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A

PROJECT
ON STUDY AND FABRICATION OF
PNEUMATIC CLUTCH

GUIDED BY : XXXXXXXXXXX

MUCHHALA POLYTECHNIC ,
XXXXXX, XXXXXXXXXXX
2005-2006

SUBMITTED BY
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX

SUBMISSION

I, ( Full Name) Shri /Kum ---------------------------------------------------Roll/ Seat

No.-------------------- a student of FINAL Year Of the course MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING humbly submit that I have completed from time to time the

Seminar / Project work as described in this Report by my own skill and study

between the period From AUGUST 2004 TO APRIL 2005 as per the instruction /

guidance of (Name of Teacher)----------------------------------And that, following

students were associated with me for this work. However, the teacher has

approved quantum of my contribution. And that, I have not copied the Report or it’s

an appreciable part from any other Literature in contravention of the academic

ethics.

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

2
Date:---------------------- ( Signature of the

Student)

INDEX

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

1. INTRODUCTION

2. WORKING PRINCIPLE

3. OPERATION

4. CONSTRUCTION

5. EXPERIMENTATION

6. ENGINE CONTROLS

7. SELECTION OF MATERIAL

8. DESIGN

9. FABRICATION

10. COST ESTIMATION

12 DISMANTLING PROCEDURE

13 CONCLUSION

3
14 REFRENCES

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


MUCHHALA POLYTECHNIC
THANE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are very glad to present this project report on “STUDY AND
FABRICATION OF AUTOMOBILE CLUTCH”. Many people have contributed
directly or indirectly in successful making of this project. So we would like to
express our gratitude towards them.

We are very much obliged to our project guide Prof.XXXXXXXX head of


Mechanical Engineering Department for guiding us. His valuable suggestions
contributed for systematic and timely completion of our project work.

We would equally also like to thank our work sop staff and power
engineering lab personnel’s for guiding and helping us timely. We are also very
much thankful to our honorable Principal Prof. LOLGE for his co-operation
and making all the facilities available for us.
Finally, we would also thank all our teaching and non-teaching staff
members and our friends who directly or indirectly contributed to the same.
Last but not the least we are thankful to our parents who inspired us and made all
the facilities available for us.

1)

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2)
3)
4)

CHAPTER-01
INTRODUCTION

5
CLUTCHES A clutch is a form of a coupling. The clutch engages and
disengages the engine crankshaft to or from the transmission and the rest of the
power train. Engine power to the load must be applied slowly to allow a smooth
engagement and to lessen shock on the driving and driven parts. After
engagement, the clutch must transmit the engine power to the transmission without
slipping. Additionally, the engine must be disconnected from the power train in
order to shift gears.
Figure1.—Typical manual shift transmission.

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7
Figure 2 -Types of clutches.
Clutches transmit power from member to the driven member by friction. In the
DISC CLUTCH (fig. 2-3), the driving plate secured to the engine flywheel gradually
contacts the driven member (disc) attached to the transmission input shaft. The
contact is made and held by strong spring pressure controlled by the operator

8
with the clutch pedal (fig. 2-4). With only light spring pressure, there is little

Fig3: clutch side view


friction between the two members, and the clutch can slip; therefore, do not use the
clutch pedal as a footrest. As the spring pressure increases, friction also increases,
and less slippage occurs. When the operator’s foot is removed from the clutch
pedal and the full spring pressure is applied the speed of the driving plate
and driven disc is the same and all slipping stops. The flywheel and the
transmission input shaft are then connected. Improper adjustment can damage or
ruin a clutch. Figure shows the proper free travel and linkage. Several clutch
troubles may occur during vehicle operation that should be documented and
turned in before too much damage occurs. These troubles include incorrect

9
free travel, slipping, chattering, or grabbing when engaging; spinning or
dragging when engaged; and clutch noises.
MANUAL TRANSMISSION The transmission is located at the rear of the engine
between the clutch housing and the propeller shaft. The transmission transfers
engine power from the clutch shaft to the propeller shaft and allows the operator to
change the gear ratio between the engine and the rear wheels.

Figure 4 -Cross section of a disc clutch

10
. Figure 5 -Disc clutch operation

. Figure 6 -Clutch linkage.


Dual-ratio, or two-speed rear axles are often used on trucks. They have two
gear ratios that can be chosen by the operator, usually by a manual control lever. A
dual-ratio rear axle works the same as the auxiliary transmission; it doubles the
number of gear ratios for driving the vehicle under the various loads and on

11
different roads. The most common transmission type is the synchromesh
transmission. The synchromesh transmission is basically a constant mesh,
collar-shift transmission with an extra device, called a synchronizer, to equalize the
speed of the mating parts before they engage. The synchronizer is used in all
manual automotive transmissions and is common in other equipment where
shifting while moving is required. Part of the prestart operation is to check the fluid
level in the manual transmission. The normal level of lubricant is usually at the
bottom of the filler plug opening. When lubricant is needed, you should always
check the operator’s manual for the location and type of lubricant required for the
transmission. When you keep the lubricant level correct, the gear teeth are
protected, foam is reduced, and the transmission runs smoothly.
Some transmission troubles that you may encounter and must document are as
follows: Hard shifting Slipping out of gear No power through the transmission
Transmission noisy when in gear Gear-clash in shifting Oil leaks.

Fig:7 a colour view of clutch


Manual Shift Operation Skill in manual shifting is a requirement of professional
driving. Poor manual shifting results in poor vehicle performance and can
cause vehicle damage. Know the gearshift lever positions so well that you can

12
shift to any gear without looking at the shift lever. The gearshift pattern is usually

13
diagramed in the vehicle or in the operator’s manual. Never move the gearshift
lever from one position to another while the engine is running until you have
fully depressed the clutch pedal with your left foot. To shift gears smoothly
and quietly, you must keep the pedal fully depressed until the shift has been
completed. You should understand that the clutch provides the means of applying
engine power to the wheels smoothly and gradually. To be a professional operator,
you must learn just where the clutch starts to engage, how far the pedal must move
to become fully engaged how much free play there is in the pedal, and how fast
you should engage the clutch. Keep your foot off the clutch pedal except when
actually starting, stopping, or shifting gears. Even the slight constant pressure on

14
the clutch pedal causes excessive wear. For the same reason, when stopped on a
hill, never slip your clutch to keep from rolling backward; instead, use the
brakes. Depress the clutch pedal and shift the transmission shift lever into neutral
while waiting for a long traffic light or when halted for other reasons. Release the
clutch after shifting into neutral. When slowing your vehicle to stop or make a turn,
be sure to reduce the vehicle speed to 15 miles per hour or less before
depressing the clutch pedal. Coasting a vehicle at a high rate of speed with the
clutch pedal depressed is dangerous, because control becomes more difficult and
damage to the clutch may occur. This kind of practice is abusive to the vehicle.
CLUTCH SHIFTING.— After the prestart operation has been performed
and you have acquainted yourself with the instruments and controls of the
vehicle, warm the engine with the transmission in neutral. Start the vehicle
moving with the transmission in low or first gear by following these steps: 1.
Depress the clutch pedal and shift into low gear. 2. Check the mirrors, check blind
spots, and give signals as required. 3. Let the clutch pedal up slowly, pausing at
the friction point or when you feel it taking hold. Again, recheck the mirrors for
traffic. 4. Release the parking brake and slowly release the clutch pedal, and at the
same time, slightly depress the accelerator. 5. When the driving operation is
under way, remove your left foot completely from the clutch pedal.
DOUBLE-CLUTCH SHIFTING.— Professional driving practice in trucks (1 1/2 ton
or larger) often requires double clutching to permit proper engagement of the
gears and to prevent loss of momentum. To shift to a lower gear by double
clutching, follow these steps: 1. Release the pressure from the accelerator as you
begin depressing the clutch pedal. 2. When the clutch pedal is fully depressed,
move the gearshift lever to neutral position 3. Release the clutch pedal, and at
the same time, depress the accelerator to speed up the engine. 4. Letup on the
accelerator and depress the clutch pedal. 5. While the pedal is depressed move the
gearshift lever to the next lower gear. 6. Release the clutch pedal, and at the same
time, depress the accelerator to maintain engine speed as the load is again
connected to the engine by the engagement of the clutch. The procedure is the

15
same for shifting to a higher gear speed, except that the engine is NOT
accelerated while the transmission is in neutral.
CAUTION When you are shifting gears in rough terrain and on hills, never let
your vehicle slow down to a point where the engine begins to labor or jerk before
shifting into a lower gear ratio. Always anticipate the need for extra power and shift
gears accordingly. When descending a hill, with or without a heavy cargo load,
always drive with your vehicle in gear and the clutch pedal out.
NOTE: You may encounter vehicles that may have more complicated
transmissions, such as multigear ranges, dual-speed axles, or other special
features. As an operator, read and understand the operator’s manual pertaining to
a particular vehicle before attempting to operate it.
It is designed to machine gun or in fire control cams. The shape of the connect
or disconnect a driving and a driven part as a means of stopping or starting the
driven part. There are that seen in bicycles. It engages the rear sprocket with two
general classes of clutches: positive clutches and the rear wheel when the pedals
are pushed forward and friction clutches. Lets the rear wheel revolve freely when
the pedals are Positive clutches have teeth that interlock. The stopped. simplest is
the jaw or claw type (fig. 11-25, A), usable The object of a friction clutch is to
connect a rotating only at low speeds. The teeth of the spiral claw or ratchet
member to one that is stationary, to bring it up to speed, type interlock only one
way—they and to transmit power with a minimum of slippage. cannot be reversed.
An example of this type of clutch is Figure 11-25, C, shows a cone clutch
commonly used in motor trucks. Friction clutches may be single-cone or double-
cone. Figure shows a disc clutch, also used in autos. A disc clutch also may have
several plates (multiple-disc clutch). In a series of discs, each driven disc is
located between two driving discs. You may have had experience with a multiple-
disc clutch on your car. The Hele-Shaw clutch is a combined conical-disc clutch. Its
groove permits cooling and circulation of oil. Single-disc clutches are frequently dry
clutches (no lubrication); multiple-disc clutches may be dry or wet (either lubricated
or operated with oil). Magnetic clutches are a recent development in which the
friction surfaces are brought together by magnetic force when the electricity is

16
turned on. The induction clutch transmits power without contact between the
driving and driven parts. The way pressure is applied to the rim block, split ring,
band, or roller determines the names of expanding clutches or rim clutches. In one
type of expanding clutch, right- and left-hand screws expand as a sliding sleeve
moves along a shaft and expands the band against the rim. The centrifugal clutch
is a special application of a block clutch. Machines containing heavy parts to be
moved, such as a rolling mill, use oil clutches. The grip of the coil causes great
friction when it is thrust onto a cone on the driving shaft. Yet the clutch is very
sensitive to control. Diesel engines and transportation equipment use pneumatic
and hydraulic clutches. Hydraulic couplings, which also serve as clutches, are used
in the hydraulic A-end of electric-hydraulic gun drives.

