the
design of the conne ctions of an exterior wa ll pan el to a building.
An exterior nonb earing panel is located at the fourth story of a fivestory moment fram e
bu ilding. The panel support system is shown below, where the pair of upper brackets must
prov ide resistance to outofplane wind and seismic forces and inplane vertical and
horizontal forces. Th e panel is supported vertically from these bracket s. The lower pair of
rod connections pro vides res istance to only the outo fpl ane forces.
S DS = 1.0
fp 1.0
=
fi 0.5
=
Height to roof, h = 60 ft 12'
Panel weight = 14.4 kips
P = 1.0 per §12.3.4.1(3).
Panel live load, L = 0

' C~!~ulations and Dis_cussifJn Code Re(~relJce
= Q£ +0 .2D
This combination need not be considered because the rod connections resist only the Q£ I
axial load, and the bracket connections have shear resistance capacity independent of the
direction of the Q£ shear load: for example, upward resistan ce is equal to downward
resistance. Therefore, this load combination is satisfied by lAD + Q£ for Q£ and D with I
the same signs.
In the seismic load combinations, Q£ is the load action on the connection due to
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the lateral load Fp applied either inplane or outo fplane at the panel centerofmass
per § 13.3.
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154 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 42 • Exteri or Nonstructural Wa ll Elements: Precasl Panel §13 . 5.3
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~ Lateral seismic force at cen te ro fmass C of panel
Section 13.5.3, Item d., requires that the connection seismic load actions be determined by
the force Fp given by §13.3.1 applied to the centerofmass of the wall panel. The values of
Rp and o p are given in Table 13.5 1 for the body and fastene rs of the connection elements.
To represen t the average seismic acceleration on the panel, Fp will be determined as the
avera ge of the Fp values for the upper bracket elevation level, z,,, and for the lower rod
elevation elevati ons, ZL. For the higher story levels of the building, this average Fp
would be essentially equal to the Fp value using Z = z, at the panel centerofmass elevation.
However, this use of elevations z = Zc may not be valid for the lower story levels because
of the limitation of
(Eq 13.33)
F = O.4o pSDs l p ( 1+ 2
z) IV (Eq 13.31)
p n, 11 p
I F
pU
= 0.4(1.0) [I + 2 (47)] IV
2.5 60 p
I z =ZL = 37 ft
= 0.384Wp = 0.384(14.)
= 5.53 kips
This force is applied at the panel centroid C and acts horizontally in either the outof
plane or the inplane direction.
,It
_ _
.._.. .. ..
0~
f .•_ .. _ ••_ •• J
 I
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,
5'
_ _ _..
.. .. .. f •. _ .. _ .. _ ..... t 
Fp = 5.5 3 kips
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Examplo 42 IR Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Panel §13.5.3
1 Each bracket takes the following downward inplane shear force due to
vertical loads
I AWp 20.16 .
VB =   =   = 10.08 kips
2 2
Note that each rod, because it carries only axial forces, has no inplane,
dead, or seismic loading.
9' 9'
Each bracket takes the following inplane horizontal shear force due to lateral
seismic load
H B =
r, 5.53
= 
ki
=2.77 IpS
2 2
Each bracket takes the following upward or downward shear force due to
the reversible lateral seism ic load
I FB  5(F p ) 

5(5.53)  ± I .54 kiIpS
18 18
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I Each bracket takes the following downward force due to vertical loads:
I RB =
1.4Wp 20.16 .
=   = 10.08 kips
2 2
1
@J Design forces for the brackets
~ Body of connection I
Under §13.5.3 and Tab le 13.5.1 the body of the connection must be designed for
Up= 1.0 and Rp = 2.5. These are the up and Rp values used for the determination of Fp .
Therefore, there is no need to change the load actions due to this force.
The bracket must be designed to resist the following sets of load actions.
