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Planetary Linguistics

Names of the Planets


English is generally recognized as the international language for professional astronomy. However, the various languages
often also have their own words which are used in everyday speech.
English Sun Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto
OldEnglish Sunne Mercurius Venus Eorðe Mōna Mars Iupiter Saturnus
Latin Sol Mercurius Venus Terra Luna Mars Jupiter Saturnus Uranus Neptunus Pluto
Italian Sole Mercurio Venere Terra Luna Marte Giove Saturno Urano Nettuno Plutone
Ligurian Sô Mercuio Venere Tæra Luna Marte Giove Satûrno Uran Nettun Pluton
Venetian Sołe Mercurio Venere Tera Łuna Marte Xove Saturno Urano Netuno Plutone
Spanish Sol Mercurio Venus Tierra Luna Marte Júpiter Saturno Urano Neptuno Plutón
Galacian Sol Mercurio Venus Terra Lúa Marte Xúpiter Saturno Urano Neptuno Plutón
Catalan Sol Mercuri Venus Terra Lluna Mart Júpiter Saturn Urà Neptú Plutó
Portuguese Sol Mercúrio Vênus Terra Lua Marte Júpiter Saturno Urano Neptuno Plutão
French Soleil Mercure Vénus Terre Lune Mars Jupiter Saturne Uranus Neptune Pluton
Jèrriais Solé Mèrtchure Vênus Tèrre Leune Mars Jupiter Saturne Uranus Nepteune Pliuton
Provençal Solely Mèrcure Vènus Tèrra Lena Mârs Jupitèr Saturno Urano Neptuno Pluton (Franco-Provençal)
Walloon Solea Mierkeure Venusse Tere Lune Måss Djupiter Satûne Uranusse Nûton Pluton
Romanian Soare Mercur Venus Pamint Luna Marte Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptun Pluto
Sicilian Suli Mircuriu Vèniri Terra Luna Marti Giovi Saturnu Uranu Nettunu Plutoni
Maltese Ix-Xemx Merkurju Venere Id-Dinja il-Qamar Marte Gove Saturno Uranu Nettunu Plutone
Esperanto Suno Merkuro Venuso Tero Luno Marso Jupitero Saturno Urano Neptuno Plutono
German Sonne Merkur Venus Erde Mond Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptun Pluto
Low German Sünn Merkur Venus Eer Maand Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptun Pluto
Dutch Zon Mercurius Venus Aarde Maan Mars Jupiter Saturnus Uranus Neptunus Pluto
Alemannish.Sunne Merkur Venus Erde Mond Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptun Pluto (Alemannisch)
Yiddish Zun Merkur Venus Erd Levone Mars Yupiter Zaturn Uranus Neptun Pluto
Limburgish Zon Mercuur Venus Eerd Maon Mars Jupiter Saturn Uraan Neptuun Pluto
Kölsch Sunn Merrkuur Veenuß Ääd Moond Mars Juppitter Satturrən Urranuß Nepptuun Pluuto
W. Frisian Sinne Merkurius Fenus Ierde Moanne Mars Jupiter Saturnus Uranus Neptunus Pluto (West Frisian)
Luxembourg.Sonn Merkur Venus Äerd Mound Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptun Pluto (Luxembourgish)
Afrikaans Son Mercurius Venus Aarde Maan Mars Jupiter Saturnus Uranus Neptunus Pluto
Scots Sun Mercur Venus Yird Muin Maurs Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto
Swedish Solen Merkurius Venus Jorden Månen Mars Jupiter Saturnus Uranus Neptunus Pluto
Norwegian Sola Merkur Venus Jorda Månen Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptun Pluto
Danish Solen Merkur Venus Jorden Månen Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptun Pluto
Icelandic Sól Merkúr Venus Jörð Tungl Mars Júpíter Satúrnus Úranus Neptúnus Plútó
Faroese Sól Merkur Venus Jørðin Máni Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptun Pluto
Finnish Aurinko Merkurius Venus Maa Kuu Mars Jupiter Saturnus Uranus Neptunus Pluto
Albanian Dielli Merkuri Afërdita Toka Hëna Marsi Jupiteri Saturni Uranusi Neptuni Plutoni
Estonian Päike Merkuur Veenus Maa Kuu Marss Jupiter Saturn Uraan Neptuun Pluuto
Latvian Saule Merkurs Vene'ra Zeme Me'ness Marss Jupiters Saturns Ura'ns Neptu'ns Pluto
Hungarian Nap Merkùr Vénusz Föld Hold Mars Jupiter Szaturnusz Uránusz Neptunusz Plútó
Czech Slunce Merkur Venuse Zeme Mesíc Mars Jupiter Saturn Uran Neptun Pluto
old Czech Slunce Dobropan Krasopani Zeme Mesic Smrtonos Kralomoc Hladolet Nebestanka Vodopan Pluto
Slovenian Sonce Merkur Venera Zemlja Mesec Mars Jupiter Saturn Uran Neptun Pluton
Croatian Sunce Merkur Venera Zemlja Mjesec Mars Jupiter Saturn Uran Neptun Pluton
