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NAME __________________________________Date _________

BIOL 101 – Principles of Biology, Exam #1. Instructor: Jim Driver

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Fill in your student ID number as directed on the SCANTRON test form. DARKLY
blacken the appropriate circles. Write your name and the date in the space provided.
2. You can keep the exam. You will turn in the scantron but the exam can be a record of
your answers for reference.
3. Choose the SINGLE best answer for each question and darkly blacken the appropriate
circle on the SCANTRON test form. COMPLETELY ERASE ANY STRAY MARKS.
4. Please raise your hand if you have any questions.

1. Lactose, a sugar molecule found in milk is composed of one glucose molecule joined
by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How would you classify lactose?
a. as a pentose
b. as a hexose
c. as a monosaccharide
d. as a disaccharide

2. What type(s) of bond(s) does carbon have a tendency to form?


a. covalent
b. hydrogen
c. ionic
d. a and b only

3. What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble in water?


a. They are hydrophilic
b. They are lighter than water
c. The majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon to hydrogen links
d. The majority of their bonds are polar covalent carbon to hydrogen links

4. The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight
positive charge of another water molecule. This attraction is called
a. a covalent bond
b. a hydrogen bond
c. Van der Waals attraction
d. A hydrophobic bond
5. What would be the pH of a solution with the hydrogen ion [H+] concentration of
10-8 M?
a. pH 4
b. pH 6
c. pH 8
d. pH 10

6. What property of water is responsible for water transport in plants?


a. buffering capacity
b. insulation
c. solvent properties
d. cohesion

7. Which of the following statements is true about buffers in a solution?


a. They maintain a constant pH when bases are added but not when acids are added
b. They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added
c. They maintain a constant pH of 7 in all biological fluids
d. They maintain a constant pH when acids are added but not when bases are added.

8. Why does ice float in water?


a. the liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus support the ice
b. ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat
c. hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the
molecules of liquid water
d. the crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water

9. The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires which of
the following?
a. removal of a water molecule
b. addition of a water molecule
c. formation of an ionic bond
d. formation of a hydrogen bond

10. Which of the following is true for cellulose?


a. it is a storage polysaccharide for energy in plant cells
b. it is a storage polysaccharide for energy in animal cells
c. it is a major structural component of animal cell plasma membranes
d. it is a major structural component of plant cell walls

11. Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because


a. the monomer of starch is a digestible sugar while the monomer of cellulose is not
b. humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha glycosidic bonds of starch but
not the beta glycosidic bonds of cellulose
c. humans harbor bacteria that can digest starch but not cellulose
d. cellulose cannot be broken down by any organism, it is completely indigestible
12. The mass number of an element can be easily approximated by adding together the
number of _________ in an atom of that element.
A) protons and neutrons
B) energy levels
C) protons and electrons
D) neutrons and electrons

13. The reactive properties or chemical behavior of an atom depend on the number of
A) valence shells in the atom.
B) orbitals found in the atom.
C) electrons in each orbital of the atom.
D) electrons in the outer valence shell in the atom.

14. A covalent chemical bond is one in which


A) electrons are removed from one atom and transferred to another atom so
that the two atoms become oppositely charged.
B) protons and neutrons are shared by two atoms so as to satisfy the
requirements of both atoms.
C) outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the
outer electron shells of both atoms.
D) outer-shell electrons of one atom are transferred to the inner electron
shells of another atom.

15. In the double helix structure of nucleic acids, cytosine hydrogen bonds to
A) deoxyribose.
B) ribose.
C) adenine.
D) guanine

16. Which of the following statements best summarizes the structural differences
between DNA and RNA?
A) RNA is a protein, whereas DNA is a nucleic acid.
B) DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.
C) DNA is a protein, whereas RNA is a nucleic acid.
D) RNA is a double helix, but DNA is single-stranded.

17. The ionic bond of sodium chloride is formed when


a. chlorine gains an electron from sodium
b. sodium and chlorine share an electron pair
c. sodium and chlorine both lose electrons from their outer valence shells
d. chlorine gains a neutron from sodium
18. Water's high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the
A) small size of the water molecules.
B) high specific heat of oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
C) absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form.
D) fact that water is a poor heat conductor.
E) inability of water to dissipate heat into dry air.

19. Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are


A) nonpolar substances that repel water molecules.
B) nonpolar substances that have an attraction for water molecules.
C) polar substances that repel water molecules.
D) polar substances that have an affinity for water.
E) charged molecules that hydrogen-bond with water molecules.

20. Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions
[H+]?
A) gastric juice at pH 2
B) vinegar at pH 3
C) tomato juice at pH 4
D) black coffee at pH 5
E) household bleach at pH 12

21. In a neutral solution the concentration of


A) hydrogen ions is greater than the concentration of hydroxide ions.
B) water molecules is less than the concentration of hydrogen ions.
C) hydrogen ions is less than the concentration of hydroxide ions.
D) water molecules is less than the concentration of hydroxide ions.
E) hydrogen ions is equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions

22. We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
A) mass in daltons.
B) mass in grams.
C) number of atoms.
D) volume.

