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Neural Integrator

Neural integrator depends on a number of connections between several brainstem structures and the cerebellum.

For horizontal conjugate eye movements:

the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) and

the adjacent medial vestibular nucleus (MVN)

N eura l Int egra tor N eura l i ntegrator depends on a number of

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Neural Integrator

N eura l Int egra tor Un il ateral l es i ons o f these

Unilateral lesions of these regions acute failure to hold horizontal gaze and a shift in primary gaze towards the side of the lesion.

Bilateral lesions abolish all neural integration for horizontal conjugate eye movements.

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(1) Cortical areas important for eye movements

(1) Cortical areas important for eye movements 4

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(1) Parieto-Occipito-Temporal Junction

(1) Parieto-Occipito-Temporal Junction Region of cortex w h ere th e middle temporal cortex (area MT

Region of cortex where the middle temporal cortex (area MT), middle superior temporal cortex (area MST), and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lie.

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Cortical areas and brainstem concerned with generating saccades

Cortical areas and brainstem concerne d w ith generating saccades 6

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Cortical areas involved in smooth pursuits

Cortical areas involved in smoo th pursuits 7

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Contribution of the cerebullum to saccadic eye movements

Contribution of the cerebullum to saccadic e y e movements 8

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CN nuclei that govern eye movements

CN nuclei that g overn e y e movements 9

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Anatomy of the Oculomotor complex

Anatomy of the Oculomotor complex 10

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Oculomotor nucleus -dorsolateral subnucleus

Oculomotor nucleus - dorsolateral subnucleus 11

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Oculomotor nucleus -intermediate subnucleus

Oculomotor nucleus - intermediate subnucleus 12

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Oculomotor nucleus -ventromedial subnucleus

Oculomotor nucleus -ventromedial subnucleus 13

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Oculomotor nucleus -medial subnucleus

Oculomotor nucleus -medial subnucleus 14

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Oculomotor nucleus -caudal central subnucleus

Oculomotor nucleus - caudal central subnucleus 15

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Oculomotor Nucleus

Oculomotor Nucleus 16

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Oculomotor Nerve components

Oculomoto r Nerve components 17

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Pathways involved in pupillary light reflex

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Trochlear nerve exits at back of brainstem

Trochlear nerve exits at back of brainstem 19

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Inputs to the PPRF

Frontal Eye fields (FEF) neurons send crossed projections to brainstem reticular nuclei (PPRF) involved in saccadic eye movements

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Superior Collicular neurons send crossed projections to the PPRF

Pathway for lateral gaze

Pathway for lateral gaze 21

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VOR Review 23

VOR Review

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Pathway for the OKN system

Pathway for the OKN system