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1.

1 A stainless steel tube with an outside diameter of 60 mm and a wall thickness of 5 mm is used as a
compression member. If the axial stress in the member must be limited to 340 MPa, determine the
maximum load P that the member can support.

Solution
The cross-sectional area of the stainless steel tube is
π π
A= (D2 − d 2 ) =
[(60 mm)2 − (50 mm)2 ] = 863.938 mm 2
4 4
The normal stress in the tube can be expressed as
P
σ=
A
The maximum normal stress in the tube must be limited to 340 MPa. Using 340 MPa as the allowable
normal stress, rearrange this expression to solve for the maximum load P
Pmax ≤ σ allow A = (340 N/mm 2 )(863.938 mm 2 ) = 293, 739 N = 294 kN Ans.

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1.2 A 2024-T4 aluminum tube with an outside diameter of 2.50 in. will be used to support a 12 kip
load. If the axial stress in the member must be limited to 25 ksi, determine the wall thickness required
for the tube.

Solution
From the definition of normal stress, solve for the minimum area required to support a 12-kip load
without exceeding a stress of 25 ksi
P P 12 kips
σ= ∴ Amin ≥ = = 0.480 in.2
A σ 25 ksi
The cross-sectional area of the aluminum tube is given by
π
A= (D2 − d 2 )
4
Set this expression equal to the minimum area and solve for the maximum inside diameter d
π
[(2.50 in.) 2 − d 2 ] ≥ 0.480 in.2
4
4
(2.50 in.) 2 − d 2 ≥ (0.480 in.2 )
π
4
(2.50 in.) 2 − (0.480 in.2 ) ≥ d 2
π
∴ d max ≤ 2.374625 in.

The outside diameter D, the inside diameter d, and the wall thickness t are related by
D = d + 2t
Therefore, the minimum wall thickness required for the aluminum tube is
D − d 2.50 in. − 2.374525 in.
tmin ≥ = = 0.062738 in. = 0.0627 in. Ans.
2 2

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1.3 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are
joined together at flange B and loaded, as
shown in Fig. P1.3. The diameter of rod (1) is
D1 = 24 mm and the diameter of rod (2) is D2
= 42 mm. Determine the normal stresses in
rods (1) and (2).
Fig. P1.3

Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1) that includes the free end of the rod at A.
Assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension. From equilibrium,
ΣFx = F1 − 80 kN = 0 ∴ F1 = 80 kN (T)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free
end of the rod A. Assume that the internal force in rod
(2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the
internal force in rod (2):

ΣFx = F2 + 140 kN + 140 kN − 80 kN = 0 ∴ F2 = −200 kN = 200 kN (C)

From the given diameter of rod (1), the cross-sectional area of rod (1) is
π
A1 = (24 mm) 2 = 452.3893 mm 2
4
and thus, the normal stress in rod (1) is
F (80 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
σ1 = 1 = = 176.8388 MPa = 176.8 MPa (T) Ans.
A1 452.3893 mm 2

From the given diameter of rod (2), the cross-sectional area of rod (2) is
π
A2 = (42 mm) 2 = 1,385.4424 mm 2
4
Accordingly, the normal stress in rod (2) is
F (−200 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
σ2 = 2 = = −144.3582 MPa = 144.4 MPa (C) Ans.
A2 1,385.4424 mm 2

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1.4 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are
joined together at flange B and loaded, as
shown in Fig. P1.4. If the normal stress in
each rod must be limited to 120 MPa,
determine the minimum diameter D required
for each rod.
Fig. P1.4

Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1) that includes the free end of the rod at A.
Assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension. From equilibrium,
ΣFx = F1 − 80 kN = 0 ∴ F1 = 80 kN (T)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free
end of the rod A. Assume that the internal force in rod
(2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the
internal force in rod (2):

ΣFx = F2 + 140 kN + 140 kN − 80 kN = 0 ∴ F2 = −200 kN = 200 kN (C)

If the normal stress in rod (1) must be limited to 120 MPa, then the minimum cross-sectional area that
can be used for rod (1) is
F (80 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
A1,min ≥ 1 = = 666.6667 mm 2
σ 120 N/mm 2

The minimum rod diameter is therefore


π 2
A1,min = D1,min ≥ 666.6667 mm 2 ∴ D1,min ≥ 29.1346 mm = 29.1 mm Ans.
4

Similarly, the normal stress in rod (2) must be limited to 120 MPa. Notice that rod (2) is in
compression. In this situation, we are concerned only with the magnitude of the stress; therefore, we
will use the magnitude of F2 in the calculations for the minimum required cross-sectional area.
F (200 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
A2,min ≥ 2 = = 1, 666.6667 mm 2
σ 120 N/mm 2

The minimum diameter for rod (2) is therefore


π 2
A2,min = D2,min ≥ 1, 666.6667 mm 2 ∴ D2,min ≥ 46.0659 mm = 46.1 mm Ans.
4

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1.5 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are joined
together at flange B and loaded, as shown in Fig.
P1.5. The diameter of rod (1) is 1.25 in. and the
diameter of rod (2) is 2.00 in. Determine the normal
stresses in rods (1) and (2).

Fig. P1.5

Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1). The FBD should include the free end of the rod at A. We
will assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension (even though it obviously will
be in compression). From equilibrium,
ΣFy = − F1 − 15 kips = 0
∴ F1 = −15 kips = 15 kips (C)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end of the rod at A. Again, we
will assume that the internal force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD
reveals the internal force in rod (2):

ΣFy = − F2 − 30 kips − 30 kips − 15 kips = 0


∴ F2 = −75 kips = 75 kips (C)

From the given diameter of rod (1), the cross-sectional area of rod (1) is
π
A1 = (1.25 in.) 2 = 1.2272 in.2
4
and thus, the normal stress in rod (1) is
F −15 kips
σ1 = 1 = = −12.2231 ksi = 12.22 ksi (C) Ans.
A1 1.2272 in.2

From the given diameter of rod (2), the cross-sectional area of rod (2) is
π
A2 = (2.00 in.) 2 = 3.1416 in.2
4
Accordingly, the normal stress in rod (2) is
F −75 kips
σ2 = 2 = = −23.8732 ksi = 23.9 ksi (C) Ans.
A2 3.1416 in.2

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1.6 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are
joined together at flange B and loaded, as
shown in Fig. P1.6. If the normal stress in
each rod must be limited to 18 ksi,
determine the minimum diameter D required
for each rod.

