Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 139

DESIG OF PROPOSED AUDITORIUM

ACKOWLEDGEMET

We are delighted to express our hearty thanks to our honorable Principal,


Dr.S.Joseph Sekhar, Ph.D for providing facilities to undertake this mini
project work.
We are grateful to Mrs.S.Judes Sujatha, B.E, M.Tech., Head of the
Department, for extending all possible help in the execution of this work.
We are extremely indebted to our internal guide,Mr.A.B.Danie Roy,
M.E., who has suggested this topic, provided all the expertise, facilities and
help in shaping this project into a successful one.
We acknowledge the help rendered by Mr.A.Jinu Antony, Engineer
associated with auditorium design
We also express our thanks to all the staff members of the Civil
Engineering department, for their support.
ABSTRACT

This project deals with the analysis and design of the Auditorium of
St.Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering with special emphasis on Slabs,
Beams, Columns, Footing and Staircase.
Analysis is carried out using Substitute Frame Analysis and
preliminary analysis of Beams is carried out using Moment Distribution
method.
Concrete mix used for the RCC members is M20 and steel used is
high yield strength deformed bars of grade Fe415. Limit State Method is
adopted for the design of all structural members in the building.
Safe bearing capacity of soil is taken as 200kN/m2. Footing is
designed as Isolated type. Plan and detailing of reinforcement are enclosed
in this report.
TABLE OF COTETS

CHAPTER O. TITLE PAGE O.

ABSTRACT
LIST OF SYMBOLS
LIST OF FIGURES

1. ITRODUCTIO
1.1 GENERAL 1
1.2 OBJECTIVES 2
1.3 DESIGN OF RC STRUCTURES 2
1.3.1 LIMIT STATE DESIGN 2
1.4 SLABS 3
1.4.1 CLASSIFICATION OF SLABS 3
1.5 BEAMS 4
1.5.1 DESIGN OF BEAMS 4
1.6 COLUMN 5
1.6.1 SHORT COLUMN 5
1.6.2 SLENDER COLUMN 5
1.6.3 CLASSIFICATION OF COLUM 5
1.7 FOOTING 6
1.7.1 TYPES OF COLUMN FOOTING 6
1.8 STAIRCASE 7
1.8.1 CLASSIFICATION OF STAIRS 7

2. PLAIG OF PROPOSED AUDITORIUM


2.1 LAYOUT OF SITE
2.2 PLANS
2.3 SECTION
2.4 ELEVATION
3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 LIMIT STATE DESIGN
3.2 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR

4 AALYSIS
INTRODUCTION
METHOD OF SUBSTITTE FRAME ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF FRAMES

5 DESIG
SLABS
5.1.1. DESIGN OF SLABS
BEAMS
5.2.1 TYPES OF BEAMS
5.2.2 DESIGN OF L-BEAMS
5.2.3 DESIGN OF T-BEAMS
5.3 STAIRCASE
5.3.1 TYPES OF STAIRS
5.3.2 DESIGN OF DOGLEGGED STAIRCASE
5.4 COLUMN
5.4.1 TYPES OF COLUMN
5.4.2 DESIGN OF COLUMN
5.4.2.1 DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COLUMN
5.4.2.2DESIGN OF UNIAXIALLY LOADED COLUMN
5.4.2.3DESIGN OF BI AXIALLY LOADED COLUMN
5.5 FOOTING
5.5.1 TYPES OF FOOTING
5.5.2 DESIGN OF FOOTING

6 COCLUSIO
REFERECE
LIST OF FIGURES

Serial o. Title Page o.

figure 1 analysis using substitute frame method - frame1 ................... 17


figure 2 analysis using substitute frame method-frame2 ..................... 31
figure 3 analysis using substitute frame method-frame3 ..................... 45
figure 4 analysis using substitute frame method-frame4 ..................... 59
figure 5 reinforcement details of two way slab-section ..................... 105
figure 6 reinforcement details of two way slab- plan ......................... 105
figure 7 reinforcement details of l-beams- longitudinal section ........ 111
figure 8 reinforcement details of l-beams- cross section.................... 111
figure 9 reinforcement details of t-beam-longitudinal design ............ 116
figure 10 cross section of t-beam ......................................................... 116
figure 11 reinforcement details of doglegged staircase........................ 122
figure 12 reinforcement details of axially loaded column ................... 126
figure 13 reinforcement details of uniaxially loaded column .............. 129
figure 14 reinforcement details of biaxially loaded columns ............... 132
figure 15 reinforcement details of axially loaded column ................... 137
LIST OF SYMBOLS

Mx - Moment in shorter direction

My - Moment in shorter direction

d - Effective depth

D - Overall depth

Ast - Area of Steel

P - Load

Wu (or) Pu - Design load

Mu - Design moment

Asc - Area of concrete

fy - Characteristic strength of steel

fck - Characteristic strength of concrete

B.M - Bending Moment


b - Breadth of beam

D - Overall depth

Vus - Strength of shear reinforcement

L - Clear span

Le - Effective span

N.A - Neutral Axis

MF - Modification factor

Q - Angle of repose of soil

M - Modular of rupture

τc - Permissible shear stress in concrete

τv - Nominal shear stress


CHAPTER 1
1. ITRODUCTIO

1.1 GEERAL
Auditorium, Conference hall, Library and Indoor Games are
necessary for an Engineering college. In St.Xavier’s Catholic College of
Engineering, Library, Conference hall are located at different locations and
also there is no special building for Auditorium. This project reports on the
analysis and design of Auditorium, Library and Indoor Games hall in one
separate block.

All structural components for the building such as beams,


columns, slabs, staircase etc are analysed and designed. Isolated footing is
adopted for all columns. Safe bearing capacity is taken as 200kN/m2. The
structure is designed by using limit state method, adopting M20 concrete and
Fe415 HYSD bars.

Site plan, plan showing various floors, section of plan,


elevation of plan and detailing of reinforcements for Beam, Column, Slab,
Staircase and Footing are also enclosed.
OBJECTIVES
2. To analyse the frames in the building.
3. To design the structural components of the five storey building.
4. To prepare the detailed drawing for the design carried out.

1.3 DESIG OF RC STRUCTURES


Reinforced cement concrete members can be designed by the
following methods:
1. Working stress method
2. Limit state method

1.3.1 Limit state design


• Limit state method of design is based on elastic theory.
• Partial safety factors are used in this method to determine the design
loads and design strength of materials from their characteristics
values.
• The design aids to IS:456, published by the bureau of Indian
standards. The design of limit state method is very simple and hence
widely used in practice.
• This method gives economical results when compared with the
conventional working stress method.
1.4 SLABS
• Slabs are primary members of a structure, which support the imposed
load directly on them and transfer the same safety to the supporting
elements such as beams, walls, columns etc.
• A slab is a thin flexural member used in floor and roof of a structure
to support the imposed loads.

1.4.1 Classification of slabs


1.4.1.1Solid slab
1.4.1.2Hollow slab
1.4.1.3Ribbed slab
1.5 BEAM
• A beam has to be generally designed for the actions such as bending
moments, shear forces and twisting moments developed by the lateral
loads.
• The size of the beam is designed considering the maximum moment
in it and generally kept uniform throughout its length.
• IS:456:2000 recommends that the minimum grade of concrete should
not be less than M20 in RC works.

1.5.1 Design of beams


• When there is a Reinforced concrete slab over a concrete beam, then
the beam and the slab can be constructed in such a way that they act
together.
• The combined beam and slab are called as flanged beams. It may be
‘T’ or ‘L’ beams. Here both T-beams and L-beams are designed.
1.6 COLUMS
• Vertical members in compression are called as columns and struts.
• The term column is reserved for member which transfer load to the
ground. Classification of column, depending upon slenderness ratio is
1.6.1Short columns
1.6.2Slender columns

1.6.1 Short column


IS:456:2000 classifies rectangular column as short when the
ratio of effective length(Le) to the least dimension is less than 12.
This ratio is called slenderness ratio of the column.

1.6.2Slender columns
The ratio of Le to the least dimension is less than 12 are called
as slender column.

Classification of column
1. Axially loaded column
2. Eccentrically loaded column
3. Column subjected to axial load and moment
1.7 Footing

• Foundation is the most important component of a structure.


• It should be well planned and carefully designed to ensure the
safety and stability of the structure.
• Foundation provided for RCC columns are called as column base.

1.7.1Types of column base

1. Isolated footing
2. Combined footing
3. Strap footing
4. Solid raft foundation
5. Annular raft foundation
1.8 Staircase
A staircase is a flight of steps leading from one floor to another.
It is provided to afford the means of ascent and descent between various
floors of the building. It should be suitably located in a building. In a
domestic building the stair should be centrally located to provide easy
access to all rooms. In public buildings stairs should be located near the
entrance. In big building there can be more than one stairs. Fire
protection to stairs is important too. Stairs are constructed using timber,
bricks, stone, steel or reinforced cement concrete.

1.8.1Classification of stairs

1. Single flight stairs


2. Quarter turn stairs
3. Dog legged stairs
4. Open well type stairs
5. Biffurcated stairs
6. Circular stairs
7. Spiral stairs
CHAPTER 3
3.METHODOLOGY
Various methods are available for the design of a
structure. Limit state method is adopted in this project.

3.1 Limit state design


The acceptable limit for safety and serviceability requirement
before failure occur is called limit state. The aim of design is to achieve
acceptable probabilities that the structure will not become unfit for use.
All relevant limit state shall be considered in the design to ensure
adequate degree of safety and serviceability.

3.2Partial safety factor


The value of load which has a 95% probability of a structure of
structural member for the limit state of collapse the following values
of partial safety factor is applied for limit state of collapse.
Ym = 1.5 for concrete
Ym = 1.15 for steel
CHAPTER 4
4 AALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
A multistoried frame is a complicated statically
indeterminate structure. The analysis by moment distribution method is
very lengthy and difficult. Hence substitute frame analysis is adopted
for better and easier calculation.