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PB = ± 1.38 axial load together with
and
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H B = ± 2.77 kips horizontal shear together with
~ Fasteners
Under § 13.5.3, Item d., and Table 13.5.1, fasteners must be designed for
u p = 1.25 and Rp = 1.0. Thus, it is necessary to multiply the Fp load actions by I
( 1.25)(2.5) = 3.125 because these values were based on ap = 1.0 and Rp = 2.5. J
Fasteners must be designed to resist
and
1
[!J F asteners
1 Fasteners in the connecting system must be des igned to resist a force based on
ap = 1.25 and Rp = 1.0
r
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2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic D esign Manual, Vol. I 159
§12.1.3 Example 43 • Beam Horizontal Tie Force
EXa m p le 43
'Bea m H orizonta l Tie Force §12. 1.3
Find the minimum required tie capacity for the connection between the two simple
beams shown in the example below,
Fp = 0.133 SDSW p
or
F p = 0.05H'p
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual, Vol. I 161
§12 .10.2 Example 44 • Collector Elemen ts
§12.10.2
Collectors "collect" forces and carry them to vertical shearresisting elements. Collectors are
sometimes called drag struts. The purpose of this example is to show the determination of the
maximum seismic force for design of collector elements. In the example below, a tiltup
building, with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized wood roof, has a
partial interior shear wall on Line 2. A collector is necessary to "collect" the diaphragm loads
tributary to Line 2 and bring them to the shear wall.
100'
Occupancy Category I
50' 50'
By inspection, for the onestory shear wall build ing, Equation 12.82 will govern.
S
Base shear = V= DS W = 0.2 l 8W (Eq 12.82)
R
W= structure weight above one half hi
50'
Interior
shear wall
Collector
F,
=w,
WI P
= 1.2 S p, W = V
R x
giving:
V
Fp 1 = Wpl = 0.218Wp l
W
I Wpl = tributary roof and outofplane wall weight
I Note: This force corresponds to the diaphragm design forces calcu lated using §12.10.1.
These forces are compared to the diaphragm shear strength ; including the shea r
strength of connection between the diaphragm and collector. The design of the
collector and its connections requires that the axial forces be amplified as shown
I below.
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Man ual. Vol . I 163
§12.1 0.2 Ex amp le 44 • Coll ec tor El em ents
1
Given the force Fpl specified by Equation 12.101, the collector elements, splices , and their J
connections to resisting clements shall have the design strength to resist the earthquake loads
as defi ned in the Specia l Load Combinations of §12.4.3.2.
(Eq 12.45)
Here, Q£ is the horizontal collector desig n force Fpl = 53.3 kips, and I
n oQ£ = 2.5(53.3) = 133.25 kips axial tension and compressio n load
J
0.2 SDsD = 0.2( 1.0)D = 0.2D vertical load
The strength design of the collector and its connections must resist the following load
components.
am le45
Outof..Plane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or
Masonry Walls to Flexible Diaphragms §12.. 11..2 and 12.11.2.1
For the tiltup wall panel shown below, the seismic force required for the design of
the wall anchorage to the flexible roo f diaphragm is to be determined. This will be
done for a representative Ifoot width of wa ll.
4'
Occu pancy Importance Category I F. n: l• ++ Roof
J = 1.0
20'
SDS = 1.0
Panel thickness = 8 in
Normal weight concrete CI50 pet)
. Assumed pin support ~ ~
Ground
where WI\' is the weight ofa Ifoot width of wa ll that is tributary to the anch or.
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166 2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manua l, Vol. I
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Example 46 • Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12 .11.2.1
ample 4 6
all nchorage to Flexible iap ragms §12.11.2.1
Th is example illustrates use of the allowable stress design proced ure for the design of
stee l and wood elements of the wall anchorage system in a building with a flexible roof
diaphragm.
Th e drawing below shows a tiltup wall panel that is connected near its top to a flexible
roof diaphragm. The anchorage force has been calculated per § 12.11.2.1 as Fonch = 1680 lb/ft.
The wall anchorage connections to the roof are to be provided at 4 feet on center.
Wall panel
The steel holddown elements of the anchorage system resist only the axial anchorage
load and there are no dead or live load effects.
This example, uses the ASD load combinations of §2.4, where the applicable seismic load
combinations permi t 0.7£ to be resisted with an increase in allowable stress based on
duration (i.e., the Cd duration factor for wood) .
]
The allowabl e stress design axial load requirement for each pair of holddown elements is
From the manufacturer's catalog , select a holddown element having a capacity of at least
J
4800 lb = 2400 Ib
2
The holddown detail must provide both tensile and compress ive resistance for this load.