Fig. P1.6

Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1). The FBD should include the free end of the rod at A. As a
matter of course, we will assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension (even
though it obviously will be in compression). From equilibrium,
ΣFy = − F1 − 15 kips = 0
∴ F1 = −15 kips = 15 kips (C)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end of the rod at A. Again, we
will assume that the internal force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals
the internal force in rod (2):
ΣFy = − F2 − 30 kips − 30 kips − 15 kips = 0
∴ F2 = −75 kips = 75 kips (C)

Notice that rods (1) and (2) are in compression. In this situation, we are
concerned only with the stress magnitude; therefore, we will use the force
magnitudes to determine the minimum required cross-sectional areas. If the
normal stress in rod (1) must be limited to 18 ksi, then the minimum cross-
sectional area that can be used for rod (1) is
F 15 kips
A1,min ≥ 1 = = 0.8333 in.2
σ 18 ksi
The minimum rod diameter is therefore
π 2
A1,min = D1,min ≥ 0.8333 in.2 ∴ D1,min ≥ 1.0301 in. = 1.030 in. Ans.
4
Similarly, the normal stress in rod (2) must be limited to 18 ksi, which requires a minimum area of
F 75 kips
A2,min ≥ 2 = = 4.1667 in.2
σ 18 ksi
The minimum diameter for rod (2) is therefore
π 2
A2,min = D2,min ≥ 4.1667 in.2 ∴ D2,min ≥ 2.3033 in. = 2.30 in. Ans.
4
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1.7 Axial loads are applied with rigid bearing plates to the
solid cylindrical rods shown in Fig. P1.7. The diameter of
aluminum rod (1) is 2.00 in., the diameter of brass rod (2) is
1.50 in., and the diameter of steel rod (3) is 3.00 in.
Determine the axial stress in each of the three rods.

Fig. P1.7

Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1). The FBD should include the free end A. We will assume that the internal
force in rod (1) is tension (even though it obviously will be in compression). From equilibrium,
ΣFy = − F1 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips = 0 ∴ F1 = −60 kips = 60 kips (C)

FBD through rod (1)

FBD through rod (2)

FBD through rod (3)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end A. Again, we will assume that the internal
force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the internal force in rod (2):
ΣFy = − F2 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips + 20 kips + 20 kips = 0 ∴ F2 = −20 kips = 20 kips (C)

Similarly, cut a FBD through rod (3) that includes the free end A. From this FBD, the internal force in
rod (3) is:

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ΣFy = − F3 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips + 20 kips + 20 kips − 35 kips − 35 kips = 0
∴ F3 = −90 kips = 90 kips (C)

From the given diameter of rod (1), the cross-sectional area of rod (1) is
π
A1 = (2.00 in.) 2 = 3.1416 in.2
4
and thus, the normal stress in aluminum rod (1) is
F −60 kips
σ1 = 1 = = −19.0986 ksi = 19.10 ksi (C) Ans.
A1 3.1416 in.2

From the given diameter of rod (2), the cross-sectional area of rod (2) is
π
A2 = (1.50 in.) 2 = 1.7671 in.2
4
Accordingly, the normal stress in brass rod (2) is
F −20 kips
σ2 = 2 = = −11.3177 ksi = 11.32 ksi (C) Ans.
A2 1.7671 in.2

Finally, the cross-sectional area of rod (3) is


π
A3 = (3.00 in.)2 = 7.0686 in.2
4
and the normal stress in the steel rod is
F −90 kips
σ3 = 3 = = −12.7324 ksi = 12.73 ksi (C) Ans.
A3 7.0686 in.2

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1.8 Axial loads are applied with rigid bearing plates to the solid
cylindrical rods shown in Fig. P1.8. The normal stress in
aluminum rod (1) must be limited to 25 ksi, the normal stress in
brass rod (2) must be limited to 15 ksi, and the normal stress in
steel rod (3) must be limited to 10 ksi. Determine the minimum
diameter D required for each of the three rods.

Fig. P1.8

Solution
The internal forces in the three rods must be determined. Begin with a FBD cut through rod (1) that
includes the free end A. We will assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension (even though it
obviously will be in compression). From equilibrium,
ΣFy = − F1 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips = 0 ∴ F1 = −60 kips = 60 kips (C)

FBD through rod (1)

FBD through rod (2)

FBD through rod (3)

Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end A. Again, we will assume that the internal
force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the internal force in rod (2):
ΣFy = − F2 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips + 20 kips + 20 kips = 0 ∴ F2 = −20 kips = 20 kips (C)

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Similarly, cut a FBD through rod (3) that includes the free end A. From this FBD, the internal force in
rod (3) is:
ΣFy = − F3 − 30 kips − 15 kips − 15 kips + 20 kips + 20 kips − 35 kips − 35 kips = 0
∴ F3 = −90 kips = 90 kips (C)

Notice that all three rods are in compression. In this situation, we are concerned only with the stress
magnitude; therefore, we will use the force magnitudes to determine the minimum required cross-
sectional areas, and in turn, the minimum rod diameters. The normal stress in aluminum rod (1) must be
limited to 25 ksi; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area required for rod (1) is
F 60 kips
A1,min ≥ 1 = = 2.40 in.2
σ 1 25 ksi
The minimum rod diameter is therefore
π 2
A1,min = D1,min ≥ 2.40 in.2 ∴ D1,min ≥ 1.7481 in. = 1.748 in. Ans.
4

The normal stress in brass rod (2) must be limited to 15 ksi, which requires a minimum area of
F 20 kips
A2,min ≥ 2 = = 1.3333 in.2
σ 2 15 ksi
which requires a minimum diameter for rod (2) of
π 2
A2,min = D2,min ≥ 1.3333 in.2 ∴ D2,min ≥ 1.3029 in. = 1.303 in. Ans.
4

The normal stress in steel rod (3) must be limited to 10 ksi. The minimum cross-sectional area required
for this rod is:
F 90 kips
A3,min ≥ 3 = = 9.0 in.2
σ 3 10 ksi
which requires a minimum diameter for rod (3) of
π 2
A3,min = D3,min ≥ 9.0 in.2 ∴ D3,min ≥ 3.3851 in. = 3.39 in. Ans.
4

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1.9 Two solid cylindrical rods
support a load of P = 32 kN, as
shown in Fig. P1.9. Rod (1) has a
diameter of 16 mm and the diameter
of rod (2) is 12 mm. Determine the
axial stress in each rod.

