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10

FOREWORD

With the recording of the album Rey del Flamenco, at the beginning of 1966, Sabicas reached a new stage of maturity in his musical development. His work had freed itself of the influence of Ram6n Montoya, and he was able to express himself without hindrance. His style became better defined. allowing his ideas to flourish within new harmonies.

For guitarists, the most remarkable aspect lies in the absolute mastery of the fingerboard and the logical fingering. By this time, Sabicas had turned the pursuit of ergonomy into a fine art. His fondness for diminished chords and their simple yet magic effect, when pursued up and down the fingerboard three frets at a time, is legendary, and he exploited them a great deal at the start of his career. They are to be found in, for example, the tremolo in Ole mi Cadiz p. 58, staves 3 and 4, and again in Zapateado en Re, p. 33, staff 4. In other types of development he attained maximum effect with economical means, using a minimum of barres, and making wise use of open strings. See in this instance, for example, the finale of Aires de Puerto Real, p. 28, staves 2 to 4, or the finale of La Trinidad, p. 53, staves 2 to 4, both facilitated by their key of E major. Aires de Puerto Real can be further cited for the elegant way the passages follow on one another on p. 15, staff 4 and p. 19, staff 2. The ratio between the amount ofleft-hand work necessary and the "quantity" of music engendered is surprising. If such a metaphor were not verging on blasphemy, one might talk of value for money.

As we have just seen, the soled Aires de Puerto Real is a brilliant illustration of the close links between musical imagination and intelligent fingering. This soled has a profusion of hitherto unheard falsetas that lead to an almost complete renewal of the composer's material in this palo. Although it is quite unusual to omit variations in tremolo, the work is so homogeneous that the omission goes unnoticed.

The Zapateado en Re was a favourite with both composer and audience. Sabicas was constantly in search of new ideas, and here he transposed a style traditionally played in C into the more open key of D. One can only admire the splendid sequences of arpeggiated chords and the easy left-hand movements.

One of the most thrilling themes is that of the campanas, with an impressive repeat in harmonics.

Sabicas was an old hand at this technique, which we see in another masterpiece in D, the Guajira melodica. These tinkling bells, reminiscent of a music box, remind us also of Papa gena's glockenspiel. Sabicas may well have seen a performance of The Magic Flute.

What is fascinating is that originally he played this passage in artificial harmonics, using his thumb to pluck the note instead of the annular finger. Only later did he adopt the form transcribed here, with natural harmonics. In three places I have added some fingering in brackets which seems to lie more easily under the fingers than that used by the composer, as identified in video films.

Like thefarruca and the danza mora, the malagueha was one ofSabicas's favourite styles. It seemed to provide a continuous source of inspiration for him, and indeed it was perhaps in the malagueha that his genius shone at its brightest. Certainly he was without equal in these styles. La Trinidad is the most developed in this range, and amounts to a composite blend of his finest creative ideas, needing only the copfa and the tremolo passage from Brisas de fa Caleta to be complete.

Ole mi Cadiz starts off in E minor before moving to E major. These are the keys for the alegrias de Cordoba and the Rosa, respectively, according to an earlier classification that has today fallen into disuse. Sabicas, however, wrote few alegrias in these keys, and took the more commonly used A major instead. This point of interest apart, the piece is quite magnificent in its own right. The atmosphere induced by the use of E minor, the skilfully developed themes and Sabicas' own technical ease make this work a splendid gateway to further study of the contents of this album.

Sentimiento gitano casts the siguiriya in a more modem light, and in places foreshadows today's style (see p. 73, staves 1 to 4; or p. 74, staff 3 to p. 75, staff 1). Despite his occasional deliberately spectacular display of brilliance, Sabicas never stooped to pyrotechnics for their own sake. An example can be seen in the falseta on p. 67 staff 1 to p. 68 staff I, a seemingly unceasing cascade of semiquavers. The remate that follows almost comes as a relief, so that the listener, about to beg for mercy, is at last able to draw breath. While the piece is soundly constructed, it is the unstoppable flow of semiquavers that remains in the memory. The flamenco guitar is, after all, so designed that moments of profundity alternate with fireworks, I ight with dark.

J.

.. ~. ,;

':.;

PREFACIO

Cuando a principios del afio 1966 Sabicas graba el disco Rey del Flamenco, ya ha alcanzado en su evolucion musical una segunda madurez. Su discurso ha conseguido emanciparse de Ramon Montoya y su personalidad se expresa libremente. El estilo se decanta, las ideas contimian siendo tan abundantes como de costumbre, surgen nuevas armonfas.

Para los guitarristas, 10 mas notable reside en el dominio absoluto de la utilizacion del mastil y la racionalidad de la digitacion, En Sabicas, 1a biisqueda de la ergonomfa se ha convertido, en ese estadio, en una estetica, en un arte en S1. Es conocida su predileccfon por los acordes disminuidos de soberbios y faciles efectos producidos al recorrer el mastil mediante desplazamientos de tres trastes. Sabicas 10 usaba ampliamente desde sus inicios, 10 encontramos, por ejemplo, en el tremolo de Ole mi Cadi: p. 58, pentagram as 3 y 4, 0 bien en el Zapateado en Re, p. 33, pentagram a 4. Pero en otros tipos de desarrollos obtiene tambien un resultado muy eficaz con una extrema economfa de medias, sabiendo reducir al mfnimo el recurso de las cejillas y utilizar juiciosamente las cuerdas al aire. Ver por ejemplo el final de Aires de Puerto Real, par la e1egancia de encadenamientos p. 15, pentagrama 4 y 9, y p. 19, pentagrama 2. La relacion entre la cantidad de trabajo desarrollado por la mana izquierda y la "cantidad" de musica producida es sorprendente. Si la metafora no fuese tan iconoclasta se podria hablar de una relacion calidad-precio insuperable.

La solea Aires de Puerto Real, como acabamos de observar, ilustra brillantemente la buena armonfa entre la inventiva musical y la inteligcncia de las digitaciones. Descubrimos una profusi6n de falsetas ineditas que renuevan casi total mente cl material del autor en estc palo. Se notara la ausencia de variacion en tremolo, bastante inhabitual, que a pesar de todo pasa desapercibida dado 10 apretado y coherente del conjunto.

El Zapateado en Re era una de las piezas favoritas del autor y su publico. Sabicas, creador incansable en busca de innovacion, ha transportado a la tonalidad abierta de Re un estilo tradicionalrnente tocado en Do. Las rnagnfficas sucesiones de acordes arpegiados fuerzan la admiraci6n por su aptitud para construir una linea logica y par la mecanica desahogada de la mana izquierda.

Es sin embargo e1 tema de las campanas el que nos maravilla mas, magnificado por su repetici6n con armonicos, Sabicas esta acostumbrado a ese metoda, recordemos otra obra maestra en Re, la Gualira melodica. Aquellas carnpanillas con ecos de caja de rmisica harian pensar casi en el glockenspiel de Papageno, "Oiria Sabicas la Flauta Magica?

Es interesante resaltar que originalmente tocaba cste fragmento mediante armonicos artificiales, con una tecnica de mano derecha muy personal en la que el pulgar ejecuta la nota en lugar del anular. Al final adoptaria la forma aqui transcrita, com armonicos naturales. En 10 concerniente la ejecucfon, he afiadido entre pareniesis, en tres lugares, una digitaci6n que -todo ocurre- parece ajustarse mas naturalmente a los dedos que la del propio autor, tal como se observa en algunos videos.

La malaguefia, como la farruca y la danza mora, ocupa un lugar privilegiado en el repertorio de Sabicas, SC nutre de una fuente de inspiraci6n continua, razon par la cual, sin duda, su genio se expresa mejor. Podrfarnos afirmar que nadic le ha igualado en dichos estilos. La Trinidad es la mas acaba de todas, practicamente una smtesis de sus ideas mas bellas. No le falta mas que la copla y el tremolo de Brisas de fa Caleta para estar camp lela.

Ole mi Cadiz empieza en Mim y evoluciona en MiM. Son las tonalidades respectivas de las alegrfas de Cordoba y de la Rosa segun una clasificacion hoy abandonada. Sabieas ha dejado pocas alegrias en dichas tonalidades por prefcrir el LaM. mas usual. Ella representana de por sf un cierto interes por esta pieza si por otra parte no fuese sencillamente magnifica. La atmosfera del Mim, los ternas habilmente desarrollados y la facilidad tecnica invitaran allector a entrar en el estudio de la preseote selecci6n a traves de esta suntuosa puerta.

Sentimiento gitano conlleva ya una vision muy moderna de la siguiriya y prefigura, en determinados momentos, el estilo actual (vease p. 73, pentagramas ] a 4, 0 bien p. 74, pentagrama 3 hasta p. 75, pentagrama 1). Conviene subrayar igualmente un enfoque voluntario espectacular y demostrativo al cual Sabicas no desdefiaba recurrir para subyugar a su publico. La falseta de p. 67, pentagrama 1 a p. 68, pentagrama 1, muestra el ejempJo en una cascada de semicorcheas que da la sensacion de no querer pararse nunca. EI remate llega casi como un alivio: cl oyente, a punto de pedir 1a gracia, puede

por fin volver a respirar. La construccion es hermosa, sin embargo el efecto prima sobre la idea musical. [Que importa!, la guitarra flamenca esta hccha de tal modo que gusta de alternar los momentos mas profundos can el arte pirotecnico, la sombra y la luz.

Embrujo de Huelva resume la "manera" Sabicas. Junto a los largos arpegios caracterfsticos del fandango encontramos faisetas antiguas (p. 81, pentagramas 2 y 3, 0 el final en alzapua), una alusi6n ala danza mora (p. 64), y la cita de un extracto del Tientos de los tres rios (p. 86, pentagramas 3 y 4) mutado para dicha ocasion de binario en ternario. La forma sincopada y evolucionada del estribillo nos sinia ya en la epoca contemporanea,

SOBRE EL SONIDO Y LA TECNICA

Se podria disertar a 10 largo de eolumnas enteras sobre el sonido de Sabicas. Que decir, sino que nadie ha hecho sonar el instrumento como el, Fuerza y pcrcusion, pero con redondez e incluso con finura, hacen que se Ie reconozca entre todos y se Ie acepte todavia como un modele. La guitarra de Sabicas es la mas perfecta identificaci6n del sonido flamenco.