4.2 Method of substitute frames


In this method only a part of the frame is
considered for the analysis. The part considered is called as substitute
frame. The moments for each floor are separately computed. It is
assumed that the moments transferred from one floor to another are
small. Each floor is taken as connected to columns above and below
with their far ends fixed. The frame taken this way is analysed for the
moments and shears in the beams and columns.
The column will carry the maximum bending moment when
any one series of alternate spans should be loaded. The moment
distribution for the substitute frame analysis is performed only for two
cycles and hence, the method is sometimes referred to as, the two cycle
method.
When it is required to find the maximum negative
moment at a joint, the spans meeting at the joint are loaded with dead
and live load. The other spans are loaded with dead load alone.
4.3AALYSIS OF FRAMES

A B C D E F G

FRAME 1

Figure 1-Analysis using substitute frame method - frame1


4.3.1DISTRIBUTIO FACTOR

Joint Member Relative stiffness Total stiffness Stiffness for each member
AB I/3.2 0.38
A A1 I/4 0.8125I 0.31
A2 I/4 0.31
BA I/3.2 0.28
B BC I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
B1 I/4 0.22
B2 I/4 0.22
CB I/3.2 0.32
C CD I/6.4 0.9688I 0.16
C1 I/4 0.26
C2 I/4 0.26
DC I/6.4 0.32
D DE I/6.4 0.8125I 0.32
D1 I/4 0.31
D2 I/4 0.31
ED I/6.4 0.32
E EF I/6.4 0.8125I 0.32
E1 I/4 0.31
E2 I/4 0.31
FE I/6.4 0.32
F FG I/6.4 0.8125 I 0.32
F1 I/4 0.31
F2 I/4 0.31
GF I/6.4 0.24
G G1 I/4 0.656I 0.38
G2 I/4 0.38
4.3.2 LOAD CALCLATIO
Beam name AB BC CD DE EF FG
DL kN / m2 8.25 8.25 8.25 8.25 8.25 8.25
LL kN/m2 15 15 15 15 15 15
Area m2 2.56 2.56 7.99 7.99 7.99 7.99
Length m 3.2 3.2 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4
Total DL 6.6 6.6 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3
kN/ m
Total LL 12 12 18.73 18.73 18.73 18.73
kN /m
Dead load 3.375 3.375 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5
due to rib
kN/m2
Total DL 14.975 14.975 17.23 17.23 17.23 17.23
kN/m2
Total load 26.975 26.975 35.96 35.96 35.96 35.96
kN/m2

4.3.3 MOMET CALCULATIO AT JOITS

JOINT-A

joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC DE
DF 0.38 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.32 0.32

FEM due to -12.78


DL
FEM due to -23.02 +23.02
LL
Distribution -1.4336
+ Carryover

Distribution -24.45
9.29
Net BM due -15.16
to A
JOINT-B

joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC DE
DF 0.38 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.32 0.32

FEM due to -58.81


DL
FEM due to -23.02 +23.02 -23.02 +23.02
LL
Distribution 4.37 5.726
+ Carryover
Distribution 27.39 -17.294
-2.827 -2.827
Net BM due 24.563 -20.121
to A

JOINT-C
joint B C D E
Member BA BC CB CD DC DE ED EF
DF 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
FEM due 12.78 -58.81
to DL
FEM due -122.74 +122.74 -122.74 122.74
to LL
Distributio 15.39 -10.23
n+
Carryover
Distributio 138.13 -132.97
n -1.6512 -0.8256

Net BM 136.48 -133.8


due to A
JOINT-D

joint B C D E
Member BA BC CB CD DC DE ED EF
DF 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
FEM due 12.78 -58.81
to DL
FEM due -122.74 +122.74 -122.74 122.74
to LL
Distributi 8.8 -10.23
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 131.54 -132.97
on 0.46 0.46
Net BM 132 -132.51
due to A

JOINT-E
joint D E F G
Member DC DE ED EF FE FG GF
DF 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.24

FEM due +58.81 -58.81


to DL
FEM due -122.74 122.74 -122.74 122.74
to LL

Distributi 10.23 -10.23


on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 132.97 -132.97
on 0 0
Net BM 132.97 -132.97
due to A
JOINT-F
joint D E F G
Member DC DE ED EF FE FG GF
DF 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.24

FEM due 58.81


to DL
FEM due -122.74 122.74 -122.74 122.74
to LL

Distributi 10.23 -14.73


on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 132.9 -132.97
on 1.44 1.44
Net BM 134.41 -136.03
due to A

JOINT-G
joint D E F G
Member DC DE ED EF FE FG GF
DF 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.24

FEM due 58.81


to DL
FEM due -122.74 122.74
to LL

Distributi 10.23
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 132.97
on -31.91
Net BM 101.06
due to A
MID SPAN MOMENT AB
joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC DE
DF 0.38 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.32 0.32
FEM due to -12.78 12.78
DL
FEM due to -23.02 23.02 -122.74 122.74
TL
distribution 8.75 -2.87 35.18
moment
carry over -1.435 4.375 17.59
moment
distribtion 0.545 -6.15

Net moment -15.16 +18.375

Free BM at the centre of the span AB


= Wl2/8
=(26.975 * 3.22) / 8
=34.53 kNm

Net BM at centre of span AB


=34.53-[ (15.16+18.375) / 2]
=17.76 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT OF BC

joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC DE
DF 0.38 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.32 0.32
FEM due to -12.78 12.78 -58.81 58.81
DL
FEM due to -23.02 23.02 -122.74
TL
distribution 4.86 -2.87 11.45 20.46
moment
carry over 2.43 -5.73 -1.43 10.23
moment
distribtion 0.924 -2.816

Net moment -30.696 30.224

Free BM at the centre of the span BC


= Wl2/8
=(26.975 * 3.22) / 8
=34.53 kNm

Net BM at centre of span BC


=34.53-[ (30.696+30.224) / 2]
=4.07 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT CD
Joint B C D E
member BA BC CB CD DC DE ED EF
DF 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
FEM due -12.78 12.78 -58.81 58.81
to DL
FEM due 23.02 -122.74 122.74 -122.74
to TL
distributio -2.86 17.59 -20.46 20.46
n
moment
carry -1.43 -10.23 8.795 10.23
over
moment
distributio 1.86 -6.088
n
Net -95.923 104.99
moment

Free BM at the centre of the span CD


= Wl2/8
=(35.96 * 6.42) / 8
=184.12 kNm

Net BM at centre of span CD


=184.12-[ (95.92+104.99) / 2]
=83.66 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT DE
Joint B C D E
member BA BC CB CD DC DE ED EF
DF 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
FEM due -58.81 58.81 -58.81 58.81
to DL
FEM due 122.74 -122.74 122.74 -122.74
to TL
distributio -20.46 -20.46 20.46 -20.46 20.46
n
moment

carry -10.23 -10.23 10.23 10.23


over
moment
distribtion 6.54 -6.54

Net -105.97 105.97


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span DE


= Wl2/8
=(35.96 * 6.42) / 8
=184.12 kNm

Net BM at centre of span DE


=184.12-[ (105.97+105.97) / 2]
=78.14 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT EF
joint C D E G
Member DC DE ED EF FE FG GF
DF 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.24
FEM due -58.81 58.81 -58.81 58.81
to DL
FEM due 122.74 -122.74 122.74
to TL
distributio -20.46 20.46 -20.46 -14.11
n moment
carry over -10.23 -10.23 10.23 -7.1
moment
Distribtion 6.55 -1.001

Net -105.96 111.51


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span EF


= Wl2/8
=(35.96 * 6.42) / 8
=184.12 kNm

Net BM at centre of span EF


=184.12-[ (105.97+111.51) / 2]
=75.4 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT FG
joint D E F G
Member DC DE ED EF FE FG GF
DF 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.24
FEM due -58.81 58.81
to DL
FEM due 122.74 -122.74 122.74
to TL
distributio -20.46 20.46 -29.46
n moment
carry over -10.23 -14.73 10.23
moment
distribtion 7.98 -2.455

Net -109.03 101 05


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span FG


= Wl2/8
=(35.96 * 6.42) / 8
=184.12 kNm

Net BM at centre of span FG


=184.12-[ (109.03+101.05) / 2]
=79.08 kNm
NEGETIVE MOMENT AT CENTRE OF DE
Joint C D E F
member CB CD DC DE ED EF FE FG
DF 0.32 0.16 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
FEM due 12.78 -58.81 58.81 -58.81
to DL
FEM due -122.74 122.74 -122.74 122.74
to TL
distributio 17.59 -20.46 -20.46 20.46 20.46 -20.46
n
moment
carry 8.795 10.23 -10.23 -10.23
over
moment
distribtion -6.08 6.55

Net -75.12 75.59


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span DE


= Wl2/8
=(17.23 * 6.42) / 8
=88.21 kNm

Net BM at centre of span DE


=88.21-[ (75.12+75.59) / 2]
=12.86 kNm
4.3.4 BENDING MOMENT IN COLUMN LOADING
joint A B C D E F G
Column DF
Above floor 0.31 0.22 0.26 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.38
Below floor 0.31 0.22 0.26 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.38
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC DE ED EF FE FG GF
DF 0.38 0.28 0.25 0.32 0.16 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.24
FEM due to -12.8 12. 8 -58.8 58.8 -58.8 58.8
DL
FEM due TL -23.02 23.02 -122.7 122.7 -122.7 122.7
Distribution+ -1.435 4.37 17.59 -1.28 -6.07 8.79 6.07 -6.07 -6.07 6.07 -7.06 6.07
carryover
Total -24.45 27.39 4.81 11.5 -128.8 131.53 -52.7 52.74 -128.8 128.81 -65.9 64.88
Distribution
to column
7.58 7.084 30.5 -23.64 22.82 -18.882 24.65
Above floor
Distribution
to column
7.58 7.084 30.5 -23.64 22.82 -18.882 24.65
below floor

Joint A B C D E F G
Column DF
Above floor 0.31 0.22 0.26 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.38
Below floor 0.31 0.22 0.26 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.38
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC DE ED EF FE FG GF
DF 0.38 0.28 0.25 0.32 0.16 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.24
FEM due to -12.8 12. 8 -58.8 58.8 -58.8 58.81
DL
FEM due TL - 23.02 -122.7 122.7 -122.7 122.7
23.02
Distribution+ 1.43 2.43 5.73 1.28 -6.07 2.86 -6.07 6.07 6.07 -6.07 -14.73 6.07
carryover
Total -11.4 15.21 -17.3 24.3 -64.9 61.7 -128.8 128.8 -52.7 52.7 -137.5 128.8
Distribution
to column
3.52 0.46 10.55 20.14 22.82 25.42 -48.9
Above floor
Distribution
to column
3.52 0.46 10.55 20.14 22.82 25.42 -48.9
below floor
H I J K L M N

FRAME 2

Figure 2-Analysis using substitute frame method-frame2


4.3.5 DISTRIBUTIO FACTOR

Joint Member Relative stiffness Total stiffness Stiffness for each member
HI I/3.72 0.35
H H1 I/4 0.769I 0.33
H2 I/4 0.33
IH I/3.72 0.26
I IJ I/3.55 1.05I 0.27
I1 I/4 0.24
I2 I/4 0.24
JI I/3.55 0.3
J JK I/6.33 0.94I 0.17
J1 I/4 0.27
J2 I/4 0.27
KJ I/6.33 0.2
K KL I/6.43 0.81I 0.19
K1 I/4 0.31
K2 I/4 0.31
LK I/6.43 0.17
L LM I/3.55 0.937I 0.3
L1 I/4 0.27
L2 I/4 0.27
ML I/3.55 0.27
M MN I/3.72 1.05 I 0.26
M1 I/4 0.24
M2 I/4 0.24
NM I/3.72 0.35
N N1 I/4 0.769I 0.33
N2 I/4 0.33
4.3. 6 LOAD CALCLATIO

Beam name HI IJ JK KL LM MN
DL kN / m2 8.25 8.25 8.25 8.25 8.25 8.25
LL kN/m2 15 15 15 15 15 15
Area m2 6.784 6.24 20.04 20.672 6.24 6.784
Length m 3.72 3.55 6.33 6.43 3.55 3.72
Total DL 15.045 14.5 26.12 26.52 14.5 15.045
kN/ m
Total LL 27.35 26.37 47.49 48.22 26.37 27.35
kN /m
Dead load 3.375 3.375 4.5 4.5 3.375 3.375
due to rib
kN/m2
Total DL 18.42 17.875 30.62 31.02 17.875 18.42
kN/m2
Total load 45.77 44.245 78.11 79.24 44.245 45.77
kN/m2

4.3.7 MOMET CALCULATIO AT JOITS

JOINT-H

joint H I J K
Member HI IH IJ JI JK KJ KL
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.2 0.19

FEM due to -18.77


DL
FEM due to -52.78 +52.78
LL
Distribution -4.42
+ Carryover

Distribution -57.2
20.02
Net BM due -37.18
to H
JOINT-I

joint H I J K
Member HI IH IJ JI JK KJ KL
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.2 0.19