Whenever holddowns are used in pairs, as shown in the wallroof tie detail above, the
throug hbol ts in the subpurlin must be checked for double shear bearing. Also, the paired
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anchorage embedment in the wall is likely to involve an overlapping pullout cone
condition in the concrete : refer to ACI 3 I8 Append ix D for design requirements.
When singlesided holddowns are used, these must consider the effects of eccentricity.
Generally, double holddowns are preferred, but singlesided holddowns are often
used with all eccentricities fully considered. I
~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element
The strength design axial load on the wood element of the wall anchorage system is
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PE = (1680)(4) = ± 6720 lb I
Using the seismic load combinations of §2.4, select the wood element such that the
allowable capacity of the element, for the combined bend ing and axial stress including
dead and live load effects, can support a ± axial load of
I
0.7PE = 0.7(6720) = 4800 lb applied at the anchored end. I
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16 8 2006 IB C S tr uctural/Seismic Design Man ual, Vol . I
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Example 46 l:f Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diap hragms §12.11.2.1
1 1
Commentary
For comparison , the forces acting on wood, co ncrete, and steel elements are shown below. For wood,
the load is divided by the dura tion fac tor Cd of 1.0 to permit comparison. For stee l, the load is
increased by 1.4 per §12.11.2.2.
Material ASD
0.8SDsIW
Wood 0.5 SoslW (0.35 SoslW)
1.6
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~ mple 4 7
!# ermination of Diaphragm Force f px : Lowrise §12.'10. 1.1
A singlestory tiltup bui lding with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized
wood roof is shown below. This type of roof construction can generally be shown to
behave per flexible diaphragm assumptions.
cp
r Normal wall
200 '
b
o
2: F,
Fp:r = ~=
n l t,'px (Eq 12.10 1)
1 2:
i.t
lV j
with limits of
which for
are
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I For a short period single story building, Equation 12.101 becomes (see commentary
below for derivation)
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I with the given val ues of SDS = 1.0, R = 5.0
I F pl =
(1.0)(1.0)
5.0 11'p.t = 0.2 Wpl = 0.2(3 100) = 620 lb/ft
I Note that the redundancy factor of p is to be applied to the Q£ load actions due
to Fp l (such as chord forces and diaphragm shear loads in the diaphrag m).
2: F, I
Fps = ~w
•• px (Eq 12.101)
2: Wi I
v •
F X = CIX V = n
w,h, (Eq 12.811 )
2: W/l:
i.. 1
2: i I
11'; = W
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172 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual, Vol. I
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1 Examp le 47 ~ Determ ination of Diaphragm Forc e Fpx: Lowrise §12. 10. 1. 1
where
1 V= C W = 50 S ! IV
5 R (Eq 12.81 and 12.82)
1 F
P1
= 
F,
IV
11'
1'1
= 
IV
V
lV
1'1
5
R
s!
= 0  11'
1'1
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ample 48
t
This example illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force Fpx of Equation
12. 10 1 for a representative floor of a multistory building.
The ninestory moment frame bui lding shown below has the tabulated design seismic
forces P.r:. These were determined from Equations 12.811 and 12.812 , the design
base shear.
W = 3,762 kips
C, = 0.06215
8Ds = 1.0
Level
9
1< 27' *
'1
27':J
1 Weight, kips
Story
12
P = 1.3 8 214
12'
I = 1.0 7
405
12'
T = 1.06 sec 6
405
V = CW= 233.8 kips 12' 405
5
k = 2 for Eq 12.812 12'
584
4
422
3
422
2
440
1
20 ' 465
k
C = WJ l" FI
2 vr t
Level x h (ft) h I\' kips II'h L I\'.h.
, I Fx =Cl·.rV IV
For Level 7, x = 7
Check limits:
I Note that the redundancy factor, in this example p = 1.3, is to be applied to the load Q£ due
to F P.f (such as chord forces and floortoframe shear connections). Also note that Equation
12.101 will always govern for the design of the diaphragm versus Equation 12.812.
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i#.a.~ple 49
..
SUilding Separations §12.12.3
Building separations are necessary to prevent or reduce the possibility of two adjacent
structures impacting during an earthquake. Requirements for building separations are
given in §12.12.3. In this example, the static displacements oxe
due to the prescribed
lateral forces of § 12.8 and information about each structure are given below. Note that
the displacements given are at the plan view edges of the building.