CLUTCH

Gear box

Lay out of transmission system

17
CHAPTER-02
WORKING
The clutch is placed in the power train of motorized equipment for two
purposes: First, it provides a means of disconnecting the power of the engine
from the driving wheels and accessory equipment. When you disengage the
clutch, the engine can run without driving the vehicle or operating the
accessories. Second, when you start the vehicle, the clutch allows the engine to
take up the load of driving the vehicle or accessories gradually and without shock.

18
Clutches are located in the power train between the source of power and the
operating unit. Usually, they are placed between the engine and the transmission
assembly, as shown in figure.

Clutches generally transmit power from the clutch-driving member to the


driven member by friction. Strong springs within the plate clutch gradually bring the
driving member (plate), secured to the engine flywheel, in contact with the driven
member controls the pressure of the springs through use of the clutch. If the driver
only applies light pressure, little friction takes place between the two members,
which permits the clutch to slip. As the driver increases pressure, friction also
increases and less slippage occurs. When the driver’s foot releases pressure
from the clutch pedal and applies full spring pressure, the driving plate and driven
disc move at the same speed. All slipping then stops because of the direct
connection between the driving and driven shafts. In most clutches, a direct
mechanical linkage exists between the clutch pedal and the clutch release yoke
lever. Many late model vehicles and some larger units that require greater pressure
to release the spring use a hydraulic clutch release system. A master cylinder,
similar to the brake master cylinder, attaches to the clutch pedal. A cylinder, similar

19
to a single-acting brake wheel cylinder, connects to the master cylinder by flexible
pressure hose or metal tubing. The slave cylinder connects to the clutch release
yoke lever. Movement of the clutch pedal actuates the clutch master cylinder.
Hydraulic pressure transfers this movement to the slave cylinder, which, in turn,
actuates the clutch release yoke lever. We use various types of clutches. Most
passenger cars and light trucks use the previously mentioned plate clutch. The
plate clutch is a simple clutch with three the clutch shaft and faced on both sides
with friction plates, one of which is clamped between the other two materials. When
the clutch is fully engaged, the driven Figure shows exploded and cross-sectional
views disc is firmly clamped between the flywheel and the of a plate clutch. driving
plate by the pressure of the clutch springs.

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Fig: Single-disk clutch

21
That results in a direct, non slipping connection between the driving and driven
members of the clutch. In this position, the driven disc rotates the clutch shaft to which
the driving members of the single-disk clutch it is splined. The clutch shaft is connected
to the driving consist of the flywheel and the driving (pressure) plate. Wheels through the
transmission, the driven member consists of a single disk, splined to drive, differential,
and live axles. Propeller shaft, final double-disk clutch is basically the same as the
single-plate disk clutch except that another driven disk and intermediate driving plate are
added.

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23
Clutch linkage. transmission transfers engine power from the clutch shaft to the
propeller shaft and allows the operator to change the gear ratio between the engine
and the rear wheels. Dual-ratio, or two-speed rear axles are often used on
trucks. They have two gear ratios that can be chosen by the operator, usually by a

24
manual control lever. A dual-ratio rear axle works the same as the auxiliary

transmission; it doubles the number of gear ratios for driving the vehicle under
the various loads and on different roads. The most common transmission type
is the synchromesh transmission. The synchromesh transmission is basically
a constant mesh, collar-shift transmission with an extra device, called a
synchronizer, to equalize the speed of the mating parts before they engage. The
synchronizer is used in all manual automotive transmissions and is common
in other equipment where shifting while moving is required. Part of the prestart
operation is to check the fluid level in the manual transmission. The normal level of
lubricant is usually at the bottom of the filler plug opening. When lubricant is
needed, you should always check the operator’s manual for the location and type
of lubricant required for the transmission. When you keep the lubricant level
correct, the gear teeth are protected, foam is reduced, and the transmission runs
smoothly. Some transmission troubles that you may encounter and must document

25
are as follows: l l l l l l Hard shifting Slipping out of gear No power through the
transmission Transmission noisy when in gear Gear clash in shifting Oil leaks

Manual Shift Operation Skill in manual shifting is a requirement of


professional driving. Poor manual shifting results in poor vehicle performance
and can cause vehicle damage. Know the gearshift lever positions so well that
you can shift to any gear without looking at the shift lever. The gearshift pattern is
usually diagramed in the vehicle or in the operator’s manual. Never move the
gearshift lever from one position to another while the engine is running until
you have fully depressed the clutch pedal with your left foot. To shift gears
smoothly and quietly, you must keep the pedal fully depressed until the shift has
been completed. You should understand that the clutch provides the means of
applying engine power to the wheels smoothly and gradually. To be a professional
operator, you must learn just where the clutch starts to engage, how far the pedal
must move to become fully engaged how much free play there is in the pedal, and
how fast you should engage the clutch. Keep your foot off the clutch pedal except
when actually starting, stopping, or shifting gears. Even the slight constant
pressure on the clutch pedal causes excessive wear. For the same reason, when
stopped on a hill, never slip your clutch to keep from rolling backward;
instead, use the brakes. Depress the clutch pedal and shift the transmission shift
lever into neutral while waiting for a long traffic light or when halted for other
reasons. Release the clutch after shifting into neutral. When slowing your vehicle to
stop or make a turn, be sure to reduce the vehicle speed to 15 miles per hour or
less before depressing the clutch pedal. Coasting a vehicle at a high rate of
speed with the clutch pedal depressed is dangerous, because control becomes
more difficult and damage to the clutch may occur. This kind of practice is abusive
to the vehicle.

CLUTCH SHIFTING.— After the prestart operation has been


performed and you have acquainted yourself with the instruments and
controls of the vehicle, warm the engine with the transmission in neutral.
Start the vehicle moving with the transmission in low or first gear by following these

26
steps: 1. Depress the clutch pedal and shift into low gear. 2. Check the mirrors,
check blind spots, and give signals as required. 3. Let the clutch pedal up slowly,
pausing at the friction point or when you feel it taking hold. Again, recheck the
mirrors for traffic. 4. Release the parking brake and slowly release the clutch
pedal, and at the same time, slightly depress the accelerator. 5. When the driving
operation is under way, remove your left foot completely from the clutch pedal.

DOUBLE-CLUTCH SHIFTING.— Professional driving practice in trucks (1


1/2 ton or larger) often requires double clutching to permit proper engagement
of the gears and to prevent loss of momentum. To shift to a lower gear by double
clutching, follow these steps: 1. Release the pressure from the accelerator as you
begin depressing the clutch pedal. 2. When the clutch pedal is fully depressed,
move the gearshift lever to neutral position 3. Release the clutch pedal, and at
the same time, depress the accelerator to speed up the engine. 4. Letup on the
accelerator and depress the clutch pedal. 5. While the pedal is depressed move the
gearshift lever to the next lower gear. 6. Release the clutch pedal, and at the same
time, depress the accelerator to maintain engine speed as the load is again
connected to the engine by the engagement of the clutch. The procedure is the
same for shifting to a higher gear speed, except that the engine is NOT
accelerated while the transmission is in neutral.
CAUTION When you are shifting gears in rough terrain and on hills, never let
your vehicle slow down to a point where the engine begins to labor or jerk before
shifting into a lower gear ratio. Always anticipate the need for extra power and shift
gears accordingly. When descending a hill, with or without a heavy cargo load,
always drive with your vehicle in gear and the clutch pedal out.
NOTE: You may encounter vehicles that may have more complicated
transmissions, such as multigear ranges, dual-speed axles, or other special
features. As an operator, read and understand the operator’s manual pertaining to
a particular vehicle before attempting to operate it.

A multiple-disk clutch is one having more than three plates or disks. Some have as
many as 11 driving plates and 10 driven disks. Because the multiple-disk

27
clutch has a greater frictional area than a plate clutch, it is suitable as a steering
clutch on crawler types of tractors.

The multiple-disk clutch is sometimes used on heavy trucks. Its operation is very
much like that of the plate clutch and has the same release mechanism. The
facings, however, are usually attached to the driving plates rather than to the driven
disks. That reduces the weight of the driven disks and keeps them from spinning
after the clutch is released.
You may run into other types of friction clutches such as the lubricated plate clutch
and the cone clutch. These types are seldom used on automatic equipment.
However, fluid drives are largely replacing the friction clutches in automobiles, light
trucks, and some tractors.