FEM due to -102.24


DL
FEM due to -52.78 +52.78 -46.47 46.47
LL
Distribution 9.237 8.366
+ Carryover
Distribution 62.02 -38.104
-6.22 -6.46
Net BM due 55.8 -44.564
to I

JOINT-J
joint I J K L
Member IH IJ JI JK KJ KL LK LM
DF 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3
FEM due 102.24 -102.24
to DL
FEM due -46.47 46.47 -260.81 260.81
to LL
Distributio -7.53 -15.39
n+
Carryover
Distributio 38.94 -276.2
n 71.18 40.33

Net BM 110.12 -235.87


due to J
JOINT-K
joint I J K L
Member IH IJ JI JK KJ KL LK LM
DF 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3
FEM due 18.77 -58.81
to DL
FEM due -260.81 260.81 -273.01 273.01
to LL
Distributi 20.57 -21.61
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 281.38 -294.62
on 2.648 2.516
Net BM 284.03 -292.10
due to K

JOINT-L
joint K L M N
Member KJ KL LK LM ML MN NM
DF 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35

FEM due +102.2 -21.24


to DL 4
FEM due -273.01 273.01 -46.47 46.47
to LL

Distributi 16.22 -3.41


on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 298.23 -49.88
on -40.67 -71.77
Net BM 248.56 -121.65
due to L
JOINT-M
joint K L M N
Member KJ KL LK LM ML MN NM
DF 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35

FEM due 106.88


to DL
FEM due -46.47 46.47 -52.78 52.78
to LL

Distributi -9.06 -15.83


on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.41 -68.61
on 8.424 8.112
Net BM 45.834 -60.5
due to M

JOINT-N
joint K L M N
Member KJ KL LK LM ML MN NM
DF 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35

FEM due to 18.77


DL
FEM due to -52.78 52.78
LL

Distribution 4.42
+ Carryover

Distribution 57.2
-17.16
Net BM due 40.04
to N
MID SPAN MOMENT HI
joint H I J K
Member HI IH IJ JI JK KJ KL
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.2 0.19
FEM due to -18.77 18.77
DL
FEM due to -52.78 52.78 -260.81 260.81
TL
distribution 18.47 -8.99 72.6
moment
carry over -4.495 9.235 36.3
moment
distribution 1.573 -11.84

Net moment -37.23 41.18

Free BM at the centre of the span HI


= Wl2/8
=(45.77 * 3.722) / 8
=79.2 kNm

Net BM at centre of span HI


=79.2-[ (37.23+41.18) / 2]
=39.995 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT OF IJ

joint H I J K
Member HI IH IJ JI JK KJ KL
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.2 0.19
FEM due to -102.24 102.24 -102.24 102.24
DL
FEM due to -46.47 46.47 -273.01
TL
distribution 35.78 -15.06 16.73 34.15
moment
carry over 17.89 8.36 -7.53 17.1
moment
distribution -7.09 -2.87

Net moment -60.26 52.8

Free BM at the centre of the span IJ


= Wl2/8
=(44.245 * 3.552) / 8
=69.699 kNm

Net BM at centre of span IJ


=69.7-[ (60.26+52.8) / 2]
=13.2 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT JK
Joint I J K L
member IH IJ JI JK KJ KL LK LM
DF 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3
FEM due -18.77 18.77 -106.9 106.9
to DL
FEM due 52.78 -260.81 260.81 -46.47
to TL
distribution -9.18 41.15 -30.79 -10.27
moment

carry over -4.59 -15.4 20.6 -5.135


moment
distribution 3.4 -3.1

Net -231.66 247.52


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span JK


= Wl2/8
=(78.11 * 6.332) / 8
=391.22 kNm

Net BM at centre of span JK


=391.22-[ (231.7+247.52) / 2]
=151.63 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT KL
Joint I J K L
member IH IJ JI JK KJ KL LK LM
DF 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3
FEM due -102.24 102.24 -18.77 18.77
to DL
FEM due 46.47 -273.01 273.01 -52.78
to TL
distribution 9.48 34.15 -43.22 9.18
moment

carry over 4.74 -21.61 17.07 4.59


moment
distribution 3.21 -3.68

Net -257.26 243.18


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span KL


= Wl2/8
=(79.24 * 6.432) / 8
=409.52 kNm

Net BM at centre of span KL


=409.52-[ (257.26+243.18) / 2]
=159.3 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT LM
joint K L M N
Member KJ KL LK LM ML MN NM
DF 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35
FEM due -106.88 106.88 -21.24 21.24
to DL
FEM due 260.81 -46.47 46.47
to TL
distribution -29.25 -18.123 -6.812 -7.434
moment
carry over -14.63 -3.41 -9.06 -3.717
moment
Distribution 5.412 3.45

Net -62.591 34.05


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span LM


= Wl2/8
=(44.25* 3.552) / 8
=69.71 kNm

Net BM at centre of span LM


=69.71-[ (62.59+34.05) / 2]
=21.39 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT MN
joint K L M N
Member KJ KL LK LM ML MN NM
DF 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35
FEM due to -18.77 18.77
DL
FEM due to 273.01 -52.78 52.78
TL
distribution -76.3 8.843 -18.5
moment
carry over -38.15 -9.25 4.42
moment
distribution 12.32 -1.55

Net -40.87 37.15


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span MN


= Wl2/8
=(45.77 * 3.722) / 8
=79.2 kNm

Net BM at centre of span MN


=79.2-[ (40.87+37.15) / 2]
=40.19kNm
NEGETIVE MOMENT AT CENTRE OF KL
Joint J K L M
member JI JK KJ KL LK LM ML MN
DF 0.3 0.17 0.2 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26
FEM due 18.77 -106.9 106.9 -21.24
to DL
FEM due -260.81 260.81 -41.47 41.47
to TL
distributio 41.15 -30.79 -29.25 -10.27 -18.12 -6.81
n
moment
carry 20.6 -9.06 -15.4 -3.4
over
moment
distribtion -2.19 3.2

Net -147.4 84.41


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span KL


= Wl2/8
=(31.02 * 6.432) / 8
=160.31 kNm

Net BM at centre of span KL


=160.31-[ (147.4+84.41) / 2]
=44.61 kNm
4.3.8 BENDING MOMENT IN COLUMN LOADING

joint H I J K L M N
Column DF
Above floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Below floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Member HI IH IJ JI JK KJ KL LK LM ML MN NM
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35
FEM due to -18.8 18.8 -106.9 106.9 -21.24 21.24
DL
FEM due TL -52.78 52.78 -260.8 260.8 -46.5 46.5
Distribution+ -4.421 9.24 36.31 -4.56 -14.62 20.57 -5.13 -14.6 -3.41 -9.06 -3.72 -3.28
carryover
Total -57.2 62.02 17.51 14.18 -275.4 281.4 -112.0 92.26 -49.9 37.41 -24.96 17.96
Distribution
to column
18.88 -19.09 70.54 -52.50 -11.44 -2.988 -5.93
Above floor
Distribution
to column
18.88 -19.09 70.54 -52.50 -11.44 -2.988 -5.93
below floor

joint H I J K L M N
Column DF
Above floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Below floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Member HI IH IJ JI JK KJ KL LK LM ML MN NM
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35
FEM due to -21.24 21.24 - 102.2 -18.77 18.77
DL 102.24 4
FEM due TL -46.5 46.5 -273 273 -52.78 52.78
Distribution+ 3.28 3.72 8.37 3.41 16.22 4.74 -21.61 16.22 4.59 -38.2 -9.24 4.42
carryover
Total -17.96 24.96 -38.1 49.88 -86.02 106.9 -294.6 289.2 -14.18 -19.4 -62.02 57.2
Distribution
to column
5.93 3.15 9.76 58.17 -74.26 19.53 -18.9
Above floor
Distribution
to column
5.93 3.15 9.76 58.17 -74.26 19.53 -18.9
below floor
O P Q R S T U

FRAME 3

Figure 3-Analysis using substitute frame method-frame3

4.3.9 DISTRIBUTIO FACTOR


Joint Member Relative stiffness Total stiffness Stiffness for each member
OP I/3.72 0.35
O O1 I/4 0.769I 0.33
O2 I/4 0.33
PO I/3.72 0.26
P PQ I/3.55 1.05I 0.27
P1 I/4 0.24
P2 I/4 0.24
QP I/3.55 0.3
Q QR I/6.33 0.94I 0.17
Q1 I/4 0.27
Q2 I/4 0.27
RQ I/6.33 0.19
R RS I/6.43 0.81I 0.19
R1 I/4 0.31
R2 I/4 0.31
SR I/6.43 0.17
S ST I/3.55 0.937I 0.3
S1 I/4 0.27
S2 I/4 0.27
TS I/3.55 0.27
T TU I/3.72 1.05 I 0.26
T1 I/4 0.24
T2 I/4 0.24
UT I/3.72 0.35
U U1 I/4 0.769I 0.33
U2 I/4 0.33

4.3.10 LOAD CALCLATIO


Beam name OP PQ QR RS ST TU
DL KN / m2 18.27 8.25 8.25 8.25 8.25 18.27
LL KN/m2 3 15 15 15 15 3
Area m2 8.228 6.095 15.39 15.8 6.095 8.228
Length m 3.72 3.55 6.33 6.43 3.55 3.72
Total DL 40.41 14.16 20.06 20.27 14.16 40.41
KN/ m
Total LL 6.64 25.75 36.47 36.86 25.75 6.64
KN /m
Dead load 3.375 3.375 4.5 4.5 3.375 3.375
due to rib
KN/m2
Total DL 48.085 22.045 27 27.19 22.045 48.085
KN/m2
Total load 54.725 47.795 63.46 64.05 47.795 54.725
KN/m2

4
.3.11 MOMET CALCULATIO AT JOITS

JOINT-O

joint O P Q R
Member OP PO PQ QP QR RQ RS
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19

FEM due to -23.15


DL
FEM due to -63.12 +63.12
LL
Distribution -5.2
+ Carryover

Distribution -68.32
23.912
Net BM due -44.41
to O
JOINT-P

joint O P Q R
Member OP PO PQ QP QR RQ RS
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19

FEM due to -90.16


DL
FEM due to -63.12 +63.12 -50.19 50.19
LL
Distribution 11.046 5.996
+ Carryover
Distribution 74.166 -44.194
-7.79 -8.09
Net BM due 66.376 -52.284
to P

JOINT-Q

joint O P Q R
Member OP PO PQ QP QR RQ RS
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19

FEM due to 55.45 -93.68


DL
FEM due to -50.19 50.19 -211.9 211.9
LL
Distribution -0.71 -11.23
+ Carryover
Distribution 49.48 -223.13
52.095 29.521
Net BM due 101.575 -193.61
to Q
JOINT-R
joint Q R S T
Member QP QR RQ RS SR ST TS TU
DF 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26
FEM due 23.15 -23.15
to DL
FEM due -211.9 211.9 -220.68 +220.68
to LL
Distributio 16.04 -16.79
n+
Carryover
Distributio 227.944 -237.47
n 1.81 1.81

Net BM 229.754 -235.66


due to R

JOINT-S
joint Q R S T
Member QP QR RQ RS SR ST TS TU
DF 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26
FEM due 90.16 -55.45
to DL
FEM due -220.68 +220.68 -50.19 50.19
to LL
Distributio 12.4 0.71
n+
Carryover
Distributio 233.08 -49.48
n -31.212 -55.08