.r1~ ~aralion
""'~
3
.
II Structure J
Levelr 0..
1.38 in.
Structure 2
1.00 2 0.75 in
2
0.47 I 0.35
o o 0
R= 6
C,/ =5
o
Structure 1 Structure 2
where
where
For Structure I
s,  C~2J _ 5.5(1.0)  5 5 .
U '\(I   /  1.0  . in (Eq 12.815)
For Structure 2
I
~ Separation from an adjacent building on the same property
I If Structures I and 2 above are adjacent, individual buildings on the same property, the
solution is the same as that shown above in Step I . The code makes no distinction betw een
an "internal" separation in the sam e building and the separation required betw een two
I adjacent buildings on the same property.
6U T = 9.25 in
I
I
Structure I must be set back 7.59 inches from the property line, unless a sma ller I
separation is justifie d by a rati onal analys is ba sed on maximum ground motion s.
Such an analys is is difficul t to perform, and is ge nerally not requ ired except in very
special cases.
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178
I
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual, Vol. I
Ex ample 50 • Fl exible Nonbuilding Structure § 1 5. 5
Example 50
Flexible onbuildiJ1Jg' TUC UTe §15,,5
A tall steel bin tower is supporte d by a con crete found ation. The tower sits on
symmetrically braced legs
/fn
T = 2n  = 2n
k
150 kips/(386 kip/in/sec")
8.30 kip/in
=.
1 36
sec
Because the period is greater than .06 second, the vessel does not qual ify as a rigi d
nonbuilding structu re and thus is considered flexible. See § 15.4.2.
It should be noted that the value of the period, T, should not be calculated using any I
of the approximate methods in §12.8.2.1, nor is it intended to be subject to the limitations
presented in §12.8.2. This is because the approximate method presented is intend ed for
buildings and is not applicable to structural systems that differ significantly from typical I
building configurations and characteristics. Refe r to Section CI 09.1.4 of the 1999 SEAOC
Blue Book for further discussion. ]
~ Design base shear
The des ign base shear for nonbuilding structures is calculated from the same expressions as
for buildings. These are given in §12.8. 1. In addit ion, nonbuilding structures, such as the
vessel, must also sat isfy the requirements of §15.5.
I
v = C, W= 0.217 (150 kips) = 32.55 kip s
where
C = SDS = 0.50 (Eq 12.82)
, R /I
SDS =1.2
R = 3.0 T 15.42
Q o = 2.0
CD = 2.5
T
T
15.42
15.42
I
I = 1.25 T 11.51
I
The value of C, computed in accordance with Eq. 12.82 need not exceed
C
S
=0.199
I
= DI (Eq 12.82)
s CR t!)T
where
I
SOl = 0.65
R = 3.0
I = 1.25
I
T = 1.36 sec
I
But C, shall not be taken less than
I
I
180 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
I
1 Example 50 • Fl ex ible Nonbu ilding Stru cture § 15. 5
c, = 0.5S,
(RI l)
= 0.135 (Eq 12.86)
where
SI =0.65
R = 3.0
[ = 1.25
Thus: C, = 0.199 governs
Also note that if this tower (Occupancy Category 11) were located on a site with mapped
maximum considered earthquake spectral response accele ration at I second period S"
equal to or great er than 0.75g, it would be assigned to SDC E (§11.6). Thu s, the height
would be limited to 100 ft per Tabl e 15.42.
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I;xaniple 51
Lateral
,, Force on Nonbuilding Structure §15.0
A nonbuilding structure with a special reinforced concrete mom ent frame (SRCMF)
supports some rigid aggregate storage bins. Weights U~ and W2 include the maximum
normal op erating weights of the storage bins and contents as well as the tributary
frame weight. See § 15.4.1.1 and Table 11.5. 1
where
C, = S DS = (1.33) = 0.166 (Eq 12.82)
(R I I) (8.0) 1(1 .0)
J where
5DS = 1.33
R =8
I = 1.0
The value of C., computed in accordance with Equation 12.82 need not exceed
where
5D/ = 1.0
R = 8.0
I = 1.0
T =2 .0
where
\
Vertical distribution of seismic forces §12 .82
I The design base shear must be distributed over the height of the structu re in the
same manner as that for a building struc ture.
