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Pneumatics

BasicLevelTP .101
Textbook

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Pneumatics
BasicLevelTP 101
Textbook

FestoDidacticKG, D-7300Esslingen1
FESTCI
D[DAGTI]G
Orderno.: 093131
Description: PNEUM.GSLEHRB
Designation: D.LB.TP1O1-GB
4th Edition: 01t92
ComputerLayout: S. Broadbent,
D. Bonner
Author: P. Croser

@Copyright
by FestoDidactic
KG,D-7300Esslingen
1, 1989

All rightsreserved,
including rights. No partof this publication
translation may
be reproducedor transmittedin any form or by any means,electronic,
mechanical, photocopying,
or otheruise,withoutthe priorwrittenpermission of
FestoDidactic KG.

ISBN:3-8127-3131-2
trces on the layoutof the book 4 Contents

Section A: Gourse
Ctr+ter 1 Characterlstlcsand apflications of pneumatics 7
in review
Pneumatics 11
' 2 Pneumatics and controlsystemdeVblopmeht. . . . . : 14

Chfler 2 Componentsof a pneuthaticsystem 15


16
Z2 Air generationand distribution 18
23 Valves 21
Zt Processors : valvesand logicelements 26
25 controlvalves
Actuators: workingelementsand directional 27
Z6 Systems:controlcircuits 28

Cfider 3 Symbolsand standardsIn pneumatics 33


: ' of components
Symbolsand descriptions 34
=2 Safetyrequirements for pneumaticsystems 44

Ctrapter4 Systematlcapproachto pneumaticsolutlons. . . 47


t.1 Designof the circuitdiagram 48
t2 Circuitlayout 49
4 3 Designation of individual
elements 50
'.4 The life cycleof a pneumatic
system 51

Chapters Developmentofslngleactuatorclrcuits ..... 55


5 . 1 Di r ectcon tr olofapneumaticcylinder ........ 56
3.2 Example of asingleactingcylinder
1 : Directcontrol . ...... 57
5 3 Exercise1 : Directcontrol of a doubleactingcylinder . . . . . . . 58
apneumaticcylinder
5 . 4 In d ir e ctcon trolof ...... 60
5.5 Example 2 : Indirectcontrol
of a singleacting cylinder ...... 60
5.5 Exercise of adoubleactingcylinder
2 : lndirectcontrol . . . .. . 62
5 . 7 Lo g icfun cti ons:A ND,OR.. ...64
5 . 8 E xam p le 3 : ThelogicA ND function;the t wop re s s u re v a lv.e. . . . . . 6 4
5 . 9 Exe r cise 3 : ThelogicA ND function;thetwop re s s u re v a lv e . . . . . . . 6 6
4 :The logicOR function;the
5 . 1 0 Exa m p le v a lv e
shut t le ....... 68
5.11 Exercise 4 : The logicOR function; the shuttlevalve. . . . . . . . 70
5.12 Example 5 : Memorycircuit andspeedcontrolof acylinder.. . . .... 72
5.13 Exercise 5 : Memorycircuitandspeedcontrolof a cylinder . . . ' ' . ' 74
5 . 1 4 Exer cise 6 :T hequickexhaustvalve ........76
5.15 Example T : Pressuredependentcontrol; embossing of plastic .. ... 78
5.16 Exercise 7 Pressure dependent embossing
control; of plastic. . . . . . 80
5.17 Example 8 Thetimedelayvalve .....82
5.18 Exercise I Thetimedelayvalve .....84
Chapter6 Developmentof multipleactuatorcircuits . . . . . . . . 87
6.1 Controlofm u lt ip le a c t u a t o rs ........88
6.2 Example 9: Co-ordinated motion . . . . 89
6.3 Example10:Signaloverlap . . . 92
6.4 S ignalelimin a t io n b y re v e rs in g v. a
. .lv
. . .e s . . . . . . 94
6.5 E xample11:S ig n aol v e rla pre
; v e rs invga lv e s o lu t io.n. . . . . . . . . . . 94
6.6 Example12:Transfer station;usingreversing valves . . . . . . 96

ChapterTTrouble-shooting of pneum?ticsystems .... 99


7.1 Document a t io
. .n . . . 1 0 '1
7.2 Thecausesandeffectsof malfunctions.. . . 101
7.3 Maintenan c e . . . . ...104
SectionB: Theory
pneumatics
C h a p ter l Fu n d amentalsof ....;. ....... 107
1 . 1 Ph ysica lp ropertiesof
air. ,...108
1 . 2 Ch a r a cteristicsofair... .....110
1 . 3 C on tr oltheory .......111

