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Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927

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Energy and Buildings

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Passive environment control system of Kerala vernacular residential architecture

for a comfortable indoor environment: A qualitative and quantitative analyses
A.S. Dili a,*, M.A. Naseer b, T. Zacharia Varghese a
Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, India
Department of Architecture, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, India


Article history: The modern day practice does not give due respect to passive and natural environment control measures
Received 18 March 2009 in buildings. With modern materials and technology, the buildings of present architectural style results
Received in revised form 4 January 2010 in high energy consumption, in an attempt to provide thermal comfort indoors. The vernacular
Accepted 4 January 2010
architecture at any place on the other hand has evolved through ages by consistent and continuous effort
for more efficient and perfect solutions. The authors have conducted a qualitative analysis of the passive
Keywords: environment control system of vernacular residential architecture of Kerala that is known for ages for its
use of natural and passive methods for a comfortable indoor environment. The orientation of building,
Passive environment control system
internal arrangement of spaces, the presence of internal courtyard, use of locally available materials and
Vernacular architecture
Thermal comfort special methods of construction, etc. have together created the indoor environment. A quantitative
analysis was also carried out based on field experiments by recording thermal comfort parameters in a
selected building. The study has provided positive results confirming that the passive environment
control system employed in Kerala vernacular architecture is highly effective in providing thermal
comfort indoors in all seasons.
ß 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction irrespective of their efficiency in regulating the indoor environ-

ment has often resulted in high energy consumption, leading to
Review of vernacular architecture in its ecological concerns many environmental problems [12]. Also, energy intensive
suggests that human beings should adapt all their design activities solutions are required in such buildings to attain comfort
to the natural order of the global system. In the light of this, conditions in terms of cooling and ventilation. Fortunately there
environmental architecture can be the most appropriate discipline are conscious efforts now to design building that require low
to perform the role of stabilizing the ecological system. The term, energy by utilizing the passive techniques to achieve comfortable
environmental architecture, means the architecture adjusted to its cooler indoors.
surroundings or in harmony with nature creating a healthy Kerala has a characteristic warm–humid climate because of its
environment for human beings by maximizing the utilization of geographic settings. The presence of high amount of moisture in
natural energies [1]. Environmental architecture is the one that the atmosphere for major part of the year causes thermal
would provide a comfortable indoor environment in response to discomfort as there is less evaporation, resulting in sweating.
the seasonal variations of the climate. Irrespective of the extreme Prolonged exposure to such thermal discomfort conditions can
climatic conditions that prevail outside, the building indoors create adverse effects including extensive loss of efficiency in work
should keep its occupants physiologically comfortable. along with physical strain [13,14].
The strength of vernacular architecture is that it makes The vernacular architecture of a region derived out of various
buildings that are in natural harmony with climate, built form factors, such as social, culture, etc. gives more importance to local-
and people. Vernacular architecture has evolved through ages specific factors such as climate and topography. The principles of
where among other factors, the climate has also played a very vernacular architecture of Kerala are based on empirical observa-
important role [2–9]. However, the modern practice in architecture tions and experimental wisdoms acquired through generations
lacks conscious effort in using passive methods of controlling the [15]. The use of natural and passive methods in the vernacular
indoor environment [10,11]. Excessive use of modern materials Kerala architecture is attributed to be highly effective in providing
thermal comfort in all distinct seasons.
Although there have been attempts to analyze the vernacular
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9447303875; fax: +91 4952287250. architecture of Kerala, they were focused only on one or two
E-mail addresses: dili@nitc.ac.in, dili_as@yahoo.com (A.S. Dili). parameters and were qualitative in approach [7,13]. It is not

0378-7788/$ – see front matter ß 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
918 A.S. Dili et al. / Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927

Fig. 1. Climatic zones of India [17].