Net BM 201.87 -104.56


due to S
JOINT-T
joint R S T U
Member RQ RS SR ST TS TU UT
DF 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35

FEM due 93.68


to DL
FEM due -50.19 50.19 -63.12 63.12
to LL

Distributi -13.05 -11.05


on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.14 -74.17
on 9.99 9.63
Net BM 47.13 -64.54
due to T

JOINT U
joint R S T U
Member RQ RS SR ST TS TU UT
DF 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35

FEM due 23.15


to DL
FEM due -63.12 63.12
to LL

Distributi 5.2
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 68.32
on -23.912
Net BM 44.41
due to U
MID SPAN MOMENT OP
joint O P Q R
Member OP PO PQ QP QR RQ RS
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19
FEM due to -23.15 23.15
DL
FEM due to -63.12 63.12 -211.9 211.9
TL
distribution 22.1 -10.39 56.6
moment
carry over -5.195 11.05 28.3
moment
distribution 1.818 -10.23

Net moment -44.4 53.55

Free BM at the centre of the span OP


= Wl2/8
=(54.725 * 3.722) / 8
=94.66 kNm

Net BM at centre of span OP


=94.66-[ (44.4+53.55) / 2]
=45.68 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT OF PQ

joint O P Q R
Member OP PO PQ QP QR RQ RS
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19
FEM due to -55.45 55.45 -90.16 90.16
DL
FEM due to -50.19 50.19 -220.68
TL
distribution 19.41 -1.42 11.99 20.46
moment
carry over 9.71 5.99 -0.71 12.35
moment
distribution -4.24 -3.5

Net moment -49.86 57.97

Free BM at the centre of the span PQ


= Wl2/8
=(47.79 * 3.552) / 8
=75.3 kNm

Net BM at centre of span PQ


=75.3-[ (49.86+57.97) / 2]
=21.4 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT QR
Joint P Q R S
member PO PQ QP QR RQ RS SR ST
DF 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3
FEM due -23.15 23.15 -93.68 93.68
to DL
FEM due 63.12 -211.9 211.9 -50.19
to TL
distributio -10.79 32.1 -22.46 -7.4
n
moment
carry -5.4 -11.23 16.05 -3.7
over
moment
distributio 2.83 -2.35
n
Net -188.2 203.14
moment

Free BM at the centre of the span QR


= Wl2/8
=(63.46 * 6.332) / 8
=317.85 KNm

Net BM at centre of span QR


=317.85-[ (188.2+203.14) / 2]
=122.18 KNm
MID SPAN MOMENT RS
Joint Q R S T
member QP QR RQ RS SR ST TS TU
DF 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26
FEM due -90.16 90.16 -23.15 23.15
to DL
FEM due 50.19 -220.68 220.68 -63.12
to TL
distributio 6.8 24.8 -33.58 10.8
n moment
carry over 3.4 -16.79 12.4 5.4
moment
distributio 2.54 -3.03
n
Net -210.13 196.25
moment

Free BM at the centre of the span RS


= Wl2/8
=(64.05 * 6.432) / 8
=331.02 KNm

Net BM at centre of span RS


=331.02-[ (210.13+196.25) / 2]
=127.8 KNm
MID SPAN MOMENT ST
joint R S T U
Member RQ RS SR ST TS TU UT

DF 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35


FEM due to -93.68 93.68 -55.45 55.45
DL
FEM due to 211.9 -50.19 50.19
TL
distribution -22.46 13.05 1.42 -19.41
moment
carry over -11.23 0.71 6.53 -9.71
moment
Distribution 3.16 0.86

Net -33.27 59
moment

Free BM at the centre of the span ST


= Wl2/8
=(47.79 * 3.552) / 8
=75.3 kNm

Net BM at centre of span ST


=75.3-[ (33.27+59) / 2]
=29.17 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT TU
joint R S T U
Member RQ RS SR ST TS TU UT

DF 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35


FEM due -23.15 23.15
to DL
FEM due 220.68 -63.12 63.12
to TL
distribution -59.3 10.39 -22.1
moment
carry over -29.65 -11.05 5.2
moment
distribution 10.6 -1.82

Net -53.18 44.4


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span TU


= Wl2/8
=(54.725 * 3.72) / 8
=94.66 kNm

Net BM at centre of span TU


=94.66-[ (53.18+44.4) / 2]
=45.87 kNm
NEGETIVE MOMENT AT CENTRE OF RS
Joint Q R S T
member QP QR RQ RS SR ST TS TU
DF 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26
FEM due 23.15 -93.68 93.68 -55.45
to DL
FEM due -211.9 211.9 -50.19 50.19
to TL
distributio 32.1 -22.46 22.46 -7.4 -13.05 1.42
n
moment
carry -16.05 -3.7 -11.24 0.71
over
moment
Distributi -2.45 1.79
on
Net -122.29 76.83
moment

Free BM at the centre of the span RS


= Wl2/8
=(27.19 * 6.432) / 8
=140.521 kNm

Net BM at centre of span RS


=140.521-[ (122.29+76.83) / 2]
=40.96 kNm
4.3.12 BENDING MOMENT IN COLUMN LOADING

joint O P Q R S T U
Column DF
Above floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Below floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Member OP PO PQ QP QR RQ RS SR ST TS TU UT
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35
FEM due to -23.2 23.2 -93.68 93.68 -55.45 55.45
DL
FEM due TL -63.12 63.12 -211.9 211.9 -50.19 50.19
Distribution+ -5.2 11.05 28.31 -5.4 -11.23 16.04 -3.7 -11.2 0.71 -6.52 -9.7 0.68
carryover
Total -68.32 74.17 -5.16 17.75 -223.1 227.9 -97.38 82.45 -49.48 43.67 -65.15 56.13
Distribution
to column
22.55 -16.56 55.45 -40.47 -8.9 5.15 -18.5
Above floor
Distribution
to column
22.55 -16.56 55.45 -40.47 -8.9 5.15 -18.5
below floor

joint O P Q R S T U
Column DF
Above floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Below floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Member OP PO PQ QP QR RQ RS SR ST TS TU UT
DF 0.35 0.26 0.27 0.3 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.3 0.27 0.26 0.35
FEM due to -55.45 55.45 -90.16 90.16 -23.2 23.2
DL
FEM due TL -50.2 50.2 -220.7 220.7 -63.12 63.12
Distribution+ -0.68 9.7 5.6 -0.71 12.4 3.4 -16.79 12.4 5.4 -29.6 -11.05 5.2
carryover
Total -56.13 65.15 -44.2 49.48 -77.76 93.56 -237.5 233.1 -17.75 -6.48 -74.17 68.32
Distribution
to column
18.52 -5.03 7.63 44.61 -58.14 19.36 -22.6
Above floor
Distribution
to column
18.52 -5.03 7.63 44.61 -58.14 19.36 -22.6
below floor
A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 H1 I1 J1 K1 L1 M1 N1 O1 P1 Q1 R1 S1 T1 U1

FRAME 4

Figure 4-Analysis using substitute frame method-frame4


4.3.13 DISTRIBUTIO FACTOR

Joint Member Relative stiffness Total stiffness Stiffness for each member
A1B1 I/3.2 0.38
A1 A11 I/4 0.8125I 0.31
A12 I/4 0.31
B1A1 I/3.2 0.28
B1 B1C1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
B11 I/4 0.22
B12 I/4 0.22
C1B1 I/3.2 0.28
C1 C1D1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
C1 1 I/4 0.22
C1 2 I/4 0.22
D1C1 I/3.2 0.28
D1 D1E1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
D11 I/4 0.22
D12 I/4 0.22
E1D1 I/3.2 0.28
E1 E1F1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
E1 1 I/4 0.22
E1 2 I/4 0.22
F1E1 I/3.2 0.28
F1 F1G1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
F11 I/4 0.22
F12 I/4 0.22
G1F1 I/3.2 0.28
G1 G1H1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
G11 I/4 0.22
G12 I/4 0.22
H1G1 I/3.2 0.28
H1 H1I1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
H11 I/4 0.22
H12 I/4 0.22
I1H1 I/3.2 0.28
I1 I1J1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
I11 I/4 0.22
I12 I/4 0.22
J1I1 I/3.2 0.28
J1 J1K1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
J1 1 I/4 0.22
J1 2 I/4 0.22
K1J1 I/3.2 0.28
K1 K1L1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
K11 I/4 0.22
K12 I/4 0.22
L1K1 I/3.2 0.28
L1 L1M1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
L11 I/4 0.22
L12 I/4 0.22
M1L1 I/3.2 0.28
M1 M1N1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
M1 1 I/4 0.22
M1 2 I/4 0.22
N1M1 I/3.2 0.28
N1 N1O1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
N11 I/4 0.22
N12 I/4 0.22
O1N1 I/3.2 0.28
O1 O1P1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
O11 I/4 0.22
O12 I/4 0.22
P1O1 I/3.2 0.28
P1 P1Q1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
P1 1 I/4 0.22
P1 2 I/4 0.22
Q1P1 I/3.2 0.28
Q1 Q1R1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
Q11 I/4 0.22
Q12 I/4 0.22
R1Q1 I/3.2 0.28
R1 R1S1 I/3.2 1.125I 0.28
R1 1 I/4 0.22
R1 2 I/4 0.22
S1R1 I/3.2 0.32
S1 S1T1 I/6.4 0.9688I 0.16
S1 1 I/4 0.26
S1 2 I/4 0.26
T1S1 I/6.4 0.2
T1 T1U1 I/8.16 0.7788I 0.16
T1 1 I/4 0.32
T1 2 I/4 0.32
U1T1 I/8.16 0.2
U1 U11 I/4 0.6225I 0.4
U12 I/4 0.4

4.3.14 LOAD CALCLATIO


No Beam Dead Live Area Length slab Total Rib Total Total
name load load DL LL DL DL load
kN/m2 kN/m2 m2 m kN/m kN/m kN/m kN/m kN/m
1 A1B1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
2 B1C1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
3 C1D1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
4 D1E1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
5 E1F1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
6 F1G1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
7 G1H1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
8 H1I1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
9 I1J1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
10 J1K1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
11 K1L1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
12 L1M1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
13 M1N1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
14 N1O1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
15 O1P1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
16 P1Q1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
17 Q1R1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
18 R1S1 8.25 15 5.12 3.2 13.2 24 3.375 16.575 40.575
19 S1T1 8.25 15 16.2 6.4 20.88 37.97 4.5 25.38 63.35
20 T1U1 8.25 15 13.74 8.16 13.89 25.26 4.5 18.39 43.65
JOINT-A1
joint A1 B1 C1 D1
Member A 1B 1 B 1A 1 B1C1 C1B1 C1D1 D1C1 D1E1

DF 0.38 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28

FEM due -12.78


to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributio -2.868
n+
Carryover
Distributio -37.492
n 14.247
Net BM -23.245
due to A1

JOINT-B1

joint A1 B1 C1 D1
Member A 1B 1 B 1A 1 B1C1 C1B1 C1D1 D1C1 D1E1

DF 0.38 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28

FEM due to -14.14


DL
FEM due to -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
LL
Distribution 6.58 -2.87
+ Carryover
Distribution 41.204 -37.494
-1.0388 -1.0388
Net BM due 40.165 -38.533
to B1
JOINT-C1
joint B1 C1 D1 E1
Member B 1A 1 B1C1 C1B1 C1D1 D1C1 D1E1 E1D1 E 1F 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.62 +34.62 -34.62 +34.62
to LL
Distributio 2.868 -2.868
n+
Carryover
Distributio 37.49 -37.49
n 0 0