Fig. P1.9

Solution
Consider a FBD of joint B. Determine the angle α between
rod (1) and the horizontal axis:
5.6 m
tan α = = 1.4737 ∴α = 55.8403°
3.8 m
and the angle β between rod (2) and the horizontal axis:
3.3 m
tan β = = 0.7174 ∴ β = 35.6553°
4.6 m

Write equilibrium equations for the sum of forces in the


horizontal and vertical directions. Note: Rods (1) and (2)
are two-force members.
ΣFx = F2 cos(35.6553°) − F1 cos(55.8403°) = 0 (a)
ΣFy = F2 sin(35.6553°) + F1 sin(55.8403°) − P = 0 (b)

Unknown forces F1 and F2 can be found from the simultaneous solution of Eqs. (a) and (b). Using the
substitution method, Eq. (b) can be solved for F2 in terms of F1:
cos(55.8403°)
F2 = F1 (c)
cos(35.6553°)
Substituting Eq. (c) into Eq. (b) gives
cos(55.8403°)
F1 sin(35.6553°) + F1 sin(55.8403°) = P
cos(35.6553°)
F1 [ cos(55.8403°) tan(35.6553°) + sin(55.8403°)] = P
P P
∴ F1 = =
cos(55.8403°) tan(35.6553°) + sin(55.8403°) 1.2303

For the given load of P = 32 kN, the internal force in rod (1) is therefore:

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32 kN
F1 = = 26.0101 kN
1.2303
Backsubstituting this result into Eq. (c) gives force F2:
cos(55.8403°) cos(55.8403°)
F2 = F1 = (26.0101 kN) = 17.9742 kN
cos(35.6553°) cos(35.6553°)

The diameter of rod (1) is 16 mm; therefore, its cross-sectional area is:
π
A1 = (16 mm) 2 = 201.0619 mm 2
4
and the normal stress in rod (1) is:
F (26.0101 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
σ1 = 1 = 2
= 129.3636 N/mm 2 = 129.4 MPa (T) Ans.
A1 201.0619 mm

The diameter of rod (2) is 12 mm; therefore, its cross-sectional area is:
π
A2 = (12 mm) 2 = 113.0973 mm 2
4
and the normal stress in rod (2) is:
F (17.9742 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
σ2 = 2 = 2
= 158.9269 N/mm 2 = 158.9 MPa (T) Ans.
A2 113.0973 mm

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1.10 Two solid cylindrical rods support
a load of P = 70 kN, as shown in Fig.
P1.10. If the normal stress in each rod
must be limited to 165 MPa, determine
the minimum diameter D required for
each rod.

Fig. P1.10

Solution
Consider a FBD of joint B. Determine the angle α between
rod (1) and the horizontal axis:
5.6 m
tan α = = 1.4737 ∴α = 55.8403°
3.8 m
and the angle β between rod (2) and the horizontal axis:
3.3 m
tan β = = 0.7174 ∴ β = 35.6553°
4.6 m

Write equilibrium equations for the sum of forces in the


horizontal and vertical directions. Note: Rods (1) and (2)
are two-force members.
ΣFx = F2 cos(35.6553°) − F1 cos(55.8403°) = 0 (a)
ΣFy = F2 sin(35.6553°) + F1 sin(55.8403°) − P = 0 (b)

Unknown forces F1 and F2 can be found from the simultaneous solution of Eqs. (a) and (b). Using the
substitution method, Eq. (b) can be solved for F2 in terms of F1:
cos(55.8403°)
F2 = F1 (c)
cos(35.6553°)
Substituting Eq. (c) into Eq. (b) gives
cos(55.8403°)
F1 sin(35.6553°) + F1 sin(55.8403°) = P
cos(35.6553°)
F1 [ cos(55.8403°) tan(35.6553°) + sin(55.8403°)] = P
P P
∴ F1 = =
cos(55.8403°) tan(35.6553°) + sin(55.8403°) 1.2303

For the given load of P = 70 kN, the internal force in rod (1) is therefore:

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70 kN
F1 = = 56.8967 kN
1.2303
Backsubstituting this result into Eq. (c) gives force F2:
cos(55.8403°) cos(55.8403°)
F2 = F1 = (56.8967 kN) = 39.3182 kN
cos(35.6553°) cos(35.6553°)

The normal stress in rod (1) must be limited to 165 MPa; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area
required for rod (1) is
F (56.8967 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
A1,min ≥ 1 = = 344.8285 mm 2
σ1 165 N/mm 2

The minimum rod diameter is therefore


π 2
A1,min = D1,min ≥ 344.8285 mm 2 ∴ D1,min ≥ 20.9535 mm = 21.0 mm Ans.
4

The minimum area required for rod (2) is


F (39.3182 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
A2,min ≥ 2 = = 238.2921 mm 2
σ2 165 N/mm 2

which requires a minimum diameter for rod (2) of


π 2
A2,min = D2,min ≥ 238.2921 mm 2 ∴ D2,min ≥ 17.4185 mm = 17.42 mm Ans.
4

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1.11 Bar (1) in Fig. P1.11 has a cross-
sectional area of 0.75 in.2. If the stress in bar
(1) must be limited to 30 ksi, determine the
maximum load P that may be supported by
the structure.