possible to establish the effectiveness of any passive environment Extending from 88180 to 12848’N latitude and 748520 to 72822’E
control system without a comprehensive analysis supported by longitude, Kerala is on the South-West coast of India lying between
field measurements of all the comfort parameters conducted in all the Arabian Sea on the West and the Western Ghats on the East
seasons. A quantitative study was thus initiated by the authors by (Fig. 2) in the belt of monsoon zone, which occurs in large land
continuously monitoring comfort parameters over a period of masses that are sufficiently far from the equator to experience
time. The results of the investigation carried out during summer marked seasonal changes in solar radiation and wind direction.
and winter seasons have already been reported [16]. Even though Kerala comes under warm–humid climatic zone,
This paper illustrates the vernacular architecture of Kerala, a microlevel variations are observed due to its geographical
detailed qualitative analysis of typical vernacular residential peculiarities. Based on the altitude, Kerala has three distinct
buildings and a quantitative analysis based on field experiments zones—high land (800–2700 m), mid land (300–700 m) and low
with emphasis on indoor thermal comfort. land (sea level to 150 m), as given in Fig. 2.

2. Kerala: topography and climate 2.2. Climate

2.1. Topography The warm–humid climate of Kerala is characterized by heavy

rainfall and high relative humidity, and relatively moderate
India is a tropical country with diverse climatic conditions temperature. In effect, Kerala has only two predominant sea-
resulting in diverse shelter forms. According to Bureau of Indian sons—rainy and non-rainy seasons. The rainy season lasts for about
Standards [17], the country has been divided into five different half of the year where heavy rainfall occurs due to South-West
regions with distinct climates (Fig. 1). monsoon (locally known as Edavapathi) from June to August and
A.S. Dili et al. / Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927 919

Fig. 3. A typical layout of a vernacular Kerala house.

evolved as a philosophy during the Vedic time, the basic concept of

which is to treat the site and building as complementary to each
other. Vaastushastra has developed into distinct regional styles in
different parts of India. Although these regional styles underwent
changes during the last 500 years, it remained relatively pure in
Kerala [15].

3.1. The basic form

Fig. 2. Map of Kerala—the identified region is shown.
The basic module of vernacular residential building of Kerala is
North-East monsoon (locally known as Thulavarsham) from known as nalukettu with four blocks built around an open
October to November. Winter and summer comes under the courtyard. They are generally rectangular or square in plan with
non-rainy season. The summer season (February–May) is with hot blocks topped with a sloping roof on all four sides while the
and humid days and nights and intense solar radiation during the courtyard is left open to the sky for letting air and light inside.
day. The moisture in the atmosphere causes acute discomfort There is an internal verandah around the courtyard for protection
during this period. The winter period (December–January) with from rain and sun. A typical layout of a vernacular Kerala house is
warm and relatively less humid days and cold nights is more shown in Fig. 3.
comfortable than summer. In the non-rainy days during the rainy The courtyard and the blocks around it are laid out strictly
season also the atmospheric temperature is high with very high following the rules of dimensions, scale and proportions.
relative humidity. The monthly normal climate of Kerala is given in Depending on the size and importance of the household, the
Table 1 [18]. Temperature vary from 21 8C to 33 8C and relative buildings may have one or two upper storeys or further modules
humidity (RH) varies from 65% and will be above 70% in most of the with enclosed courtyards. In the case of repeated modules, the
seasons. nalukettu becomes ettukettu (eight blocks building) or a group of
such courtyards. The enclosed courtyard is usually sunken. The
3. Kerala vernacular architecture verandahs opening to the courtyards prevent the intense solar
radiation entering the rooms.
Kerala vernacular architecture is ancient and elegant. The The roofs have steep slopes up to almost 458 and the gables
buildings are built according to the principles of Vaastushastra, the (mughappu) are provided at the ends of roof to enhance ventilation
Indian discipline on architecture. Vaastushastra is believed to have and to allow the warm air to escape. Further, decorative jalli

Table 1
Monthly normal climate of Kerala [18].

Months January February March April May June July August September October November December

Temperature (8C) Max 32 32 33 33 32 29 28 28 29 30 31 32

Min 21 22 24 25 25 24 23 23 23 23 23 21

Rainfall (mm) 14 15 31 108 247 556 502 304 208 277 172 49
No. of rainy days 1 1 2 6 11 21 20 16 11 12 8 3
Relative humidity (%) 65 70 75 80 77 85 90 90 86 83 80 65
920 A.S. Dili et al. / Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927