Serbian Sunce Merkur Venera Zemlja Mesec Mars Jupiter Saturn Uran Neptun Pluton
Polish Slonce Merkury Wenus Ziemia Ksiezyc Mars Jowisz Saturn Uran Neptun Pluton
Georgian Mze Merkuri Venera Dedamizha Mthware Marsi Iupiteri Saturni Urani Neptuni Plutoni
Russian Solnce Merkurij Venera Zemlja Luna Mars Yupiter Saturn Uran Neptun Pluton
Ukrainian Sontse Merkuriy Venera Zemlya Misyatsy Mars Yupiter Saturn Uran Neptun Pluton
Belarus. Sontsa Merkury Venera Zyamlya Mesyats Mars Yupiter Saturn Uran Neptun Pluton (Belarussian)
Lithuanian Saulė Merkurijus Venera Zemė Mėnulis Marsas Jupiteris Saturnas Uranas Neptūnas Plutonas
Samogitian Saulė Merkorėjos Ausrėnė Zemė Mienolis Zėizdrė Jopėteris Soturns Urans Naptūns Plutuons
Bulgarian Slanze Merkurij Venera Zemya Luna Mars Jupiter Saturn Uran Neptun Pluton
Basque Eguzkia Merkurio Artizar Lurra Ilargia Martitza Jupiter Saturno Urano Neptuno Pluton
Greek Helios Hermes Aphrodite Gaea Selene Ares Zeus Kronos Uranos Poseidon Pluton
Sanskrit Surya Budha Sukra Dhara Chandra Mangala Brhaspati Sani
Gujarati Surya Budh Shukra Prathivi Chandra Mangal Guru Shani Prajapathie Varun Yamdev
Bengali Surya Budh Shukra Prithivi Chand Mangal BrihaspatiShani
Tamil Njaayar Budan Vellhi Buumi Tingalh Sevvaay Viyaazhan Sani
Thai Surya Budha Sukra Lok Chandra Angkarn Prhasbadi Sao Uranus Neptune Pluto
Irish Grian Mearcair Véineas An Domhan Gealach Mars Iúpatar Satarn Uránas Neiptiún Plútón
Sc. Gaelic Grian Mearcair Ribhinn An Talamh Gealach Corg Bliogh Satarn Urà nus Neiptiùn Pliùtò (Scottish Gaelic)
Welsh Haul Mercher Gwener Daear Lleuad Mawrth Iau Sadwrn Wranws Neifion Plwton
Breton Heol Merc'her Gwener Douar Loar Meurzh Yaou Sadorn Ouran Neizhan Ploudon
Hebrew Shemesh Kochav Chama Nogah Eretz Yareach Ma'adim Tzedek Shabtay Uranus Neptune Pluto
Arabic Shams Otaared Zuhra Ard Quamar Merrikh Mushtarie Zuhal Uraanus Niptuun Plutoon
Turkish Günes Merkür Venüs Dünya Ay Mars Jüpiter Satürn Uranüs Neptün Plüton
Uzbek Quyosh Utorid Zuhra Yer Oy Mirrikh Mushtarij Zuhal
Farsi Khorshid Tir Naheed Zamin Mah Bahram Berjis Kayvon Oranos Nepton Pluton
Cantonese Taiyeung Suising Gumsing Deiqao Yueqao Fuosing Moqsing Tousing Tinwongsing Huoiwongsing Mengwongsing
Mandarin Taiyang Shuixing Jinxing Diqiu Yueqiu Huoxing Muxing Tuxing Tianwangxing Haiwangxing Mingwangxing
Korean Taeyang Soosung Kumsung Jeegoo Dal Hwasung Moksung Tosung Chunwangsung Haewangsung Myungwangsung
Japanese Taiyou Suisei Kinsei Chikyuu Tsuki Kasei Mokusei Dosei Ten'ousei Kaiousei Meiousei
Filipino Araw Merkuryo Venus Daigdig Buwan Marte Jupiter Saturno Uranus Neptuno Pluto
Indonesian Matahari Merkurius Venus Bumi Bulan Mars Yupiter Saturnus Uranus Neptunus Pluto
Malay Matahari Utarid Zuhrah Bumi Bulan Marikh Musytari Zuhal Uranus Neptun Pluto
Tahitian Mahana Taa'ero Ta'urua Fenua Marama Maunu'Ura Ta'urua-nui Feti'a Tea
Hawaiian Laa Ukaliali'i Hookuuloa Honua Mahina Hookuu'ula Ka'aawela Makulu Hele'ekela Nepekune 'Ilioki
Maori Rā Meretūahiahi Marama Pareārau Whērangi Whiro
Maori Apārangi Papatuānuku Tūmatauenga Rongo Tangaroa
Nahuatl Tonatiuh Citlalpol Metztli Tezcatlipocacitlalli Ilhuicateocitlalli Mictlanteuccitlalli
Nahuatl Payinalcitlalli Tlalticpactli Chichilcitlalli Tzitzimicitlalli Tlaloccitlalli
Swahili Jua Utaridi Zuhura Dunia Mwezi Mirihi Mshtarii Zohari
Xhosa iLanga uMetyhuri uVenasi uMhlaba iNyanga uMarsi uJupita iSateni uYurenasi iNephthuni uPluto
Sesotho Letsatsi Mekhuri Vinase Lefatshe Kgwedi Mase Jupita Satene Yuranese Nepetjhunu Puluto
Sepedi Letsatsi Mekhuri Mphatlalatsane
Sepedi Lefase Ngwedi Mmase Jupita Satuni Yurenuse Neputhuni Pluto
Tswana Letsatsi Mekhuri Benase Lefatshe Ngwedi Mase Selemela Sathene Yuranase Nepetshunu Pholuto
Zulu iLanga uMekhyuri uVinasi uMhlaba iNyanga uMarzi uNdonsakusa uSarthana uYurenasi uNephthuni uPlutho
Sumerian Utu Udu-idim-gu-ud Nin-si-an-na Suen Si-mu-ud Mul-sag-me-gar Udu-idim-sag-us
Babylonian Samas Sihtu Delebat Ersetu Sin Salbatanu Neberu Kayamanu
Klingon Sol merqurI' vIneS tera' luna ma'rIS ju'pIter Sa'tun yurey'neS neptun pulu'to'
Notes:

1. For brevity's sake I've omitted the articles commonly used in some languages.
2. The Mandarin and Cantonese words mean (approximately): "The Brightest; Star of Water; Star of Gold; Sphere of Ground (Earth); Sphere of Moon, Star of Fire; Star of Wood; Star of
Soil (Dirt); Star of the King of Heaven; Star of the King of the Ocean; Star of the King of Hell". The Korean, Japanese, Mandarin and Cantonese lines are pronunciations. Note too, that
since Uranus, Neptune and Pluto were discovered relatively recently, their names are just translations of the Western names.
3. Japanese and Korean use simple native words for "Moon" ("tsuki" "dal") but all the other planetary names in these two languages were imported from Chinese and have exactly the same
meaning as explained for Mandarin and Cantonese.
4. The Chinese characters at the top of the page are the names of the solar system bodies in the same order as the table. The second set of characters at the top of the page is Hindi. To the
right is Arabic script.
5. The apostrophe character in the Latvian line is a diacritical mark for a long vowel, which is a straight line over the letter.
6. I have been informed that Thai has many scientific and theologic terms taken from sanscrit. But the way it pronounced is far from the original. If one read names given above hardly
anybody Thai would recognize them. Here is a more phonetical presentation of Thai celestial bodies:
Sun = (1) suriya (mythological); (2) pra-atit (high language); (3) tawan (coloqual)
Mercury = [dau]-put
Venus = [dau-pra]-suk
Earth = lok (also "world")
Moon = [pra]-jan
Mars = [dau]-angkan
Jupiter = [dau]-parihat-bodi
Saturn = [dau]-sau
Uranus = [dau]-marita-yu
Neptune = [dau]-ket
Pluto = no native term, English used
"Dau" or "dao" literally means "star". Need to add before name of the planet, beacuse those names also used for days of the week (dau-sau=Saturn, wan-sau=Saturday, wan=day). "Pra" -
is used for nominate a God (great, holy). Used for Sun and Moon as they are obviously not "dau" (stars).
7. Much of this was taken from the ASTROLANGUAGE mini dictionary of 300 astronomical terms compiled by Veikko Makela. The remainder was compiled from emails I've received
from various folks around the world. Thank you all!
8. Special thanks to Sam Giloi who sent me the words in Alemannisch, Ligurian, Franco-Provençal, Scottish Gaelic, Yiddish, Nahuatl, Venetian, Limburgish, Jerriais, Kolsch, West
Frisian, Walloon, Sicilian, Scots, Lithuanian, Samogitian, Low German, Luxembourgish, Maori, Faroese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa, Sesotho, Sepedi, Tswana, and Klingon!
9. See Peter Blinn's Planetary Gazetteer for more
10. I would appreciate any additions or corrections to this table.