Net BM 37.49 -37.49


due to C1

JOINT-D1
joint B1 C1 D1 E1
Member B 1A 1 B1C1 C1B1 C1D1 D1C1 D1E1 E1D1 E 1F 1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -58.81
to DL
FEM due -34.624 +34.62 -34.624 +34.62
to LL 4 4
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to D1
JOINT-E1
joint D1 E1 F1 G1
Member D1C1 D1E1 E1D1 E 1F 1 F 1E 1 F 1G 1 G 1F 1 G1H1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.1 -14.14
to DL 4
FEM due - +34.62 -34.624 +34.624
to LL 34.624 4
Distributio 2.868 -2.968
n+
Carryover
Distributio 37.492 -37.492
n 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to E1

JOINT-F1
joint D1 E1 F1 G1
Member D1C1 D1E1 E1D1 E 1F 1 F 1E 1 F 1G 1 G 1F 1 G1H1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 +34.62 -34.624 +34.62
to LL 4 4
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to F1
JOINT-G1
joint F1 G1 H1 I1
Member F 1E 1 F 1G 1 G 1F 1 G1H1 H1G1 H1I1 I1H1 I 1J 1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due - +34.624 -34.624 +34.624
to LL 34.624
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due toG1

JOINT-H1
joint F1 G1 H1 I1
Member F 1E 1 F 1G 1 G 1F 1 G 1H 1 H1G1 H1I1 I1H1 I 1J 1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 +34.62 -34.624 +34.62
to LL 4 4
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to H1
JOINT-I1
joint H1 I1 J1 K1
Member H1G1 H1I1 I1H1 I 1J 1 J 1I 1 J 1K 1 K 1J 1 K1L1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributio 2.868 -2.968
n+
Carryover
Distributio 37.492 -37.492
n 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to I1

JOINT-J1

joint H1 I1 J1 K1
Member H1G1 H1I1 I1H1 I 1J 1 J 1I 1 J 1K 1 K 1J 1 K1L1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 +34.62 -34.624 +34.62
to LL 4 4
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to J1
JOINT-K1
joint J1 K1 L1 M1
Member J 1I 1 J 1K 1 K 1J 1 K1L1 L1K1 L1M1 M1L1 M 1N
1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributio 2.868 -2.968
n+
Carryover
Distributio 37.492 -37.492
n 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to K1

JOINT-L1
joint J1 K1 L1 M1
Member J 1I 1 J 1K 1 K 1J 1 K 1L 1 L1K1 L1M1 M1L1 M1N1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributio 2.868 -2.968
n+
Carryover
Distributio 37.492 -37.492
n 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to L1
JOINT-M1
joint L1 M1 N1 O1
Member L1K1 L1M1 M1L1 M1N1 N1M1 N1O1 O1N1 O 1P 1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to M1

JOINT-N1
joint L1 M1 N1 O1
Member L1K1 L1M1 M1L1 M1N1 N1M1 N1O1 O1N1 O 1P 1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to N1
JOINT-O1
joint N1 O1 P1 Q1
Member N1M1 N1O1 O1N1 O 1P 1 P 1O 1 P 1Q 1 Q 1P 1 Q1R1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to O1

JOINT-P1
joint N1 O1 P1 Q1
Member N1M1 N1O1 O1N1 O 1P 1 P 1O 1 P 1Q 1 Q 1P 1 Q1R1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to P1
JOINT-Q1
joint P1 Q1 R1 S1
Member P 1O 1 P 1Q 1 Q 1P 1 Q1R1 R1Q1 R1S1 S1R1 S 1T 1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16


FEM due 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributi 2.868 -2.968
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -37.492
on 0 0
Net BM 37.492 -37.492
due to Q1

JOINT-R1
joint P1 Q1 R1 S1
Member P 1 O 1 P 1 Q 1 Q 1P 1 Q1R1 R1Q1 R1S1 S1R1 S 1T 1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16


FEM due 14.14 -86.63
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
to LL
Distributi 2.868 8.32
on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -26.304
on -3.13 -3.13
Net BM 34.362 -29.434
due to R1
JOINT-S1
joint R1 S1 T1 U1
Member R1Q1 R1S1 S 1T 1 S 1T 1 T 1S 1 T1U1 U1T1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.2 0.16 0.2

FEM due 14.14 -102.04


to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -216.23 216.23
to LL

Distributi 2.868 -11.42


on +
Carryove
r
Distributi 37.492 -227.65
on 60.85 30.43
Net BM 98.342 -197.22
due to S1

JOINT-T1
joint R1 S1 T1 U1
Member R1Q1 R1S1 S 1T 1 S 1T 1 T 1S 1 T1U1 U1T1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.2 0.16 0.2

FEM due 14.14


to DL
FEM due -216.23 216.23 -242.2 242.2
to LL

Distributio 16.167 -24.22


n+
Carryover
Distributio 232.397 -266.42
n 6.81 5.44
Net BM 239.207 -260.98
due to T1
JOINT-U1
joint R1 S1 T1 U1
Member R1Q1 R1S1 S 1T 1 S 1T 1 T 1S 1 T1U1 U1T1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.2 0.16 0.2

FEM due 86.63


to DL
FEM due -242.2 242.2
to LL

Distributio 12.45
n+
Carryover
Distributio 254.65
n -50.93
Net BM 203.72
due to U1
MID SPAN MOMENT A1B1
joint A1 B1 C1 D1
Member A 1B 1 B 1A 1 B 1C 1 C1B1 C1D1 D1C1 D1E1

DF 0.38 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28


FEM due to -14.14 14.14
DL
FEM due to -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.624
TL
distribution 13.16 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 6.58 2.87
moment
distribution 1.09 -2.65

Net moment -23.24 +32.814

F
ree BM at the centre of the span A1B1
= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span A1B1


=51.936-[ (23.24+32.814) / 2]
=23.909 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT OF B1C1

joint A1 B1 C1 D1
Member A 1B 1 B 1A 1 B 1C 1 C1B1 C1D1 D1C1 D1E1
DF 0.38 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due to -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
DL
FEM due to -34.624 34.624 -34.624
TL
distribution 5.37 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over 2.685 2.87 -2.87 2.87
moment
distribution 0.052 -1.61

Net moment -31.702 30.14

Free BM at the centre of the span B1C1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span B1C1


=51.936-[ (31.702+30.14) / 2]
=21.015 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT C1D1
Joint B1 C1 D1 E1
member B 1A 1 B1C1 C1B1 C1D1 D1C1 D1E1 E1D1 E 1F 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.62 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL 4
distributio -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
n
moment
carry -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
over
moment
distributio -1.6 1.6
n
Net -33.35 33.35
moment

Free BM at the centre of the span C1D1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span C1D1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT D1E1
Joint C1 D1 E1 F1
member C1B1 C1D1 D1C1 D 1E 1 E1D1 E 1F 1 F 1E 1 F 1G 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment

carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87


moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span D1E1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span D1E1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT E1F1
Joint D1 E1 F1 G1
member D1C1 D1E1 E1D1 E 1F 1 F 1E 1 F 1G 1 G 1F 1 G1H1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment

carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87


moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span E1F1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span E1F1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT F1G1
Joint E1 F1 G1 H1
member E1D1 E 1F 1 F 1E 1 F 1G 1 G 1F 1 G1H1 H1G1 H1I1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

F
ree BM at the centre of the span F1G1
= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span F1G1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT G1H1
Joint F1 G1 H1 I1
member F 1E 1 F 1G 1 G 1F 1 G1H1 H1G1 H1I1 I1H1 I 1J 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment

carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87


moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span G1H1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span G1H1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT H1I1
Joint G1 H1 I1 J1
member G 1F 1 G1H1 H1G1 H 1I 1 I1H1 I 1J 1 J 1I 1 J 1K 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

F
ree BM at the centre of the span H1I1
= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span H1I1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT I1J1
Joint H1 I1 J1 K1
member H1G1 H1I1 I1H1 I 1 J1 J 1I 1 J 1K 1 K 1J 1 K1L1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span I1J1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span I1J1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT J1K1
Joint I1 J1 K1 L1
member I1H1 I 1J 1 J 1I 1 J 1K 1 K 1J 1 K1L1 L1K1 L1M1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span J1K1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span J1K1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT K1L1
Joint J1 K1 L1 M1
member J 1I 1 J 1K 1 K 1J 1 K1L1 L1K1 L1M1 M1L1 M1N1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

F
ree BM at the centre of the span K1L1
= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span K1L1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT L1M1
Joint K1 L1 M1 N1
member K 1J 1 K1L1 L1K1 L 1M 1 M1L1 M1N1 N1M1 N1O1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

F
ree BM at the centre of the span L1M1
= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span L1M1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT M1N1
Joint L1 M1 N1 O1
member L1K1 L1M1 M1L1 M1N1 N1M1 N1O1 O1N1 O 1P 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

F
ree BM at the centre of the span M1N1
= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span M1N1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT N1O1
Joint M1 N1 O1 P1
member M1L1 M1N1 N1M1 N 1O 1 O1N1 O 1P 1 P 1O 1 P 1Q 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

F
ree BM at the centre of the span N1O1
= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span N1O1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT O1P1
Joint N1 O1 P1 Q1
member N1M1 N1O1 O1N1 O 1P 1 P 1O 1 P 1Q 1 Q 1P 1 Q1R1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span O1P1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span O1P1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT P1Q1
Joint O1 P1 Q1 R1
member O1N1 O 1P 1 P 1O 1 P 1Q 1 Q 1P 1 Q1R1 R1Q1 R1S1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -34.624
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 5.74
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
moment
distribution -1.6 1.6

Net -33.35 33.35


moment

F
ree BM at the centre of the span P1Q1
= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span P1Q1


=51.936-[ (33.35+33.35) / 2]
=18.586 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT Q1R1
Joint P1 Q1 R1 S1
member P 1O 1 P 1Q 1 Q 1P 1 Q1R1 R1Q1 R1S1 S 1T 1 S 1T 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -14.14 14.14
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -216.23
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 -5.74 32.33
moment
carry over -2.87 -2.87 2.87 16.16
moment
distribution -1.6 5.33

Net -33.35 37.084


moment

F
ree BM at the centre of the span Q1R1
= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span Q1R1


=51.936-[ (33.35+37.084) / 2]
=16.719 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT R1S1
Joint Q1 R1 S1 T1
member Q 1P 1 Q1R1 R1Q1 R 1S 1 S 1T 1 S 1T 1 T 1S 1 T1U1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.2 0.16
FEM due -14.14 14.14 -86.63 86.63
to DL
FEM due 34.624 -34.624 34.624 -242.2
to TL
distribution -5.74 5.74 16.64 31.11
moment
carry over -2.87 8.32 2.87 15.55
moment
distribution 1.526 5.896

Net -19.038 60.03


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span R1S1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span R1S1


=51.936-[ (19.038+60.03) / 2]
=12.402 kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT S1T1
joint R1 S1 T1 U1
Member R1Q1 R1S1 S1R1 S1T1 T1S1 T1U1 U1T1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.2 0.16 0.2