Ciertas soluciones tecnicas que no son mas que suyas requieren deterrninadas precisiones.

Los rasgueados siguen la formula habitual can vuelta del Indice:

11111111111

t t

o a m

f ttl t

! 0 ami i i

peru en los desarrollos largos y continuos, dicha vuelta queda suprimida:

111111111

r r r r r r r i •

oamioamii

es el caso par ejemplo al final del Zapateado y de Sentimiento gitano, las introducciones de Ole mi Cadiz y Embrujo de Huelva. Aun ast, he escrito todos los rasgueados sin tener en cuenta dicha particularidad, preferiendo ajustarme a los automatismos de los guitarristas de hoy en dia.

La tecnica de oposici6n pulgar-Indice/medio (ej, La Trinidad, p. 46 Y 47) se ve substituida por pulgar-fndice/anular cuando en los agudos no hay canto sino "pedal" (ej. La Trinidad de nuevo, en la conclusion del tremolo, p. 50, pentagramas 1 y 2). La razon equivale aquf a ganar fuerza e intensidad.

Las idas y vueltas del Indice son de hecho ejccutadas par los dedos media + anular juntos. Con objeto de no hacer mas pes ada la leetura. he pasado pur alto ese detalle par considerarlo mas bien anecd6tico.

El golpe puede hacerse can la vuelta del pulgar, golpeando la tabla bajo los agudos tSentimiento gitano, p. 67, pentagrama 4, tercer cornpas).

Los apagados se efectiian can el dedo pequefio de la mana izquierda, presionando las cuerdas contra el mastil, Se reconocen en las semicorcheas, altemando can silencios de estas (Aire de Puerto Real, p. 18, pentagrama 3. y ou mi Cadiz: p. 62, pentagrama 1).

SOBRE LA ESCRITURA

- las notas entre parentesis no se tocan, sino que indican la posicion completa de la mana izquierda (salvo en los arrnonicos del Zapateado, cf. infra).

- las alteraciones accidentales no valen mas que para la altura en que se encuentran, y no ala octava.

- en las secciones no medidas (La Trinidad), lin pentagrama equivaJe a un compas, en 10 concerniente

a alteraciones accidentales,

A.F.

r

I

SABICAS THE ETERNAL

Few performing artists become household names in their lifetime, and fewer still become the stuff of legends, with a permanent place in the pages of history. Yet Sabicas is one of those few,

The irresistible world of music created by Sabicas is both timeless and ageless. Every master of flamenco today recognises him as the unforgettable tocaor who inspired his own dreams.

Yet the paths of glory trodden by Agustin Castellon Campos, Nifio Sabicas (1912-1990), are not without their own paradox. For a start, he was not born in Andalusia but in far-off Navarre, and fame came to him even further away from Spain, in America. Destiny is not what we always expect.

The young gypsy lad from Pamplona had barely tuned up his first guitar when it became obvious that he was a child prodigy. Since no one he knew was capable of giving him lessons, he had to teach himself with the aid of the few recordings that were available at the time. It was not long before he rose to fame and became the greatest virtuoso of his generation, a position he held unchallenged for many long years. Sabicas took flamenco technique to hitherto unsealed, unimagined heights, leaving his contemporaries far behind in the matter of speed, timbre and purity of sound, not to mention his own numerous compositions. He had a phenomenal sense of compos and was unequalled in accompanying, especially playing for dancers.

Sabicas began his professional life by playing with the greatest artists of his time (La Nifta de los Peines and Manuel Torres, among others), and in 1937 he joined the company ofCannen Amaya in Buenos Aires, one of the reigning artists of the day, with whom he made many successful tours. He subsequently settled in Mexico for a number of years before finally moving to New York in 1955. He made some fifty records in which he played both solo guitar and accompaniment, but aficionados prefer to remember him as the first professional flamenco recitalist.

Sabicas' virtuosity and his impeccable sense of form have imposed high standards on all those who follow him in the art of flamenco toque, while his brilliant gifts as a composer have opened up new horizons. His technique, style and immense output have defined today's guitar in terms that it would never have attained without his help. Above all, however, his music has an enchanting power seldom heard elsewhere. How many tocaores are able to exert such power over their audience by casting a spell over them? Sabicas was little short of a magician.

Sabicas is no longer with us, but his music remains, much of which can be heard in his recordings. With the notable exception of the transcriptions made by Joseph Trotter for the album "Flamenco puro" in the 1970s, most of Sabicas' works have yet to be published. This is not for want of suitable material, but rather because of the recent dazzling developments in the flamenco guitar, and perhaps even more because of its immediate yet volatile character, closely linked with oral tradition. It goes against the grain to transcribe something so vital in performance to a series of black dots on paper. On the other hand, a written score preserves the music for posterity by publishing the best of the repertoire. Even ifhis work may be above considerations of current fashion, and even if time cannot hann it, we must remember that that same time does erode our memory. That is why I am particularly happy to be able to publish this collection of Sabicas' finest works, in the knowledge that it is part of the necessary task of passing music on down the generations, and that it is also in response to great demand.

Alain Faucher, Paris, 1999 translated by Mary Criswick

10

FOREWORD

With the recording of the album Rey del Flamenco, at the beginning of 1966, Sabicas reached a new stage of maturity in his musical development. His work had freed itself of the influence of Ram6n Montoya, and he was able to express himself without hindrance. His style became better defined. allowing his ideas to flourish within new harmonies.

For guitarists, the most remarkable aspect lies in the absolute mastery of the fingerboard and the logical fingering. By this time, Sabicas had turned the pursuit of ergonomy into a fine art. His fondness for diminished chords and their simple yet magic effect, when pursued up and down the fingerboard three frets at a time, is legendary, and he exploited them a great deal at the start of his career. They are to be found in, for example, the tremolo in Ole mi Cadiz p. 58, staves 3 and 4, and again in Zapateado en Re, p. 33, staff 4. In other types of development he attained maximum effect with economical means, using a minimum of barres, and making wise use of open strings. See in this instance, for example, the finale of Aires de Puerto Real, p. 28, staves 2 to 4, or the finale of La Trinidad, p. 53, staves 2 to 4, both facilitated by their key of E major. Aires de Puerto Real can be further cited for the elegant way the passages follow on one another on p. 15, staff 4 and p. 19, staff 2. The ratio between the amount ofleft-hand work necessary and the "quantity" of music engendered is surprising. If such a metaphor were not verging on blasphemy, one might talk of value for money.

As we have just seen, the soled Aires de Puerto Real is a brilliant illustration of the close links between musical imagination and intelligent fingering. This soled has a profusion of hitherto unheard falsetas that lead to an almost complete renewal of the composer's material in this palo. Although it is quite unusual to omit variations in tremolo, the work is so homogeneous that the omission goes unnoticed.

The Zapateado en Re was a favourite with both composer and audience. Sabicas was constantly in search of new ideas, and here he transposed a style traditionally played in C into the more open key of D. One can only admire the splendid sequences of arpeggiated chords and the easy left-hand movements.

One of the most thrilling themes is that of the campanas, with an impressive repeat in harmonics.

Sabicas was an old hand at this technique, which we see in another masterpiece in D, the Guajira melodica. These tinkling bells, reminiscent of a music box, remind us also of Papa gena's glockenspiel. Sabicas may well have seen a performance of The Magic Flute.

What is fascinating is that originally he played this passage in artificial harmonics, using his thumb to pluck the note instead of the annular finger. Only later did he adopt the form transcribed here, with natural harmonics. In three places I have added some fingering in brackets which seems to lie more easily under the fingers than that used by the composer, as identified in video films.

Like thefarruca and the danza mora, the malagueha was one ofSabicas's favourite styles. It seemed to provide a continuous source of inspiration for him, and indeed it was perhaps in the malagueha that his genius shone at its brightest. Certainly he was without equal in these styles. La Trinidad is the most developed in this range, and amounts to a composite blend of his finest creative ideas, needing only the copfa and the tremolo passage from Brisas de fa Caleta to be complete.

Ole mi Cadiz starts off in E minor before moving to E major. These are the keys for the alegrias de Cordoba and the Rosa, respectively, according to an earlier classification that has today fallen into disuse. Sabicas, however, wrote few alegrias in these keys, and took the more commonly used A major instead. This point of interest apart, the piece is quite magnificent in its own right. The atmosphere induced by the use of E minor, the skilfully developed themes and Sabicas' own technical ease make this work a splendid gateway to further study of the contents of this album.

Sentimiento gitano casts the siguiriya in a more modem light, and in places foreshadows today's style (see p. 73, staves 1 to 4; or p. 74, staff 3 to p. 75, staff 1). Despite his occasional deliberately spectacular display of brilliance, Sabicas never stooped to pyrotechnics for their own sake. An example can be seen in the falseta on p. 67 staff 1 to p. 68 staff I, a seemingly unceasing cascade of semiquavers. The remate that follows almost comes as a relief, so that the listener, about to beg for mercy, is at last able to draw breath. While the piece is soundly constructed, it is the unstoppable flow of semiquavers that remains in the memory. The flamenco guitar is, after all, so designed that moments of profundity alternate with fireworks, I ight with dark.

J.

.. ~. ,;

':.;

Embrujo de Hue/va is a summary of the Sabicas style. Alongside the lengthy arpeggios so typical of the fandango we find old falsetas (p. 81, staves 2 and 3, or the alzapua finale), an allusion to the danza mora (p. 64), and the quotation of an extract from the Tientos de los Ires rios (p. 86, staves 3 and 4), transposed for the occasion from duple to triple time. The highly developed syncopated form of the refrain already places this work in the contemporary period.

SOUND AND TECHNIQUE

Many pages could be written on the Sabicas sound, pages which could be summed up in the words, "No one has ever made the instrument sound like Sabicas", The power and the percussive effect of his playing, allied with great warmth and finesse, distinguish his performance from that of any other player, and place him even today in the position of maestro. Sabicas' guitar is the most perfect representation of the flamenco sound.

A few techniques that only he used call for a certain amount of explanation.