r, = c, V=
I C.~ ( 18.9 kips) (Eq 1641)
I
2006 lac Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol. I 183
§15.0 Example 51 • Lat eral Force on Nonbulldlng Structure
I
]
where
J
C"., = n CEq 12.811)
' " W il l
Lj I " J
where ]
k = 1.0 for T ~ 0.50 sec
and k = 2.0 for T 2: 2.50 sec J
and k = interpolate between 1 and 2.5 sec
J
Thu s:
K I
2.0
1.01_ _ 
I
o
1
Sto ry Shears (k = 1.75)
Story Story
Height Weight Force Shear
I I
J Level Iz:r !t.t W, W.Jl.f C,·x F, V, Sa
2 45 781.85 200 156369.45 0.803 15.17 15.17 0 .076
1 30 384 .56 100 38455.83 0.197 3.73 18.9 0.037
300 194825.28 1.00 18.9
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'~ample 52
'''igid Nonbuilding_ Structure §15.4.2 )
The code has special requi rements for the determination of seismic forces for design
of rigid nonbuilding structures. In this example, rigid ore crushing equipment is supported
by a massive concrete pedestal and seismic design forces are to be determined.
SOS = 1.33
I = 1.0
T = 0.02 sec
W EQUlPAfENT =100 kips
W SUPPORT = 200 kips
30'
20'
Grade
Determine the following .
I
Design base shear §15.4.2
For rigid nonbuilding structures, Equation 15.45 is used to determine design
I
base shear.
(Eq 12.812)
Story Story
Height Weight Force Shear
k k
Level Iz x h.t W, W.Jlx e ll.>; F, v, Sa
2 30 30 100 3000 0.429 51.25 51.35 0.516
1 20 20 200 4000 0.571 68.45 119.7 0.342
300 7000 1.00 119.7
, ~ample 53
.!In With Supported Bottom §15.7.6
A small liquid storage tank is supported on a concrete slab. The tank does not contain
toxic or explosive substances.
SDS= 1.20
I = 1.0
W = Weight of tank and
20'
max imum normal
operating contents Slab
[!J The tank is a nonbu ilding structure, and seismic requirements for tanks with
supported bottoms are given in §15.7.6. This secti on requires that seismic
forces be determined using the procedures of §15.4.2.
where
L = 20 ft
D = 10ft
LID = 20/10 = 2.0
w = W/L = 120,000 Ib/20 = 6000 plf
I = 0.50 in
wd 6000(10)
1,440,000
t (0.50/12)
where
SDS= 1.20
I = 1.00
W = 120 kips
The design lateral seismic force is to be applied at the centerofmass of the tank and its
contents. Note that the centerofmass of the contents and of the tank do not normally
coincide. The distribution of forces vertically shall be in accordance with § 12.8.3.
Commentary
The procedures above are intend ed for tanks that have relati vely small diameters (less
than 20 feet) and where the forces generated by fluidsloshing modes are small. For large
diameter tanks , the effects of sloshing must be considered. Refer to American Wate r Works
Association Standard ANSI! AWWA D100 "Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage," or
American Petroleum Institute Standard 650, "Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage" for more
I detailed guidance.
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I
ample 54
Pile Interconnections IBC'§1808.2.23.1
A twostory masonry bearing wall structure has a pile foundation, Piles are located
around the perimeter of the building. The foundation plan of the building is shown
below.
A
a<0
t f f f
0
2
4 11iI 2S'
0
:=lA
3
= 100 '
A
0
4
r 5
II
®  a@)
'"
N
C o o o
6 9 10 11
Foundation plan
The code requires that individual pile caps of every structure subject to seismic forces be
I interconnected with ties. This is specified in § 1808.2.23.1. The ties must be capable of
resisting in tension and compression a minimum horizontal tie force equal to 10 percent of
the larger column vertical load. The column vertical load is to be considered the dead,
reduced live, and seismic loads on the pile cap. An exception to §1808.2.23.1 allows use of
"equivalent restraint" which , in this example, is provided by the confinement of very dense
granular soil at the site.