FEM due to -14.14 14.14 -102.04 102.04
DL
FEM due to 34.624 -216.23 216.23
TL
distribution -5.74 32.33 -22.838
moment
carry over -2.87 -11.42 16.165
moment
distribution -2.29 1.19

Net moment -197.61 210.75

F
ree BM at the centre of the span S1T1
= Wl2/8
=(216.23 * 3.22) / 8
=276.77 kNm

Net BM at centre of span S1T1


=276.77-[ (197.61+210.75) / 2]
=72.594kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT T1U1
joint R1 S1 T1 U1
Member R1Q1 R1S1 S1R1 S1T1 T1S1 T1U1 U1T1

DF 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.2 0.16 0.2


FEM due to -86.63 86.63
DL
FEM due to 40.575 -43.65 43.65
TL
distribution 14.74 -688 -8.73
moment
carry over 7.37 -4.37 -3.44
moment
Distribution 0.48 -0.688

Net moment -54.42 30.792

F
ree BM at the centre of the span T1U1
= Wl2/8
=(43.65 * 8.162) / 8
=363.3kNm

Net BM at centre of span T1U1


=363.3-[ (54.42+30.79) / 2]
=320.69kNm
MID SPAN MOMENT K1L1
Joint J1 K1 L1 M1
member J 1I 1 J 1K 1 K 1J 1 K1L1 L1K1 L1M1 M1L1 M1N1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due 14.14 -14.14 14.14 -14.14
to DL
FEM due -34.624 34.624 -34.624 34.62
to TL 4
distribution 5.74 -5.74 -5.74 5.74 5.74 -5.74
moment

carry over 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87


moment
distribution -1.61 1.67

Net -18.62 18.62


moment

Free BM at the centre of the span K1L1


= Wl2/8
=(40.575 * 3.22) / 8
=51.936 kNm

Net BM at centre of span K1L1


=51.936-[ (18.62+18.62) / 2]
=33.316 kNm
4.3.15 BENDING MOMENT IN COLUMN LOADING
joint A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1
Column DF
Above floor 0.31 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Below floor 0.31 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Member A1 B1 B1A1 B1 C1 C1 B1 C1 D1 D1 C1 D1 E 1 E 1D 1 E1 F1 F1E1 F1 G1 G1F1 G 1H 1
DF 0.39 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due to -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2
DL
FEM due TL -34.62 34.62 -34.62 34.62 -34.62 34.62 -34.62
Distribution+ -2.87 6.75 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87
carryover
Total -37.49 41.37 -11.3 11.3 -37.49 37.49 -11.3 11.3 -37.49 37.49 -11.3 11.3 -37.49
Distribution
to column
11.62 -6.62 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77
Above floor
Distribution
to column
11.62 -6.62 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77
below floor

joint H1 I1 J1 K1 L1 M1 N1
Column DF
Above floor 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Below floor 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Member H1 G1 H1 I 1 I 1 H1 I1 J 1 J 1 I1 J 1 K1 K1 J 1 K1 E 1 L1 K1 L1 M1 M1 L1 M 1 N1 N 1M 1 N 1O 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due to -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -14.2
DL
FEM due 34.62 - 34.62 - 34.62 - 34.62
TL 34.62 34.62 34.62
Distribution 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
+ carryover
Total 37.5 -11.3 11.3 -37.5 37.5 -11.3 11.3 -37.5 37.5 -11.3 11.3 -37.5 37.5 -11.3
Distribution
to column
-5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77
Above floor
Distribution
to column
-5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77
below floor
joint O1 P1 Q1 R1 S1 T1 U1
Column DF
Above floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Below floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Member O 1N 1 O 1P 1 P 1O 1 P 1Q 1 Q 1P 1 Q1R1 R1Q1 R1S1 S1R1 S1T1 T1S1 T 1U 1 U 1T 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.2 0.16 0.2
FEM due to 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -102.1 102.1
DL
FEM due TL -34.62 34.62 -34.62 34.62 -216.2 216.2
Distribution+ -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 32.33 -2.87 -11.42 16.17 -10.2 -9.14
carryover
Total 11.3 -37.5 37.5 -11.3 11.3 -37.5 37.5 -11.3 11.3 227.65 232.4 -112.2 92.9
Distribution
to column
5.77 -5.77 5.77 -12.25 -62.12 -38.45 -37.2
Above floor
Distribution
to column
5.77 -5.77 5.77 -12.25 -62.12 -38.45 -37.2
below floor

joint A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1
Column DF
Above floor 0.31 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Below floor 0.31 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Member A1 B1 B1A1 B1 C1 C1 B1 C1 D1 D1 C1 D1 E 1 E 1D 1 E1 F1 F1E1 F1 G1 G1F1 G 1H 1
DF 0.39 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due to -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -14.2
DL
FEM due TL -34.6 34.62 -34.62 34.62 -34.62 34.62 -34.62
Distribution+ 2.87 2.76 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87
carryover
Total 11.3 16.9 -37.5 37.49 -11.3 11.3 -37.49 37.49 -11.3 11.3 -37.49 37.49 -11.3
Distribution
to column
-3.49 4.53 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77
Above floor
Distribution
to column
-3.49 4.53 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77
below floor
joint H1 I1 J1 K1 L1 M1 N1
Column DF
Above floor 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Below floor 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Member H1 G1 H1 I 1 I 1 H1 I1 J 1 J 1 I1 J 1 K1 K1 J 1 K1 E 1 L1 K1 L1 M1 M1 L1 M 1 N1 N 1M 1 N 1O 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
FEM due to 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2
DL
FEM due - 34.62 - 34.62 - 34.62 -34.62
TL 34.62 34.62 34.62
Distribution -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87
+ carryover
Total 11.3 -37.5 37.5 -11.3 11.3 -37.5 37.5 -11.3 11.3 -37.5 37.5 -11.3 11.3 -37.5
Distribution
to column
5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77
Above floor
Distribution
to column
5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77 -5.77 5.77
below floor

joint O1 P1 Q1 R1 S1 T1 U1
Column DF
Above floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Below floor 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.33
Member O 1N 1 O 1P 1 P 1O 1 P 1Q 1 Q 1P 1 Q1R1 R1Q1 R1S1 S1R1 S1T1 T1S1 T 1U 1 U 1T 1
DF 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.2 0.16 0.2
FEM due to -14.2 14.2 -14.2 14.2 -86.63 86.63
DL
FEM due TL 34.62 -34.6 34.62 -34.62 34.62 -242.2 242.2
Distribution+ 2.87 2.87 -2.87 -2.87 2.87 2.87 -2.87 8.32 2.87 15.56 4.16 -24.22 12.45
carryover
Total 37.5 -11.3 11.3 -37.5 37.5 -11.3 11.3 -26.31 37.5 -71.1 90.79 -266.4 254.7
Distribution
to column
-5.77 5.77 -5.77 3.31 8.73 56.2 -102
Above floor
Distribution
to column
-5.77 5.77 -5.77 3.31 8.73 56.2 -102
below floor
CHAPTER 5
5.DESIG

5.1SLABS
The most common type of structural element used to cover floors and
roofs of building are reinforced concrete slabs of different types. One
way slabs are those supported on the two opposite sides so that the
loads are carried along one direction only. Two way slabs are
supported on all four sides with such dimensions such that the loads
are carried to the supports along both directions.

If Ly/Lx < 2, then the slab is designed as two way slab


If Ly/Lx >2, then the slab is designed as one way slab.

Where, Ly = longer span dimension of the slab.


Lx = shorter span dimension of slab.

Restrained slabs are referred to as slabs whose corners are prevented from
lifting. They may be supported on continuous or discontinuous edges.
5.1.1 DESIG OF SLAB

Dimensions
Lx =3.2
Ly =5.5
Span ratio =5.5 /3.2
=1.1<2
ie, Two way slab
Assume ,
Overall depth =150-20
D =130mm
Load calculation
Live load =10kN/m2
Light patrician =1kN/m2
D.L =(0.15*25)
=3.75kN/m2
Floor finish =0.75kN/m2
Total load =15.5kN/m2
Factored load =1.5*15.5
= 23.25kN/m2
1) Lx =3.2+(0.23/2)+(0.23/2)
=3.43
2) Ly =3.55+(0.23/2)+(0.23/2)
=3.78
Lx =3.33
Ly =3.78
Bending moment
Mx =αx wlx2
My =αy wlx2
Lx / Ly =1.1
Lx =0.074
Ly =0.061
Mx =0.074*23.25*3.432
=20.24kNm
My =0.061*23.25*3.432
=16.69kNm

Check for depth


Mulim =0.138fckbd2
20.24*103 =0.138*20*1000*d2
D =85.63
D < 130mm
Hence the effective depth selected is sufficient to resist the design
ultimate moment.
Find the spacing
Use 10mm dia bars
Spacing =(1000*π*102/4)/465.86
=168.59mm
Provide 150 mm c/c spacing
Find Ast provided
Ast provided =1000ast/spacing
=(1000*π*102/4)/150*4
=523.59mm2
For longer span
16069*106 =0.87*415* Ast *130[1-( Ast *415/20*1000*130)]
Ast =378mm2
Using 10mm dia bars
Spacing =(1000*π/4*102)/378
=207mm.
Adopt the spacing 200mm
Checks,
Ast min =0.12% of c/s of Fe 415
=0.12/100[1000*150]
=180mm2
Ast min< Ast for longer and shorter span,
Hence, provide 10mm dia bars @150mmc/c
Ast =465.86mm2[shorter span]
Hence, provide 10mm dia bars @ 200mm c/c
Ast =378mm2[longer span]

Check for shear


Shear stress
τv =Vu/bd
Vu =wl/2
=23.25*3.43/2=39.87Kn
τv =39.87*103/1000*100
τv =0.398N/mm2
Pt =100 Ast pro / bd
=100*523.59/1000*130
To find τc
From IS456:2000,
τc = 0.432
kτc > τv
k*τc=1.3*0.43
=0.5616
0.398 > 0.5616N/mm2
Hence it is safe.
Check for deflection

(L/d) basic =20


Pt =100 Ast pro/bd
=100*523.59/1000*130
=0.4
Fs =0.58*415*523.59/465.86
=270
kc =1
kf =1
kt =1.2
(L/d)max =(L/d)basic*kt*kc*kt
=20*1.3*1*1
=26
(L/d)act =3200/130=24.16
(L/d)act < (L/d)max
Hence safe against deflection.
Check for control
Reinforcement provided is more than, the minimum % of c/s area
Ast =(0.12/100)*1000*150
=180mm2
Spacing of main reinforcement should not be greater than 3d
ie, 3*130 =390mm
Diameter of reinforcement should be less than D/8
150/8 =18.75
Hence cracks will be with in safe permissible limits
Torsion reinforcement at corner
Area of torsion steel at each of the corners in 4 layers is computed as
=0.75* Ast along shorter span
=0.75*523.59
=393mm2
Length cover which torsion steel is provided
=1/5*shorter span
=1/5*3200
=640mm
Using 6mm dia bars
Spacing =1000ast/ Ast
=(1000*π*62/4)393
=71.9mm
Provide 6mm bars at 100mm c/c for length and 640mmat all corners in
4 layers
Reinforcement in end strips
Ast =0.12% of c/s
=180mm2
Assume 10mm dia bars
Spacing =(1000*π/4*102)/180
=436 > 300
As per code spacing should not exceed 300mm
Provide 10mm dia bars at 300mm c/c
Ast =(1000*π/4*102)/300
Ast =262mm2
10mm dia bars @
150mm c/c
6mm dia bars @
100mm c/c

