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Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

Chapter 2:

Journal Bearings

A journal bearing is also known as a bush or a plain bearing. A typical bearing is shown in crosssection in Figure 1.

Bearing

Shaft

Figure 1 Typical plain bearing

Flange type (for thrust loads)

Notes:

• The journal is not necessarily of larger diameter than the shaft and is often the same diameter.

• Journal bearings can be classed into one of two main types, namely pressure lubricated type and non-pressure lubricated type. In the pressure lubricated type, lubricant is pumped into the bearing under pressure; for example as is done in motor vehicle engines. These bearings require complex design procedures and cannot be selected "off-the-shelf' are therefore outside the scope of this data manual.

Usually the journal is made of a hard material with a fme, smooth finish whereas the bearing is made of a dissimilar, soft material with relatively open and porous finish. The bearing material needs to be dissimilar to prevent localised welding and seizure, a soft material to allow embeddability of foreign particles and of a porous and open finish to retain lubricant. Plain bearings are made of many different materials including metals such as bronze (copper-tin alloy) and white-metal (alloys with various combinations oflead-tin-aluminium-antimony-copper). In past times cast iron was often used but is seldom used nowadays.

Plain bearings are also made of non-metals such as nylon, phenolics and PTFE (teflon). The most common lubricants used are oils and greases, but special bearings may use water and even air as a lubricant.

The data presented here is taken from the latest Sintalite Porous Bronze Bearing Catalogue available at the time of this publication. These bearings are manufactured by the powder metallurgy method using pure copper and tin powders. As supplied they are self-lubricated with SAE 20 oil to 30% oil by volume. Under many conditions of operation they require no other lubrication, but in some cases auxiliary lubrication is recommended to prolong bearing life.

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Mechanical Design Data Manual January 2000

Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

The catalogue gives both imperial and metric bearing sizes but only the metric ones have been reproduced here. Information is given on self-aligning bearings which have a spherical outer surface. However these are made in imperial sizes only and hence have not been included in this data manual. The catalogue also gives data on flange bearings which have a flange on one side to take thrust loads.

The formulas, tables and charts in the catalogue are given in imperial units and I have converted these to metric for inclusion in this data manual.

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For good performance, the following factors should be considered:

• Surfacefinisb of the shaft (journal). This should be a fine ground finish and preferably lapped.

• Surface hardness of the shaft. It is recommended that the shaft be made of steel contairring at least 0.35-0.45% carbon, that is, 1040 grade. For heavy duty applications, shaft Should be hardened.

• Grade of lubricant. In general, the higher the viscosity of the lubricantthe longer the life.

However the higher the viscosity, the greater the friction, so high viscosity lubricants should only be used with high loads. In high load applications, bearing life may be extended by cutting a grease groove into the bearing so grease can be pumped into the groo ve. Since the bearings as supplied are impregnated with SAE 20 oil, this would be the normal lubricant used for auxiliary lubrication.

• Heat dissipation. Friction generates heat and causes a rise in temperature of the bearing and lubricant. In tum, this causes a reduction in the viscosity of the lubricating oil and could result in higher wear. Therefore the housing should be designed with heat dissipation in mind. For example, a bearing mounted in a bakelite housing will not dissipate heat as readily as one mounted in an aluminium housing .

• Shock loads. Because of their oil-cushioned operation, Sintalite bearings are capable of operating successfully under conditions of moderate radial shock loads. However excessive prolonged radial shock loads are likely to increase metal-to-metal contact and reduce bearing life. Large out-of-balance forces in rotating members will also reduce bearing life.

• Clearance. The bearings are usually a light press fit in the housing. A shouldered tool is usually used in an arbour press. There should be a running clearance between the journal and the bush. A generalrule-of-thumb is to use a clearance of 111000 of the diameter of the journal. That is, if the journal is 25 mmin diameter, the running clearance would be 0.025 mm.

• Length to diameter ratio (Vd ratio). A good rule-of-thumb is that this ratio should lie in the range 0.5-1.5. If the ratio is too small, bearing pressure will be too high and it will be difficult to retain lubricant and prevent side leakage. If the ratio is too high, friction will be high and assembly misalignment could cause metal-to-metal contact.