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58

230ф

244Φ

44ф

CLUTCH PLATE

44 ф

20

40 PRESS BUSH

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Taper roller main bearings with generous side-loading capacity. Universal
for application to either side (radial) load or in-line axial loads.
Press-fit pilot shaft to eliminate slippage and wear on shaft pilot surface. Supplied
with sealed for life pilot bearing.
Grease hose with stainless steel braiding for improved heat and wear resistance.
Clutch engagement mechanism: "A" type = ball bearing equipped, "B" type =
bronze collar equipped.
Long engagement lever for more comfortable operation.
Friction materials: Popular high capacity non-asbestos lining.
Adjustment collar, with convenient locking device, painted red to catch operators
attention. Since clutch life is dependent of regular adjustment, this feature has
proven very beneficial.
Cotter pins secure the linkage pins reliably.
Lubrication points.
Both standard and short shaft versions available.

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Full product support services and same day parts shipment policy.

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CHAPTER-03
AUTOMOBILE CLUTCHES
Preamble:
The correct usage of a Mechanical Transmission Car’s Clutch continues to elude a
vast majority of Motorists. Yet, if the basics of it are understood – which is no
Einstein’s Theory of Relativity – there is nothing simpler or easier than that.

34
In the following Paras of Part-I of this Article, let’s take a conducted tour of what this
bugbear is all about. In Part-II, we’ll discuss a real-life situation.
What is a ‘Clutch’ anyway!–

In simple speak, it’s a device introduced between the Engine and Gearbox/Wheels
of a Car – to enable the Car to take off smoothly from stand still, accelerate it
through its various gears, cruise, bring it to stand-still again and of course to reverse
it inevitably – as and when required.

How does it work?

The principle of its working is some what like Brakes – both using a specially
designed long life ‘friction material’ made to rub against a rotating metallic surface in
order to bring it to a halt.

However, the difference between the two is that in case of Brakes, halt means
bringing the car ‘smoothly’ to a stop when actuated where as in a Clutch, it ‘almost’
rigidly-couples the Engine/Flywheel to the Gearbox/Input Shaft. Why I say ‘almost’ is
because it’s not a metallic jaw/tooth kind of a lock but sandwiching of the friction
material between two metallic ones under ‘adequate’ pressure.

A typical Clutch Assembly:

The ‘Diaphragm’ type Clutch Assy deployed in most present day cars comprises –
I) the Flywheel ‘Face’, ii) the Clutch ‘Disc/Plate’, iii) the ‘Pressure Plate’ and iv)
‘Release’ Bearing. The illustration below should give one an idea as to how they
are all ‘lined-up’ inside the ‘Bell-Housing’.

35
When you depress the Clutch Pedal in the Cabin, a 'cable' linking the pedal to the
Clutch Operating Mechanism pushes the Release Bearing forward towards the
'Fingers' of the Pressure Plate Diaphragm - to release the Clutch-Disc otherwise
held firmly between the Engine Flywheel at one end and the ‘Pressure-Plate at the
other and vice–versa.

The Clutch Disc is mounted on the Gearbox Input Shaft, which is ‘splined’ (the
male) and a mating female ‘hub’ at the centre of the Clutch Disc. The sketch above
is illustrative of such an arrangement.

Normally, assuming your Clutch is correctly adjusted, which is seldom the case,
with your foot completely off the clutch pedal - the Release Bearing is a supposed
to be a little distance away from the PP-Fingers and thus not rotating.

Looking at the clutch housing on the flywheel Single, dry, clutch friction disc, the
hub is attached to the disc with spring dampeners.

36
A clutch is any mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be engaged and
disengaged. In everyday use, the term clutch refers to a subcomponent of motor
vehicle engine's transmission designed to allow engagement or disengagement of
the engine to the gearbox or whatever apparatus is being driven.

There are many different vehicle clutch designs, but most are based on one or
more friction discs, pressed tightly together or against a flywheel using springs. The
friction material is very similar to the material used in brake shoes and pads and
used to contain asbestos. The spring pressure is released when the clutch pedal is
depressed and the discs are held less tightly and allowed to rotate freely. A wet
clutch is immersed in lubricating fluid to keep the surfaces clean and to cool it, for
improved performance and longer life; while a dry clutch is not. Since the surfaces
of a wet clutch can be slippery (as with a motorcycle clutch bathed in engine oil),
stacking multiple clutch disks can compensate for slippage.

In a car it is operated by the left-most pedal using hydraulics or a cable connection


from the pedal to the clutch mechanism. No pressure on the pedal means that the
clutch plates are engaged (driving), while depressing the pedal will disengage the
clutch plates, allowing the driver to shift gears.

There are other clutches found in a car. For example, the radiator fan may have a
clutch that is heat-activated. One such design is a special fluid coupling. When the

37
temperature is low, the special fluid is thin and so the clutch slips. When the
temperature is high, the fluid thickens, causing the fan to spin.

A manual transmission contains clutches for selecting gears. These clutches have
matching teeth, so-called dog teeth, which means that the rotation speeds of the
two parts have to match for engagement. This speed matching is achieved by a
secondary clutch called a synchromesh, a device that uses frictional contact to
bring the two parts to the same speed, and a locking mechanism called a blocker
ring to prevent engagement of the teeth (full movement of the shift lever into gear)
while the speeds are not synchronized.

On most motorcycles, the clutch is operated by the clutch lever, located on the left
handlebar. No pressure on the lever means that the clutch plates are engaged
(driving), while pulling the lever back towards the rider will disengage the clutch
plates, allowing the rider to shift. Some cars and mopeds have an automatic clutch,
using centrifugal forces to engage the clutch above certain rpm, see Saxomat.

When engaging the clutch, the engine speed may need to be increased from idle,
using the manual throttle, so that the engine does not stall. However, raising the
engine speed too high will cause excessive clutch plate wear and cause a harsh,
jerky start. This kind of start is desired in drag racing and other competition,
however.

A clutch may also be a device on a shaft that will "slip" when higher than normal
resistance is encountered on a machine. An example of a clutch such as this may
be mounted on the driving shaft of a large grass mower. The clutch will "slip" or
"give" if the blades were to hit a rock, stump, or other immobile object.

Classification of Clutches:-
There are large numbers of clutches used in different types of motor vehicles. They
are classified as:-
1. Friction clutch
a. Cone clutch

38
i) External
ii) Internal
b. Single plate clutch
c. Multi plate clutch
i) Wet
ii) Dry
2. Centrifugal assisted clutch
3. Semi- centrifugal clutch
4. coil spring clutch
5. Diaphragm clutch or conical spring clutch
a. tapered finger clutch
b. crown spring type
6. Positive clutch
a. Dog and splines
Types of clutches:-
The following types of clutches are employed in vehicles:-
1. cone clutch
2. inverted cone clutch
3. single plate clutch
4. multplte clutch
5. diaphragm clutch
6. automatic clutch or fluid fly wheel clutch
The cones and inverted clutch are now being phased out. Hence remaining
types are discussed as:-

Single Plate Clutch : This type of clutch is now being widely used in cars,
trucks and tractors. As shown in figure 2.6, it comprises ;

(i) flywheel
(ii) clutch plate or driven plate
(iii) pressure plate assembly

39
(iv) pilot or spigot bearing
(v) clutch shaft
(vi) thrust springs
(vii) clutch fork
(viii) release or carbon thrust bearing
(ix) link for clutch pedal free play adjustment,
(x) clutch pedal
(xi) driving studs and
(xii) withdrawal sleeve.

The flywheel is attached to the crankshaft and rotates with it. A pilot or spigot
bearing as its centre supports the clutch shaft at one end. The clutch plate has a
pair of friction linings riveted on either side. The linings are of asbestos-based
materials which have a high coefficient of friction. The clutch plate has a splined
boss at the centre. This is to enable it to slide and rotate along with the clutch or
gearbox input shaft.
The pressure plate is fitted at the flywheel by driving studs. The necessary axial
pressure is given by a number of thrust springs. A clearance known as clutch pedal
free play is left between the withdrawal sleeve and clutch fork to allow the thrust
springs to exert full pressure on the clutch plate.
The clutch facing or lining may be of leather, cork, fabric or asbestos. Now-a-days
asbestos-based material having a coefficient of friction of about 0.35 is being
commonly used. Such a material has good wear properties, high coefficient of
friction and high resistance to heat.
the clutch driving Clutches transmit power from member to the driven member by
friction. In the DISC CLUTCH (fig.), the driving plate secured to the engine flywheel
gradually contacts the driven member (disc) attached to the transmission input
shaft. The contact is made and held by strong spring pressure controlled by the
operator with the clutch pedal (fig.). With only light spring pressure, there is little
friction between the two members, and the clutch can slip; therefore, do not use the
clutch pedal as a footrest. As the spring pressure increases, friction also increases,

40
and less slippage occurs. When the operator’s foot is removed from the clutch
pedal and the full spring pressure is applied the speed of the driving plate
and driven disc is the same and all slipping stops. The flywheel and the
transmission input shaft are then connected.
Multiplate Clutch
A Multiplate clutch is used to scooters, motorcycles, racing cars and bulldozers. In
small vehicles, the size of the clutch, spring thrust and type of lining poses a
restriction. The torque transmitted depends upon the type and strength of the
friction plate and spring stiffness.
Following Figure , shows a multi-plate disc clutch, also used in autos. A disc clutch
also may have several plates (multiple-disc clutch). In a series of discs, each
driven disc is located between two driving discs. You may have had experience
with a multiple-disc clutch on your car

Fig: a pictorial view of multi plate clutch

41
42
Centrifugal clutch:-
They resemble the coil spring clutches. The release levers of such clutches have
weights attached to the outer ends. As the speed increases, the weights are forced
outwards due to the centrifugal force’s the release levers now apply greater
pressure on the pressure plate, increasing the contact between fly wheel and
clutch plate. the clutch pedal effort is reduced and smaller pressure springs are
required.