The rasgueados follow the usual pattern, with the index returning across the strings:

11111111111

f t

oaml oami

but in long continuous development passages, the index does not cross back: ~I~I ~i§I~1 ~I§I~I II ~

tttttttt!

oamioamji

this is the case in, for example, the finales of the Zapateado and Sentimiento gitano, as in the introductions to Ole mi Cadiz and Embrujo de Huelva. 1 have, however, not taken this into account in writing out all the rasgueados but rather followed the habitual style of to day's guitarists.

The use of the thumb-index/medial finger opposition (e.g., in La Trinidad, pp. 46 and 47) is substituted for the thumb-annular/medial opposition when there is no melody in the upper voice, but rather a pedal (as in the conclusion to the tremolo in La Trinidad, p, 50, staves 1 and 2). This solution gives greater power and intensity of sound.

The up and down movements of the index finger should be played by the medial and annular fingers ~i together; although for the sake of clarity, this little Sabicas detail is not shown in the score.

The golpe may be performed as the thumb returns, striking the table below the upper strings (Sentimiento gitano, p. 67, staff 4, bar 3).

Damped notes should be muffled with the little finger of the left hand laid lightly across the strings over the fingerboard, in particular the semiquavers alternating with semiquaver rests (Aires de Puerto Real, p. 18, staff 3; and Ole mi Cadiz, p. 62, staff I).

NOTATION

- the notes in brackets are not to be played, but indicate the position for all the fingers of the left hand (with the exception of the harmonics in the Zapateado, see above)

- accidentals apply only to the note next to them, and not to other octaves

- in the unmeasured sections (La Trinidad), accidentals apply to the entire staff.

A.F.

14

AIRES DE PUERTO REAL

Subicas

Capo: III allegretto VII

Transcription: Alain Faucher

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Rights A ... signed To EMI Catalogue Partnership. All Rights Controlled And Administered By Morro Music Corp. (BMI) AI! Rights Reserved, International Copyright Secured. Reproduced by permisxion of [nternati c mal Music Publications Ltd.

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30

ZAPATEADO EN RE

Sabicas

Transcription: Alain Faucher

®:Re

ad lib.

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38

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LA TRINIDAD 41
Sabicas
Capo: III Transcription: Alain Faucher
ad lib. ~CII
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s

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I
r-r- 01 r.'I >
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• = 1"11 '"':i _~I.IEJ
r l~~r
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4 3--3 3--3 3 3 5 3
5 4 4--4 4 4 4 4 4--
3 2 2 1S 3 3 3 3-
2
0 0 3
La Trinidad By Agustin Castellon © 1960. 1978 Cuban Music Corporation
Rights Assigned To EMI Catalogue Partnership. All Rights Controlled and Administered By Morro Music Corp. (BMI)
All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. Reproduced by permission of International Musk Publications Ltd.
" ri ~

I

4 I 101 14 I

42

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p

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m

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p i m a p m i a m i .. , P a m i p i
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cm -----------------------,

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7 7 7 7 8
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- CIII----, CI CIII-----

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vivo

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~--------------------------------~1+----------------------------------------------------

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m I'

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CV III II

jlllllljUllD

p ... m a i m i ... p p m a m i ... p a m p a m i ...
0-1-0 5-7-8-7-5-8-7-5---7 5 4 1

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P P i m II m i p i m a i m i ...
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2 0 3
3 1 0 CI
allargando 1':\ 1':\
> X
X
Itf 3
a
It! oaril'ip
p I p ... p ... ... p ...
/
0 0 0-1

1 0 3 3
2 0 2-3 1
2-0 2 3 3 I
3-2-0 3 2
1-2-3 2-1 0 0 54

OLEMICADIZ

Sabicas

Capo: I allegro

Transcription: Alain Faucher

CIV-------,

5

5

5

5

5

2."