Fig. P1.11

Solution
Given that the cross-sectional area of bar (1) is 0.75 in.2 and its normal stress must be limited to 30 ksi,
the maximum force that may be carried by bar (1) is
F1,max = σ 1 A1 = (30 ksi)(0.75 in.2 ) = 22.5 kips

Consider a FBD of ABC. From the moment equilibrium


equation about joint A, the relationship between the force in
bar (1) and the load P is:
ΣM A = (6 ft)F1 − (10 ft)P = 0
6 ft
∴P = F1
10 ft

Substitute the maximum force F1,max = 22.5 kips into this relationship to obtain the maximum load that
may be applied to the structure:
6 ft 6 ft
P= F1 = (22.5 kips) = 13.50 kips Ans.
10 ft 10 ft

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1.12 Two 6 in. wide wooden boards are to
be joined by splice plates that will be fully
glued on the contact surfaces. The glue to
be used can safely provide a shear strength
of 120 psi. Determine the smallest
allowable length L that can be used for the
splice plates for an applied load of P =
10,000 lb. Note that a gap of 0.5 in. is
required between boards (1) and (2). Fig. P1.12

Solution
Consider a FBD of board (2). The glue on the splice plates provides resistance to the 10,000 lb applied
load on both the top and bottom surfaces of board (2). Denoting the shear resistance on a glue surface as
V, equilibrium in the horizontal direction requires
ΣFx = P − V − V = 0
10, 000 lb
∴V = = 5, 000 lb
2

In other words, each glue surface must be large enough so that 5,000 lb of shear resistance can be
provided to board (2). Since the glue has a shear strength of 120 psi, the area of each glue surface on
board (2) must be at least
5, 000 lb
Amin ≥ = 41.6667 in.2
120 psi
The boards are 6-in. wide; therefore, glue must be spread along board (2) for a length of at least
41.6667 in.2
Lglue joint ≥ = 6.9444 in.
6 in.
Although we’ve discussed only board (2), the same rationale applies to board (1). For both boards (1)
and (2), the glue must be applied along a length of at least 6.9444 in. on both the top and bottom of the
boards in order to resist the 10,000 lb applied load.

The glue applied to boards (1) and (2) must be matched by glue applied to the splice plates. Therefore,
the splice plates must be at least 6.9444 in. + 6.9444 in. = 13.8889 in. long. However, we are told that a
0.5-in. gap is required between boards (1) and (2); therefore, the splice plates must be 0.5-in. longer.
Altogether, the length of the splice plates must be at least
Lmin = 6.9444 in. + 6.9444 in. + 0.5 in. = 14.39 in. Ans.

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1.13 For the clevis connection shown in Fig. P1.13,
determine the shear stress in the 24 mm diameter bolt
for an applied load of P = 175 kN.

Fig. P1.13

Solution
Consider a FBD of the bar that is connected by the clevis,
including a portion of the bolt. If the shear force acting on each
exposed surface of the bolt is denoted by V, then the shear force
on each bolt surface is
175 kN
ΣFx = P − V − V = 0 ∴V = = 87.5 kN
2

The area of the bolt surface exposed by the FBD is simply the cross-sectional area of the bolt:
π 2 π
Abolt = Dbolt = (24 mm) 2 = 452.3893 mm 2
4 4

Therefore, the shear stress in the bolt is


V (87.5 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
τ= = 2
= 193.4175 N/mm 2 = 193.4 MPa Ans.
Abolt 452.3893 mm

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1.14 For the clevis connection shown in Fig.
P1.14, the shear stress in the 5/16 in.
diameter bolt must be limited to 40 ksi.
Determine the maximum load P that may be
applied to the connection.
Fig. P1.14

Solution
Consider a FBD of the bar that is connected by the clevis,
including a portion of the bolt. If the shear force acting on each
exposed surface of the bolt is denoted by V, then the shear force
on each bolt surface is related to the load P by:
ΣFx = P − V − V = 0 ∴ P = 2V

The area of the bolt surface exposed by the FBD is simply the cross-sectional area of the bolt:
π 2 π π
Abolt = Dbolt = (5 /16 in.) 2 = (0.3125 in.) 2 = 0.076699 in.2
4 4 4

If the shear stress in the bolt must be limited to 40 ksi, the maximum shear force V on a single cross-
sectional surface must be limited to
V = τ Abolt = (40 ksi)(0.076699 in.2 ) = 3.067962 kips

Therefore, the maximum load P that may be applied to the connection is


P = 2V = 2(3.067962 kips) = 6.135923 kips = 6.14 kips Ans.

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1.15 For the connection shown in Fig. P1.15,
determine the average shear stress in the 0.75 in.
diameter bolts if the load is P = 60 kips.

Fig. P1.15

Solution
The bolts in this connection act in single shear. The cross-sectional area of a single bolt is
π 2 π
Abolt = Dbolt(0.75 in.) 2 = 0.4418 in.2
=
4 4
Since there are five bolts, the total area that carries shear stress is
AV = 5 Abolt = 5(0.4418 in.2 ) = 2.2089 in.2
Therefore, the shear stress in each bolt is
P 60 kips
τ= = = 27.1624 ksi = 27.2 ksi Ans.
AV 2.2089 in.2

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1.16 The five-bolt connection shown in Fig.
P1.16 must support an applied load of P = 550
kN. If the average shear stress in the bolts must
be limited to 270 MPa, determine the minimum
bolt diameter that may be used in the connection.

Fig P1.16

Solution
To support a load of 550 kN while not exceeding an average shear stress of 270 MPa, the total shear
area provided by the bolts must be at least
P (550 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
AV ≥ = = 2, 037.0370 mm 2
τ 270 N/mm 2

Since there are five single-shear bolts in this connection, five cross-sectional surfaces carry shear stress.
Consequently, each bolt must provide a minimum area of
AV 2, 037.0370 mm 2
Abolt ≥ = = 407.4074 mm 2
5 5
The minimum bolt diameter is therefore
π
Abolt ≥ 407.4074 mm 2 = 2
Dbolt ∴ Dbolt ≥ 22.7756 mm = 22.8 mm Ans.
4

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1.17 For the connection shown in Fig. P1.17,
the average shear stress in the 16 mm diameter
bolts must be limited to 210 MPa. Determine
the maximum load P that may be applied to the
connection.