Mopeds employ centrifugal clutches having a spider as the driving member. This
spider has four shoes forming the frictional surfaces. These are kept in contact with
the cylindrical clutch case by means of flat springs. As the speed increases, the
shoes extend outwards due to centrifugal force and make contact with the
cylindrical clutch case to transmit full power.

Fluid Flywheel Clutch:


Fluid flywheels are used as clutches in cars employing automatic transmissions. It
comprises of :

- turbine (driven member)


- pump (driving member)
- oil seal
- clutch shaft
- flywheel

the turbine and the pumps have a number of vanes and the two are placed facing
each other. The pump is driven by the engine crankshaft, and the turbine drives the
clutch shaft. These two units are placed in a housing filled with oil and are
separated from each other by a small clearance.

The fluid flywheel has the following advantages over conventional clutches :

43
- lesser maintenance costs
- torsional vibrations are damped
- no adjustment is required.
- Clutch pedal is eliminated altogether
- The transmission shocks are absorbed by the fluid.

Diaphragm clutch:-
In this type of clutch, the clamping pressure is provided by means of a diaphragm
instead of coil pressure springs. It comprises of :

- pressure plate
- diaphragm springs
- fulcrum springs
- cover bolted to flywheel
- release bearings
- fork

the diaphragm is a conical steel disc, with its outer periphery located in the
pressure plate but pivoted to the cover by fulcrum rings and locating studs. There
are slots starting from the centre of the diaphragm to form a number of release
fingers. Projections of the pressure plate house in the slots made in the driving
plate. The release bearings applies pressure at the centre of the diaphragm.

The advantages of the diaphragm clutch over conventional clutches are as


follows:
- less effort is required to keep the clutch disengaged
- it does not have release levers, the slots emanating from the diaphragm
center act as a series of levers.
- Rattles and squeaks are eliminated.
- It is compact in design and requires only a small sized housing

44
- Engine speeds have no effect on the diaphragm-spring clamping thrusts
whereas coil springs tend to bend
- Accurate balancing of the clutch assembly eliminates vibrations. This act is
balanced at all times.
- The operating load is uniform on the clutch plate.

fig: Diaphrgm clutch

45
Fig : fluid fly wheel clutch

46
CHAPTER-04
DESIGN OF CLUTCH
Clutch: A friction clutch found in vehicles equipped with a manual transmis-
sion consists of a clutch disk connecting the wheel of the engine and the
transmission's input shaft. When the clutch is engaged, no internal friction is
assumed, giving Mc = Mt, according to Figure 2.2. The transmitted torque
is a function of the angular difference (µm ¡ µc) and the angular velocity
di®erence (  θ m -θ c) over the clutch
Mc = Mt = ft(θ m -θ c ; ′ θ ⋅ m -θ c )

Figure : Subsystems of a vehicular driveline with its input and output


angle and torque.

Example :
A single plate clutch is to have a maximum capacity of 76 H P at 1800 rpm.
The clutch facing has a coefficient of friction of 0.4 and permissible pressure

47
of 2.11 kg cm2, considering uniform wear. The clutch is engaged through 12
springs.
Determine the diameters of the clutch facing, if the inner diameter is 0.7 times
the outer. Find also the spring force of each spring when the clutch is
engaged.

Solution :

HP x 4500
Torque = ------------------------
2 x 3.14 x N

76 x 4500
T = --------------------------
2 x 3.14 x 1800

= 30.20 kg.m

= 3020 kg.cm.

also, T = 3.14 u C (r21 - r22) x 2

3020 = 3.14 x 0.4 x 2.11 x r2 (r21 - (0.7)2 r22) x 2

r31 = 1600

r1 = 11.7 cm

and r2 = 8.19 cm

Hence Outside diameter = 23.4 cm

48
Inside diameter = 16.38

Total Axial Force = 2 x 3.14 x C (r1 – r2)

= 2 x 3.14 x 8.19 (11.7 – 8.19) = 381 kg

381
Force on each spring = --------
12

= 31.75 kg.

Clutch: The clutch is assumed to be stiff, which gives the following equations
for the torque and the angle
Mc = Mt and θ m =θ c
Factors affecting power transmitted by a clutch:-
There are two mating surfaces of a single plate clutch. Both of them transmit
torque,
∴T = 2 μ P R
Hence the factors affecting the power transmitted by a multi plate clutch are
:- T = μ P R N
μ = co-efficient of friction
P = spring force
R = Mean radius of the friction faces
N= number of mating surfaces.
Here we have to design the single plate clutch consisting of pair of
contacting surfaces.
The inner and outer diameters are 100mm and 200mm respectively. The coefficient
of friction is 0.2 and the permissible intensity of pressure is 1N/mm2. Assuming the

49
uniform-wear criterion, calculate the power transmitting capacity of the clutch at
1000 rpm.

Πpad
P = ---------- ( D-d)
2
Π(1) (100)
P = ---------------- (200-100) = 15707.96 N
2
цP
now using the equation, (Mt)f = ----- (D+d)
4
substituting the values,
(0.2)(15707.96)
now using the equation, (Mt)f = -------------------- (200+100)
4
= 235619.4 N-mm

2Πn (Mt)f
we know the standard equn, Kw = ---------------
60 x 106

2Π(1000) (235619.4)
Kw = --------------------------
60 x 106
Kw = 24.67
But we have to transfer only 0.5 H.P. = 746/2 = 373 watts, hence our design is
safe.

50
51
52
53
PNEUMATIC CLUTCH

PNEUMATIC CIRCIT DIADRAM I

54
PNEUMATIC CIRCIT DIADRAM II

55
Pneumatic cylinder

(i) Single acting cylinder:- In a single acting cylinder, the compressed air is
fed only in one direction. Hence this cylinder can produce work in only one
direction. The return movement of the piston is effected by a built-in spring
or by application of an external force.
(ii) Double acting cylinder :-Here we have used double acting cylinder It is
the pneumatic actuator, which is actuated using compressed air. The Force
exerted by the compressed air moves the piston in two directions in a double
acting cylinder. In principle, the stroke length is unlimited, although buckling and
bending must be considered before we select a particular size of piston
diameter, rod length and stroke length.
The double acting cylinder consists of 1) Cylinder tube, 2) Piston unit,
3) Double cup packing on piston, rod packing of ‘O’rings, 4) bronze rod guide,
5) piston rod, 6) end covers (flanges) 7) port connection, 8) cushion assembly
The cylinder is manufactured from aluminium solid bar with central
bore on lathe machine. It is then made smooth internally using method of
honing and lapping. It contains piston and piston rod, which reciprocates to and
froe with the application of high-pressure air. The piston is fitted with the piston
ring, which is made of Teflon rubber to make perfect compression of the air.
The material used for various parts differs for different types of cylinders
depending upon applications.

56
There are a great variety of pneumatic linear actuators of which the single-rod
double-acting is the most commonly used in industry. Some other types are shown
below.

The single-rod double-acting actuator has a more powerful push than the pull force.

The double-rod double-acting actuator has equal push and pulls forces and can be
used to simultaneously pull and push.

The rod less double-acting actuator has equal push and pull forces that for the
same bore is higher than the double rod type. As the internal piston moves, it
drives the external slide as it moves in a zip lock fashion. Other cylinders use
magnetic coupling to eliminate the sealing problems but are limited in force
transmission capacity. The double-acting cable air actuator has a cable tied to an
external slide. The cable wraps around a pulley at each end of the piston.

The spring-return (or extend) single-acting actuator. This cylinder uses a spring
force to move the piston in one direction. When pressurized, the air pressure
overcomes the force of the spring and compresses it.

57
One must be sure to allow air to escape from the end with the spring lest you
compress the air inside and in effect make a much stiffer spring.

3) 5/2 Direction control hand operated direction control valve:-


Its basic symbol is as shown below:-

Fig.1.3 D.C. Valve symbol


To control the to and fro motion of a pneumatic cylinder, the air energy has to be
regulated, controlled, and reversed with a predetermined sequence in a pneumatic
system. Similarly one has to control the quantity of pressure and flow rate to
generate desired level of force and speed of actuation. To achieve these functions,
valves are used to-(i) start and stop pneumatic energy, (ii) control the direction of
flow of compressed air, (iii)control the flow rate of the compressed air and (iv)
control the pressure rating of the compressed air.
A direction control valve has two or three working positions
generally. They are:
1. Neutral or zero position
2. Working position

58
The positions are mostly numbered as 0,1,2. Direction control valves are
designated to indicate both the number of ways as well as the number of working
positions such as 4/2, 3/2,5/2 means 5 ways /2positions.
Here we have used 5/2 direction control valve. In this design of direction control
valve, 5 openings are provided .This ensures easy exhausting of the valve along
with the two positions i.e. ON and OFF.
Here the spool slides inside the main bore and according that the spool position is made ON
or OFF due to the fact that the spool gets connected to the open side or the closed side of
the air opening.