(ventilators) are provided for the ventilation of attic spaces that are  Intense solar radiation and,
formed by the wooden false ceiling (tattu) provided for the room  Effect of high temperature.
spaces. This roof encloses a large insulated air space keeping the
lower areas cooler. Walls in the upper floors comprises of ranks of Excess of moisture in the atmosphere make the indoors very
struts connected by spaced slats thus becoming a part of humid preventing evaporation. The orientation of building to take
fenestration design for good air flow, thus keeping the rooms advantage of the prevailing wind, the presence of internal
cool and gently lit. courtyard and the internal arrangement of spaces helps to
maintain the required air movement inside the building. Penetra-
3.2. Materials of construction tion of water to the interiors through the roof due to heavy rain,
prevalent in the climate, is prevented by pitched roofs covered
The common building materials used for vernacular construc- with burnt clay roofing tiles, thatch, etc. Dampness is eliminated
tion in Kerala are mud, laterite and granite stone blocks, lime up to a higher extent by building on elevated lands with high
mortar, wood, bamboo, clay roofing tile and coconut palm leaves. plinths. Large roof overhangs protecting the walls from the sun and
Though granite stone is a strong and durable building material, due shaded verandahs, prevents high intensity radiation. The use of
to its limited availability mostly to the highlands, the use of granite walls with jalli while preventing the entry of direct sunlight, allows
is limited to the foundation of buildings. necessary air movement. Use of insulative materials like laterite for
Laterite, seen in shallow depth, is the most commonly used external walls, timber for ceiling and roof protects interior from
building material in Kerala, which can be easily cut, dressed and excessive heat.
used as building blocks. It is strong and durable with exposure to
atmospheric air. Laterite blocks are usually bonded in lime 4.1. Orientation of building
mortar, the classic binding material in vernacular buildings. Lime
mortar, improved in its strength and performance, by addition of Kerala vernacular buildings are oriented strictly according to
vegetable juices is used for plastering the walls. The exterior of the cardinal directions as per vasthusasthra. This makes the
the laterite walls are either exposed or plastered with lime building more perfect to control its environment with maximum
mortar. comfort in different seasons. The cardinal directions are deter-
Wood is another building material used for construction in mined correctly using traditional techniques based on solar path
Kerala. A wide variety of species, from bamboo (Bambusa Oldhamii) and shadows [15]. The entry to the building is provided from South
to teak (Tectona Grandis) are used. The skilful selection of wood, or East. The spaces that are used during the day time are mostly
perfect joinery, artful assembly and subtle carving for columns, placed on the North and South sides while those used during the
walls and roof frames are the unique characteristics of Kerala nights are on the West.
residential architecture. Mud is also used in many forms in
traditional buildings which include mud walling, bricks, clay tiles 4.2. Internal arrangement of spaces
(both roofing and flooring), mud mortar for laterite masonry and as
filler for timber floors. Locally available mud is usually kneaded The positioning of spaces is very much important in spatial
and treated with natural admixtures. Coconut leaves and palm planning. The living spaces which are semi-open are on the
leaves are also used for thatching the roofs and for making Southern side with optimum number of openings for ventilation.
protection to walls at times. The kitchen is positioned at the North-East corner of the building
as the wind is mostly from South-West direction. This avoids the
3.3. Activity areas spreading of hot air from kitchen to other spaces. All other spaces
including bedrooms are arranged around the courtyard in such a
A typical Kerala vernacular house consists of two major living way as to permit adequate air movement in all seasons.
areas, inner spaces around the courtyard and the outer verandahs
including the portico (poomukham). The house form offer flexibility 4.3. Internal courtyard
for the inhabitants to shift their activities from one place to other in
different climatic conditions. The important aspect of the Kerala Internal courtyard and patio are quite common in warm humid
architecture is the usage of courtyards. They are major activity climate where the building encloses an open space fully or partly.
spaces where bathing, cooking, sleeping and socializing takes place Such spaces are commonly referred to as microclimate modifiers.
at different periods of time. The front verandah is used for sitting in They enjoy better microclimatic conditions than the surrounding
the afternoon while the back verandah is used as a work area and open areas, and are supposed to have a positive effect on the indoor
also as a chatting space for the women. The two side verandahs are comfort conditions of the enclosing building volume. This is true
used for either sleeping or as storage space. In dry season the inner under certain conditions, by allowing solar access to all parts of the
courtyard is used for drying, cleaning and preparing cereals, food, building, and by enabling better ventilation of internal spaces [20].
etc. [19]. The courtyard also functions as a major functional In the courtyard a pool of cool air is retained as this is heavier
element in the house with most of the internal movement confined than the surrounding warm air [21]. The courtyard is an excellent
to this. The circulation of people is defined by the verandahs thermal regulator in many ways. The heat gain from the sun will be
around the courtyard, as the major rooms are entered from this more in the upper part of the courtyard. This makes the air in the
verandah. upper part of courtyard warmer and lighter, causing the air to
move upwards. Thus a low pressure develops in the courtyard and
4. Qualitative analysis it induces an air movement from outside, through the surrounding
spaces (Fig. 4). After sunset also the phenomenon continues till the
The traditional houses of Kerala are generally designed for the air in the courtyard cools fully by convective flow.
following major problems caused by the characteristic warm– A smoke study was conducted to understand the characteristics
humid climate. of air movement due to the effect of courtyard under still air
condition or when the external wind was absent. Smoke was
 Excess of moisture in the atmosphere. generated outside the building and was allowed to pass through
 Heavy rainfall. the building. The flow through the building and courtyard was then
A.S. Dili et al. / Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927 921