:6 •

r r r r r r r r r r r

oamiioamiii

i t t r r t

o ami i i

t t t t ~

o ami i

r r r r r t t r r r r

oamiioamiii

~~~~============i-+-'~"-+'-~"~'-+-'~"---1--i=t'=~'~'=+'=t'~'~~'=+'=~'~'===~~i-+I~I~I~I-+I---i=-++'-=~r'~~I=_rt=_+tl=_-==_-==_-==_~~

5

simile

4

2

3~~ ~ ..

a I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 5 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 2.0002 I I I I 0 0

T 7-r+-~-r~~-r~~-r~--4-r~~-r~~-r~~-+~--1 1 1,_~-++---------~

h!_-a 5 2 2 2-+-+-+-rt------- 0--

~~;~~~-7----------------------+_-4----------~----------~-1--------1-------1------,_---2 2----

~y=--------------------------L------------------------L---~------------------~O--------~

ft-- - I="i/

t t t t ! t t t t ! t t ttl t t ttl t t ttl t t t t ~ Ii'.

pip ...

t r t r r t t t t r t t r t r

o ami i ...

CIII-----------,

CII-----------,

5

"'"4 3- > - ~ ,.....
fI ~ ~ '013 n ~ "1. ."1. n
3 • 1 • •
tJ ~t t t t IV_ • - - I ... .. .. .. .. 1 1I 1II 1I
t t t t l t l t ~ t ~ t l t ~ t ! t l t l t l t ! t !
0 ami i i i ... i i ...
'.2-'-2 2~2~2--0- H~'-'-3-3- -2~2-2

o 0--0-0 1 1 1-1- f--5 3-3-5-3-3-5- --4 2-2-4
o 0--0-0 2 2 2-2- 1--3 3-3---3-3- --2 2-2
o 0--0-0 o 0 0-0- 1--5 5-5-5-5- --4 4-4
2 2--2-2 3 3-3-3-3- --2 2-2 5

5

5

5

I""""- 6
fI ~ X
tJ ~ 2]1 ::z:: ~. ._ Lr Ii·
1I 4r r'
t t t t ! t t t t l t ! t t t t l t t t t ~ t
0 ami i o a mi i i i 0 a m i i o ami i i p i m a m i p pima p
0 0 0
T
1 0 0 0- -0
.Il 2 0 2-2 2- -0
2 2 1 1-----1- r-2
... 0 2 2
g
0 2 3--2-'--0 Ole Mi Cadiz by Agustin Castellon © 1960. 1978 Cuban Music Corporation

Rights Assigned To EMI Catalogue Partnership. All Rights Controlled And Administered By Morro Music Corp. (BMI) All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. Reproduced by permission of International Music Publications Ltd.

55

11141 " 3 3 3
loI ~ 1 1 - 1
) 3~ - 2711 Ilf ~·'f - - 27/
~ ~ ~ - ~ -
r' r'
a a
i ... i 111 pima i ... i 111
pima m i map p pima I m map p I
0

0--1-----4-3-2-1- '-0 0 0 0 0 0 0-
2 0 2--2--2---2-0-2-0-2 0 0-
4 2 2 1--1--1 2 2--2-
3 2 3--3--3 2
0 0 2 2 0 3

flloI ,.-, i11 ~ 1 T.., r--.. r-1 r-1 11 4ri ~ 1 1..1 I i'":L1 t-::1
tJ ~ ~ ~ -~ I fjot PI'{ ~2 ~ ~ - 27 --
- -
Ii'" r' r'
ppima m pima m pima i ... i i
I ... m m a p ...
0 0-- r-2-0 0-2-0---2- ,-0 0 0-
T 0-1---4-3-2-1- -0 1-0 1--4 4 0
! 2 0-2-0-0 2--2 0 0-
.0. 4 2-2 1--4 2
....
~ 3 3 2
0 0 0 4JW ~ ~ o~ Xr"1
flloI I i--t 1 ~
tJ = jot .. 37 .. - 2-.1
-
2r' r'
i m ... i P ... i m ... p ... i
5-4-3-2-0 0-

1-0---0-1-0---0-1-0---0 3-1-0---0-3-1- f-O
3 3 3- -2 2 3 0 0-
1--1 2
2 2
2 0 CII-------------------------------,

flloI X_ W 11 X ii r--, X - r::J n ~ - X~
tJ ~. O~ . = 1
1 •
P 'i m a m i p i m a m i p i m a m i p i p ... i
1--0 0 3-2 2-

3 3 1 1 2 5 4
4 2\ 2 2 3 2 2
4
0' 2
4 2 56

CVII--------------,

CVIII------,

CVII------,

r;ilIJ Xr-1 ?[J rJ r1 x 3
, ~ X,...-.-, x_ x 4iio'1 - I
t. I r 1(,- ~r lr = . -
-
r
p i m a m i p i m a p i m a p i m a p i map p
8-7 7 0 0-
1~
7 8 8 7 0
8 '91 9 9 8 9
'10 8 7 9
7 9 7
7 8 7 0 0- -I 1 _2

CVII-----------------------,

3

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,2GJJt -
t.J - cz: .,~
-
r' .
a a
11) 11) i
I .. , I .. , p ... map ...
7-6-7-6-7 7

8-7-8-7-8--- ~8-7-8-7-8 7
9-8-9-8-9--- -9-9-9-9-9 8 8-
9-9-9-9-9 9
7 9
0 7-8-10-10-8-7-8-10-8-10-8--7 6

6

'll~oIJ I~ -. Xr'""'1
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P P P P P i m ami p p p i m ... p m p ... i
0 0 0 0--- ~3-2-0 0-
.,
10-10 10 7-7 7 3-1-0--0-1-0-3-1- r-O
jC 8 8 8 5---5 5 3 0 O~
.. 10 10--10- -7 7--7 2
~ 9 6 2
0 CVII-----------------,

cv-----

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t.J - - If'
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r'
a a
m 11)
I ... I .,. p ... i m a i m i... p i m a i m
---..
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8-7-8-7-8- 1-8-7-8-7-8 9 5
jC 9-8-9-8-9- 1-9-9-9-9-9 7 5
.. 9-9-9--9-9 9 7
~ 7
0 0 5 57

- CV---,

, ~4f:.J'- ~ • 1*"_ .,,_ 1*-. _ • - X
-.J iT""" " ..... ~~~ ~/
m i ...
~8-7-5-5-7-5
8-7-8-7-5 0-0-0-0-1-0
8
8 2-0
4-2-1-1-2-1
3 3-2-0
3-2-'-0 6

3

3

, .loP 0 ........, X s: _ - X_ -+-, n- r+ I-h ~
-.J 0-: - -~ ft· 4( 2f 1r I~r 4~2U! =
4 2
L3_j 3 t
pirnamip i p i rna p i ... P i P P i p ... i P ... i i i
0 0 0 0-0-0-
T
! 1-1--1 0 0--0 1 0--0
.D. 2---2 2 3 2 0 0
-S--O 1 2 2 2
3--2--1 0
3--2 3-2-3-2-'-0 ~CII-----------~------------' 3

simile

fI..IoP rr r-i"1 ~ r--.-. - .. "r-1
LI = 1111 ....__; <c::» '-.:./ 4 •• ~ "n'~3-:J - 3 ... iT·
2 .
p i p ... i p ... j p ... i
0 0 0-

4--5-4-2- 1-4-2 2 2 2-

2 5-4-5--5-4-2- f-4-2 1
_!L_O 2 5-5-3-3-2-0 2
3--2 , .loP 3 ,_......., ~ - rr r-r1 ~
t.J - 4#i'!''' "-/ ,-/" U~;a"'u~ =
2
t
p i P ... i P ... i j i
0 0-0-0-
T
• 0-1-0 0--0
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.... 1 4-4-2-2-2-1 2 2
~2 3 3- -2-0 2-0
3-2-3 , 3-2--0 simile

58

~CII-----

3 simile

II .I0Io ror i"iO'1 ~ ~ - - - I
tJ - ... <:» <c:» -I \,._.; .... ~ <:» ~ . ...
-
.
p i p ... i p ... P i P ...
0 0

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2 5-4-5--5-4-2- -3-2 2 2
2 5-3-5--5-3-2 3
0 5 - CII----,

- 3 ~ ,41
, .I0Io r I I ....., 3 - - X
.. ...._... < ++r ~ ~ 2p-"'_ r n++r - -
- -
~'-Ir'
p ... t
3 4--7

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5-4-2 4 4 7
6 3 6 7
0 3

5

simile

~ $ 4 ~~~~ I~~~~ ~~~~ 41~~~~ I~~~~. I~~~.J
fI.IoIo .I .I .I J 4 .~~~~
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r'
p i m a i rn pia m i .. ,
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0 4
0 0 0 5
2 2 4
~t--7 0 0
~O 1----

7-------------------------+10------------------------~13---------------13------~

59

CIX----------------------------------------------,

CVII----------"'-/--,

4 -i-i-i-i I.J.J.J; 1-i.Ji.J ~ii.J l.Jii.J .J.Jii 41.L.L.L .L I.L.L.L.L .L.L.L.tl
, ,Ioj. --_- ---- ---- ---- -_-- ---- ---- ---- ----
tJ = I I I I I
12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12- 1--12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12-12- -10-10-10-10-10-10-10-10-10-10-10-10-

9 9 7

9 9 7
lH. 10 9
0 cv--------------------~

CIV-----------------------,

7------------------------+-6 O----------------------~

fI,Ioj. 4 ~~~~ ~~~~
.I .I .I .I <I .I .I .I .I .I .I .I .I
tJ = I T lTr I Ir = r I
3-3-3-3-2-2-2-2-3-3-3-3- 1--2-2-2-2-0-0-0-0-2-2-2-2- r--- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0-
~
! 2 0
a 2 1 1 2
.... 2
~O 0 r:-J rJ n ~1-:J 1 1 ... 1 J _iOn n x -
fI ,Ioj. J r;rn ~ IJ m~ r n-.J
tJ - u-vr V'I -0.- [f 1 ~ -
2 ~vr· IF·
i m . a m
p p ... i map ... i p i m a m I p i m i p i map ... i m a
3-2-3-2-0- -2--2 2 2--0---0-2- 1-3--3 3-

3 3 3-3--3 3 3---3-
0 5 5 5--5 4 4----4-
0 4 4 5
LJ;=----3 0 0
3 3

6

CIII-- ---- 3

3

60

- CIII-----, CV----------,

\ CVIII-----------,

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flJoI. I.j n I.j ~~ [[;!

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tJ I I I 1 I 1 r ~ ~ IF'
a t
I1J
P I '" P i m a p '" i m a i m i '" i map '"
3--3--3 5 5 8-8-10-12-10-8- r-7--7 7-
..,.
• 3--3--3 5 5 8-12 7 7-
A 4--4--4 5 5 9 8 8
.... 5--4--5 7 6 7 8 9
g 10
8 7 3

3

3

CV------~

~lruJ.~j ~ ~ IJ oT ~ :.J j ~~
Or
fI JoI. .-..o!!!I s.I .4
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l t l
p ... i m a i m i p i m a i m i '" p i m a i m i ... i P ...
5-6-7-8 0-2-0-2-3-5 0-0 I~
T 5 0 0-1-0-0-1-2-3-4 0
! 5 0 2 3 0
A
... 7 1 2
~5 7 2
0 2 0--3 "JoI. ~ - 4 0 r"1 r1 - J.I. H, r"'1 1:'-1
tJ ~·O : 12-41 -41 .. -41 = 2-,1
t t ttl t t t t ! t l t t ttl t t ttl t l t ! t l t l a t
I1J
o ami i o ami i i i .. i i ". P I P ."
0 0 ·~r-·-o 0 0-
-
1 0 4 0-0-4-0-0 0 2-0-
2 0 2 2-2""'__2 1 1-'_;:"_
2 2 4 4-4--4 2
0 2 3 3-3--3 2
0 0 5

5

5

5

>

, JoI. fot ~ > -- - 6 X
.
.., ""II 2 3"1 Ll::::: ;! "ill • ·r j/~ :i·

F'
t l t l t l t
i i i P i ". p i m a m i p P P
0 0 0
T
• 0 0--0 0 0 0 0
A 1 2--2 1 2-2 2 1
... 2 1--1 2 1 1 1 2
g 2 2--2 2 2 0--0 2
2 2 0 61

I ~ +t .~. .~. 1.- - r--l
~ ~ ., :z:"~"
- r'
1 l
m
m i ... p i m i ... P i P j m m
5-4-2-0 0-4-3-2- 1-1-0 I
g=±
2-0-0 4-2-0 4-3-2-1-0-0--0
3 2- f-1 3-2-1- 2
2--2 1--1
2 2
2 I\. ~ +t .~ . !!!o-.... X
~ - .*.,~~~ ~'
m i ...
0-2-4-5- 4-2-0-0-2-0

2-0-0-1-2-3-4 4 4-2-0
3 2-1- 2-4-2-1
4-2-1
4-2-0
4-2--0 CIV----------------.

3

i -
---A ~ +to 3 3 -LJ
"
~ 3~/l"'~· *~~ I,' ~l* ...._..... ~4 J. r
t
p ... i p ... i p ... i p
-
4
2 4-
2--2 4 4--4-
0 2 4-6-4 4 4-
2--4-2-0- t-O 4 7-6-4 6 6-
4 4 6 7 7- I\. ~ +t X r-,
X
tJ T.+J1tCf4(Ij - J. - _ 1''' 4f 11 ~ "iI
4F 4f'- f 2f F'
333
1 1 l
p ... p ...
0 0
, ,.
! 0 0 2-0-
A 2 1 1
ft 2-1 1 1 2 1 2 2
g 4-3-4--4-3-0 2 2 2
4 5 7 2 0 62

- x > ~ x -
II ~ H. r-- ~ =- ...,
tJ ~ i~ ! ! ! ~ ~i 7 7 7 7 12i / / /
2-- "'ill
t l t t l t l t l t l t l t l t l t l t l
i i P i i i ...
0 0 0

0 0--2- -0-0-2- -0-0 0 0
1 2--2 2-2 1 2 1
2 1--1 1-1 2 1 2
2 2--2 2-2 2 0 2
0 2--2 2-2 0 2 0 - ~ ~ .i: ~ I
, ~ H. no\ ..
tJ o~ ~ I~ ~ : ~ .- 0--::: .- 'r ,. = --
,
t i r t i t t t r r r l t t t t ! t t t t ! t ! m
oamiioamiii i 0 ami i 0 ami i i i P i map imap i p i map p I
0 °lrr~rr , 0 0-
T
! 2 o 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0-
2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1
A 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2
.... 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 0
g
o 0 0 0 0 2 0 5

5

5

5

3

CIV------------------------------~

CII------------,

-~ 1 r-:r=7i 2\1\ 2\u3\ ~ ~
.-!!2~-~~~ .s:
II ~ H. .....-!!!!I ~ 4l3T"':i1 X
tJ - .:t" .. - 271
- ~ ~ -
p ... i m a i m i m ... pam i p p i m a i mi p i map ...
4-5-7-5-4 2
...
! 5 7-5- f-4---4-5-4-5-6-7 2 2-5-4-2 0
4 7 2 2 1 1-
A 6 2-2 2 2
...
g 7 4 2
0 5 0 ......-!!!!I !!!oo... X - ~ Xr'"1
II ~ +t ~ I~ l.Jm ....,-., I - i:'T 11 0\1.1J oT'1M
2 0 -
tJ - - Ii' ~ ~ ~ = 27
3 -
r ,
i m ami p i m i i i i i i i
P m a P p P ... P m a m m p p ...
0 0-4-2-0 0-1-0 0-
T 3-3 3 . --- < 3 2 2 1-0-1-3 3-1 0
! 4 4-4 2 2 1-
A 2 2 4 2
.... 0 3 2
g
4 0 0 6

63

/

CI------,

, J.I. +t ~ ~ -r"01 ri':1 x
~ - - ~- q"~3 2 -> ~ ttr = "'ill :II
-r ~. r r
t l_3__j 3 t
p ... i p p i p '" i P P i i
0 0
0-3-3-1-1-0-0 0 0 0-
'- 2-2-3-2-0 2 1--1-
3--3-2-1 1 1 2 2-
3- 1-2 2-2-4 2 2-
1 1 0 0- 3 3

Position La __ -,

6 6 .s: .s: .-iioo!! Xr""1
, J.I. +t 101 1 ......., 1 nol
to 0-' - °U 4:: - - - ::z; .. ._ • _::; • =
4 -4Xr-4f -2 _2
a
i 11) p i mami i i
p i mamip p p i m ami p I P m a ... p ...
p
.,. 0 0 0-
! 2-2--2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0-
2---2 1-1 1 2-2 2 2 1 1
A 2---2--2 1--1--1 1 2
... 0 0-2
~ 4 4 3-4-'-2 1 2 0 6

3

CII---------,

11 J.I. tt 24 I --"" I r-1 - I
~ ~ ~ ~r II!: "1'1' ~3 - =
~ ~ .. ~ P
t t t
p ... i p ...
0
0-
242-1-2-2-4-4-S-S 2-4 1-2-1 1
2- f-S-4-S 2- -4-3-4 4 2
0 2 3
0 0 0 CII-----------------------,

.-oo!!!l 3 3
- ~ iJ 1m 4rIT\ 1m 2Joh .r--?-,
11 J.I. +to J ,n 41 1.r1, r -ru x
·
·
·
..., ip: . ~. - If ~ = 2 ....
-
~. !:I. f .
t t
p i m ... p i p ...
2-4-2--2 2- 1-4-5-4-2-4-2--2 4-2-0
2~ '" 5--5-4-5- I- 2 ~ '" > < 5--5- f-4-5 4-2-0
......
2 2 2 1 1-
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 3

3

64

CIV-------------------------------,

CII--------------------------------.

simile

simile

'" j,j. +t ~ rrJ2JTJ "7T rrJ • r-rJ,ITl rr r-rJ
tJ -: If r r~ I r
~ ~ ~ ~
f f
p ... i m a m i p i p ... i i p ... i m a m i p i p ... i i
4-5-4 4 4-4 2-4-2 2 2-2-
4 7 5---5 2 5 4---4-
5 6 6 3 4 4-
4 6 6 2 4 4-
6 4 4 4 2 2-
4 2 CVII-----------------------,

simile

[J:tJJJ WI I 4J:T] X
4 = =::2:z:_ rr r-r1
, ~. It 3 1 _
~--
tJ If ~ ~ r ~ ~ = ~ -
.
f
p ... i m a m p i m a j m i ... P i p ... i i
7 7-12-12-12-11-11- 11-9-9-9"'--7-7 0 0-0-
... 7---10-9-7 9 10-9-7 0---0-
• 8 9 1 1-
A
.... 7 2 2-
WI 9 7
7 0 simile

p p

m a m

'-"""'-------------LO---0-2---2-3---3 4---4-5---5-7--7 0-----------'

fI j,j. +t r-=; ~=; -=; ~Fi ~fi ~=; ~ - ~ -
tJ ~.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :4j ~ ~ ~ :4j :4j ~ : ~
f f f f ! f f f f ! f ! f ! f ! f ! f ! f ! t ! t ! t ! f !
0 a m i i o a m i i i i i ...
0 O-O-O-O-O-O-I-o-o-o-o-o-o--o~:tn~~r-f--
...
! 2 0-r-0-2-0-0-2-0-0-2-0-1-0-2-0-0-2-0-0-2--0 2 0-1-
A 2 2-2'-'-2-2'_'_2-2'_;:_-2-2~2-2'-'-2-2--1 1 1-'-
.... 2 2-2-2-2-2-2--2-2-2-2-2-2--2 2 2--
WI 0 0-0-0-0-0-0--0-0-0-0-0-0--2 2 2--
o 0 0- 5

5

65

CII-------------------------------------------------------,

~ J,j. tt ~ f" ~f" - f" ~ ~ r"""'1
v 1111 1111 111 1111 111 1111 1111 1111 1111 111 = 2-.1
.
t t t t l t t t t l t l l l t l l t l t l t
0 ami i 0 a m i i i i ... P i p ...
2 I II I I I I I I 2 0 0-

4 3 2-2-3-3-4 2-4-2-4-2-4 0-
2 2 2~2-2 2-2-2-2-2 1-
4 4 4 4-4 4-4-4-4-4 2
2 2 2--2-2 2-2-2-2-2 2
0 5

5

=~ ~ ~ ~ ~ X
, J,j. tt. I ~ ~
·
·
·
·
~ o ~ z:i 1f-2 gi 12i.
1111 c:;.
t t t t l t l t t t t l t ! t t t t ! t t t
0 a mi i ... 0 ami i ... 0 a m i i i p p
0 -0 0

1 0-0 4 0 0
2 1 2 2 1
2 2 4 1 2
0 2 3 0 2
0 2 0 3

3

5

66

SENTIMIENTO GIT ANO

Sabicas

Capo: III moderato

Transcription: Alain Faucher

x >

3

II r---= r---= ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ IiiiiiiiO;
tJ o ~. ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ :4i ~ ~
t t t ! t t ! t t t t
ras ras ras i i i i i i ras ras
... 2 2 2 2---2 2 2 2 2
~
A 2--3-2--3- -2- -3-2-2-3-2-2- r-3-2-2-3-2- f--2-3-2-3-2-3-2-2-3-2-
2 > < 2 2 2~2 2 2 2 2
. i-ii .......
g 0 0 0 0---0 0 0 0 0 3

3

x 3

3

3

, ~
tJ ~ -= ~ ~ .; -= ~ ~
.... .... ....
t ! t t ! t t t t
ras i i i i i i ras ras
T 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
!
4 2 3-2-2-3-2-2-3-2-2-3-2-2-3-2- ~2-3-2-3--2--3--2--2--3--2-
... 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CIII~

CIII-----

position La

- X
~ = == = = = == = X I X -
o ~ ~ I I I , :6. ~.j o q-== . ~ -: ~
t t i t i r t t t r t t t t
amiioamiioam i I'. i i i
ras 0}Jmlp m p p ... ... p p P
_T 2 2 2 3 3--3-
• 2-3-2-2 2 3--5-3--2 2 3--5--5-
4
... 2 2 2 3 2 3
.., 0 0 0 5 0 5
4 4 -CIII~

CIII------------,

position La

II ,...._ X X - X -~ X X
tJ ~. .~-;;..u., . ~ r· ~ 1~ 4f OL11 Or3r1(0(f r


p ... i p ... ... p i p i p p '"
3-3

.-3 2 2 3-5-5- -3-2-3-4-5
2 3 0-1-0
5-3--0 5 3-4-5- -6 3-1-0--0-
6 4 4- Sentimienro Gitano By Agustin Castellon © 1960, 1978 Cuban Music Corporation

Rights Assigned To EMI Catalogue Partnership. All Rights Controlled And Administered By Morro Music Corp. (BMIJ All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. Reproduced by permission of International Music Publications Ltd.

67

'I. h ~ ~ - x x
r o~f1r 1 0--= • - 0"'" - l: ] I 1 TU~ .... I r
r ~ > > -
-
t
p ... i p ... i i i P ...
0 0- t-O-o 1-0
1"1'
! 2 2 3 > ..... , 3 1
2 2 3 3-2-0 5-3-2-0
A 0 2 2 3 3-2-0 3-2-
~1
\:::._4 1 0 0 0 CII cm----,

x
II X 'I. ~
~ U J_:f 3bUi1rT U_0* rt I ui ur:~rl 0- .
>

!
p ... ... p ... i p ... r

t i

~"I'~------------------------------4-----------------0 O-~O--o--------------------~

~------------------------------~-------------------------2 2===========~~======~j

~ __ !------------------------------~---------------------2 2 2 3-

D 5-3-2-0 2-0-~0-2-0-0 2 2 2 3-

H .... IOI---__,_ ...... ~-"--3-1-0---1 '_' 4 , 4-1-0 0 0-4 0-5------1