4) Air circulating devices:- The compressed air is stored in an air receiver


from which air is drawn out in to the consumer point by means of pipe line. While
lying out the pipe line for the system, one should take sufficient care and pay
attention to see that the pressure drop from the generating point to the point
of consumption remains as low as possible. For economical reason, it is always
better if the total drop of pressure is kept limited to a maximum value of 0.1 bar Or
even less. The following factors are taken into account while selecting pneumatic
pipeline and other air- line installations:-
1) Pressure of compressed air in the lines
2) Total flow rate per unit time through the line
3) Permissible pressure drop in the line
4) Types of tube material and types of line fitting
5) Length and diameter of tube or other pipelines
6) Working environment.
Considered the above factors we have selected the flexible hose tubes of
1/8”diameter.
5) Frame :- Here we have designed C-shaped frame of 75 x 40 x 4.6 cross
section of forged mild steel to hold the different components of the machine.
It consists of following different components:-
i) Base- It forms the robust support to stand the machine vertically. It holds the
weight of the vertical post and supports the direction control valve.. It is made of

59
mild steel channels of size 40 x 75 x 5mm cross section and 285 x 385mm of
rectangular base with the vertical post and the horizontal channel at the top.

Clutch
assembly

60
calculation of moment of Inertia of the system:-
I1 = Hub M.I. ; Diameter =130; weight of hub = 1.1 Kg
I2 = Rim M.I.; Diameter =475; Weight of rim = 5.1 Kg
I3 = Hub M.I.; Diameter=485; weight of tyre = 4 kg
I = M x R2 hence I1 =1.1 x ( 130/2)2
I1 =4647.5 kgmm2
I2 =5.1 x ( 475/2)2
I2 = 287671.8 kgmm2
I3 = 4 x ( 485/2)2
I3= 235225 kgmm2
I = I1 + I2 + I3 = 527544.3 Kg-mm2
Total M.I. = I = 0.528 kgm2
At no load N = 36 rpm
W = 2Π N = 2 x 3.14 x 36 = 26 rad/sec2
T = I x ω2 = 0.528 x (226)2
T = 2698.128 kg-mm
Now we have to find the different values of angular acceleration at constant M.I.
also we have to find the different values of torque at these various values of ‘α ’, by
using the relation
α1 = ω1 - ω2 / T1
hence, T1 = ω1 - ω2 / α1
Here in following table we estimated the values by carrying the actual test on
the unit

Cylinder Sizing Calculator

The air cylinder-sizing calculator below performs the following steps:

1. Calculate the area of the cylinder piston


o Area = Pi x r2

61
2. Multiply the piston area by the air pressure to be used
o Area x Pressure = Force Output

Note: The force output on the rod end of a cylinder will be slightly less due to the
displacement of the rod. The real force output of a cylinder will be less than the
theoretical output because of internal friction and external side loading. It is best to
use a cylinder that will generate from 25% to 50% more force than theoretically
needed.

Material : Al. fs= 210kg/cm2


Bolt material : M.S. ft = 280 kg/cm2

Design a cylinder of internal diameter for Di=4 cm, Internal air pressure
P= 25 kg/cm² Max. ft=210kg/cm² and max. ftb= 280 kg/cm². For this information
we have to find

Thickness = D 210+25 1
2 210-25

5 235
t= 1
2 185

t = 0.317

t = 0.32 cm = 3.2mm

62
Therefore t = 3.2mm
To find the outer diameter of the cylinder,
Outer diameter Do = Di + 2 ( t )
= 50 + 2 ( 3.2)

= 50 + 6.4

= 56.4 mm

Width of packing = 0.5 cm

Force trying to separate the flanges,

F = 3.14 D1² x P/4

= (3.14/4 ) (5) ² x 25

= 491 kg

Force trying to be resisted by four bolts, i.e. Force on each bolt

F = F1 = 491 kg

Let dc = core diameter


.
. . F = Π / 4 dc² ft

63
dc = 4 x 491
3.14x 280

= 1.4cm

= 14 mm

Nominal diameter of the bolts are arranged at the corners of a square of


such size that the corners of the nut clears the outside of the cylinder.
Therefore the min. Length of diagonal of square,

L=D+2t+2d

L = 5 + 2 x (3.2) + 2 x1.4

L = 14.2 cm

The sides of the square = L1 = L / √2 = 10 cm

The sides of the flange must be of sufficient length to accommodate the nuts
and bolts Heads without overhung.
Therefore Length L2 = L1 + 2 d = 10 + ( 2 x 1.4 )

L2 = 12.8 cm.

In order to find the thickness of the flange, consider the bending moment. It will
take place due to the force in two bolts.
Bending moment due to the force in two bolts,

M1 = 2 F x L1/2

= 2 x 491 x 10/2

= 4910 kg-cm.

64
The air pressure acting on half flange,

=2xF = 2 x 491 = 982 kg.

The flanges are screwed with the cylinder having metric threads of

4.4 threads / cm (Pitch=0.0228)

Hence the Nominal or Major diameter of thread,

= D+2xt

= 5+ 2 (3.2)

= 11.4 cm.

Nominal radius of thread = Major diameter


2
11.4
= 2
= 5.7cm.

Now the depth of the thread,


= 0.64 x pitch

= .64 x .228 = 0.145 cm = 1.4 mm

Core or minor radius of the thread,


= Nominal radius – depth

= 2.2-0.145 = 2.05 cm.

Mean radius of arc over which load due to air pressure may be taken
to be concentrated

= ½ ( Nominal radius + minor radius)

= ½ ( 2.2 + 2.05) = 2.125 cm.

The centroid of this arc,

= 0.6366 x Mean radius

= 0.6366 x 2.125 = 1.35 cm

Bending moment due to air pressure,

65
M2 = 2 x F X The centroid of the arc

= 2 x 491 x 1.35

= 1325.7 kg- cm.

Since M1 and M2 are in the opposite direction

Therefore the resultant bending moment will be,

M = M1 – M2
= 4910 - 1325.7
= 3584.3 kg – cm.

Now the width of the flange

B = L2 – out side diameter of the cylinder

= 128 – 56.4

= 71.6 mm.

Tf = thickness of the flange, using the relation,

M = fb x Z

= fb x 1 / 6 x B tf²

3584.3 = 210 x 1 / 6 x 71.6 x tf²

tf = 1.19 cm = 11.9 mm. = 12 mm.

66
67
68
CHAPTER-05
CLUTCH BONDING

Bonding Technology

Thermo Adhesive Technology

Midwest Brake utilizes state of the art, thermo adhesive bonding


technology. The highest quality adhesives are used to provide the
strongest bond strength.

Automated Bonding Press Technology

State of the art bonding ovens and platen presses provide a quality
bond that is consistent every time.

Computer Controlled Automation

All aspects of the bonding process are monitored and recorded by a


computer controlled interface that records the cycle time, temperature
and pressure during the bonding cycle. By insuring that the adhesive
is properly cured and set, we set the standard in the industry for
quality and reliability.

Capacity

69
Midwest Brake has a 120,000 square foot facility that is second to
none. Our equipment is state of the art and provides the ability to
bond clutch plates up to 114” in diameter. With over 15 state of the art
presses and ovens, Midwest Brake can accommodate all sizes of
clutch plates and brake bands quickly and easily.

The driver of the automobile controls the operate accessory attachments. The
propeller shafts and clutch assemblies of these power trains are very much like
those used to drive the wheels.

Friction Material

There is a variety of frictions for the following product lines:

• Sheet Stock
• Custom Molded Products
• Arced Segments
• Flexible Molded
• Woven Material
• Gear Tooth Facings
• Full Facing
• Integrally Molded Products

Special Integrally Molded Segments


Woven & Flexible Friction Material

70
Molded Gear Tooth Facings Sheet Stock

Following are the grades of friction lining Material used for clutch:-
Grades of Friction Material
• Standard

• OEM
• Premium
• Flat Sheet Stock
• Flexible Molded

• Flexible Woven
Delivery
• Fast Turnaround

• Pick Up & Delivery Services Available


Machining Services
• Machine friction blocks to special dimensions.

• Machine clutch/brake plates to parallel


Repair
• Welding & fabricating services available for repair services
Reverse Engineer Special Parts
• We can reverse engineer hard to find parts

71
CHAPTER-06
MAINTENANCE

Wet Clutch Rebuilds


Midwest Brake - Press Pac®

Komatsu Wet Clutch


Dry / Pneumatic Clutch Rebuilds
All Styles of Dry Clutch Rebuilds

We can inspect, disassemble, repair & rebuild all style of clutch/brake units for
presses. We can machine & repair component parts, reline clutch/brake plates. We
also provide field service engineers who can install and check out your system to
insure that your newly rebuilt unit is operating properly.

72
Diaphragms are used as an air bladder to lock the air between chambers in a
clutch or brake to actuate the clutch and brake.

Each manufacturer has their own mounting hole pattern and dimensions. Midwest
Brake® has standard diaphragms available or we can cut to size based on a
sample (new or used) or from a customer supplied drawing of the diaphragm.

Our diaphragms are much stronger than that of OEM supplied diaphragms. The 2
ply neoprene material has a burst strength of 3000 PSI that will extend the life of
the diaphragm and lower downtime and life cycle costs.

Diaphragms Available for the Following Presses:

• Clearing*
• Danly
• Hamilton
• IHI
• Minster
• Schuler
• ALL Flat Stock Types Manufactured!!!
• 2-Ply Burst Strength = 3000 PSI

73
The correct adjustment for such Clutches means a ‘Free-Play’ of 2-4 mm ‘at the
main operating lever’ on the Bell Housing and NOT on the pedal in cabin.

On the otherhand, some European designs follow the opposite practice by


deploying suitable long life Release Bearings and Pressure-Plate Fingers. In such
arrangements, the release bearing is always in gentle contact with the PP fingers –
thus eliminating the 2-4 mm kind of free-play as above and a larger one, annoying
at times, at the in-cabin Clutch Pedal.