Fig. P1.17

Solution
The cross-sectional area of a 16-mm-diameter bolt is
π 2 π
Abolt = Dbolt = (16 mm) 2 = 201.0619 mm 2
4 4
This is a double-shear connection. Therefore, the three bolts provide a total shear area of
AV = 2(3 bolts)Abolt = 2(3 bolts)(201.0619 mm 2 ) = 1, 206.3716 mm 2
Since the shear stress must be limited to 210 MPa, the total shear force that can be resisted by the three
bolts is
Vmax = τ AV = (210 N/mm 2 )(1, 206.3716 mm 2 ) = 253,338.0316 N
In this connection, the shear force in the bolts is equal to the applied load P; therefore,
Pmax = 253 kN Ans.

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1.18 The three-bolt connection shown in Fig. P1.18
must support an applied load of P = 60 kips. If the
average shear stress in the bolts must be limited to
15 ksi, determine the minimum bolt diameter that
may be used in the connection.

Fig. P1.18

Solution
The shear force V that must be provided by the bolts equals the applied load of P = 60 kips. The total
shear area required is thus
V 60 kips
AV ≥ = = 4.0 in.2
τ 15 ksi
The three bolts in this connection act in double shear; therefore, six cross-sectional bolt surfaces are
available to transmit shear stress.
AV 4.0 in.2
Abolt = = = 0.6667 in.2 per surface
(2 surfaces per bolt)(3 bolts) 6 surfaces
The minimum bolt diameter must be
π 2
Dbolt ≥ 0.6667 in.2 ∴ Dbolt ≥ 0.9213 in. = 0.921 in. Ans.
4

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1.19 A hydraulic punch press is used to
punch a slot in a 10 mm thick plate, as
illustrated in Fig. P1.19. If the plate shears
at a stress of 250 MPa, determine the
minimum force P required to punch the
slot.

Fig. P1.19

Solution
The shear stress associated with removal of the slug exists on its perimeter. The perimeter of the slug is
given by
perimeter = 2(75 mm) + π (20 mm) = 212.8319 mm
Thus, the area subjected to shear stress is
AV = perimeter × plate thickness = (212.8319 mm)(10 mm) = 2,128.319 mm 2
Given that the plate shears at τ = 250 MPa, the force required to remove the slug is therefore
Pmin = τ AV = (250 N/mm 2 )(2,128.319 mm 2 ) = 532, 080 N = 532 kN Ans.

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1.20 A coupling is used to connect a 2 in. diameter
plastic pipe (1) to a 1.5 in. diameter pipe (2), as
shown in Fig. P1.20. If the average shear stress in
the adhesive must be limited to 400 psi, determine
the minimum lengths L1 and L2 required for the joint
if the applied load P is 5,000 lb.

Fig. P1.20

Solution
To resist a shear force of 5,000 lb, the area of adhesive required on each pipe is
V 5, 000 lb
AV = = = 12.5 in.2
τ adhesive 400 psi

Consider the coupling on pipe (1). The adhesive is applied to the circumference of the pipe, and the
circumference C1 of pipe (1) is
C1 = π D1 = π (2.0 in.) = 6.2832 in.
The minimum length L1 is therefore
A 12.5 in.2
L1 ≥ V = = 1.9894 in. = 1.989 in. Ans.
C1 6.2832 in.

Consider the coupling on pipe (2). The circumference C2 of pipe (2) is


C2 = π D2 = π (1.5 in.) = 4.7124 in.
The minimum length L2 is therefore
A 12.5 in.2
L2 ≥ V = = 2.6526 in. = 2.65 in. Ans.
C2 4.7124 in.

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1.21 A lever is attached to a shaft with a
square shear key, as shown in Fig. P1.21.
The force applied to the lever is P = 350 N.
If the shear stress in the key must not exceed
80 MPa, determine the minimum dimension
“a” that must be used if the key is 25 mm
long.

Fig. P1.21

Solution
To determine the shear force V that must be resisted by the shear key, sum moments about the center of
the shaft (which will be denoted O):
⎛ 42 mm ⎞
ΣM O = −(350 N)(700 mm) + ⎜ ⎟V = 0 ∴V = 11, 666.6667 N
⎝ 2 ⎠
Since the shear stress in the key must not exceed 80 MPa, the shear area required is
V 11, 666.6667 N
AV ≥ = = 145.8333 mm 2
τ 80 N/mm 2

The shear area in the key is given by the product of its length L (i.e., 25 mm) and its width a. Therefore,
the minimum key width a is
A 145.8333 mm 2
a≥ V = = 5.8333 mm = 5.83 mm Ans.
L 25 mm

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1.22 A common trailer hitch connection is shown in
Fig. P1.22. The shear stress in the pin must be limited
to 30,000 psi. If the applied load is P = 4,000 lb,
determine the minimum diameter that must be used
for the pin.

Fig. P1.22

Solution
The shear force V acting in the hitch pin is equal to the applied load; therefore, V = P = 4,000 lb. The
shear area required to support a 4,000 lb shear force is
V 4,000 lb
AV ≥ = = 0.1333 in.2
τ 30, 000 psi
The hitch pin is used in a double-shear connection; therefore, two cross-sectional areas of the pin are
subjected to shear stress. Thus, the cross-sectional area of the pin is given by
AV 0.1333 in.2
AV = 2 Apin ∴ Apin = = = 0.0667 in.2
2 2
and the minimum pin diameter is
π 2
Dpin ≥ 0.0667 in.2 ∴ Dpin ≥ 0.2913 in. = 0.291 in. Ans.
4

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1.23 An axial load P is supported by a short steel
column, which has a cross-sectional area of
11,400 mm2. If the average normal stress in the steel
column must not exceed 110 MPa, determine the
minimum required dimension “a” so that the bearing
stress between the base plate and the concrete slab does
not exceed 8 MPa.