~~~~~----------~~~--3-----------L--------~-------------------J---------~~----~~----~

i P ...

"

CV--------------------.

cm --- - - - -

- - -
fl ~ ...-.. ~ I -- I
~ °rJ I or lr lr 3 14 4 j.,
~ -
-
p ... i p ,.. i P ... i P i p ,.. i P i P ...
IT 6-5 5 5 3- 1--4 4---3 3-

A 5 7-5 5 5 3 5 3-
f-B---0-7 5 8-7-5 5 7 5 3 3
8- f-7 5 3 3 5
5 6 ~ I .-III!!!!!I
II ~ ~
~ - ~ I or 3L 4r 3j i lr4 0- • ., 7 ·r ur 1.1'2(U.
-
-
! t
p ... i p ... . .. p i
0 0- ~o
"I' 6-5-3 2 2 3 3-
! 5-7-5-3 2 2 3 3-
A 5-7-5-3 2 2 0--2-0---0
.... 7- 1-5-6-5-5-3---0 0 3
g
6 68

II oOII!!!!!iiI h ~ ,.,
.., 'r 2r'r2r' °rVTJ qULUr:' 2Hr -7 C J 1UuUr 2L.tO-= ,

-
- t
p i P ... i P P i P P i P i P i P P ... i P ... i P ... i
0 0-
.,. 3--3--3- f-3 3 2-
! 3 3 3 3 3 2
A 0 0 0-2-0 2
ft 1--3-1-3-1-0-1-3-- 1-2---3 4 4 3-1-0
g >
II ~ ~ ~ -, 4J1.! 0141 1 1 I ? I 0 I I I
t.J ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~' ur' 0-:: ,
t 1 t t t t t t t
i i ... ras ras p i m a m i p i m a m i p
0 1-0 0

2 2--2--2--2 2 2 2 3~3-1 2-2-
2- f-3-2-3-2-3-2-3-2-3- f--2-3-2-2-3-2- '---2 3 3--2 2-
2 2""'__ 2""'__ 2""'__ 2 2 2 2 0 2-
0 0--0--0--0 0 0 0 0 6

6

CIII-----------., 1 3

CVI- ----

5

- 34- j J;~tJ1J3~
r:1 l_1]_ J;~ l_n;J'l TI -
X J J-.~
l_ [ 1 I
,
) ~ l~ ~ ~' 1 ~
t
p pima m i ... pima m i ... P p ... i m a i m i
r--... ~
.,. 0-1-3-3-5- 1-565-353 6--6-8-
! 3 3 6-3-3-5-5-6-6-8- f-8 6--10
A 2--2 3 7 7
3 3 8 6
ft 7 8
g 1 6 - CVI-, CV-------~~---,

l~J 6

positio La

3 J 1 n
4 - I; II~ I X
-~ I ),.
,) r' I~vr' Ir_U_( r l!r <It '1~4r 1 0--: ,
-
m i i i i
P P P m a m p p ... p
~
.,. 10-8'10-8--6--5 5
5--5
! 6 6 1 2
A 7 8 0 2-0 2-
ft - 1 3-1-3-1-0
g 6 5 69