In such an arrangement, it’s virtually impossible to ‘over-adjust’ the Clutch as talked


about above. If at all attempted, it results in the Clutch Pedal within the Cabin rising
above the adjoining Brake Pedal level and thus makes it almost immediately
apparent - even to a layperson.

Further, since the mechanical effort required to actuate a Clutch is directly


proportional to the max Engine Torque and Power it’s designed to transmit without
‘slipping’, higher powered Cars invariably have a ‘hydraulic-assist’ feature to

74
actuate them – quite like the hydraulic brakes (without vacuum servo assist) as
deployed in lower powered Cars.

MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR:

The MDC Clutch is subject to extreme heat and abuse due to the high slip racing
conditions. The Clutch must be properly maintained for optimum performance.
Remove Clutch and Inspect all components after each racing event on Modified
Classes or five races for Stock Classes.

1. Spacer

Look for cracks or excessive wear. Replace if necessary.

2. Sprocket / Drum Assembly

Oiling the chain before each track session will increase the life of the sprocket.
Replace drum when teeth are worn to a sharp point. Chain adjustment should have at
least 12mm of free play. An over tight chain or chipped chain causes immediate
sprocket wear.

3. Friction Disc

The friction disc has a hard steel core with special friction material bonded to the
surface. Replace when friction material is glazed or worn below .115" thick.

4. Floater

Check for warpage or a polished surface. Replace as needed.

5. Pressure Plate

The pressure plate is precision ground on the surface that engages the Friction Disc.
This surface should be checked periodically for warpage or a glazed condition.

75
Replace or regrind if necessary. Replace also when the thickness is less the minimum
thickness of .116". Also, check studs for cracks or loosening.

6. Drive Hub

Check for wear in the splined area that comes in contact with the floater. Check for
cracks in keyway. Replace if cracked.

7. Levers

The pivot hole in the Lever is subject to stress due to frictional loading from centrifugal
force. This causes the pivot hole to eventually elongate. Inspect the Levers for pivot
hole wear whenever you rebuild the clutch. Replace when severely elongated.

76
CHAPTER-07
CASE STUDY
WE FOR THE SAKE OF STUDY PURPOSE HAVE VISITED MARUTI SERVICE STATION”

NAVNIT MOTORS” THANE. They do not allow to see the actual process but
allowed us to observe the live case study regarding clutch
maintenance of “MARUTI ZEN” model.

• Here we are shortly describing our observation among the


customer and the service station manager as follows:-

77
CUSTOMER SAYS:- I have a Zen (2000 model) with 65000 km on the clock.
Lately there has been some sound coming when clutch is pressed. Maruti
workshop advises to change the clutch. They say the sound is from the bearing but
once it is opened the whole clutch has to be changed.

My previous car was also a Zen, which logged 85000 km but did not have any such
problem. The MASS also acknowledges that there is no immediate need if only
driving in city. I plan to go to a hill station this summer. Do you think I should spend
Rs: 4500 for this? And why is the sound coming only when clutch is slightly
pressed? What is the use of the bearing?

An Answer ( SERVICE MANAGER):-

Most people have a tendency to 'rest' their ‘idle’ foot on the clutch pedal and if so,
at least the CRB would be rotating all the time with the engine - thus shortening its
life - over and above the initial quality of the CRB itself.

Since the labour involved in just replacing the CRB is almost as much as over-
hauling the entire Clutch Assembly, and you've already covered 65 km, which is
nearly the average life of a Clutch in a city like DLH, your Garage has rightly
advised you to take this opportunity of overhauling the Clutch also.

However, once the Clutch Assy is dismantled, with expert examination of its
constituent parts, it's quite possible that a mere change of the CRB and the Clutch
Plate may take you another 50 km or so.

Further, once a CRB develops a noise, its reliability will always be a 'suspect' and if
it 'seizes' forthwith, it'd wreck the ‘Pressure Plate’ Fingers - thus paralyzing the
entire Clutch operation. Should such a thing happen on the hills/outstation -
imagine the inconvenience it'd cause to get the Car towed to the nearest W/S and
that too for a rushed job with possibly spurious replacement parts.

78
Maruti Esteem VX
(Powersteering)

The Maruti Esteem VX is the largest Specifications


selling model in the 'midsized car Dimensions
segment' in India. Length 4075 mm
Width 1575 mm
The VX, like the entire Esteem family, is Height 1395 mm
powered by a 1.3 litre, 4-stroke, all- Trunk Capacity 376 Litres
aluminum water-cooled SOHC engine. Kerb Weight 815 Kg
Ground Clearance 180 mm
The transmission is 5 forward, all- Wheel Base 2365 mm
synchromesh, 1 reverse. The Power
suspensions are McPherson strut and coil 4 stroke cycle, water cooled SOHC
spring both in the front and the rear. Type
(ACE) All alluminium contemporary
Suspensions are booster assisted dual engine
circuit - ventilated disc (in the front) and single plate dry disc type
drum.(in the rear) Clutch
manually opertaed
Piston displacement 1298 cc
Safety features are:
Max. Power 65 hp @ 6000 rpm
· Adjustable front seat head restraints Max. Torque 10.1 kg-m @ 4000 rpm
· Front seat belts (3-point ELR type) Fuel System
· Steel side impact beams Carburettor type
· Laminated windshield with shade band Fuel tank capacity 40 litres
· Prismatic day-night rear view mirror Gears
. Side body mouldings . Left & Right side 5 forward all syncromesh, 1 reverse
rear view mirror Suspension
. Halogen headlamps Independent McPherson strut with
Front
. Front & rear assist grips coilspring
Independent McPherson strut with
Rear
The Esteem VX comes with a coilspring
Steering
Type Power assisted - Rack & Pinion
Turning Radius 4.8 Mts.
Suspensions
Front Booster assisted - Disc
Rear Booster assisted - Drum
Tyres
Tyres 155 / 80 R 13

head restraints and better thigh and lumbar support.

79
80
CHAPTER-08
LITERATURE SURVEY

Part Number Description R.R.P


SRR-05 Clutch centre plate for Competition racing use.
Group A & N. Also known as Pedal Clutch.
210mm
For Honda Civic 90-95 EG Model and some 96-
2001 EK Model. Far East Engine code is B15 &
B16.

British and European engine size is 1.5 and 1.6 8800/- Rs +


SOHC and SOHC VTEC. VAT

IN STOCK
Engine Number Model Number
D15B2, D15B7, ED6, EG4, EG5, EG8,
D16Z2, EH6
D16Z5, D16Z6, D15Z7, EH9, EJ1, EJ2, ED9,
EE6 (90-91), ED7(89-
D16Z9, D16A8, D16A9
91)

81
SRR-06 Clutch pressure plate for Competition racing
use. Group A & N. Also known as Pedal Clutch.
210mm
For Honda Civic 90-95 EG Model and some 96-
2001 EK Model. Far East Engine code is B15 &
B16.
12000/-Rs +
British and European engine size is 1.5 and 1.6 VAT
SOHC and SOHC VTEC.
OUT OF
Engine Number Model Number STOCK
D15B2, D15B7, ED6, EG4, EG5, EG8,
D16Z2, EH6,
D16Z5, D16Z6, D15Z7, EH9, EJ1, EJ2, ED9,
EE6 (90-91), ED7(89-
D16Z9, D16A8, D16A9
91)
SRR-05 Clutch centre plate for Competition racing use.
Group A & N. Also known as Pedal Clutch.
220mm
For Honda Civic 92-95 EG Model and 96-2001
EK Model. Far East Engine code is B16B, 8800/-Rs+
B16A1 & B16A2. VAT

Engine Number Model Number IN STOCK


EG2, EG6, EG9, EH9,
B16A2, D16Z6, D16Z7 EK4, EK9, VTI & TYPE
R
SRR-06 Clutch pressure plate for Competition racing
use. Group A & N. Also known as Pedal Clutch.
220mm
For Honda Civic 92-95 EG Model and 96-2001 12000/- Rs+
EK Model. Far East Engine code is B16B, VAT
B16A1 & B16A2.
OUT OF
Engine Number Model Number STOCK
EG2, EG6, EG9, EH9,
B16A2, D16Z6, D16Z7 EK4, EK9, VTI & TYPE
R
SRR-25B Light weight Fly Wheel for competition racing
use, Group A & N.
20000/- Rs
+ VAT
For Honda Civic 92-95 EG Model and 96-2001
EK Model. Far East Engine code is B16B,
OUT OF
B16A1 & B16A2.
STOCK

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Engine Number Model Number
EG2, EG6, EG9, EH9,
B16A2, D16Z6, D16Z7 EK4, EK9, VTI & TYPE
R

FS Light weight Fly Wheel for competition racing


EG/EK/DC2 use, Group A & N.

For Honda Civic 92-95 EG Model and 96-2001


EK Model. Far East Engine code is B16B,
B16A1 & B16A2.
11200/- Rs
+ VAT
Engine Number Model Number
EG2, EG6, EG9, EH9, IN STOCK
B16A2, D16Z6, D16Z7 EK4, EK9, VTI & TYPE
R

Honda Integra DC2 94 to 00 Engine Code


B18B & B18C Type R

FS/WRX/GC8 Fitment Subaru Impreza WRX. Model GF8 92-


96 Engine Code EJ20 Turbo V1, 2. Model GC8
96-00 Engine Code EJ20 Turbo V3, 4. Incl. STI.

FULL FIA For Motor Sports Use Group N


11200/- Rs
Light weight Fly Wheel for competition racing + VAT
use, Group A & N.
IN STOCK

All the above pedal clutches are for racing purpose only and are not suitable for day to day road
use. They are only sold and fitted by our agents.