C h ap ter 2 Airge nerationanddistribution .....117


2 . 1 Air co m p r essor ......120
2 . 2 Air r e ce iver ...121
2 . 3 Air d r ye r s .....123
2 . 4 Air se r viceequipment j..... .......126
2 . 5 Air d istr i bution... ....134

C h ap ter 3 Dir e ctional


controlvalves ....137
3 . 1 Co n fi gu r ationandconstruction ......138
3 . 2 2 l? wa yva lve, .......138
3 . 3 3 l2 wa yva lve. .......139
3 . 4 4 l2 wa yva lve. ....... 148
3 . 5 4lSw ayvalve. .......150
3 . 6 Sl? wa yva lve, .......151
3.7 Reliable operationof valves . . 153

C h a p ter 4Va lves ...155


4 . 1 No n - r e turnvalves ....156
4.2 Flowcontrolvalves . . . 162
4 . 3 Pr e ssu r e valves ......165
4 . 4 Co m b in a tionalvalves .......167

C h ap ter 5Actuatorsandoutputdevices .......171


5 . 1 Sin g le a ctingcylinder .......172
5 . 2 D ou b le a ctingcylinder .......175
5 . 3 R od le sscylinder .....183
.. t ic s
5 . 4 C yl i nd e r performancecharacteris .....184
5 . 5 M otor s ...:.. .......185
5 . 6 R otar ya ctuators .....186
5 . 7 l nd ica tor s .....187
C h apter 6 systems .... . . .......189
6 . 1 Se le cti on of mediums
andcomparison ...... 190
6 . 2 C on tr olsystemdevelopment..... ...190
6 . 3 Fie ld systems(actoric) ......194
6 . 4 Sp e ciaunl itsandassemblies ....,.. 195

SectionC: Solutions
So luti on s ....199

L i s to f stan d a r dsand
references.. ......217

Index .......221
Notesregarding
the conceptbehindthe textbook

Thistextbookformspartof F,estoDidactic'sLearningSystemfor Automation. lt


has beendesignedfor trainihgcoursesand is also suitablefor the purposeof
self-tuition.

Thebookis dividedintothefollowing
sections:

PartA: Course
PartB: Theory
PartC: Solutionsto the exercises

PartA: Course
The aim of the courseis to providestudentswith the information whichthey
will requirein orderto gaina thoroughunderstanding
of the subjectconcerned.
This is achievedusingbothexamplesand exercises.Thesegraduallyincrease
in complexityand the studentther:efore is advisedto work throughthem in
sequence.Subjectswhichare dealtwith in greaterdepthin the Theorysection
are markedin the text.

PartB: Theory
This sectioncontainsthe basictheoryrelatingto the subjectarea in question.
Topicsare set out in a logicalmanner.The studentcan eitherwork through
this sectionchapterby chapteror use it for referencepurposes.

PartC: Solutions
Thispartcontainsthe solutionsto the exercisesin PartA.

indexis providedat the end of the textbook.


A comprehensive

intoan existingtrainingprogramme.
Thistextbookmaybe incorporated
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Chapter1

Characteristicsand
applicationsof pneumatics
:i.i,,i&*ffi

Pneumaticshas for some considerable time been used for carryingout the
simplestmechanical tasks, but in morerecenttimeshas playeda moreimpor-
tant rolein the developmentof pneumatic for automation.
technology

ln the majorityof applications


compressedair is usedfor one or more of the
following
functions:
. The useof sensorsto determinestatusof processes
. Informationprocessing
. Switchingof actuatorsby meansof finalcontrolelements
. Carryingout work
.J
Beforethe 1950s,pneumatics was mostcommonlyusedas a workingmedium
in the form of storedenergy. Duringthe 1950sthe sensingand processing -J
roles developedin parallelwith working requirements. This development
enabledworkingoperationsto be controlledusing sensorsfor the measure- -J
mentof machinestatesand conditions.The development of sensors,proces-
of pneumatic
sorsand actuatorshas led to the introduction systems. -J
In parallelwith the introduction
of total systems,the individualelementshave
.J
furtherdevelopedwith changesin material,manufacturing and designproces-
ses.