Maximum loads on each pile cap under E/W seismic forces are
Minimum horizontal tie force Sos II 0 = 0.10 times the largest column vertical load
I The choices are to add a grade beam (i.e., tie beam ) connecting pile caps 3 and 10, or to try to
use passive pressure restraint on the pile cap in lieu of a grade beam. The latter is considered
I an "equivalent restraint" (by soil confinement or bearing pressure) under the exception to
rae §1808.2.23.1.
I For the allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per foot of depth below natural grade, the passive
pressure resistance is
. [2(200) + 4(200)]
Passive press ure = (2 ft) = 1200 plf
I .
Required length =
7400lbs
2
= 6.2 ft
1200 plf
I This is greater than 3'0" pile cap wid th, but pile cap and a tributary length ofN/S grade
beam on either side of the pile cap may be designed to resist tie forces using the passive
I pressure. This system is shown below and , if this is properly designed , no grade beam
between pile caps 3 and 10 (or similar caps) is required.
1,200 plf
.
•.....
...... ::::~::::
2'·0" ~:::::::::::~
E, 6.2'
Normally, buildings on pile foundations are required to have interconnecting ties between
pile caps. This is particularly true in the case of highrise buildings and buildings with heavy
vertical loads on individual pile caps. Ties are essential in tall buildings. Ties are also
necessary when the site soil conditions are so poor that lateral movements, or geotechnical
hazards, such as liquefaction, are possible.
In the design of relatively lightweight one and twostory buildings, the exception to the
interconnecting tie requirement of § 1808.2.23.1 may permit a more economical foundation
design. However, when interconnecting ties are omitted, a geotechnical engineer should
confirm the appropriateness of this decision, and the project specifications should call for
the backfill and compaction methods necessary to provide required passive pressure
resistance.
~l
The following is an example of the simplified wind load procedure of ASCE/SEI 705.
Exposure: Suburban office park surrounded by trees and typical suburban construction
on all sides  Therefore the exposure category is B. §6.5.6
Enclosure: The building has no unusual openings in the envelope, nor is it in a hurricane
region, so no concerns for windborne debris  Classify as Enclosed. §62
Topography: Height of adjacent hills is less than 60 feet  Wind speedup effects not a concern.
(§6.5.7.1.5) x; = 1.0
Structure: The structure is an Xbraced steel frame with evenly distributed braces on all four
exterior walls. The second floor is concrete slab on metal form deck on steel floor
beams. The roof is metal roof deck on steel joists on steel joist girders.
Design Method:
I To utilize ASCE/SEI 705 Simplified Procedure (Method 1) all ofthe following
criteria must be met.
1) With no breaks in the roof or floor (structural separations) the diaphragms are
I simple, as defined in §62
2) The building height is less than 60 feet and least horizontal dimensions
3) The building is enclosed and not prone to windborne debris
I 4) The building is regular shaped
5) The building is rigid with a period less than I second
6) The site is not subject to wind speedup effects
I 7) The building is symmetrical
8) For a building with well distributed MWFRS torsional load case in note 5 of
Figure 610 will not govern the design. Therefore design by Method 1 §6.4
I
I
25'
Edge Strip = a = Lesser of: • 10% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.10 x 100 ft
= 10ft
1 But not less than:
· 40% of the eave height = 0040 x 25 ft = lOft
·4% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.04 x 100 ft = 4
ft
• 3ft
J
Tran svers e MWFRS  90 mph, E xposure B, Height 25.0 rt
P IJ O A K:1 1 p,
Type Zone Surface Label
Roof Angle HI. & Exp. Topographic Import. Design
0'" to 5'" Factor Factor Factor Pressure
W all A 12.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00  12.8 psf
End
Roof B No Roof Projection for Flat Roofs
Horiz
Wall C 8.5 A 1.00 I A 1.00 IA 1.00 I ~ 8.5 psf
Int
Roof D Nn Roof Proiection for Flat Roofs
Wind E 15.4 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00   15.4 psf
End
Ven
Lee F 8.8 x 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00  8.8 psf
Wind G 10.7 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 = 10.7 psf
Int
Lee H 6.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00  ·6.8 psf
In addition, the minimum load case from §6.4.2.1 .1 must also be checked. App ly a load of 10
psf on the buildin g projection on a vertica l plane normal to the wind. In other words , create a
load case with all horizontal zones equal to 10 psf, and all vertical zones equal to O. Check
this load case as an independent case, do not combine with the case from §6.4.2.1. It should
be applied in each direction as well.