Racing Clutch Terms and Conditions

1. All clutches are for competition, Group A and N Use and hold a 3-month warranty.
Damage caused by ordinary road use will void warranty.

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2. If flywheel deteriorates due to fitting and driving errors, warranty is void.

GP Racing Power Clutch Diagnosis Test

Torsionally flexible clutches:

Figure10.2 describes three types of these clutches for which functional flexibility
and economic viability of this machine concept is tried. The overall horse power of
the process unit could be of the range 1.5 to 4.0 horse power. Every clutch has two
halves (A) & (B) as shown in figure10.2

.Half A is permanently connected with the flywheel shaft (Fs) where as part (B) is
connected through splines to the input shaft of process unit. Whenever the required
speed of the flywheel is reached while B is in disengaged condition, half B is axially
slided to engage with half A for communicating stored kinetic energy in fly wheel to
the process unit. The connection is through flexible members , gear tooth ,teeth on
the end face and fingers in case of gear tooth, face tooth and finger type torsionally
flexible clutches respectively. Due to this flexibility gradually acceleration is
provided to driven shaft which is invariably on load. Thus this helps in reducing the
shock which was present with severity due to use of spiral jaw clutch.
Toothed Gear Clutch

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TL

A B

Face Tooth Clutch


B
F R: Finger Tip Radius
R
Finger Type Clutch
A 10
Figure 10.2: Types of Clutches

Development of Torsionally Flexible Clutch.


Fundamental requirement was to arrive at arrangements (or designs) which can
give soft start [3-27]. Electrical soft start devices are available, but they can not be
adopted for human powered systems for the obvious reasons.
Possible tasks are intuitions and logic based alternatives for Torsionally flexible
clutches i.e. coming only up to 3 possible arrangements such as:- 1) Gear tooth
type of clutch, 2) Face tooth type clutch, 3) Finger type clutch.
It was necessary to experimentally ascertain a functional viability of these
proposals. So, 3 clutches were fabricated. Design was intuitions based and based
on general engineering background. Experimental set up was designed and built.

85
The performance was observed. Finger type clutch was a best, followed by
“toothed clutch”, followed by “face tooth clutch”
In the above research programme, the skills used are intuition, logic, general
engineering background and experimentation as a tool of validating intuition.

TATA CLUTCH ASSEMBLIES


Heavy Vehicles Medium Vehicles Light Vehicles Utility Vehicles
1613/1313/2416/1613 709/909/1109 Tata 407 SFC & LP Tatamobile 207 / Sumo

Cummins 352 dia Clutch Assy-2516280


/ mm Dia Clutch-709 / 1 240mm Dia Clutch-407 / 1 228 mm Dia Clutch-207 / 1
1

Tata 310 mm Diaphragm Clutch


Hydraulic
- Clutch System 1613 Hydraulic
- 709 / Clutch System 407Hydraulic
/2 Clutch System 207 / 2
1613 / 2 2

Tata 310mm Coil type heavy Duty


Clutch 1613 / 3

clutch.jpg Kinetic Motorsport Clutch ... Clutch ... Clutch

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400 x 300 pixels - Kits plate,automotive parts, plate,automotive parts,
27k - jpg 200 x 189 pixels - 46k - jpg ... ...
kinetic.seattle.wa.us www.kineticmotorsport.com 140 x 160 pixels - 140 x 160 pixels -
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Clutch Clutch Drum and Hub How to Select a Brake Kinetic Luna Moped
215 x 175 pixels - Assembly or Clutch 224 x 169 pixels -
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www.idac.co.uk 12k - jpg 12k - gif www.motosindia.com
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Clutch Plates, Spiral Clutch The Kinetic Has No Rotational Kinetic


Bevel Gear 287 x 250 pixels - TFR Decal Damping Subsystem
150 x 150 pixels - 16k - gif 600 x 359 pixels - 387 x 199 pixels -
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www.indiamart.com www.cosmotor.com www.mathworks.com

... homebuilt dual ... Kinetic ClutCh ... Kinetic Honda Parts ... 3 electromagnetic
overrunning clutch Deion M1sled Report KU 337 ... clutch 4 kinetic
640 x 480 pixels - 150 x 203 pixels - 256 x 193 pixels - 375 x 273 pixels -
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Kinetic asi 64230 CR Kinetic Motorsport 16V 250HP Clutch


9 Clutch ... 140 x 50 pixels -

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275 x 275 pixels - 80 x 60 pixels - 2k - jpg 2k - gif
7k - jpg www.kineticmotorsport.com www.cosmotor.com
207.122.589.com [ More results from
www.kineticmotorsport.com ]

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89
90
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Clutch Pedal Effort
These are measurements of actual clutch pedal effort as the clutches are installed.
The clutches vary a lot and this helps explain why one guy says that the ACT 2600
is no problem and another guy is crying it is too stiff. There are a lot of factors that
can influence the amount of effort required to get the pedal to the floor. The 2G cars
have a heavier assist spring on the pedal assembly, this will make their numbers
lower.
1G Cars
Clutch Car lbs Pedal Effort
Stock MARUITI 90 AWD 23

ACT 2600 TATA 90 FWD 45


ACT 2600 UNO 93 AWD 29
ACT 2600 SANTRO 91 GVR-4 36
ACT 2600 AMBASSADOR 90 AWD 43

RPS HONDA 92 AWD Rally Car 28

Clutch Masters 2100 LANCER 92 AWD 22


Clutch Masters 2100 OPEL 92 FWD race car 23

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CHAPTER-09
FLY WHEEL
Flywheel Step

Flywheel step is the step height of the outer shelf that the clutch pressure plate
bolts to. It is the difference between the friction surface and the upper step shown
here in the pic. As the clutch's friction surface wears over time and with use, it
becomes uneven and needs to be machined flat when ever a new clutch is
installed. If you were to machine only the friction surface of the flywheel, the clutch
wouldn't grab and hold as well. The step height is critical to proper clutch operation.
Too little (shallow) and the clutch will hold power great but it will have trouble
releasing. You wont have enough room for the pressure plate to fully retract. When
ever a DSM flywheel is resurfaced, how ever much material is removed from the

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friction surface must also be removed from the upper step. Most local machine
shops use a special machine for this. You will ask for the step and you will be lucky
to get with in .005" of what you ask for. Most all of these machines are set up to
resurface the flywheel at a slight angle (inner diameter slightly deeper than the
outer diameter). Often the tool they are using to measure is not accurate and they
dont even know how to read it. .608" to .610" is ideal for DSM performance
clutches. Up to .613" will work. Do not try to use anything shallower than .608"
Stock is .612" Our flywheels come stepped to .609" to .610" always. Yes this works
with all the clutches that we sell, we are smart like that, having our flywheels work
with our clutches :-)

EVO 4-8 cars use a flat flywheel with no step. They are dead flat and any idiot
should be able to resurface one correctly.

With the dial indicator up on the step, the tool is set at zero.

Fig: alignment of fly wheel in clutch

The measuring tool is then dropped down to the friction surface. Each rotation on
the dial is .100" 6 turns are counted as the tool is dropped down. That is .600" with
an additional .010" showing for a total of .610" shown here.

94
If you do have an auto parts store machine shop resurface your flywheel, here are
some steps to help insure that is gets done right:

1) Ask them to measure the flywheel in front of you when you drop it off. This way
you can see for your self how they are doing it and how much they fumble around
trying to use the tool. They should be able to easily explain to you what they are
doing and how they are doing it. The measurement should be repeatable several
times. The tool should not be affected by how straight it is held. Using a regular
micrometer as a depth gauge is very sensitive to being tipped even a little off 90
degrees. Depending on weather they zero off the upper or lower surface, they can
also read .610" as .590". We have seen this way too much.

2) Ask them if the flywheel will be straight (flat) across it's entire surface. Will it be
deeper in the center? Not a good thing. As the clutch pressure plate wears, it also
warps inwards at the center.

3) Have them show you the measurement when you pick up the flywheel. DO NOT
TRUST THEM. If it isn't right, have them re-do it.

95
Lightened Flywheels, What We Do:
We have very high standards when it comes to our lightened and resurfaced
flywheels. This also means that we are kind of strict when it comes to you returning
your core. This mostly means don't send anything back in that you wouldn't want to
end up with your self.

AWD
AWD flywheels have a smaller outer diameter and
smaller diameter ring gear. 1G AWD flywheels had n
additional weight ring cast into the back side to
increase the weight. Later 2G AWD flywheels have a
smoother flatter back side. Once lightened, they are
essentially the same.

96
When lightening these, in the thinner center area we
only lightly skim off the rough casting. The outer
diameter, the area behind the friction surface, is cut
to a thickness of .500" The flywheel is resurfaced
first, the friction surface is inspected, then the back
side is cut to match. If the resurface requires too
much material to be removed, then it is rejected for
lightening.
Our machinist is a certified aerospace machinist.
When he is not lightening our flywheels, he is turning
critical satellite parts. All steps and corners are fully
radiused to eliminate any stress risers. They are
done on a 6 foot MoriSeki lathe using a special
ceramic bit and specific holding and centering
tooling.

FWD

FWD flywheels with their larger diameters have less


material on the back side. You can see the step
down on the outer diameter. Less material is
removed from the back side of a FWD flywheel.

With the back side cut, just the casting cleaned off in
the center, then cut down to .500" thick behind the
friction surface.

97
On the FWD wheels we are able to take some
material off the outer diameter of the face. We leave
enough material to keep the ring gear happy.