Fig. P1.23

Solution
Since the normal stress in the steel column must not exceed 110 MPa, the maximum column load is
Pmax = σ A = (110 N/mm 2 )(11, 400 mm 2 ) = 1, 254, 000 N
The maximum column load must be distributed over a large enough area so that the bearing stress
between the base plate and the concrete slab does not exceed 8 MPa; therefore, the minimum plate area
is
P 1, 254, 000 N
Amin = = = 156, 750 mm 2
σb 8 N/mm 2

Since the plate is square, the minimum plate dimension a must be


Amin = 156, 750 mm 2 = a × a
∴ a ≥ 395.9167 mm = 396 mm Ans.

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1.24 The steel pipe column shown in Fig. P1.24 has an
outside diameter of 8.625 in. and a wall thickness of 0.25
in. The timber beam is 10.75 in wide, and the upper plate
has the same width. The load imposed on the column by
the timber beam is 80 kips. Determine
(a) The average bearing stress at the surfaces between the
pipe column and the upper and lower steel bearing
plates.
(b) The length L of the rectangular upper bearing plate if
its width is 10.75 in. and the average bearing stress
between the steel plate and the wood beam is not to
exceed 500 psi.
(c) The dimension “a” of the square lower bearing plate if
the average bearing stress between the lower bearing
plate and the concrete slab is not to exceed 900 psi.

Fig. P1.24

Solution
(a) The area of contact between the pipe column and one of the bearing plates is simply the cross-
sectional area of the pipe. To calculate the pipe area, we must first calculate the pipe inside diameter d:
D = d + 2t ∴ d = D − 2t = 8.625 in. − 2(0.25 in.) = 8.125 in.
The pipe cross-sectional area is
π π
Apipe = ⎡⎣ D 2 − d 2 ⎤⎦ = ⎡⎣ (8.625 in.) 2 − (8.125 in.) 2 ⎤⎦ = 6.5777 in.2
4 4
Therefore, the bearing stress between the pipe and one of the bearing plates is
P 80 kips
σb = = = 12.1623 ksi = 12.16 ksi Ans.
Ab 6.5777 in.2

(b) The bearing stress between the timber beam and the upper bearing plate must not exceed 500 psi
(i.e., 0.5 ksi). To support a load of 80 kips, the contact area must be at least
P 80 kips
Ab ≥ = = 160 in.2
σ b 0.5 ksi
If the width of the timber beam is 10.75 in., then the length L of the upper bearing plate must be
Ab 160 in.2
L≥ = = 14.8837 in. = 14.88 in.
beam width 10.75 in.

(c) The bearing stress between the concrete slab and the lower bearing plate must not exceed 900 psi
(i.e., 0.9 ksi). To support the 80-kip pipe load, the contact area must be at least
P 80 kips
Ab ≥ = = 88.8889 in.2
σ b 0.9 ksi
Since the lower bearing plate is square, its dimension a must be
Ab = a × a = 88.8889 in.2 ∴ a ≥ 9.4281 in. = 9.43 in. Ans.

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1.25 A vertical shaft is supported by a thrust
collar and bearing plate, as shown in Fig.
P1.25. The average shear stress in the collar
must be limited to 18 ksi. The average bearing
stress between the collar and the plate must be
limited to 24 ksi. Based on these limits,
determine the maximum axial load P that can
be applied to the shaft.

Fig. P1.25

Solution
Consider collar shear stress: The area subjected to shear stress in the collar is equal to the product of
the shaft circumference and the collar thickness; therefore,
AV = shaft circumference × collar thickness = π (1.0 in.)(0.5 in.) = 1.5708 in.2
If the shear stress must not exceed 18 ksi, the maximum load that can be supported by the vertical shaft
is:
P ≤ τ AV = (18 ksi)(1.5708 in.2 ) = 28.2743 kips

Consider collar bearing stress: We must determine the area of contact between the collar and the
plate. The overall cross-sectional area of the collar is
π
Acollar = (1.5 in.) 2 = 1.7671 in.2
4
is reduced by the area taken up by the shaft
π
Ashaft = (1.0 in.) 2 = 0.7854 in.2
4
Therefore, the area of the collar that actually contacts the plate is
Ab = Acollar − Ashaft = 1.7671 in.2 − 0.7854 in.2 = 0.9817 in.2
If the bearing stress must not exceed 24 ksi, the maximum load that can be supported by the vertical
shaft is:
P ≤ σ b Ab = (24 ksi)(0.9817 in.2 ) = 23.5619 kips

Controlling P: Considering both shear stress in the collar and bearing stress between the collar and the
plate, the maximum load that can be supported by the shaft is
Pmax = 23.6 kips Ans.

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1.26 A structural steel bar with a 25 mm × 75 mm rectangular cross section is subjected to an axial
load of 150 kN. Determine the maximum normal and shear stresses in the bar.

Solution
The maximum normal stress in the steel bar is
F (150 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
σ max = = = 80 MPa Ans.
A (25 mm)(75 mm)
The maximum shear stress is one-half of the maximum normal stress
σ max
τ max = = 40 MPa Ans.
2

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1.27 A steel rod of circular cross section will be used to carry an axial load of 92 kips. The maximum
stresses in the rod must be limited to 30 ksi in tension and 12 ksi in shear. Determine the required
diameter D for the rod.

Solution
Based on the allowable 30 ksi tension stress limit, the minimum cross-sectional area of the rod is
F 92 kips
Amin = = = 3.0667 in.2
σ max 30 ksi
For the 12-ksi shear stress limit, the minimum cross-sectional area of the rod must be
F 92 kips
Amin = = = 3.8333 in.2
2τ max 2(12 ksi)
Therefore, the rod must have a cross-sectional area of at least 3.8333 in.2 in order to satisfy both the
normal and shear stress limits.