<: i
I
1 ~f"'enc. Corner
L
Being Evacuated
Accordi ng to §6.1.1, all "bu ildings .. ..and all components and cladding" must be designed for
I wind loads. Therefo re, all parts of the exterior building envelope and any load paths, that are
not part of the main windforceresisting system (lateral frame), should be designed as
Components and Cladding (C&C) . For buildings such as this that qualify under §6.4.2.1, the
I C&C can be designed using §6.4.2.2, Eq 62.
Deck
Area
+5.9
Factor
x 1.00 x 1.00
Factor
x 1.00
Pressure
+5 .9·
1
Screw < 10 sf Ne gative Non e Required 14.6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 14.6
10 sf 20 sf 12 sf
Positive +5.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5. &·
Roof +5.9 +5.6 +5. &
Dec k 12 sf 10sf 20 sf 12 sf
Int Negative 14.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.0 0  14.5
( I)
Joist
> 100
Positive
Neg ative
 14.6  14.2
None Required
 14.5
No ne Req uired +4 .7
1 3.3
x 1.00
x 1.00
x 1.00
x 1.00
x 1.00
x 1.00
+4 .7·
13.3
I
sf
'",
Deck
Screw < 10 sf
Positive
Negative
None Required
None Required
+5.9
24 .4
x 1.00
x 1.00
x 1.00
x 1.00
x 1.00
x 1.00
+5.9·
24.4'
)
s Positive None Required +5.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5 .& ·
•0 Roof 10 s f I 20 sf 12 sf
"
Deck 12 sf Negati ve 23.9 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 23.9
0
0
Edge 24.4 I 2 1.& 23.9
~ (2) Positive No ne Required +4.7 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +4 .7·
Joist > 100
sf Nega tive None Required 15.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00  15.&
Deck Pos itiv e None Requ ired +5.9 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5 .9·
Screw < 10 sf Negative None Required 36 .& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 36.8
Positive None Required +5.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.&·
Comer
Roof
Deck 12 s f Negative
10 sf
36.& I
20 sf
30.5
12 sf
35.5
35.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.0 0 35 .5 )
(3) Posi tive None Required +4 .7 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +4.7*
JOiSl > 100
sf Negati ve None Required 15.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 15.&
Posi tive None Required 14.6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 14.6
Siding < 10 sf Negat ive None Required 15.8 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00  15.&
10 sf 20 sf 17.3 sf
Positive + 14. 1 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 + 14. 1
Int + 14.6 + 13.9 + 14. 1
(4) Stud 17.3 sf 10 s f 20 sf 17.3 sf
Negative  15.3 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00  15.3
;;  15.&  15.1 15.3
::: Positive None Required + 14.6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 + 14.6
Siding < 10 sf Neg ative None Required 1 9.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 1 9.5
10 s f 20 sf 17.3 sf +14.1
Posi tive x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +14. 1
Int + 14.6 + 13.9 + 14.1
Stud 17.3 sf
(4) 10 s f 20 sf 17.3 sf
Negative  1&. 6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00  18.6
 19.5  1&.2 1 &. 6
• Note. A minimum pressure of 10 psf 15 required per§6.4.2.2.1
The component and cladding pressures should be applied as described in Figure 63
and as shown in the diagram below.
Interior Zones
O Roofs Zone 1f\Nalis Zone 4
Q End Zones
'.,; Roofs Zone 21Walls  Zone 5
Comer Zones
Roofs Zone 3
I
1
1
I
Per §6.4. 1.1 , for conform ing lowrise bui ldings, wind loads can be determined using simplified
provisions.
A B c
Main wind
forceres isting
system
1 
/ 3story office build ing
located in urban/subu rban
2 
I b
(0
area ofNW Texas  situated
on fiat ground
Typ
3 
1< 100'
PLAN
Flexible
Diaphragm
Typ
WaII mu II"10 ns
/' spaced 5 ~eel typ
)
1/
1
[!J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A
I
2006 IBC Stru ctural/Se ismic Design Ma nual, Vol. J 201
§6.4 Exam ple 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings ]
V
Load
Dir.