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Journal Bearings Chapter 2

Advantages and disadvantages of journal bearings (compared to rolling element bearings)

Some of the advantages are:

• Low cost.

• Quiet operation with little noise.

• Little radial space required.

• High speed capability.

• They can be designed to operate with lubricants other than oil or grease, for example water or even air (dry).

Some of the disadvantages are:

• Relatively low radial load carrying capacity.

• Zero thrust load capability (unless a flange bearing is used and the shaft designed with a step).

• Low misalignment capability (self-aligning types are available in small sizes but these require the misalignment to be taken up between the outer bearing surface and the housing).

• Shaft material and surface finish are critical.

• Large sizes (above 50 mm) are not available off-the-shelf.

In summary, journal bearings are most suitable for applications involving relatively high speed shafts with moderate radial loads and low or zero thrust loads particularly when cost, noise and space are important considerations.

Thick-film lubrication

Imagine a journal bearing with a downward load on the shaft that is initially at rest and then brought up to operating speed. At rest (or at slow shaft speeds), the journal will contact the lower face of the bearing as shown in the Figure 2. This condition is known as boundary lubrication and considerable wear can occur. As shaft speed increases, oil dragged around by the shaft penetrates the gap between the shaft and the bearing so that the shaft begins to "float" on a film of oil. This is the transition region and is known as thin-film lubrication. The journal may occasionally contact the bearing particularly when shock radialload occur. Moderate wear may occur at these times. At high speed, the oil film thickness increases until there comes a point where the journal does not contact the bearing at all. This is known as thick - film lubrication and no wear occurs because t~ere is no contact between the, journal and the bearing.

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At rest (or slo I speed) At high sp ed

Figure 2 Development of thick-film lubrication

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Mechanical Design Data Manual January 2000

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Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

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The sequence of events can be shown on a diagram where the coefficient offriction (or frictional torque) is plotted against shaft speed. Assuming constant load and lubricant viscosity, the graph has the form as shown in Figure 3.

: ~BOUndary lubrication

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Friction Torque

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Figure 3 Frictional torque versus speed

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Friction decreases as metal-to-metal contact diminishes. Once the shaft is floating, increasing the speed increases the friction because fluid friction increases with velocity just as is the case with any type of fluid flow.

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The most desirable operating point is the region around the onset of thick-film lubrication. Below this point wear occurs and above this point, frictional torque is high.

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Theoretical calculation of frictional torque, lubricant temperature and so on is beyond the scope ofthis manual. However, a guide to bearing performance can be obtained by calculating the bearing modulus M which can be defined as:

di

M = J..lv p

Where: J1 = dynamic viscosity of the lubricant (centipoise cp) at the operating temperature

of the bearing

v = linear velocity of the journal (m/s)

p = bearing pressure calculated on the projected area (MPa) Note: 1 cp= 1000 Pa s

A design rule-of- thumb is that the onset of thick-film lubrication occurs at a bearing modulus of 75 (using the units defined above).

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Mechanical Design Data Manual January 2000

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Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

Selection of a Sintalite porous bronze bearing

1. Obtain relevant data including journal (shaft) diameter, running speed and load.

2. For the journal size given go to Table 1 (page 45 or page 46 if non-standard) and choose a suitable bearing length. As a first trial a good assumption is that Ud = 1, that is L= d.

Notes:

• Journal sizes given are listed as both standard and non-standard metric sizes. Standard sizes should be used wherever possible.

• There is no 40 mm size listed for Sintalite bearings, although 40 mrnis a readily-available shaft size.

• Special sizes can be made to order, however large quantities are required to make this economical.

3. Calculate the bearing pressure p:

, F F

P- ---

- -

A d L

Where: p = bearing pressure in 1vJPa F = radial bearing load in N

d = diameter and L = bearing length both in mm

4. Calculate the surface velocity (linear velocity) of the journal 1) (mls) :

d 21l N

v = r to = X ---

2000 60

Where N = rotational ,speed of the journal in rev/min.

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5. From the table below, check the bearing pressure is less than the maximum allowable. If it is

greater, trial a longer bearing length. If at maximum bearing length the pressure is still too high, then the application is not suitable for a porous bronze bearing and a pressure-lubricated plain bearing or a rolling element bearing should be used.