23. Organic chemistry is a science based on the study of


a. inorganic compounds
b. carbon compounds
c. functional groups
d. water and its interactions with other kinds of molecules
Figure 4.1

24. The two molecules shown in Figure 4.1 are best described as
A) structural isomers.
B) enantiomers.
C) optical isomers.
D) geometric isomers.

25. Research suggests that side effects from Ritalin, the drug used to treat attention deficit
disorder, may be caused by contamination of enantiomers, or molecules that
A) have identical three-dimensional shapes.
B) are mirror images of one another.
C) differ in the location of their double bonds.
D) differ in their electrical charge.

26. A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group. Which of
the following statements is true concerning this compound?
A) It should dissolve in a nonpolar solvent
B) It should dissolve in water
C) It won't form hydrogen bonds with water.
D) It is hydrophobic.

27. Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydroxide ions
[OH-]?
A) lemon juice at pH 2
B) vinegar at pH 3
C) tomato juice at pH 4
D) urine at pH 6
E) seawater at pH 8

28. Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
A) ketone and aldehyde
B) carbonyl and carboxyl
C) carboxyl and amino
D) phosphate and sulfhydryl
E) hydroxyl and aldehyde
The following questions refer to the functional groups shown in Figure 4.6.

Figure 4.6

29. Which is a hydroxyl functional group? A

30. Which is an amino functional group? D

31. Which is a carboxyl functional group? C

32. Which is a functional group that helps stabilize proteins by forming covalent cross-
links within or between protein molecules? E

33. Which of the following is not one of the four major groups of macromolecules found
in living organisms?
A) lipids
B) carbohydrates
C) glucose
D) proteins
E) nucleic acids

34. A molecule with the chemical formula C16H32O16 is probably a


A) protein
B) lipid.
C) carbohydrate
D) nucleic acid.
E) hydrocarbon.

35. Which of the following best describes the flow of information in eukaryotic cells?
A) DNA → proteins → RNA
B) RNA → proteins → DNA
C) proteins → DNA → RNA
D) RNA → DNA → proteins
E) DNA → RNA → proteins
Figure 5.1

36. If 128 molecules of the general type shown in Figure 5.1 were covalently joined
together in sequence, the single molecule that would result would be a
A) monosaccharide.
B) polypeptide.
C) polyunsaturated lipid.
D) polysaccharide.
E) disaccharide.

37. What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?


A) peptide bonds
B) hydrogen bonds
C) disulfide bonds
D) ionic bonds

38. Which of the following is (are) true for the class of large biological molecules known
as lipids?
A) They are insoluble in water.
B) They are an important constituent of cell membranes.
C) They can be saturated with hydrogen atoms or unsaturated
D) Only A and B are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

Figure 5.2

39. What is the molecule illustrated in Figure 5.2?


A) a saturated fatty acid
B) an unsaturated fatty acid
C) a polysaccharide
D) a steroid similar to cholesterol
E) a hexose sugar
Figure 5.4
40. What is the structure shown in Figure 5.4?
A) starch molecule
B) protein molecule
C) steroid molecule
D) cellulose molecule
E) phospholipid molecule

41. A polypeptide can best be described as a


A) monomer of a protein polymer.
B) polymer containing 20 amino acid molecules.
C) polymer containing 19 peptide bonds.
D) polymer containing 20 peptide bonds.
E) polymer of amino acids.

42. The 20 different amino acids found in polypeptides exhibit different chemical and
physical properties because of different
A) carboxyl groups attached to an alpha (α) carbon
B) amino groups attached to an alpha (α) carbon
C) side chains (R groups).
D) alpha (α) carbons.

43. Which of the following polymers are both directional and informational?
A) protein
B) glycogen
C) DNA
D) both A and C
E) A, B, and C

44. Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?
A) peptide bonds
B) hydrogen bonds
C) disulfide bonds
D) phosphodiester bonds
E) A, B, and C
45. Which of the following are polysaccharides?
A) glycogen
B) starch
C) chitin
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

46. The R group or side chain of the amino acid serine is –CH2-OH. The R group or side
chain of the amino acid alanine is –CH3. Where would you expect to find these amino
acids in a globular protein in aqueous solution?
A) Serine would be in the interior, and alanine would be on the exterior of the
globular protein.
B) Alanine would be in the interior, and serine would be on the exterior of the
globular protein.
C) Both serine and alanine would be in the interior of the globular protein.
D) Both serine and alanine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.

47. The globular protein transthyretin results from the aggregation of four polypeptide
subunits. Each of the subunits is a polypeptide chain with an α helix region. Which
structure(s) must the transthyretin protein have?
A) primary structure
B) primary and secondary structure
C) primary, secondary, and tertiary structure
D) primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure

48. What would be an unexpected consequence of changing one amino acid in a protein
consisting of 325 amino acids?
A) The primary structure of the protein would be changed.
B) The tertiary structure of the protein might be changed.
C) The biological activity or function of the protein might be altered.
D) Only A and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

49. What is the term used for a change in a protein's three-dimensional shape or
conformation due to disruption of hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, or ionic bonds?
A) hydrolysis
B) stabilization
C) renaturation
D) denaturation

50. What is the term used for a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other
proteins?
A) tertiary protein
B) chaperonin
C) enzyme protein
D) renaturing protein