Roof
Angle
A
End Zone
Wall
8
Roof
C
Int. Zone
Wall
D
Roof
End Zone
E
WW
F
LW
G
WW
lnt. Zone
H
LW
I
Roof Roof Roof Roof
90
mph Transverse
o to
5"
12.8 6.7 8.5 4.0 15.4 8.8 10.7  6.8 I
17.8 4.7 11.9 2.6 15.4 10.7  10.7  8. 1
Interpolating: For
20"
I
examp le, roof angle 7.6" 13.7 6.4 9.1  3.8  15.4 9.1 10.7 7.0
= arctan 10 = 7.6" (use 0) (use 0)
I
11d·1 Determine end zone dimensions Note 10, F 62 I
a = 0.10 (60) = 6 ft . . . Governs
Edge Strip
or I
= 0.40 (35) = 14 ft
but not less than
~ 0.04 (60) = 2.4 ft I
or
~3ft
I
End Zone 2a = 12 ft F 62
I
1 e.1Determine load on MWFRS at Grid A §6.4. 2.1
Note: Forces to Grid A are shown based on a tributary basis that is conservative for
the analysis of Grid A . Alternatively, the forces could be distribu ted to gr ids A and C
by ap plying the loads as a simple span beam.
Leew ard Roof I n end zone [F] = (1. 05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(9. 1 psf) = 9 .56 psf
In interi or zon e [H] = ( 1.05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(7 .0 psf) = 7.35 psf
Note : Forces applied to Grid A are sho wn as a distri buted loa d along the frame
length . A more detai led analysis of for ces based on roof frami ng would include a
sm aller distributed load and upli ft point loa ds at locations where beams frame into the
grid A moment frame at grids I, 2, and 3.
0.34 kif
VR = 1.49 k
> Trib. HI. 10 ft/2 = 5 It
V3 = z.se'
> 10 ft/2 + 10 ft/2 = 10 n
k
V2 = 3.72 ) 10 ft/2 + 15 ft/2 = 12.5 ft
Elevation
cr C( cr
0r r
Load Cases:
:JD l
9.6 psI x Trib HIS
14.4 psI x Trib HI
§6.4.2.1
Plan
r~
(
= 3'· floor
,/
(
= ,/
2nd floor
75 plf or 68.5 plf
..... lJ
1
4
~I
Office build ing 50 ft by 50 ft in 12'
plan with MWFRS at exterior. 12'
Located in an urban/suburban 12'
area ofN.W. Texas
12'
12'
12'
3" 12'
12'
Elevation
Determ ine:
Icai~ulationsJ!n(f Discussion
Confirm building is regular shaped and not subject to across wind loading, vortex
shedding, instability due to galloping or flutter ; or does not have a site locatio n for
1
which channeling effects or buffet ing in wake of upwind obstructions warrant special
conditions §6.5.1 I
Design procedure §6.5.3
Exposure 8
I
" Case 2
0· 15 fl
20
25
0.57
0.62
0.66
I
30 0.70
40
50
0.76
0.81
I
60 0.85
70
80
90
0.89
0.93
0.96
I
100 0.99
11 6
120
1.03 •
1.04
By Interpolation
I
Topographic factor K Z1 = I
(example building on flat land, no nearby hills)
§6.5.7
I
Gust effect factor G
9story building
§6.5.8
I
Natural period = 0.1(9) = 0.9 sec §9.5.5.3.2
1
Natural frequency =  = 1.1 Hz > 1.0
0.9
(Eq 9.5.5.3.2la) I
Therefore: Rigid structure §6.2
G= 0.85 §6.5.8.1
I
206 2006 IBC S tr uct ur al/S eism i c Design Ma nual, Vol. I
Examp le 58 a Floor Vibra tions
L
Elevation
L 50
I
 =  = 1 > C =  0.5 F66
50
B p
I
q" = q " ' ll 6 fi = 18.2 psf
c, =0.7 F 66
CEq 617)
Windward wall
Leeward wall
p = q"GCp  qh (GCp i )
Side walls
rrrr,. 19.4 ps f
Wind
~I~ 11.0 psf
14.1 psf
Plan
Wind
,)
Elevation
To obtain frame loads, multiply pressures by tributary width = 50/2 = 25 ft or perform Rigid
Diaphragm Analysis
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