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Abdominal pain  There is pain in the
abdomen because there is
an obstruction, there is
greater chance that the
intestinal walls and
peritoneum is being
Abdominal cramping This is due to inability of
the muscular contractions
of the bowel to push the
digested food to pass the
Vomiting  This happens because,
when the foods cannot
pass through the
intestines. The intestinal
and stomach content are
thrown out through the
mouth due to the
intestinal blockage.
Nausea This is due to body’s
reaction towards a disease
and part of inflammatory
response of the body.
Fever  There is increase
production of pyrogens to
stimulate hypothalamus
as part of inflammatory
response of the body.
Constipation It is due to the obstruction
of the intestines which
stools cannot pass
Distended abdomen When bowel cannot pass
through the obstruction,
the body reabsorbs large
amount of fluids.
Fullness of abdomen When the intestines are
blocked, there are less or
no bowel movements.
Hence a person can feel
fullness even though
he/she has not eaten.

Predisposing factors

Factor Present Justification

Age  Studies shows that

younger people is at risk
in developing intestinal
obstruction especially if
they undergone surgical

Congenital An abnormalities in the

gastrointestinal gastrointestinal cause by
abnormalities congenital can cause
intestinal obstruction.

Abdominal Surgery  Person who undergone

abdominal surgery is at
risk on developing
intestinal obstruction
because of possible
formation of adhesions.

Precipitating factors

Adhesions  Adhesions can kink, twist

or pull the intestines out of
place, causing obstruction
in the intestines that can
restricts the food and stool
to pass through the

Hernia Hernia cause obstruction

by protruding on the
intestines that restricts
the passage of foods and
stool in the intestines.

Volvulus(twisting of bowel) Twisting motion of the

bowel produces a closed
loop of bowel with a
pinched base leading to
obstruction of intestines.