The minimum rod diameter D is therefore


π 2
Dmin ≥ 3.8333 in.2 ∴ Dmin = 2.2092 in. = 2.21 in. Ans.
4

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1.28 An axial load P is applied to the
rectangular bar shown in Fig. P1.28. The
cross-sectional area of the bar is 300 mm2.
Determine the normal stress perpendicular to
plane AB and the shear stress parallel to
plane AB if the bar is subjected to an axial
load of P = 25 kN.
Fig. P1.28

Solution
The angle θ for the inclined plane is 35°. The
normal force N perpendicular to plane AB is
found from
N = P cos θ = (25 kN) cos 35° = 20.4788 kN

and the shear force V parallel to plane AB is


V = P sin θ = (25 kN)sin 35° = 14.3394 kN

The cross-sectional area of the bar is 300 mm2, but the area along inclined plane AB is
A 300 mm 2
An = = = 366.2324 mm 2
cos θ cos 35°

The normal stress σn perpendicular to plane AB is


N (20.4788 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
σn = = = 55.9175 MPa = 55.9 MPa Ans.
An 366.2324 mm 2

The shear stress τnt parallel to plane AB is


V (14.3394 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
τ nt = = = 39.1539 MPa = 39.2 MPa Ans.
An 366.2324 mm 2

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1.29 An axial load P is applied to the 1.25 in.
by 0.75 in. rectangular bar shown in Fig.
P1.29. Determine the normal stress
perpendicular to plane AB and the shear stress
parallel to plane AB if the bar is subjected to
an axial load of P = 20 kips.
Fig. P1.29

Solution
The angle θ for the inclined plane is 60°. The
normal force N perpendicular to plane AB is
found from
N = P cos θ = (20 kips) cos 60° = 10.0 kips

and the shear force V parallel to plane AB is


V = P sin θ = (20 kips)sin 60° = 17.3205 kips

The cross-sectional area of the bar is (1.25 in.)(0.75 in.) = 0.9375 in.2, but the area along inclined plane
AB is
0.9375 in.2
An = A / cos θ = = 1.8750 in.2
cos 60°

The normal stress σn perpendicular to plane AB is


N 10.0 kips
σn = = = 5.3333 ksi = 5.33 ksi Ans.
An 1.8750 in.2

The shear stress τnt parallel to plane AB is


V 17.3205 kips
τ nt = = = 9.2376 ksi = 9.24 ksi Ans.
An 1.8750 in.2

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1.30 A compression load of P = 80 kips is applied to a 4 in.
by 4 in. square post, as shown in Fig. P1.30. Determine the
normal stress perpendicular to plane AB and the shear stress
parallel to plane AB.

Fig. P1.30

Solution
The angle θ for the inclined plane is 55°. The normal force N
perpendicular to plane AB is found from
N = P cos θ = (80 kips) cos 55° = 45.8861 kips

and the shear force V parallel to plane AB is


V = P sin θ = (80 kips) sin 55° = 65.5322 kips

The cross-sectional area of the post is (4 in.)(4 in.) = 16 in.2, but the area
along inclined plane AB is
16 in.2
An = A / cos θ = = 27.8951 in.2
cos 55°

The normal stress σn perpendicular to plane AB is


N 45.8861 kips
σn = = = 1.6449 ksi = 1.645 ksi Ans.
An 27.8951 in.2

The shear stress τnt parallel to plane AB is


V 65.5322 kips
τ nt = = = 2.3492 ksi = 2.35 ksi Ans.
An 27.8951 in.2

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1.31 Specifications for the 50 mm × 50 mm square bar
shown in Fig. P1.31 require that the normal and shear
stresses on plane AB not exceed 100 MPa and 70 MPa,
respectively. Determine the maximum load P that can be
applied without exceeding the specifications.

Fig. P1.31

Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are
P
σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)
2A
and
P
τ nt = sin 2θ (b)
2A
The cross-sectional area of the square bar is A = (50 mm)2 = 2,500 mm2, and the angle θ for plane AB is
55°.

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 100 MPa; therefore, the maximum load P that can be
supported by the square bar is found from Eq. (a):
2 Aσ n 2(2,500 mm 2 )(100 N/mm 2 )
P≤ = = 759,902 N
1 + cos 2θ 1 + cos 2(55°)

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 70 MPa. From Eq. (b), the maximum load P based the shear
stress limit is
2 Aτ nt 2(2,500 mm 2 )(70 N/mm 2 )
P≤ = = 372, 462 N
sin 2θ sin 2(55°)

Thus, the maximum load that can be supported by the bar is


Pmax = 372.5 kN Ans.

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1.32 Specifications for the 6 in. × 6 in. square post shown in
Fig. P1.32 require that the normal and shear stresses on plane
AB not exceed 800 psi and 400 psi, respectively. Determine
the maximum load P that can be applied without exceeding
the specifications.

Fig. P1.32

Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are
P
σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)
2A
and
P
τ nt = sin 2θ (b)
2A
The cross-sectional area of the square post is A = (6 in.)2 = 36 in.2, and the angle θ for plane AB is 40°.

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 800 psi; therefore, the maximum load P that can be
supported by the square post is found from Eq. (a):
2 Aσ n 2(36 in.2 )(800 psi)
P≤ = = 49, 078 lb
1 + cos 2θ 1 + cos 2(40°)

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 400 psi. From Eq. (b), the maximum load P based the shear
stress limit is
2 Aτ nt 2(36 in.2 )(400 psi)
P≤ = = 29, 244 lb
sin 2θ sin 2(40°)

Thus, the maximum load that can be supported by the post is


Pmax = 29, 200 lb = 29.2 kips Ans.

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1.33 A 90 mm wide bar will be used to carry an axial
tension load of 280 kN. The normal and shear stresses
on plane AB must be limited to 150 MPa and 100 MPa,
respectively. Determine the minimum thickness t
required for the bar.

Fig. P1.33

Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are
P
σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)
2A
and
P
τ nt = sin 2θ (b)
2A
The angle θ for plane AB is 50°.