The pneumaticcylinderhas a significantrole as a lineardrive unit,due to its


relativelylow cost, ease of installation,
simple and robustconstructionand
readyavailability
in varioussizesand strokelengths.

The pneumaticcylinderhasthe followinggeneralcharacteristics:


. Diameters 6 to 320 mm
. Strokelengths 1 to 2000mm
. Availableforces 2 to 50000N
. Pistonspeed 0.02to 1 m/s

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Pneumaticcomponents
canperformthefoilowing
typesof motion:
. Linear
. Swivel
. Rotary
\
D Someindustrial
applications
employing
pneumatics
are listedberow:
, . Generalmethodsof material
handling:
. Clamping
t . Shifting
. Positioning
a
t
. Orienting

- . Generalapplications:
. Packaging
, . Feeding
. Metering
I
. Dooror chutecontrol
- . Transferof materials
, . Turningand invertingof parts
. Sortingof parts
. Stackingof components
,
. Stamping andembossing of components
-
-
-

-
Pneumatics
is usedin carryingoutmachining
andworkingoperations.
Forexample:
. Drilling
. Turning
. Milling
. Sawing
. Finishing
. Forming
. Qualitycontrol
I

t
Advantages
and distinguishing
characteristics
of compressed
air; 1.1. PneumatlcsIn revlew
Availability: Air is availablepractically
everywhere
in unlimitedquantities.
Transport; Ajr can be easilytransported
in pipelines,evenoverlarge
distances.

Storage: A compressor neednot be in continuous operation.Com-


pressedair can be storedin a reservoirand removedas
required.ln addition,the reservoircan be transportable.

Temperature
: Compressed air is relativelyinsensitive
to temperature
fluctuations.This ensuresreliableoperation, evenunder
extremeconditions.

Explosionproof: Compressedair offersminimalriskof explosionor fire,


henceno expensiveprotection
againstexprosion is required.
Cleanliness
: Unlubricated
exhaustair is clean.Any unlubricated
air which
escapesthroughleakingpipesor components doesnot
causecontamination.This is an importantpointwhen
considering
the food,woodandtextileindustries.
Components: The operatingcomponents are of simpleconstruction
and
arethereforerelativelyinexpensive.

Speed: Compressed air is a veryfastworkingmedium.Thisenables


highworkingspeedsto be attained.

Adiustable: With compressedair components,speedsand forcesare


infinitelyvariable.

Orcrload safe : Pneumatic toolsand operatingcomponents can be loaded


to the pointof stoppingand are thereforeoverloadsafe.

b
fr,
I

11
In orderto accuratelydefinethe areasof applicationof pneumatics,
it ls aisc
necessary to be acquaintedwiththe negativecharacteristics:

Preparation
:
Compressedair requiresgood preparation.Dirt and condens@
shouldnot be present.

Compressible:
It is not alwayspossibleto achieveuniformand constantpiston
speedswithcompressed air.

Forcerequirement:
Compressedair is economicalonly up to a certainforce require-
ment. Underthe normalworkingpressureof 6-7 bar (600to 700
kPa) and dependenton the travel and speed,the outputlimit is
between20 000 and 30 000 Newtons.

Noiselevel:
The exhaustair is loud. This problemhas now, however,been
largelysolveddue to the development material
of soundabsorption
and silencers.

Costs:
Compressedair is a relativelyexpensivemeans of conveying
power. The high energycostsare partiallycompensated
by inex-
pensivecomponents and higherperformance.

A comparisonwith otherformsof energyis an essentialpart of the selection


processwhen consideringpneumaticsas a controlor workingmedium.This
evaluationembracesthe total systemfrom the inputsignal(sensors)through
the controlpart (processor)
to the outputdevices(actuators).
All factorsmust
be consideredsuchas:
. Workor outputrequirements
. Preferred
controlmethods
. Resources and expertiseavailableto supportthe project
. Systemscurrentlyinstalledwhichare to be integratedwiththe newproject

't2

L
Choiceof workingmedia: Criteriafor a workingmedium
. Electrics
' Hydraulics
. Pneumatics
. A combination
of the above

Sebctioncriteriafor the workingsection:


. For@
. Sfoke
. Type of motion(linear,rotary)
. Speed
. Size
. Servicelile
. Sensitivrty
. Sdety and reliability
. Energycosts
- conrollability
. l-landling
. $rage