150

Figure 5-Reinforcement details of two way slab-section

ly/8
437.5

6mm dia @ 100mm c/c


3ly/4 10mm dia bars @
3500 2625 150mm c/c

10mm dia bars @


250mm c/c
ly/8
437.5
lx/8 3lx/4 lx/8
400 2400 400

3200

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS
OF TWO WAY SLAB

Figure 6-Reinforcement details of two way slab- plan


5.2 BEAMS
Beams are defined as structural members subjected to transverse load
that caused bending moment and shear force along the length.
The plane of transverse loads is parallel to the plane of symmetry of the
cross section of the beam and it passes through the shear centre so that the
simple bending of beams occurs. The bending moments and shear forces
produced by the transverse loads are called as internal forces.
5.2.1Types of beams
Depending upon the supports and end condition, beams are classified as
below.
5.2.1.1simply supported beams
5.2.1.2over hanging beams
5.2.1.3cantilever beam
5.2.1.4fixed beam
The reinforced concrete beams, in which the steel reinforced is placed
only on tension side, are known as singly reinforced beams, the tension
developed due to bending moment is mainly resisted by steel reinforcement
and compression by concrete.
When a singly reinforced beam needs considerable depth to exist large
bending moment, then the beam is also reinforced in the compression zone.
The beams having reinforcement in compression and tension zone is called
as doubly reinforced beam.
5.2.2 DESIG OF L-BEAMS

Dimensions
c/c of support = 3.2+(0.3/2)+(0.3/2) = 3.5m
Thickness of slabs = 150 mm
fy = 20 N/mm2
fck = 415 N/mm2
Width of beam = 300 mm
Overall depth = 300 mm
Effective cover = 25 mm
Effective depth = 300-25-10=265mm
Effective span
a) c/c of supports = 3.2 +(0.3/2) +(0.32/2) = 3.5 m
b) Clear span + d = 3.2 +0.265 = 3.465m
Hence, l = 3.465 m
Load calculation
Dead load of slab = (3.465/2)*0.15*25 = 6.5 kN/m
Floor finish = 0.75*(3.465/2) = 1.3 kN/m
Self weight of rib = 0.3 *0.15 *25 = 1.125 kN/m
Live load = 4*(3.465/2) = 6.93 kN/m
Total load = 16.855 kN/m

Effective flange width


a)bf = (Lo/12)+bw+3Df = 952.125 mm
b) bf = bw +0.5 times spacing b/w ribs = 1900 mm
Ultimate BM and SF
At support,
Mu = 1.5 * wl2/12 = 25.3 kNm
Vu = 1.5 * wl / 2 = 43.8 kN
At centre of span section,
Mu = 1.5 * wl2 / 24 = 12.65kNm
Vu = 1.5 * wl / 2 = 43.8 kN
Torsion moment produced due to dead load of span and live load on it
= working load parameter-rib wt = 16.855-1.125=15.73 kN/m
Ultimate load on slab = 15.73 *3.465 * 1.5 = 81.8 kN
Total ultimate load = 82/2 =41 kN
Distance of centroid of SF from the centre line of the Beam=(952.125/2)-
150
= 326.06mm
Ultimate tortional moment = 4 * 103 *326.06= 13.37 kNm
Equivalent BM and SF
According to IS456 2000 clause 41.4.2
Mel = Mu +Mt
Mt = Tu*(1+D/b)/1.7 = 15.73 kNm
Mel = 13.37 + 15.73 = 29.09 kNm
Equivalent SF
Ve = Vu + 1.6(Tu/b)
=115.1 kN
Main reinforcement
Mu (lim) = 0.138*fck*bd2 = 58.15 kNm
Mel < Mu (lim)
Hence the section is under reinforced
To find Ast
Mu = 0.87*fy* Ast *d[1-( Ast *fy/bd*fck)]
Ast = 332.83mm2
20mm dia rods are used
Ast pro = 628.32 mm2
Ast min = 0.85*bw*d/ fy = 162.83 mm2
Assume 20mm dia bars, Ast pro = 628 mm2
Provide 2 nos of 20mm dia bars @ side face

Reinforcement
Shear reinforcement
τve =Ve/ bw *d = 1.45 N/ mm2
Pt= (100* Ast)/( bw *d) = 0.79
Ref table 19 of IS456 2000
τc=0.56N/ mm2
Hence shear reinforcement are required using 10mm dia 2 legged
stirrups with side cover 25mm top+ bottom cover of 25mm
b1= 300-25-25 = 250mm
d1= 300-25-25 = 250mm
Asv= 157 mm2
σc = Asv *0.87*fy/ (τv – τc)*b = 214.6
Provide 10mm dia 2 legged stirrups @200mm spacing
Check for deflection
(L/d)max = (L/d)basic *kt * kc* kf
(L/d)basic = 20 [for simply supported]
(L/d)max = 20*1*1*1.04 = 20.8
(L/d)actual = 3200/300 = 10.66
(L/d)max > (L/d)actual
Hence the design is safe
2 nos of 20mm dia bars

3 nos of 20mm dia bars


10mm dia 2 legged stirrups @
200mm c/c

3500

LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF L-BEAM

Figure 7-Reinforcement details of L-beams- longitudinal section

2 bars of 20mm dia 2 bars of 20mm dia


150 150

10mm dia 2 legged stirrups 10mm dia 2 legged stirrups


@ 200mm c/c @ 200mm c/c

3 bars of 20mm dia 3 bars of 20mm dia

SUPPORT SECTION MID SECTION

CROSS SECTION OF L-BEAM

Figure 8- Reinforcement details of L-beams- cross section


5.2.3 DESIG OF T- BEAM
Dimensions
Slab thickness =150mm
c/c of support =3.2+(0.3/2)+(0.3/2)
=3.5m
fy =20N/mm2
fck =415N/mm2
Cross sectional dimension
Width of beam =300mm
Overall depth =300mm
Effective cover =25mm
Effective depth =300-2-10
=265mm
Effective span
1. c/c of support =3.2+(0.3/2)+(0.3/2)
=3.5m
2. clear span+depth =3.2+0.265
=3.465m

Load calculation
Dead load of slab =(3.465/2)*0.15*25
=6.5kN/m
Floor finish =0.75*(3.465/2)
=1.3kN/m
Self weight of rib =0.3*0.15*25
=1.125kN/m
Live load =4*(3.465/2)
=6.93kN/m
Light partition =1kN/m
Total load =16.855kN/m
Ultimate moment and shear
Mu =1.5wl2/8
=(1.5*16.855*3.4652)/8
=37.935kN/m
Vu =wl/2
=(16.855*3.465)/2
=43.8kN/m
Effective width of flange
Refer page no 36 clause 23,
1. bf =L0/b+bw+6Df
=(3.465*0.7)/6+300+(6*150)
=1604.25mm
2. c/c of rib =3000-(300/2)-(300/2)
=2700mm
Ie, bf =1604.25mm
Moment capacity of flange
Assume N.A lies with in the flange
Xu(max)=Df , b=bf
Mu(limit) =(0.36*Xu(max))/d *(1-(0.42Xu(max)/d))*(bd2fck)
=0.36*(150/265) *[1-(0.42*150)/26]*(1604.25*2652*20)
=349.98kNm
Mu < Mu(limit)
Hence the section is under reinforced.
Since the section should design as a singly reinforced beam.
Find Ast
Mu =0.87fy Ast d [1-( Ast fy /bf d fck)]
37.935*106=0.87*415* Ast *265*[1-( Ast *415/1604*265*20)]
Ast =404.46mm2
Check for Ast min
Ast min/bw d =0.85/fy
Ast =(0.85*300*265) /415
=162.83mm2
Ast > Ast min
Ast =404.46mm2
N*πd2/4 =404.46
N =2 nos.
Ast provide,
Provide 2 nos of 20mm dia bars
=2*π202/4
=628mm2
And two longer bars of 12mm dia on the compression face .
Shear reinforcement
τv =Vu/bw d
=43.8*103/300*265
=0.55
Pt =100 Ast /bw d
=(100*π/4*202*2)/300*265
=0.79
τc =0.56+((0.62-0.56)/(1-0.75))*(0.79-0.75)
=0.57
τv<τc
Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be provided.
Design of shear reinforcement
Asv/b Sv =0.4/0.87*fy
Sv =302.47mm
The spacing should not exceed 300mm
Sv =300mm
Provide 8mm dia bars 2 legged stirrups at 300mmc/c.
Check for deflection control
(L/d)max =(L/d)basic*kt*kf*kc
(L/d)basic =20*0.8
=16
fsc =0.58*fy* Ast req/ Ast pro
=0.58*415*404.46/628
fsc =155
kt =1.5,pt=0.78,kf=1,kc=0.8
(L/d)act =3200/265
=12.075
(L/d)max =16*1.5*1*0.8
=19.2
(L/d)act < (L/d)max .

Hence safe.
8mm dia 2 legged stirrups
@300mm c/c
2 nos of 12mm dia bars

150

3 nos of 20mm dia bars

3500

LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF T-BEAM

Figure 9-Reinforcement details of T-beam-longitudinal design

2 bars of 12mm dia 2 bars of 12mm dia


150 150

8mm dia 2 legged stirrups 8mm dia 2 legged stirrups


@ 300mm c/c @ 300mm c/c

3 bars of 20mm dia 3 bars of 20mm dia

SUPPORT SECTION MID SECTION

CROSS SECTION OF T-BEAM

Figure 10- Cross section of T-beam


5.3 STAIRCASE
Stairs are needed for ascending and descending from floor to floor.
The stairs in a structure consists of a series of steps with or without landing
and give access from floor to floor. A flight between the landings is also
called as stair. There may be 3 to 12 steps in one flight. Each step has one
tread and riser. A landing is usually provided after 12 to 15 steps. The width
of landing should not be less than the width of stair.

5.3.1Types of stairs
The different types of reinforced cement concrete stairs are:
1. Straight stairs
2. Dog-legged stairs
3. Open well stairs
4. Quarter turn stairs
5. Geometrical stairs
6. Circular stairs
7. Spiral stair
Dog-legged type of stair is selected and designed for the proposed
auditorium.
5.3.2 DESIG OF DOG-LEGGED STAIRCASE

Dimensions
Room size =6.4*3.6m
Height of room =4m
Live load =5kN/m2
fy =415N/mm2
fck =20N/mm2
Assume
Tread =300mm
Riser =125mm
It is proposed to provide 2 flights for the stairway, Hence,
The height of each flight =vertical distance/2
=4/2
=2m
No of steps required =2/0.125
=16nos
No of treads in each flight = No of riser-1
=16-1
=15
Space occupied by threads =15*0.3
=4.5m
Assume width of landing =1.25m
Hence space left for passage =6.4-4.5-1.25
=0.65m
Let as assume bearing of landing as 150mm
ie, Effective span of flight =4.5+1.25+0.15/2
=5.8m
Let the thickness of waist slab be 200mm,
This can be assumed as 40mm to 50mm/m span
Load calculation
Dead load of waist slab =w’*√(R2+T2)/T
=0.2*√(0.1252+0.32)/0.3
=5.5kN/m2
Dead load of slab =125/2
=62.5(average)
ie, dead load =0.0625*25
=1.56kN/m2
Main reinforcement
Mu=0.87fyAst*d[1-fy Ast/bdfck]
76.699*106=0.87*415*Ast*180*[1-(415*Ast/1000*20*180)]
Ast=1408.9mm2
Spacing with 10mm dia bars
Sv=(1000*¶/4*102)/1408.9
Sv=55.75mm
Provide 10mm dia bars 100mm c/c

Distributor Reinforcement
Provide Astmin =0.12% of cs area and assume 8mm dia bars
Astmin =0.12/100*1000 *200
=240mm2
Spacing =1000(π/4)*82/240
=209.44mm
Provide 8mm dia bars@200mm c/c
Assume top finish =0.1kN/m2
Live load =25kN/m2
ie, Total load =5.5+1.56+0.1+0.5
=12.16kN/m2
Factored load =1.5*12.16
=18.24kN/m2
Factored moment =wl2/8
=18.24*5.82/8
Distributor Reinforcement
Provide =0.12% and assume 8mm Dia bars
Astmin =0.12/100*1000 *200
=240mm2
Spacing =1000(π/4)*82/240
=209.44mm
Provide 8mm dia bars@200c/c
Assume top finish =0.1kN/m2
Live load =25kN/m2
ie, Total load =5.5+1.56+0.1+0.5
=12.16kN/m2
Factored load =1.5*12.16
=18.24kN/m2
Factored moment =wl2/8
=18.24*5.82/8
=76.699kNm
Check for depth for waist slab
D =√Mu/(0.138fckb)
=√76.699*106/(0.138*20*1000)
=166.7
But, D =200mm
D =200-20
=180>166.7
Hence ok.