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 150 MPa; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area A
required to support P = 280 kN can be found from Eq. (a):
P (280 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
A≥ (1 + cos 2θ ) = (1 + cos 2(50°)) = 771.2617 mm 2
2σ n 2(150 N/mm )2

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 100 MPa; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area A
required to support P = 280 kN can be found from Eq. (b):
P (280 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
A≥ sin 2θ = sin 2(50°) = 1,378.7309 mm 2
2τ nt 2(100 N/mm ) 2

To satisfy both the normal and shear stress requirements, the cross-sectional area must be at least Amin =
1,379.7309 mm2. Since the bar width is 90 mm, the minimum bar thickness t must be
1,378.7309 mm 2
tmin = = 15.3192 mm = 15.32 mm Ans.
90 mm

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1.34 A rectangular bar having width w = 6.00
in. and thickness t = 1.50 in. is subjected to a
tension load P. The normal and shear stresses
on plane AB must not exceed 16 ksi and 8 ksi,
respectively. Determine the maximum load P
that can be applied without exceeding either
stress limit.
Fig. P1.34

Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are
P
σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)
2A
and
P
τ nt = sin 2θ (b)
2A
The angle θ for inclined plane AB is calculated from
3
tan θ = = 3 ∴θ = 71.5651°
1
The cross-sectional area of the bar is A = w×t = (6.00 in.)(1.50 in.) = 9.0 in.2.

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 16 ksi; therefore, the maximum load P can be found from
Eq. (a):
2 Aσ n 2(9.0 in.2 )(16 ksi)
P≤ = = 1, 440 ksi
1 + cos 2θ 1 + cos 2(71.5651°)

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 8 ksi. From Eq. (b), the maximum load P based the shear
stress limit is
2 Aτ nt 2(9.0 in.2 )(8 ksi)
P≤ = = 240 kips
sin 2θ sin 2(71.5651°)

Thus, the maximum load that can be supported by the bar is


Pmax = 240 kips Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1.35 In Fig. P1.35, a rectangular bar having width
w = 2.50 in. and thickness t is subjected to a
tension load of P = 85 kips. The normal and shear
stresses on plane AB must not exceed 16 ksi and 8
ksi, respectively. Determine the minimum bar
thickness t required for the bar.

Fig. P1.35

Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ are
P
σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)
2A
and
P
τ nt = sin 2θ (b)
2A
The angle θ for inclined plane AB is calculated from
3
tan θ = = 3 ∴θ = 71.5651°
1

The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 16 ksi; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area A
required to support P = 85 kips can be found from Eq. (a):
P 85 kips
A≥ (1 + cos 2θ ) = (1 + cos 2(71.5651°)) = 0.5312 in.2
2σ n 2(16 ksi)

The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 8 ksi; therefore, the minimum cross-sectional area A required
to support P = 85 kips can be found from Eq. (b):
P 85 kips
A≥ sin 2θ = sin 2(71.5651°) = 3.1875 in.2
2τ nt 2(8 ksi)

To satisfy both the normal and shear stress requirements, the cross-sectional area must be at least Amin =
3.1875 in.2. Since the bar width is 2.50 in., the minimum bar thickness t must be
3.1875 in.2
tmin = = 1.2750 in. = 1.275 in. Ans.
2.50 in.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1.36 The rectangular bar has a width of w = 3.00
in. and a thickness of t = 2.00 in. The normal
stress on plane AB of the rectangular block
shown in Fig. P1.36 is 6 ksi (C) when the load P
is applied. Determine:
(a) the magnitude of load P.
(b) the shear stress on plane AB.
(c) the maximum normal and shear stresses in
the block at any possible orientation.
Fig. P1.36

Solution
The general equation for normal stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ is
P
σn = (1 + cos 2θ ) (a)
2A
and the angle θ for inclined plane AB is
3
tan θ = = 0.75 ∴θ = 36.8699°
4
The cross-sectional area of the rectangular bar is A = (3.00 in.)(2.00 in.) = 6.00 in.2.

(a) Since the normal stress on plane AB is given as 6 ksi, the magnitude of load P can be calculated from
Eq. (a):
2 Aσ n 2(6.0 in.2 )(6 ksi)
P= = = 56.25 kips = 56.3 kips Ans.
1 + cos 2θ 1 + cos 2(36.8699°)

(b) The general equation for shear stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ is
P
τ nt = sin 2θ
2A
therefore, the shear stress on plane AB is
56.25 kips
τ nt = sin 2(36.8699°) = 4.50 ksi Ans.
2(6.00 in.2 )

(c) The maximum normal stress at any possible orientation is


P 56.25 kips
σ max = = = 9.3750 ksi = 9.38 ksi Ans.
A 6.00 in.2
and the maximum shear stress at any possible orientation in the block is
P 56.25 kips
τ max = = = 4.6875 ksi = 4.69 ksi Ans.
2 A 2(6.00 in.2 )

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1.37 The rectangular bar has a width of w = 100
mm and a thickness of t = 75 mm. The shear stress
on plane AB of the rectangular block shown in
Fig. P1.37 is 12 MPa when the load P is applied.
Determine:
(a) the magnitude of load P.
(b) the normal stress on plane AB.
(c) the maximum normal and shear stresses in the
block at any possible orientation.
Fig. P1.37

Solution
The general equation for shear stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ is
P
τ nt = sin 2θ (a)
2A
and the angle θ for inclined plane AB is
3
tan θ = = 0.75 ∴θ = 36.8699°
4
The cross-sectional area of the rectangular bar is A = (100 mm)(75 mm) = 7,500 mm2.

(a) Since the shear stress on plane AB is given as 12 MPa, the magnitude of load P can be calculated
from Eq. (a):
2 Aτ nt 2(7,500 mm 2 )(12 N/mm 2 )
P= = = 187,500 N = 187.5 kN Ans.
sin 2θ sin 2(36.8699°)

(b) The general equation for normal stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle θ is
P
σn = (1 + cos 2θ )
2A
therefore, the normal stress on plane AB is
187,500 N
σn = (1 + cos 2(36.8699°)) = 16.00 MPa Ans.
2(7,500 mm 2 )

(c) The maximum normal stress at any possible orientation is


P 187,500 N
σ max = = = 25.0 MPa Ans.
A 7,500 mm 2
and the maximum shear stress at any possible orientation in the block is
P 187,500 N
τ max = = = 12.50 MPa Ans.
2 A 2(7,500 mm 2 )

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