provision of open gables (mughappu) in the roof and the provision

of wooden jalli (azhi) in the external walls at appropriate
positions. The wooden jalli (azhi) in the external walls in
appropriate positions helps to draw external air with the effect
of courtyards.

4.5. Thermal protection

The thermal insulation in buildings is achieved by the effective

Fig. 4. Concept of air movement in nalukettu. use of materials and the techniques used in the construction of
walls and roof. The external walls of vernacular buildings are
usually very thick up to a maximum of 750 mm with double layer
observed. The smoke entered through the semi-open space and of laterite masonry with a gap in between that is filled with fine
moved upwards through the courtyard (Fig. 5). It was observed sand. This makes the external wall highly insulative.
that when the smoke was put off, it disappeared from the building In order to achieve thermal insulation, wooden ceiling (tattu) is
within seconds. This clearly establishes that there exists a also provided beneath the roof. This provides a large air space at
convective flow through the building as explained above. the attic which acts as an insulation layer against the conduction of
external heat through the roof. This air space is well ventilated
4.4. Openings and use of natural ventilation with openings (jalli) on both sides to permit maximum cross-
ventilation. The breathing space between the clay tiles, that are
Most of the houses are set amidst large parcels of land. used for roofing, further helps in ventilating the under side of the
Buildings are hence opened up for better air movement. Open roof reducing the temperature.
planning and free spaces between buildings help to capture wind Thermal insulation can have reverse effect, when for some
and achieve good ventilation. reason the indoor temperature is even higher than outdoor and the
Buildings usually have large number of openings in the form of buildings insulation obstructs a quick heat loss [20]. In Kerala
windows and ventilators. Provision of open or semi-enclosed vernacular architecture, the above problem is overcome with the
spaces also give ample scope for air movement. Another constant air exchange between outdoor and indoor with the help of
remarkable feature in the Kerala vernacular architecture is the openings provided on the external wall.

5. Quantitative analysis

5.1. Building selection criteria

In Kerala, a number of vernacular residential buildings have

been demolished/modified, due to the change in the social setup,
when joint families changed into nuclear families. However, a good
number of buildings still exists with their original use or as holiday
homes for tourist preserved in their original form and functional
use. Residents as well as visitors prefer to stay in such buildings
because they are very comfortable to live in for the former while it
is a real experience for the visitors.
Since the design of vernacular residential building is based on a
modular concept with four blocks built around an open courtyard
strictly adhering to the ancient rules of geometrical grids,
proportions and scale [15], the investigation is confined to a
typical traditional building which is remaining in its original form
without any alterations or modifications in a selected region of
A region with more temperature fluctuation was identified by
comparing the climatic data of Kerala. The comparison of identified
region (Fig. 2) with normal temperature of Kerala is shown in Fig. 6.