-cv-----

x 2- y sigue r7J ~
, >r-1 4 0 I
tJ ur 2r • IL: 2( Ir 0--:: • I "
~ >
>
i i i i i
P P m a m i p i m a p ... i P P P
0 0 5-5

3--3 3
.-----2 3 3 3- -3 2
0 0 2- 1-7 7-8-7-5-7-8-7-5-
3 1 3 1 0 6

J

J

, X X
tJ P"'~ J I zr: 3t_ r lJ rf lJ '~ 1 I If vr 3r

- -
i t
p ... p p ...
5

5 0 0- -2-3-5-3-2-0-1-0

787--5 5 3 3 3-1-0-
8--7 6 6 3-
6 5 5 II :-.. ..- lo. " --,
tJ Ir_1 1- L. 1 I I I~[ 1 T Uj 3tl 0""" • . 3U
r 3~v(j*
Iiii-"""" > -
t i
p ... i P ... i i i p ...
1-0 0 0- r-O--o
or 3 3-1 2 2
! 0 3-2-0 2 2 0
A 3 3- 1-2-3-2-0 2 2
ft 1 3-1-0 0 1-
g 3-2-3 CI-------,

3 > -
II •• I .., ~ o .......--.,
.
.
tJ l 1 vr 4(!_T3-1:; . '~3 uC· 11 2~ n r2(1 0--:: -
r ~'-'

3 l__3__j
t t l t
p ... i P P ... i P P i P P ... i i
0-

3 3--3 2-2-
3 3 3--3 2--2-
~~3-2-0 3-2- 1--1--0 0--0 2 2-
3-1-0 3 3-1---3 3-1-0 0-
3-1 1 70

>

x >

position La

II - ~ ~ ~
.- liiiiiiO:I ~ liiiiiiO:I I
-.J ~~ -= ~ ..:;: ~ ~ I~ Vr: 0-:: •
.. ..
t t t t t
i i i ras ras p ... p i P
or 2 2 2 2 2
! 3-2-2--3-2-2--3-2- -2--3-2-2--3-2- -2 1--2-3----2
A 2 2 2 2 2 0 2-
Pi 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
-~ >

>

>

6

6

3

3

3

5

II ~ I I I ..I I I I L _l 0
-.J ~ ur 2f - o--:::·_.........- 4~Q
2 .
p P i m a m i p i m a m i p i m a i m i p i m a p ...
0 0 0-1-0 0

. 3--3 3--3 3 3-1 2
2 3 3--3 3 3 3 2
• 0 2-
3 0 4
3 6

6

, Xr--1 4 0 __'o __ _....., .. r- r- r-
-.J t r 2~f r 2~2r ~ f' 1·~· J2f' J
a
i i i P i i rv rv m
p p m a m m a m p I p ... I P ... I P
0 0 0 0

. 3-3 3-3 3 3 3 3 3-
2 3 3--3 3 3 3 3 3 3-
. 0 0 3-2-0 3-2-0
4 3 3---3-2---2-3----3- II ~ >r-i 4 0 r--1
.
~ Ii '-3rl """: .> ~~ ~ T 2f I o~ r 3r 2r
0

p i m a p ... i P i m a m i p i p i P ...
0 0 0
~ 3 2 3--3
! 3 2 2 3 3 3
A 2 2 0
" 1 1-3-1-0 4 3 1 0
~ 4-3-2- 6

71

position La

II. X ",......., X X
~ IU4VCjR*U* i~ 3rlrOr4-0~· °a3~u rra 1 J l J r

t
p ... i P P i P ...
0

2 2 0

0 0 2 0 2- 1-0-2-3 3-2-
4-3-1'3-1-0- 1-1-3-1-0--0 0 4 5
1 4 4 IV

fI. X
~ ~ L-J .... I Hr ur I~a r : r Ir- r-Li ~r Iffa~ r U i_I LJ
> -
24
t
p ...
"'I'"
~ 0-3-2-0
A 0-2-3 3- 232-0
..... 5 4-5-5-7-7-4-4-5- 575-4-5-575-4-5-5-7-7-8-
g V

II. - II X -
lo. X I
tJ y. ~ 3~ 'r r ~- I - ~3#~3":J
t t
p .. ,
T 5 3- 1-1

~o 6- 1--6--0-3-0 0 3-2-0
7 7 2--2 3-2-0
=It=~--7-6-7 7 1 3-1-0-
3- ri --""!I
fI. "" ..-
tJ 1t_0tI10r~r_1:UJ 3r-', u~~r- U[ 1 r f4ffrl 0-= - 0-= -
r ~

- ! t
p .. , i p .. , i i i p ...
0 0- -0-0 1-0

2 2 3 3-1-
2 2 3
0 0--2-0- -0-2-0-0 2 2 3
0--1-0-3-1--3 4 "- 4-1-0 0 0
1 X >

72

position La

, ... """"""
~ I....l I \ '~34~3~1~~ 1~3~0~~U.~ I I \ 'luL J i3rl °rv 4~tr !J


p ... i P ...

3-2-0 1-2-1 2

3-2-0 0-2-3 , - , ''-...-3- f-2-0-2-0 2--2-
3-1-0 0-1-3 3-1-0--4-t,4-
3-1-0-'-1-3 >r-1 > >
11 __.,
tJ ~ 3i U :; i 1 ~. r !3r' i 1 ~r ~c ur 1 ur Jc_r

p i p i p p i ...
0
"T 1 1--1 1--1 1--1 2 3 3
! 2
A 0 0 O-
ft 3--3-3--3--3- -2---2--2-3---3--3- r-4 5 5 5-
g 1\ >
... ~ --1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ,.... - - - -
tJ 3L{ 3i rlr4 0--: . 1.,_ -= -= .:; 4 -= 4 :4j
.. .. .. ..
t ! t ! t ! t t t t t l t t t t l t t t
p ... i P ... i i i i ... 0 ami i o ami i o a m
0 0

2 2 2--2--2--2 2 2
2 2- -3-2-3-2-3-2-3-2-3- -2-3-2-2
2 2 2>.,.,.L- 2 >.,.,.L- 2>.,.,.L- 2 2" ...... c: 2
5-6-5-5-3--0 0 0--0--0--0 0 0
6 3

3

3

3

6

6

6

- ......, >r--1
, ~ I \1 J 0 14 \ 1 \3 \ ° 4 0
tJ :6 u .. - 0-:: • ~ T 2LU
2
t >
i P i m a p i m a m i p i m a m i p P i P i m a m i p
0 1-0 0 0 0
"T 2 3 3~3-1 2--2 3-3
! 2 3 3 3--2 2- -2 3 3
A 2 0 2 0
ft 0 0 3-1-0-
g 3 73

~ClI-----

3

, ~ ......, r-i x ~
tJ 1 u. 2'=1 0-::: • 3tf"*" " ... tf~ ~
r· r·
i i i i t t
p ... p ... m a p p p ...
0 0

3 2
3 2 2 2-3-2-2-3-
0 2 2 2-3- r-5 5
1 3-1-0 4-5 4 4
0 0 -ClI---,

r"""1 r-i -
11 - I
tJ tf~ "*" ... tf~ ~ tf~ o~ l~ 4* v ... 1 <:» ___,I -
3
r· r· r· r ~ ~ ~.
t t t t t
p i P ... i p ... i p ...
0 0 0 0
"T'
! 2 2-3-2-2-3- -2 0--2-0-
A
ft 5 2-3- r-5 5 5 0- -2-3-2-0-2-3 3-
r;J 4---4-5 4 4 4---0-1-4 1
0 0 0 0 3 x >

II

, X .-oI!'.!!!!l X_ X >r-1
tJ ~ 3:;/ l~ ~- ~ <:» "---" v ...
p ... i P ...
0

2-5-2 2-
0-3- -3-2-0 0 3--3
2 2-3 3-2-0-2-3--3-2-0- -2 5 5-
1
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4 EMBRUJO DE HUEL V A

77

Capo: II allegro

CII--------------------------------------------------------------,

Sabicas

Transcription: Alain Faucher

CIII

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3 3 Embrujo de Huelva By Agustin Castellon © 1960. 1978 Cuban Music Corporation

Rights Assigned To EMI Catalogue Partnership. All Rights Controlled And Administered By Morro Music Corp. (BMI) All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. Reproduced by permission of International Music Publications Ltd.

78

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FOREWORD

With the recording of the album Rey del Flamenco, at the beginning of 1966, Sabicas reached a new stage of maturity in his musical development. His work had freed itself of the influence of Ram6n Montoya, and he was able to express himself without hindrance. His style became better defined. allowing his ideas to flourish within new harmonies.

For guitarists, the most remarkable aspect lies in the absolute mastery of the fingerboard and the logical fingering. By this time, Sabicas had turned the pursuit of ergonomy into a fine art. His fondness for diminished chords and their simple yet magic effect, when pursued up and down the fingerboard three frets at a time, is legendary, and he exploited them a great deal at the start of his career. They are to be found in, for example, the tremolo in Ole mi Cadiz p. 58, staves 3 and 4, and again in Zapateado en Re, p. 33, staff 4. In other types of development he attained maximum effect with economical means, using a minimum of barres, and making wise use of open strings. See in this instance, for example, the finale of Aires de Puerto Real, p. 28, staves 2 to 4, or the finale of La Trinidad, p. 53, staves 2 to 4, both facilitated by their key of E major. Aires de Puerto Real can be further cited for the elegant way the passages follow on one another on p. 15, staff 4 and p. 19, staff 2. The ratio between the amount ofleft-hand work necessary and the "quantity" of music engendered is surprising. If such a metaphor were not verging on blasphemy, one might talk of value for money.