Check for depth for waist slab


D =√Mu/(0.138fckb)
=√76.699*106/(0.138*20*1000)
=166.7mm
But D =200mm
D =200-20
=180>166.7
Hence ok.
12mm dia bars @ 100mm c/c
8mm dia bars @ 200mm c/c

Tread = 300mm
Riser =125mm
Thickness of flight = 200mm
12mm dia bars @ 100mm c/c
8mm dia bars @ 200mm c/c

DETAILING OF DOG LEGGED STAIRCASE

Figure 11-Reinforcement details of doglegged staircase


5.4 COLUMS
A column is defined as a structural member subjected to compressive
force in a direction parallel to its longitudinal axis. The columns are used
primarily to support compressive load. When the compression members
are over loaded then their failure may take place in direct compression
(crushing), excessive bending combined with twisting. Failure of column
depends upon slenderness ratio.

5.4.1 Types of columns


1) Short column
2) Long column
When slenderness ratio (lex/b) is less than 12, the compression member
(lex/b) is said to be short column and if the slenderness ratio is greater than
12, it is called as long column.
5.4.2DESIG OF COLUM
5.4.2.1 DESIG OF AXIALLY LOADED COLUM

Dimensions
Factored load =1200kN
Concrete grade =M20
Characteristic strength of reinforcement =415N/mm2
Unsupported length of column =3.55m
Cross sectional area of column =400*300
Leff =k*L
k =0.65(effectively held in
position at both ends)
Leff =0.65*3550
=2307mm
Slenderness ratio
Leff /D =2307/400
=5.8<12
Leff /d =2307/300=7.7<12
ie, column is designed as short column
Minimum eccentricity
emin1 =2307/500+400/30=17.9mm
emin2 =2307/500+300/30=14.6mm
From clause 39.3 Is 456-2000
400*0.05=20>17.9
300*0.05=15>14.6
ie, codal formula for axially compressed column can be used.
Longitudinal reinforcement
Pu =[0.4fck Ac+0.67fy-0.4fck)Ast]
1200*103 =[(0.4*20*400*300)+[(.67*415)-(0.4*20)]Asc
Asc =888.7mm2
Minimum reinforcement provided
=0.008*400*300=960mm2
ie, Provide 6 nos of 20 mm dia bars of longitudinal reinforcement
Lateral ties
Tie diameter >6mm
<16mm
Provide 8mm diameter ties
Tie spacing > 16*20=320mm
ie, provide 8mm dia ties @ 300mm c/c
Lateral ties 8mm dia bars
@ 300mm c/c
6 nos of 20mm dia bars

AXIALLY LOADED COLUMN

Figure 12-Reinforcement details of axially loaded column


5.4.2.2 DESIG OF UIAXIALLY LOADED COLUM

Dimensions
Size of column = 400mm×300mm
Load, Pu = 650 kN
Factored moment= 127 kNm
Eccentricity = 127/650 = 0.19
fck = 20 N/mm2
fy = 415 N/mm2
D =400mm
b =300mm

Assuming cover, d`=50mm


d`/D = 50/400 =0.125
Pu/ fck bD = (650*103)/(20*300*400)
= 0.27
Mu/ fck bD2 = (127*106)/ (20*300*4002)
= 0.132
From graph 45 of SP16,
p/ fck = 0.07
percentage of steel = 1.4
As = pbD/100
= (1.4*400*300)/100
=1800mm2
nπd2/4 = 1800mm2
n = 6 nos
Provide 8 nos. of 20mm dia bars and they are equally arranged on all four
sides

Spacing = 400-(50+50+20)
= 280mm < 300mm
Hence safe

Design of lateral ties


Dia of lateral ties not less than 6mm and not greater than 16mm
Take 8mm dia ties
Spacing should not be greater than 300mm or 16φ=16*20= 320mm
Hence provide 8mm φ bars @ 250mm c/c
Lateral ties 8mm dia bars
@ 250mm c/c
8 nos of 20mm dia bars

UNIAXIALLY LOADED COLUMN

Figure 13-Reinforcement details of uniaxially loaded column


5.4.2.3 DESIG OF BI AXIALLY LOADED COLUM

Dimension
b = 450mm
D = 600mm
fck =20 N/mm2
fy = 414 N/mm2
Pu = 590.6 kN
Mux= 150 kN
Muy= 106 kN
Reinforcements
Reinforcements are distributed equally on four sides
As a trial adopt percentage of reinforcement in the CS as p =1%
As = pbD/100 = 1*450*600/100
= 2700mm2
Provide 10 bars of 20mm dia on each face

As = 10*π*202/4
= 3141.6mm2
P = (100*3141.6)/(450*600)
= 1.16
p/ fck = 1.16/20 =0.058
d`= 40+10 = 50mm
Pu/ fck bD = (590.6*103)/(20*450*300)
= 0.12
d`/D = 50/600 =0.08
from chart 44 of SP16
Mu/ fck bD2 = 0.09
For moments about minor axis yy
b= 450mm
d`=40+10=50mm
d`/D = 50/450 =0.111
Pu/ fck bD = 0.12
From chart 44 for d`/D=0.15
Mu/ fck bD2 = 0.09
Muy1=0.09*20*600*4502
= 218.7 kNm
Puz= 0.45 fck Ac+0.75 fy As
=0.45*20[(600*450)-314.6]+[0.75*415*3141.6*10-3]
= 3379.55kN
Pu/ Puz = (590.6/3379.55)=0.175
According to IS456 clause 39.6
αn =1.04
(Mux/ Mux1) αn +( Muy/ Muy1) αn = 0.97<1
Hence the section is safe
Design of lateral ties
According to IS456:2000,
Dia of lateral ties not less than 6mm and not greater than 16mm
Take 8mm dia ties
Spacing should not be greater than 300mm or 16φ=16*20= 320mm
Hence provide 8mm φ bars @ 300mm c/c
Lateral ties 8mm dia bars
@300mm c/c

10 nos of 20mm dia bars

BIAXIALLY LOADED COLUMN

Figure 14-Reinforcement details of biaxially loaded columns


5.5 FOOTIG
The portion of the structure above the plinth is called superstructure
and the portion of the structure below the plinth is called as substructure.
The footing or foundation is the part of substructure which remains in
contact with the soil or rock. The footing or foundation transmits safely the
load to soil stratum and distributes the load over large area of the stratum so
that the bearing pressure developed in the soil remains less than the safe
bearing capacity of the soil and is ensured that the any settlement which may
occur shall be nearly uniform as possible and the differential settlement of
the various parts of the structure shall be eliminated as nearly as possible

5.5.1Types of footing
1) Isolated footing
2) Combined footing
3) Spread footing
4) Raft footing
5.5.2 DESIG OF FOOTIG
Dimension
Factored load, Pu = 1200 kN
Size of column = 400 × 300 mm
SBC of soil = 200 kN/m2
fck = 20 N/mm2
fy = 415 N/mm2
Size footing
Load on column = 1200 kN
Weight of footing and backfill at 10% = 120 kN
Area of footing =(1200+120)/(1.5*200)
= 4.4 m2
Adopt 2.5m×2m rectangular footing
Net soil pressure at ultimate load is given by,
qu = 1320/(2.5*2)
= 264 kN/ mm2
One way shear
Critical section is at a distance ‘d’ from the column face
Factored shear force, Vu1 = (0.264*2500)(1050-d)
= 660(1050-d)
Assuming percentage of reinforced cement, Pt = 0.25%
For M20 grade concrete, from table 19 IS456:2000
τc = 0.36 N/mm2
one way shear resistance, Vc1 = 0.36*2500*d
= 900d
Equating both,
660(1050-d) = 900d
Hence d = 442.3 mm
Two way shear
Assuming effective depth = 443 mm
Two way shear resistance at a critical section (d/2) from face of
column,
Then, Vu2 = 0.264{(2500*2000)-[(400+d)(300+d)]}
= 0.264{(2500*2000)-[(400+443)(300+443)]}
= 1154.6 kN
Two way shear resistance, Vc2 is computed on,
Vc2 = Ks τc [2(400+d)+2(300+d)]d
Ks = 1
τc = 0.25√k
= 1.118 N/mm2
Hence, Vc2 = 1565.2d+4.47d2
Equating both,
1154644=1565.2d+4.47 d2
d= 362 mm
Therefore one way shear is critical
Adopt effective depth = 450mm
Overall depth = 550mm
Ultimate moment at column face = 0.264*2000*10502/2
= 291.06 kNm
291.06*106 = 0.87fyAstd[1-(Astfy/bdfck)]
291.06*106 = 162472.5 Ast – 7.49 Ast2
Ast = 1970.4mm2
Pt = 100 Ast/bd
=(100*1970.4)/(1000*450)
= 0.43>0.25
Assuming 60mm dia bars,
Spacing = 1000ast/ Ast
=1000*π*162/(4*1970.4)
=105mm
Hence, provide 16mm dia bars @100mm c/c in both directions.
GL
Column Reinforcement

16mm dia bars @ 100mm c/c


(both ways)

FOOTING FOR AXIALLY LOADED COLUMN

Figure 15-Reinforcement details of axially loaded column


CHAPTER 6
6. COCLUSIO

The analysis and design of the structural components of the


college auditorium envisaged planning for each floor of the building with
detailed analyses of Beams, Columns, Slabs and Stairs. Isolated footings for
Columns were considered. This work throws an insight into the structural
components of the proposed college auditorium which will be constructed
soon.
REFERECES
1. “Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design”, by N.Krishna Raju.
2. “Strength of Materials”, by Ramamirtham and Narayanan.
3. “Reinforced Concrete Design”, by P.P.Vargheese
4. IS:875 part , “Code of Practice for design loads for buildings and
structures – Dead Loads”.
5. IS:875 part , “Code of Practice for design loads for buildings and
structures – Live Loads”.
6. IS:875 part , “Code of Practice for design loads for buildings and
structures – Wind Loads”.
7. IS:456: 2000, “Plain and Reinforced Concrete - Code of Practice”.
8. “Design of Concrete Structures”, by Shah