5.2. Building description

The residential building selected for the study is located at

Nilambur in the Malappuram district of the Northern part of
Kerala. The building (Puthiya Kovilakam) is nearly 300 years old.
The building has three courtyards of rectangular shape in which
one courtyard is surrounded by a double storeyed structure. The
other two courtyards are surrounded by single storeyed structures.
The internal space taken for the investigation is around the
courtyard of 1.83 m  3.66 m. The courtyard has an inward looking
verandah of 1 m width. The two sides of the courtyard are semi-
open spaces used for living and prayer. The other two sides are
adjoined with rooms having windows opening to the courtyard
Fig. 5. Images of smoke study. (Fig. 7).
922 A.S. Dili et al. / Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927

Fig. 6. Comparison of temperature between the selected region and Kerala normal.

5.3. Experimentation setup 5.4. Field measurements

The authors have conceptualized an instrumentation setup Temperature sensors were fixed at the outside verandah, the
called architectural evaluation system (AES) to continuously bottom and top of courtyard, the semi-open space around the
record the comfort parameters over a period of time. AES is a courtyard and a bedroom adjacent to the courtyard. Ambient
combination of electronic sensors to record temperature, relative outdoor temperature was measured using a sensor enclosed in
humidity and air movement, a data logger, a high speed data wooden Stevenson’s screen located outside the building. Relative
logger, a memory module to record data from the various sensors humidity sensors were fixed outside the building, in the courtyard,
and computer interface to view and download data to the
computer (Fig. 8). The air movement sensors are connected to
the high speed data logger to record the air movement in every
The instrumentation setup (AES) has been calibrated and
certified by India meteorological department (IMD) which is the
authority to certify instruments related to climatic measurements
in India.

Fig. 7. Plan and section of Nilambur Kovilakam—selected area for investigation is

marked in rectangle [16]. Fig. 8. A schematic diagram of AES.
A.S. Dili et al. / Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927 923

Fig. 9. Installation of AES in the selected locations of Nilambur Kovilakam.

in the semi-open space and in the bedroom adjacent to the 6. Results and analysis
courtyard (Fig. 9). An air movement sensor was located inside the
building to record the air movement in the semi-open space 6.1. Results
around the courtyard. Outdoor wind velocity was also recorded
simultaneously. Continuous data were collected for a period from It is observed that the outdoor temperature has a diurnal
June 2009 to October 2009. The data from various sensors were variation of 12 8C i.e., from 22 8C to 34 8C. But the simultaneous
taken at an interval of 15 min with the windows kept open for indoor temperature was varying from 26 8C to 30 8C showing a
unobstructed air flow through the courtyard while the air diurnal variation of just about 4 8C only (Fig. 10). The lower part
movement was recorded at every second using high speed data of the court yard is found to be cooler by about 5 8C from the
logger. maximum outdoor temperature while the upper part of the

Fig. 10. Temperature vs. time.

924 A.S. Dili et al. / Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927

Fig. 11. Temperature and RH vs. time.

courtyard with a temperature 1.5 8C lower than the maximum When the diurnal variation of outdoor RH is about 40%, that of
outdoor temperature. The temperature of the verandah is varying indoor RH is only about 10%.
in synchronization with the upper part of the courtyard during The variation of RH at different locations (outdoor, courtyard,
the day time. The temperature of the bedroom is varying in semi-open space and bedroom) is shown in Fig. 12. The RH of the
synchronization with the upper part of the courtyard and the bedroom is varying almost in synchronization with the semi-open
semi-open space during night. The temperature recorded inside space throughout. RH of the courtyard is the most fluctuating one
the room is found to be lower by about 4 8C than that of semi- among the interiors, but during night, it has only a variation of
open space around the courtyard during day time. In the night, it around 3% with that of bedroom and semi-open space. During the
is observed that the indoor air temperature is maintained at 26 8C day time, RH of the courtyard reaches its minimum i.e., around
even when the outdoor temperature is as low as 22 8C. It is 66%.
observed that there is no time lag between the indoor and The air movement recorded at an interval of 5 min for a
outdoor peak temperature and the decrement factor is 0.33. continuous period of 3 days is shown in Fig. 13. While the outdoor
Fig. 11 shows the variation in temperature and relative wind velocity is highly fluctuating and reaches its maximum
humidity corresponding to the outdoor and bedroom. It is obvious around 3.5 m/s, the indoor air movement is maintained around
from the figure that both temperature and RH have an inverse 0.5 m/s. Inorder to analyze the air movement over a longer period
relationship. The outdoor RH is fluctuating more during day time of time, the recording interval was set to 5 min. Hence the graph
and it reaches its minimum i.e., 58% when the temperature is shows a discontinuous plot of otherwise a continuous air
maximum. The indoor RH is minimum around 77% when the movement. The air movement recorded by high speed data logger
temperature reaches the maximum of 30 8C during day time. While (records in every second) is given in Fig. 14. This shows a
the outdoor RH reaches its maximum (97–100%) during the night, continuous plot of air flow and the same is useful for critical
the indoor (bedroom) RH is fluctuating between 84% and 88% only. analysis.