Cfdce of controlmedia:
. llechanical
. Electical
. Elecfonic
. Pneumatic, normalpressure
. Pneumatic,low pressure
' l-lydraulic

S*ctbn criteriafor the controlsection:


. Reliabilityof components
. Sensitivityto environmental influences
. Faeeof maintenanceand repair
. $ribhing time of components
. Signal speed
. Spacerequirements
. Senricelife
. Trainingrequirements of operatorsand maintainers
. f/bdificationof the controlsystem

I
13
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'
1.2. Pneumatics
and control in pneumatics
The productdevelopment in a numberof
can be considered
systemdevelopment areas:
. Actuators
. Sensorsandinputdevices
. Processors
. Controlsystems
. Accessories

Eachof theseproductgroupsare important


in the developmentof pneumatic
Thedemandsarefor system/component
solutions. butwith:
reliability
. for repairand/ormaintenance,
Accessibility or
.
.
Lowcostof replacement
Easeof mounting andconnection J
.
.
Lowplannedmaintenance requirements
andflexibility
Interchangeability J
.
.
Compact design
Costscommensurate withthe above J
.
.
Readilyavailable
Documentationsupport J
. Minimum trainingrequiredto supportthe product
J
J
J
J
J

14
Chapter2

Componentsof a
pneumatic
system

15
A pneumaticsystemcan be brokendowninto a numberof levelsrepnesentirq
hardwareand signalflow.

The variouslevelsforma
control path for signal Signalflow
flow from the signal
(input)side to the work ACTUATING
DEVICES
(output)side.'
Outputs

Fi nol control el ement

PROCESSINGELEMENTS
Processorsignols

INPUTELEMENTS
Input signols

2 .1. Pneumaticsystem
structureand signal flow
Theprimarylevelsin a pneumatic
. Energysupply
. Inputelements
systemare:
J
(sensors)
. Processingelements(processors)
. Actuatingdevices(actuators)

The elementsin the systemare representedby symbolswhich indicatethe


functionof the element.The symbolscan be combinedto representa solution
for a particularcontroltask usingthe circuitdiagram.The circuitis drawnwith
the samestructureas the signalflow diagramabove.At the actuatorlevelthe
additionof the controlelementcompletesthe structure.The controlelement
controlsthe actionof the actuatorafterreceivingsignalssentby the processor
elements.

16
t Pneumatic
elements
I
)
ACTUATORS
I
) Pneumaticcylinders
Rotaryactuators
Indicators
)
I
FINALCONTROL ELEMENTS
CONTROL
) ELEMENT
Control
signals
controlvalves
Directional
I
?

)
) PROCESSORS
a Directional
controlvalves
) Logicelements
Pressurecontrolvalves
l

)
t SENSORS
) INP UTE LE M E NT S Directional
controlvalves
Limitswitches
lnputsignals Pushbuttons
t
Proximitysensors
t
ENERGY SUPPLY
ta Compressor
Receiver
Pressureregulator
Air serviceequipment
-
a
,
rhe directionalcontrolvalve(DCV)may havea sensing,a processing or an
a
actuatingcontrolfunction.lf the DCVis usedto controla cylindermotion,then
: is a controlelementfor the actuatorgroup.lf it is used in the functionof
r)
rocessingsignals,then it is definedas a processor element.lf it is usedto
sensemotions,then it is definedas a sensor.The distinguishing featurebe-
a :,veeneachof theserolesis normallythe methodof operating the valveand
*'nerethe valveis situatedin the circuitdiagram.
t.

a Circuitdiagramand pneumatic
elements
D

a
.

a Actuotor

I Finol control
element
a
Signol processor
3 Siqnol input
1
a "1. "^."\
E nerov suool v
rl (soui6e)
r)

a 17
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2.2. Air generationand The air supplyfor a particularpnelmaticapplication
shouldbe sutficientand of
distribution adequatequality.

Air is compressed to approximately 1/7thof its volumeby the air compressor


systemin the factory.To ensurethe quality
and deliveredto an air distribution
of the air is acceptable,air serviceequipmentis utilisedto preparethe air
beforebeingappliedto the controlsystem.