As we have just seen, the soled Aires de Puerto Real is a brilliant illustration of the close links between musical imagination and intelligent fingering. This soled has a profusion of hitherto unheard falsetas that lead to an almost complete renewal of the composer's material in this palo. Although it is quite unusual to omit variations in tremolo, the work is so homogeneous that the omission goes unnoticed.

The Zapateado en Re was a favourite with both composer and audience. Sabicas was constantly in search of new ideas, and here he transposed a style traditionally played in C into the more open key of D. One can only admire the splendid sequences of arpeggiated chords and the easy left-hand movements.

One of the most thrilling themes is that of the campanas, with an impressive repeat in harmonics.

Sabicas was an old hand at this technique, which we see in another masterpiece in D, the Guajira melodica. These tinkling bells, reminiscent of a music box, remind us also of Papa gena's glockenspiel. Sabicas may well have seen a performance of The Magic Flute.

What is fascinating is that originally he played this passage in artificial harmonics, using his thumb to pluck the note instead of the annular finger. Only later did he adopt the form transcribed here, with natural harmonics. In three places I have added some fingering in brackets which seems to lie more easily under the fingers than that used by the composer, as identified in video films.

Like thefarruca and the danza mora, the malagueha was one ofSabicas's favourite styles. It seemed to provide a continuous source of inspiration for him, and indeed it was perhaps in the malagueha that his genius shone at its brightest. Certainly he was without equal in these styles. La Trinidad is the most developed in this range, and amounts to a composite blend of his finest creative ideas, needing only the copfa and the tremolo passage from Brisas de fa Caleta to be complete.

Ole mi Cadiz starts off in E minor before moving to E major. These are the keys for the alegrias de Cordoba and the Rosa, respectively, according to an earlier classification that has today fallen into disuse. Sabicas, however, wrote few alegrias in these keys, and took the more commonly used A major instead. This point of interest apart, the piece is quite magnificent in its own right. The atmosphere induced by the use of E minor, the skilfully developed themes and Sabicas' own technical ease make this work a splendid gateway to further study of the contents of this album.

Sentimiento gitano casts the siguiriya in a more modem light, and in places foreshadows today's style (see p. 73, staves 1 to 4; or p. 74, staff 3 to p. 75, staff 1). Despite his occasional deliberately spectacular display of brilliance, Sabicas never stooped to pyrotechnics for their own sake. An example can be seen in the falseta on p. 67 staff 1 to p. 68 staff I, a seemingly unceasing cascade of semiquavers. The remate that follows almost comes as a relief, so that the listener, about to beg for mercy, is at last able to draw breath. While the piece is soundly constructed, it is the unstoppable flow of semiquavers that remains in the memory. The flamenco guitar is, after all, so designed that moments of profundity alternate with fireworks, I ight with dark.

J.

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PREFACIO

Cuando a principios del afio 1966 Sabicas graba el disco Rey del Flamenco, ya ha alcanzado en su evolucion musical una segunda madurez. Su discurso ha conseguido emanciparse de Ramon Montoya y su personalidad se expresa libremente. El estilo se decanta, las ideas contimian siendo tan abundantes como de costumbre, surgen nuevas armonfas.

Para los guitarristas, 10 mas notable reside en el dominio absoluto de la utilizacion del mastil y la racionalidad de la digitacion, En Sabicas, 1a biisqueda de la ergonomfa se ha convertido, en ese estadio, en una estetica, en un arte en S1. Es conocida su predileccfon por los acordes disminuidos de soberbios y faciles efectos producidos al recorrer el mastil mediante desplazamientos de tres trastes. Sabicas 10 usaba ampliamente desde sus inicios, 10 encontramos, por ejemplo, en el tremolo de Ole mi Cadi: p. 58, pentagram as 3 y 4, 0 bien en el Zapateado en Re, p. 33, pentagram a 4. Pero en otros tipos de desarrollos obtiene tambien un resultado muy eficaz con una extrema economfa de medias, sabiendo reducir al mfnimo el recurso de las cejillas y utilizar juiciosamente las cuerdas al aire. Ver por ejemplo el final de Aires de Puerto Real, par la e1egancia de encadenamientos p. 15, pentagrama 4 y 9, y p. 19, pentagrama 2. La relacion entre la cantidad de trabajo desarrollado por la mana izquierda y la "cantidad" de musica producida es sorprendente. Si la metafora no fuese tan iconoclasta se podria hablar de una relacion calidad-precio insuperable.

La solea Aires de Puerto Real, como acabamos de observar, ilustra brillantemente la buena armonfa entre la inventiva musical y la inteligcncia de las digitaciones. Descubrimos una profusi6n de falsetas ineditas que renuevan casi total mente cl material del autor en estc palo. Se notara la ausencia de variacion en tremolo, bastante inhabitual, que a pesar de todo pasa desapercibida dado 10 apretado y coherente del conjunto.

El Zapateado en Re era una de las piezas favoritas del autor y su publico. Sabicas, creador incansable en busca de innovacion, ha transportado a la tonalidad abierta de Re un estilo tradicionalrnente tocado en Do. Las rnagnfficas sucesiones de acordes arpegiados fuerzan la admiraci6n por su aptitud para construir una linea logica y par la mecanica desahogada de la mana izquierda.

Es sin embargo e1 tema de las campanas el que nos maravilla mas, magnificado por su repetici6n con armonicos, Sabicas esta acostumbrado a ese metoda, recordemos otra obra maestra en Re, la Gualira melodica. Aquellas carnpanillas con ecos de caja de rmisica harian pensar casi en el glockenspiel de Papageno, "Oiria Sabicas la Flauta Magica?

Es interesante resaltar que originalmente tocaba cste fragmento mediante armonicos artificiales, con una tecnica de mano derecha muy personal en la que el pulgar ejecuta la nota en lugar del anular. Al final adoptaria la forma aqui transcrita, com armonicos naturales. En 10 concerniente la ejecucfon, he afiadido entre pareniesis, en tres lugares, una digitaci6n que -todo ocurre- parece ajustarse mas naturalmente a los dedos que la del propio autor, tal como se observa en algunos videos.

La malaguefia, como la farruca y la danza mora, ocupa un lugar privilegiado en el repertorio de Sabicas, SC nutre de una fuente de inspiraci6n continua, razon par la cual, sin duda, su genio se expresa mejor. Podrfarnos afirmar que nadic le ha igualado en dichos estilos. La Trinidad es la mas acaba de todas, practicamente una smtesis de sus ideas mas bellas. No le falta mas que la copla y el tremolo de Brisas de fa Caleta para estar camp lela.

Ole mi Cadiz empieza en Mim y evoluciona en MiM. Son las tonalidades respectivas de las alegrfas de Cordoba y de la Rosa segun una clasificacion hoy abandonada. Sabieas ha dejado pocas alegrias en dichas tonalidades por prefcrir el LaM. mas usual. Ella representana de por sf un cierto interes por esta pieza si por otra parte no fuese sencillamente magnifica. La atmosfera del Mim, los ternas habilmente desarrollados y la facilidad tecnica invitaran allector a entrar en el estudio de la preseote selecci6n a traves de esta suntuosa puerta.

Sentimiento gitano conlleva ya una vision muy moderna de la siguiriya y prefigura, en determinados momentos, el estilo actual (vease p. 73, pentagramas ] a 4, 0 bien p. 74, pentagrama 3 hasta p. 75, pentagrama 1). Conviene subrayar igualmente un enfoque voluntario espectacular y demostrativo al cual Sabicas no desdefiaba recurrir para subyugar a su publico. La falseta de p. 67, pentagrama 1 a p. 68, pentagrama 1, muestra el ejempJo en una cascada de semicorcheas que da la sensacion de no querer pararse nunca. EI remate llega casi como un alivio: cl oyente, a punto de pedir 1a gracia, puede

por fin volver a respirar. La construccion es hermosa, sin embargo el efecto prima sobre la idea musical. [Que importa!, la guitarra flamenca esta hccha de tal modo que gusta de alternar los momentos mas profundos can el arte pirotecnico, la sombra y la luz.

Embrujo de Huelva resume la "manera" Sabicas. Junto a los largos arpegios caracterfsticos del fandango encontramos faisetas antiguas (p. 81, pentagramas 2 y 3, 0 el final en alzapua), una alusi6n ala danza mora (p. 64), y la cita de un extracto del Tientos de los tres rios (p. 86, pentagramas 3 y 4) mutado para dicha ocasion de binario en ternario. La forma sincopada y evolucionada del estribillo nos sinia ya en la epoca contemporanea,

SOBRE EL SONIDO Y LA TECNICA

Se podria disertar a 10 largo de eolumnas enteras sobre el sonido de Sabicas. Que decir, sino que nadie ha hecho sonar el instrumento como el, Fuerza y pcrcusion, pero con redondez e incluso con finura, hacen que se Ie reconozca entre todos y se Ie acepte todavia como un modele. La guitarra de Sabicas es la mas perfecta identificaci6n del sonido flamenco.

Ciertas soluciones tecnicas que no son mas que suyas requieren deterrninadas precisiones.

Los rasgueados siguen la formula habitual can vuelta del Indice:

11111111111

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peru en los desarrollos largos y continuos, dicha vuelta queda suprimida:

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es el caso par ejemplo al final del Zapateado y de Sentimiento gitano, las introducciones de Ole mi Cadiz y Embrujo de Huelva. Aun ast, he escrito todos los rasgueados sin tener en cuenta dicha particularidad, preferiendo ajustarme a los automatismos de los guitarristas de hoy en dia.

La tecnica de oposici6n pulgar-Indice/medio (ej, La Trinidad, p. 46 Y 47) se ve substituida por pulgar-fndice/anular cuando en los agudos no hay canto sino "pedal" (ej. La Trinidad de nuevo, en la conclusion del tremolo, p. 50, pentagramas 1 y 2). La razon equivale aquf a ganar fuerza e intensidad.

Las idas y vueltas del Indice son de hecho ejccutadas par los dedos media + anular juntos. Con objeto de no hacer mas pes ada la leetura. he pasado pur alto ese detalle par considerarlo mas bien anecd6tico.

El golpe puede hacerse can la vuelta del pulgar, golpeando la tabla bajo los agudos tSentimiento gitano, p. 67, pentagrama 4, tercer cornpas).