This is a flywheel from a 2.4 Spyder. It is already


fairly light from the factory. Some people will always
be worried about taking off too much material.
Knowing that the factory considers this thickness to
be safe reinforces our belief that we are not
removing too much material.

You can see that on this already light flywheel from a


2.4 NT motor), to get the same depth and weight, we
don't have to take off much. We are only making the
flywheels as thin as Mitsubishi has already decided
they would make them.

If you are running a puck style disc and or plan on running on a slipping clutch for too
long, a lightened flywheel isn't for you. But then I don't know of any flywheel that will
like that either. The same heat that cracks a stock flywheel will warp a Jun flywheel
because they are so thin. The friction surface of an aluminum flywheel will warp and
twist up with the same abuse.

98
Bad Cores

Your core return will be rejected if::


Too shallow on the friction surface. There should be at
least some lip at the edge of the friction surface to the
rough casting. The worse your friction surface is, the
thicker this needs to be so that we can resurface it down
to the good area.

Missing dowel pins, broken studs, stripped or damaged


threads.

Cracks. Slight light surface checking will be fine. As long


as they can be machined out, the core is still good. The
deeper the cracks are, the more we need to take off. If
there are minor cracks and there is a lot of meat there to
work with, we can deal with it. If it looks close when we get
the flywheel back, we will tag it with your name and send it
out to get resurfaced. If it works out, you will get the core
refund.

This pic shows a dangerous deep crack. One miss shift


over rev and this flywheel will come apart, lightened or not.

This flywheel has a bad crack. If it was full thickness on


the friction surface side, there is a 50/50 chance this crack
would clean up. But you can see that the friction surface is
already down below the cast surface. It is junk.

99
This flywheel only has heat marks on it. This is normal for
anyone having fun with their car. This is no problem.

Another deep crack. Not a good core.

This flywheel looked like it could resurface clean. It did


not, goes into the reject pile. You can still see the slight
cracking

Aluminum Flywheels
Aluminum flywheels, while made out of high strength
aluminum, have a steel friction surface that can be
replaced when you do your next clutch job. Typically
they do not get resurfaced.

A stock flywheel weighs in at about 19 lbs. Our


lightened stock ones are 14 to 14.5 lbs. That 5 lbs
alone is enough to feel a difference. Aluminum
flywheels weigh 9 lbs for DSMs. Now you are talking.
You are using less power to spin the flywheel and now
have more power available to move your car down the
road.

100
Lots of people freak out about any "theoretical"
negative drivability issues with lightened flywheels.
They are wrong, it's all good. They are not too light for
street use, they won't break apart, they are stepped
correctly for ACT and CFDF clutches, On a 80 hp
honda you could go too light, but not on anything with
enough power to pull the skin off pudding. You will
have to compensate a little in your launching
technique, a little higher launch rpm will be necessary.
Your shifts will be better with the engine rpm now
better matching the next gear. These are SFI certified.

Other Flywheels

Jun Chromoly Flywheel

If you drive with a slipping clutch you will kill any


flywheel. If you slip your clutch enough and make
enough heat you will kill any flywheel.

This 20,00Rs Jun flywheel had about 4,000 hard


miles on it. Nothing too crazy, just a lot of
launches on a 16G'd AWD. Since they are so
thin, the heat goes nowhere. You can see the
heat marks right through to the back side.

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The surface has deep cracks, the flywheel is too
thin to resurface them out. Jun said "So Sorry".
20,000 Rs worth of junk now.

They might be fine for a road racing car that does


not launch.

Early JDM Flywheels

They are actually quite thin behind the friction


surface. They still have the full weight ring cast
into them.

The problem is with the face. The step design is


very different. The JDM flywheel has 3 full pieces
where the pressure plate bolts on. The US
flywheels have individual pads. The US style
allows for better ventilation. But the big problem is
that the later US clutches need that space
between the pads for clearance. The JDM
flywheel pictured does not accept the clutches
US Left Early JDM Right
that are readily available here. They are not
suitable for core returns.

Metallic Puck Style Clutch Discs


They wont die. They can take a ton of abuse and wont turn into kitty hair. Even when
they get so hot that the pressure plate warps and the diaphragm looses it's spring
pressure, they wont fully die. Cool, right? The down side of that "never dieing" is that
it allows them to keep slipping, then heat up and grab. The slipping with out dieing
makes the surface cracks in the flywheel and pressure plate that will eventually
cause the flywheel to come apart. Whether it is a stock flywheel, lightened stock
flywheel or a Chromoly flywheel, puck clutches make cracks that kill flywheels, that

102
kill bell housings and more. They have their place but I don't think in a street car. In a
race car that gets regular inspections they can be fine. Also most puck clutches have
a solid hub center that will contribute to horrible coast down gear noise (worse in an
AWD).

Street style disc Puck style disc


Puck style discs can put up with a lot of heat. You also need to slip them more to
keep from breaking things. More heat made. When a street disc is slipped too much
and gets hot, it disintegrates and turns into kitty hair. You wont keep driving on an
overheated street disc. If you get a puck disc to the same temp, nothing happens.
That's nice because you can keep racing. But that heat is hell on the flywheel. Just
like brake rotors crack when over heated, so do flywheels.

If you keep racing on a cracked flywheel, you will eventually saw your tranny in half.
It does not matter if it is a lightened or stock flywheel. We get flywheels sent in to us
regularly that are too cracked to use. Those guys cry like babies when they have to
pay a core charge. From the cores we get, I would guess one out of ten racers are
driving around with some cracking.

103
Replacing Clutch Discs Only

ACT will sell you just a disc if that is what you want.
Be careful when trying this. Almost any clutch that
you have any fun with will have a warped friction
surface with in as little as 5,000 miles.

In very extreme case, even clutch friction surfaces


can crack and fail if driven slipping long enough.
This busted stock clutch cut apart the bell housing,
starter and radiator. When replacing just a disc,
carefully inspect the friction surface for warpage
and cracking. Some heat marks will be normal and
expected.

104
CHAPTER-10
CLUTCH ADJUSTMENT

105
Clutch Adjustment
Every time the clutch or flywheel gets replaced the clutch needs to be adjusted.
Many people assume incorrectly that since it is a hydraulic system that it does not
need adjustment or that it does not need adjustment. Wrong. You want a little free
play off the floor before the clutch begins to grab. You also will need a little free
play at the top of the pedal travel.

2G
Loosen the lock nut on the adjuster rod and you'll be able to rotate the rod by hand.
If getting the right free play off the floor makes it so that you loose the free play at
the top of the pedal travel, you will need to adjust the upper travel stop. The upper
travel stop is the cruise control switch.

1G
1G clutch pedal linkage is a little more complex. The upper stop adjuster is directly
above the clutch pedal. The adjuster rod is over to the right above the gas pedal.
1G cars with the typical higher mileage of the average 1G Eclipse and the more
complex linkage, 1G cars will often suffer from loose or worn linkage.

106
If you can wiggle the pedal with one hand, and you don't feel the clutch master
cylinder rod moving with the other hand, you are suffering from this problem. The
solution is to replace the pedal assembly, or possibly weld the linkage where it is
loose. Either one requires more work to remove and reinstall the pedal assembly,
you don't even want to know how much hassle it is.

2G Pedal "Pump Up"

If you are fighting an inconsistent pedal adjustment in a 2G, adjust the upper pedal
stop adjuster so that you gain additional free play at the top of the pedal travel. If
this is your problem, you will notice that the pedal suddenly gets very tight and the
release point will suddenly move up a lot, this is the
cause.

2Gs need free play at the top of the pedal travel. If it


is close to no travel and right on the edge, then it
pumps up. Only 2Gs have a relief valve in the
master cylinder that needs to be uncovered so fluid can go back into the reservoir
on the clutch release. If not, it gets tighter and tighter and tighter. Then it may
slowly relieve the pressure and it is back to normal. Just a 2G thing. You need
more free play at the top of the pedal travel.

107
Left unchecked, the pedal will pump up more and more. The clutch will begin to slip
since it is as if you are driving around with your foot on the clutch pedal. Also it
plays hell on the crankshaft thrust bearings. The constant pressure pushes the
clutch release bearing onto the clutch and flywheel. When centrifugal force throws
the clutch release fingers outwards, they make additional pressure on the thrust
bearings of the crank. This is an additional factor in short lived crankshaft release
bearings and an additional potential cause for crankwalk.

2G "Ghost Pedal"

On very light foot pressure on a 2Gthe pedal drops to the floor all by it's self. ??
Yes. The little rubber seal in the pic above gets a little nick in it or a piece of dirt
under it. On a regular pedal push, the seal seals fine and the clutch works normally.
On a very light push, the seal does not seal well and fluid will bypass it. Since the
2Gs have a heavy assist spring, the additional assist is enough pressure to keep
the pedal going towards the floor all alone. Quite disturbing to watch. Replacing or
rebuilding the master cylinder will fix this.

Pedal To The Floor After A Left Turn


You are screwed ;-) The thrust bearings on the crankshaft are so worn, that the
crankshaft flops so far to the right on a left turn that most of the pedal travel in the
clutch system is used just to put the crankshaft back to the left.

108
CHAPTER-11
REFERENCES
• Mechanical Engineering Design by Joseph Edward Shigley
• AUTOMOBILE ENGG—Vol I --- Kripal sing
• AUTOMOBILE ENGG—Vol II --- Kripal sing
• AUTOMOBILE ENGG—Vol II --- Kripal sing
• Automotive mechanic – Rutherford TATA Mc Grew Hill Publn.
• http:/www.google.com.in/+CLUTCH
• AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM--- S.T.GHAN, NAPHADE
• AUTO INDIA --- OCT-1995 EDITION

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