Velocity v mls Maximum pressure p MPa
slow and intermittent 27.5
continuous and < 0.125 13.8
0.25 - 0.5 2.8
0.5 - 0.75 1.9
0.75 - 1.0 1.4
Over 1.0 Refer to Fig; 4 il1@J

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Mechanical Design Data Manual January 2000

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Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

6. Calculate the p v factor for the bearing by multiplying the pressure in :MFa by the surface

velocity in mls. If the p v factor exceed~3· . some form of auxiliary lubrication should

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be used. See Fig. 5 (page 48) for suggested. ethods of auxiliary lubrication.

Not e : If the p v factor exceeds 0.53 by a relative y small amount it may be possible to reduce the p v factor below 0.53 and avoid the need for auxiliary lubrication by increasing the length of the bearing to reduce the pressure.

7. Check the running conditions of the bearing and whether thick-film lubrication will occur by calculating the bearing modulus M (as detailed at the top of page 42). If M is greater than 75, thick-film lubrication is likely. If M is less than 75 consider increasing the lubricant viscosity, or some other factor in order to increase the value of M. If M is very much greater than 75, thick-film lubrication will certainly occur, but friction will be high. In this case consider reducing the viscosity of the lubricant.

Note: Sintalite bearings as supplied are lubricated with SAE 20 oil. This oil has a viscosity of 20 cp at about 6SoC.

8. List the Catalogue Number of the bearing and the relevant design data.

Note: The Sintalite Catalogue Number is based on the inside and outside diameters and length. For example a SMC 202615 has a nominal inside diameter of 20 mm, a nominal outside diameter of 26 mmand a length of 15 mm.

Example

A shaft with diameter 30 mmrotates at 1450 rev/min and carries a radial load of500 N mid-way between the two supporting bearings.

Choose a suitable Sintalite porous bronze bearing and check the likely operating condition of the bearing under continuous running conditions.

Solution

Following the steps in the selection procedure:

1. Load per bearing e 50012 :::: 250 N

2. From Table 1 (page 45), choose 30 mm length (Ud ratio = 1)

3. The bearing pressure p:

F F 250

p = A = d L = 30' 30 =0.278 MPa

4. The surface velocity of the journal '0:

d r 2p N 30 r 2p r 1450

v = rw = 2000 60 = 2000 60 = 2.278ml s

Mechanical Design Dati Manual January 2000

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Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

5. Since the velocity is greater than 1 mis, refer to Figure 4 (page 47). For 30 mm diameter at 1450 rev/min, p max e 0.47 :MPa.

The bearing pressure p calculated at step 3.is 0.278 :MPa. Since this is less than 0.47, the bearing pressure is OK.;"

6. The p v factor is:

0.278 x 2.278 = 0.633

Because this' is greater than 0.53, auxiliary lubrication will be needed.

7. Assuming continuous operation with oil temperature of about 65°C, and oil viscosity of20 cp, the bearing modulus is :

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p

20 X 2.278

= 164 0.278

Since this is considerably greater than 75, thick-film operation is assured.

8. The bearings selected are Sintalite Catalogue Number SMC 303830. Auxiliary lubrication such as a reservoir with felt washer will need to be provided.

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Mechanical Design Data Manual January 2000

Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

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STANDARD METRIC BEARINGS

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

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CYLINDRICAL BEARINGS FLANGE BEARINGS
I nside Diameter Outside Diameter Code Flange Code
Length Number Dia Thickness Number
Nom Actual Nom Actual
" 4.032 8 8.034 4 SMC0408D4 12 2 SMF 1204
4.020 8.019 6 SMC0408D6 SMF 1206
6 6.032 10 10.034 6 SMC061Q06 14 2 SMF 1406
6.020 10.019 10 SMC061010 SMF 1410
8 B.G40 12 12.041 6 SMCD81206 16 2 SMF 1606
8.025 12.023 8 SMC081208 SMF 1608
12 SMC0812t2 SMF 1612
10 10.040 16 16.041 8 SMC 101608 22 3 SMF2208
10.025 16.023 10 SMC 101610 SMF2210
16 SMC 101616 SMF2216
25 SMe 101625 SMF2225
12 12.050 18 18.041 8 SMe 121808 24 3 SMF2408
12.032 18.023 12 SMC 121812 SMF 2412
16 SMC 121816 SMF2416
20 SMe 121820 SMF2420
25 $Me 121825 SMF2425
14 14.050 20 20.049 10 $Me 1421)10 26 3 SMF Z610
14.032 20.028 14 SMC 142014 SMF 2614
20 SMCl42020 SMF2620
30 SMC 142030 SMF2630 .
16 16.050 U 22.049 12 SMC 162212 28 3 SMF 2812
16.032 22.028 16 $Me 162216 SMF 2816
20 SMC 162220 SMF 2820
25 SNlC 162225 SMF282S
3D SMC162230 SMF2830
18 18.050 24 24.049 12 $MC1B2412 30 3 SMF 3012
18.032 24.028 18 SMC 182418 SMF 3018
3D SMC 182430 SMF3030
20 20.061 26 26.049 15 SMC202615 32 3 SMF 3215
20.040 26.028 20 SMC202620 SMF 3220
2S SMC202625 SMF 3225
30 SMC202630 SMF 3230
22 22.061 28 28.049 15 SMC222815 34 3 SMF 3415
22.040 28.028 20 SMC222820 SMF 3420-
25 SMC222825 8MF 3425
30 SMC222830 SMF 3430
2S 25.061 32 32.059 20 SMC253220 39 3.5 SMF 3920
25.040 32,034 25 SMC253225 SMF3925
30 SMC253230 SMF 3930
35 SMC25323S SMF3935
27 27.061 3S 35.059 20 SMC 273520 43 4 SMF4320
27.040 31034 25 SMC 273525 8MF 4325
30 SMC213530 8MF 4330
35 SMC213535 SMF 4335
,
30 30.061 38 38.059 20 SMC303820 46 4 SMF4620
30.040 38.034 25 SMC30382s SMF462&
30 SMC303830 SMF4630
35 SMC303B3S SMF4635
33 33.075 41 41.059 20 SMe 334120 49 4 SMF4920
33.050 41.034 25 SMC334125 SMF4925
30 SMC334130 SMF4930
35 SMC334135 SMF4935
35 35.075 45 45.059 25 SMC354525 55 5 SMF5525
35.050 45.034 35 SMC 354535 SMF5535
40 SMC354540 SMF 5540
39 39.015 49 4~.O59 25 SNic 394925 59 5 SMF 5925
38.050 49.034 35 SMC 394~35 SMF5935
40 SMC 394940 SMF5940
45 45.015 55 55.071 35 SMC455535 65 5 SMF6535
45.050 55.041 50 SMe 455550 SMF6550
55 SMe 455655 SMF B555
150'- r'
50.015 60 60.071 35 SMC 506035 70 5 SMF 7035
50.050 60.041 50 SMC506050 SMF 705() - ..

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Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

NON-STANDARD METRIC CYLINDRICAL BEARINGS

CYLINDRICAL BEARINGS
. Inside Diameter· Outside Diameter I Code
Lenyth i
Nom As:tuSI Nom Actual I Number
i
3 3.018 5 5.098 5 I NSM030505
3.007 5.070 I
5 5.032 8 8.034 10 ! NSM050810
5.020 8.019 15 I NSM050815
10 10.0lI0 14 14.041 16 NSM 101416
10.025 14.023 25 NSM 101425
12 12.050 16 16.041 16 , NSM 121616
12.032 16.023 25 NSM 121625
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15 15.050 19 19.041 20 NSM 151920
15.032 19.023 30 NSM 151930
.20 2O.8:J 28 28.049 ,16 NSM 202816
20. 28.028
22 22.061 27 27.049 20 NSM222720
22.040 27.028 35 NSM222735
25 25.061 30 30.059 25 .NSM253025
25.040 30.034 50 NSM 253050 Mechanical Design Data Mariual January 2000

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Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

3000 4000 5000

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Fig. 4 Maximum bearing pressure as a function of shaft speed

1000

7000

2000

8000

6000

Mechanical Design Data Manual J anuary2000

47

Journal Bearings

Chapter 2

Fig. 5 Suggested methods of auxiliary lubrication

Felt washer

Housing

Screw cap filled with light grease

Housing

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Mechanical Design Data Manual January 2000