Los apagados se efectiian can el dedo pequefio de la mana izquierda, presionando las cuerdas contra el mastil, Se reconocen en las semicorcheas, altemando can silencios de estas (Aire de Puerto Real, p. 18, pentagrama 3. y ou mi Cadiz: p. 62, pentagrama 1).

SOBRE LA ESCRITURA

- las notas entre parentesis no se tocan, sino que indican la posicion completa de la mana izquierda (salvo en los arrnonicos del Zapateado, cf. infra).

- las alteraciones accidentales no valen mas que para la altura en que se encuentran, y no ala octava.

- en las secciones no medidas (La Trinidad), lin pentagrama equivaJe a un compas, en 10 concerniente

a alteraciones accidentales,

A.F.

r

I

SABICAS THE ETERNAL

Few performing artists become household names in their lifetime, and fewer still become the stuff of legends, with a permanent place in the pages of history. Yet Sabicas is one of those few,

The irresistible world of music created by Sabicas is both timeless and ageless. Every master of flamenco today recognises him as the unforgettable tocaor who inspired his own dreams.

Yet the paths of glory trodden by Agustin Castellon Campos, Nifio Sabicas (1912-1990), are not without their own paradox. For a start, he was not born in Andalusia but in far-off Navarre, and fame came to him even further away from Spain, in America. Destiny is not what we always expect.

The young gypsy lad from Pamplona had barely tuned up his first guitar when it became obvious that he was a child prodigy. Since no one he knew was capable of giving him lessons, he had to teach himself with the aid of the few recordings that were available at the time. It was not long before he rose to fame and became the greatest virtuoso of his generation, a position he held unchallenged for many long years. Sabicas took flamenco technique to hitherto unsealed, unimagined heights, leaving his contemporaries far behind in the matter of speed, timbre and purity of sound, not to mention his own numerous compositions. He had a phenomenal sense of compos and was unequalled in accompanying, especially playing for dancers.

Sabicas began his professional life by playing with the greatest artists of his time (La Nifta de los Peines and Manuel Torres, among others), and in 1937 he joined the company ofCannen Amaya in Buenos Aires, one of the reigning artists of the day, with whom he made many successful tours. He subsequently settled in Mexico for a number of years before finally moving to New York in 1955. He made some fifty records in which he played both solo guitar and accompaniment, but aficionados prefer to remember him as the first professional flamenco recitalist.

Sabicas' virtuosity and his impeccable sense of form have imposed high standards on all those who follow him in the art of flamenco toque, while his brilliant gifts as a composer have opened up new horizons. His technique, style and immense output have defined today's guitar in terms that it would never have attained without his help. Above all, however, his music has an enchanting power seldom heard elsewhere. How many tocaores are able to exert such power over their audience by casting a spell over them? Sabicas was little short of a magician.

Sabicas is no longer with us, but his music remains, much of which can be heard in his recordings. With the notable exception of the transcriptions made by Joseph Trotter for the album "Flamenco puro" in the 1970s, most of Sabicas' works have yet to be published. This is not for want of suitable material, but rather because of the recent dazzling developments in the flamenco guitar, and perhaps even more because of its immediate yet volatile character, closely linked with oral tradition. It goes against the grain to transcribe something so vital in performance to a series of black dots on paper. On the other hand, a written score preserves the music for posterity by publishing the best of the repertoire. Even ifhis work may be above considerations of current fashion, and even if time cannot hann it, we must remember that that same time does erode our memory. That is why I am particularly happy to be able to publish this collection of Sabicas' finest works, in the knowledge that it is part of the necessary task of passing music on down the generations, and that it is also in response to great demand.

Alain Faucher, Paris, 1999 translated by Mary Criswick

10

FOREWORD

With the recording of the album Rey del Flamenco, at the beginning of 1966, Sabicas reached a new stage of maturity in his musical development. His work had freed itself of the influence of Ram6n Montoya, and he was able to express himself without hindrance. His style became better defined. allowing his ideas to flourish within new harmonies.

For guitarists, the most remarkable aspect lies in the absolute mastery of the fingerboard and the logical fingering. By this time, Sabicas had turned the pursuit of ergonomy into a fine art. His fondness for diminished chords and their simple yet magic effect, when pursued up and down the fingerboard three frets at a time, is legendary, and he exploited them a great deal at the start of his career. They are to be found in, for example, the tremolo in Ole mi Cadiz p. 58, staves 3 and 4, and again in Zapateado en Re, p. 33, staff 4. In other types of development he attained maximum effect with economical means, using a minimum of barres, and making wise use of open strings. See in this instance, for example, the finale of Aires de Puerto Real, p. 28, staves 2 to 4, or the finale of La Trinidad, p. 53, staves 2 to 4, both facilitated by their key of E major. Aires de Puerto Real can be further cited for the elegant way the passages follow on one another on p. 15, staff 4 and p. 19, staff 2. The ratio between the amount ofleft-hand work necessary and the "quantity" of music engendered is surprising. If such a metaphor were not verging on blasphemy, one might talk of value for money.

As we have just seen, the soled Aires de Puerto Real is a brilliant illustration of the close links between musical imagination and intelligent fingering. This soled has a profusion of hitherto unheard falsetas that lead to an almost complete renewal of the composer's material in this palo. Although it is quite unusual to omit variations in tremolo, the work is so homogeneous that the omission goes unnoticed.

The Zapateado en Re was a favourite with both composer and audience. Sabicas was constantly in search of new ideas, and here he transposed a style traditionally played in C into the more open key of D. One can only admire the splendid sequences of arpeggiated chords and the easy left-hand movements.

One of the most thrilling themes is that of the campanas, with an impressive repeat in harmonics.

Sabicas was an old hand at this technique, which we see in another masterpiece in D, the Guajira melodica. These tinkling bells, reminiscent of a music box, remind us also of Papa gena's glockenspiel. Sabicas may well have seen a performance of The Magic Flute.

What is fascinating is that originally he played this passage in artificial harmonics, using his thumb to pluck the note instead of the annular finger. Only later did he adopt the form transcribed here, with natural harmonics. In three places I have added some fingering in brackets which seems to lie more easily under the fingers than that used by the composer, as identified in video films.

Like thefarruca and the danza mora, the malagueha was one ofSabicas's favourite styles. It seemed to provide a continuous source of inspiration for him, and indeed it was perhaps in the malagueha that his genius shone at its brightest. Certainly he was without equal in these styles. La Trinidad is the most developed in this range, and amounts to a composite blend of his finest creative ideas, needing only the copfa and the tremolo passage from Brisas de fa Caleta to be complete.

Ole mi Cadiz starts off in E minor before moving to E major. These are the keys for the alegrias de Cordoba and the Rosa, respectively, according to an earlier classification that has today fallen into disuse. Sabicas, however, wrote few alegrias in these keys, and took the more commonly used A major instead. This point of interest apart, the piece is quite magnificent in its own right. The atmosphere induced by the use of E minor, the skilfully developed themes and Sabicas' own technical ease make this work a splendid gateway to further study of the contents of this album.

Sentimiento gitano casts the siguiriya in a more modem light, and in places foreshadows today's style (see p. 73, staves 1 to 4; or p. 74, staff 3 to p. 75, staff 1). Despite his occasional deliberately spectacular display of brilliance, Sabicas never stooped to pyrotechnics for their own sake. An example can be seen in the falseta on p. 67 staff 1 to p. 68 staff I, a seemingly unceasing cascade of semiquavers. The remate that follows almost comes as a relief, so that the listener, about to beg for mercy, is at last able to draw breath. While the piece is soundly constructed, it is the unstoppable flow of semiquavers that remains in the memory. The flamenco guitar is, after all, so designed that moments of profundity alternate with fireworks, I ight with dark.

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Embrujo de Hue/va is a summary of the Sabicas style. Alongside the lengthy arpeggios so typical of the fandango we find old falsetas (p. 81, staves 2 and 3, or the alzapua finale), an allusion to the danza mora (p. 64), and the quotation of an extract from the Tientos de los Ires rios (p. 86, staves 3 and 4), transposed for the occasion from duple to triple time. The highly developed syncopated form of the refrain already places this work in the contemporary period.

SOUND AND TECHNIQUE

Many pages could be written on the Sabicas sound, pages which could be summed up in the words, "No one has ever made the instrument sound like Sabicas", The power and the percussive effect of his playing, allied with great warmth and finesse, distinguish his performance from that of any other player, and place him even today in the position of maestro. Sabicas' guitar is the most perfect representation of the flamenco sound.

A few techniques that only he used call for a certain amount of explanation.

The rasgueados follow the usual pattern, with the index returning across the strings:

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but in long continuous development passages, the index does not cross back: ~I~I ~i§I~1 ~I§I~I II ~

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this is the case in, for example, the finales of the Zapateado and Sentimiento gitano, as in the introductions to Ole mi Cadiz and Embrujo de Huelva. 1 have, however, not taken this into account in writing out all the rasgueados but rather followed the habitual style of to day's guitarists.

The use of the thumb-index/medial finger opposition (e.g., in La Trinidad, pp. 46 and 47) is substituted for the thumb-annular/medial opposition when there is no melody in the upper voice, but rather a pedal (as in the conclusion to the tremolo in La Trinidad, p, 50, staves 1 and 2). This solution gives greater power and intensity of sound.

The up and down movements of the index finger should be played by the medial and annular fingers ~i together; although for the sake of clarity, this little Sabicas detail is not shown in the score.

The golpe may be performed as the thumb returns, striking the table below the upper strings (Sentimiento gitano, p. 67, staff 4, bar 3).

Damped notes should be muffled with the little finger of the left hand laid lightly across the strings over the fingerboard, in particular the semiquavers alternating with semiquaver rests (Aires de Puerto Real, p. 18, staff 3; and Ole mi Cadiz, p. 62, staff I).

NOTATION

- the notes in brackets are not to be played, but indicate the position for all the fingers of the left hand (with the exception of the harmonics in the Zapateado, see above)

- accidentals apply only to the note next to them, and not to other octaves

- in the unmeasured sections (La Trinidad), accidentals apply to the entire staff.

A.F.