Fig. 12. Relative humidity vs. time.

A.S. Dili et al. / Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927 925

Fig. 13. Wind velocity vs. time (recorded in 5 min).

6.2. Analysis of results Figs. 13 and 14 clearly show that the building system is
maintaining a continuous and controlled air flow indoors. This
The indoor temperature shows a very low diurnal variation actually helps to accelerate the evaporative cooling by continuous
(Fig. 10) due to high thermal insulation property of the building exchange of air that is in contact with the occupant’s body
envelope. Infact there is no conductive heat gain through the especially when the RH is higher along with high temperature.
building envelope. The absence of time lag between outdoor and
indoor air temperatures proves the thermal insulation property of 7. Discussion
the materials and the high degree of natural ventilation main-
tained through the building. That is, when outdoor is very hot, Thermal comfort of the interiors determines the energy
those heat scalars are only transmitted into indoor by wind, which consumption by the environmental systems of a building and
reduces the intensity of heat. they play a vital role in building sustainability. Thermal comfort
The outdoor air which is at a higher temperature looses the heat has been defined as the condition of mind which expresses
as it reaches the interior space of the building. This is due to the satisfaction with the environment related to air temperature,
continuous heat exchange with the cooler surfaces and then the humidity and wind speed [22]. Hence the indoor environment
cooler air of the courtyard, as the air moves from outside to inside. should be designed and controlled in a passive manner so that
The lower part of the courtyard is the coolest part inside the occupants’ comfort and health can be assured with least amount of
building (Fig. 13). This is because the cooler air settles at the external energy.
bottom as explained in the qualitative analysis. From Fig. 10, it is clear that the diurnal variation of indoor air
Fig. 12 shows control over the RH within the building system. temperature is less compared to that of outdoor ambient air
While the outdoor RH reaches its saturation point, the indoor RH is temperature. This diurnal variation of indoor air temperature is
maintained around 85%. This is achieved due to the presence of air less compared to that during winter and summer seasons and the
volume indoors, maintained at optimum temperature. decrement factors are 0.22 and 0.28 respectively [16]. It is

Fig. 14. Wind velocity vs. time (recorded in every second).

926 A.S. Dili et al. / Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 917–927

environment control system in Kerala vernacular residential

The findings from the quantitative analysis are very much in
agreement with the inferences drawn from the qualitative
analysis. So it can be concluded from investigation that the
passive environment control system of Kerala vernacular
architecture is very effective in providing thermal comfort to
the occupants. A judicious use of appropriate materials and
adoption of suitable traditional techniques in architecture is
required for a sustainable, energy efficient and comfortable
human life. Hence the methods and techniques adopted in the
Kerala vernacular residential architecture can be effectively
used in the contemporary architecture for warm–humid regions.
Fig. 15. Bioclimatic chart (Koenigsberger et al. [21]).

observed that the decrement factor during the monsoon period The authors are grateful to Mr. Ravi Varma of Nilambur
slightly increases i.e., 0.33, compared to the other two seasons. Kovilakam, Dr. Ziaudeen, principal and Mr. Nizar S.A., assistant
Comparing the diurnal variations and decrement factors of professor of TKM College of Engineering, Kerala, Mr. Sreejith T.S. of
temperature in all the three seasons, it can be observed that the EMCON Cochin for providing necessary help for conducting the
building system effectively controls the indoor temperature and study and to the Meteorological Centre at Thiruvananthapuram
maintain its required level suitable to each season. for providing the meteorological data required for the research
Natural ventilation has the potential to save energy use in work.
buildings. Hence it is recommended to improve the indoor
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