Adjectives
The English adjectives relating to the planets do not always derive simply from the noun forms:

Noun Adjectival form


------ ---------------
Sun Solar
Mercury Mercurial
Venus Cytherean, Venerian
Earth Terrestrial, Telluric
Moon Lunar
Mars Martian, Arean
Jupiter Jovian
Saturn Saturnian
Uranus Uranian
Neptune Neptunian
Pluto Plutonian, Hadean

Days of the Week


The seven-day system we use is based on the ancient astrological notion that the seven known celestial bodies influence what happens on Earth and that each of these celestial bodies controls
the first hour of the day named after it. This system was brought into Hellenistic Egypt from Mesopotamia, where astrology had been practiced for millennia and where seven had always been
a propitious number. In A.D. 321 the Emperor Constantine the Great grafted this astrological system onto the Roman calendar, made the first day of this new week a day of rest and worship
for all, and imposed the following sequence and names to the days of the week. This new Roman system was adopted with modifications throughout most of western Europe: in the Germanic
languages, such as Old English, the names of four of the Roman gods were converted into those of the corresponding Germanic gods:

Celestial Germanic modern modern


Body Latin god English Italian
------- -------- -------- --------- ----------
Sun Solis Sunday domenica
Moon Lunae Monday lunedì
Mars Martis Tiu Tuesday martedì
Mercury Mercurii Wodan Wednesday mercoledì
Jupiter Jovis Donar Thursday giovedì
Venus Veneris Freya Friday venerdì
Saturn Saturni Saturday sabato

The Latin names for the weekdays survive in the modern Romance languages (though the weekend day names have been altered). Also, Japanese words for the days of the week also
correspond indirectly to the same planets.

However, Prof. Neves of Universidade Nova de Lisboa informs me that there are remarkable exceptions: at least in Hebrew, in Greek, in Arabic, and in Portuguese (and in languages that were
informed by those, like the Timorese Tetum), the days of the week are numbered. Sunday is number one (or day of the Lord in Portuguese - Domingo- and in Greek -Kiriaki). Friday is number
six (except in Arabic, which calls it Day of the Gatthering) and all 4 languages call Sabbath (Sabado,as-Sabt, etc) to Saturday.