Malfunctions reducedin the systemif the compressed


can be considerably air
is correctlyprepared.A numberof aspectsmustbe consideredin the prepara-
tionof the serviceair:
. Quantityof air requiredto meetthe demandsof the system
. Typeof compressor to be usedto producethe quantityrequired
. Storagerequired
. Requirements for air cleanliness
. Acceptable humiditylevelsto reducecorrosionand stickyoperation
. Lubricationrequirements, if necegsary
. Lowtemperature of the air and effectson the system
. Pressure requirements
. Linesizesandvalvesizesto meetdemand
. Materialselectionand systemrequirements for the environment
. Drainagepointsand exhaustoutletsin the distribution system
. Layoutof the distribution systemto meetdemand.

As a rule pneumaticcomponents are designedfor a maximumoperatingpres-


sureof 8 - 10 bar (800-1000kPa)but in practiceit is recommended
to operate
at between5 and 6 bar (500-600kPa)for economicuse. Due to the pressure
lossesin the distributionsystemthe compressorshoulddeliverbetween6.5
and 7 bar (650-700kPa)to attainthesefigures.

18

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L_
LJ An air receiver should be fitted to reduce pressure fluctuations.In normal
operationthe compressorfills the receiverwhen requiredand the receiveris
LJ availableas a reserveat all times. This reducesthe switchingcycles of the
comDressor.
LJ Air supplysystem
|.J
tJ
LJ
Lj Reservoir
within
a pneumatic
system

lJ Compressor
lj Serviceunit -;;il;;
Intermediate
reservoir
severalconsuming
for
devices
Condensatecollector
tank

lf oil is requiredfor the pneumaticsystemthen this shouldbe separately


meteredusing air serviceequipment. In a normalsituation,components
shouldbe selected for the controlsystemthatdo notrequirelubrication.

L Air serviceunit

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Dueto the highdemandat certainstagesof the air distribution system,a ring


mainwith cross-feed connections is recommended. In this way the fluctuations
are reduced.The ring main shouldbe laid out with a1-zo/ogradientto allow
drainagepointsfor condensatefrom the compressor.lf there is a relatively
highcondensate level,then air dryingequipmentshouldbe fittedspecifically to
dry the air to the requiredquality.condensateis a commoncauseof failurein
pneumatic controls.

The air serviceunitis a combination


of the following:
. Compressed
air filter
. Compressed
air regulator
. Compressed
air lubricator.

The correctcombination,size and type of these elementsare determinedby


the application
and the controlsystemdemand.An air serviceunit is fittedat
each controlsystemin the networkto ensurethe qualityof air for each in,
dividualtask.

Compressed
air filter The compressedair filter has the job of removingall contaminants from the
compressedair flowingthroughit as well as water which has alregdycon-
densed. The compressed air entersthe filterbowlthroughguideslcits.Liquid
particlesand largerparticlesof dirt are separatedcentrifugally
collectingin the
lowerpart of the filter bowl. The collectedcondensatemust be drainedbefore
the levelexceedsthe maximumcondensatemark,as it will otherwisebe re-
entrainedin the air stream.

Compressed
air regulator The purposeof the regulatoris to keep the operatingpressure(secondary
pressure)virtuallyconstantregardlessof fluctuationsin the line pressure
(primarypressure)andthe air.consumption.

Compressed
air lubricator The purposeof the lubricatoris to delivera meteredquantityof oil mist into a
leg of the air distributionsystemwhen necessaryfor the use by pneumatic
controlandworkingcomponents.

20
l,,
t
3.

+
=

- t Valvescan be dividedinto a numberof groupsaccording to theirfunctionin 2.3 Valves


- relationto signaltype, actuationmethodand construction.The primaryfunc-
5T
tion of the valveis to alter,generateor cancelsignalsfor the purposeof sens-
\ ing,processingand controlling. the valveis usedas a powervalve
Additionally
, for the supplyof workingair to the actuator.Thereforethe followingcategories
are relevant:
5a
hr

El
,
. Directionalcontrolvalves
- Signalling
elements
- Processingelements w
w
u - Powerelements
. Non-returnvalves
h
, . Flowcontrolvalves
. Pressurecontrolvalves
h . Combinationalvalves
hi
The directionalcontrolvalvecontrolsthe passageof air signalsby generating, Directional
controlvalves
- or redirecting
cancelling signals.
ftr
,
of the valve is of
In the field of controltechnology,the size and construction
-
less importancethan the signalgenerationand the actuationmethod.Direc-
-h tionalcontrolvalvescan be of the poppetor slidetype,with the poppetutilised
for smallflow ratesand for the generationof inputand processsignals.The
-
slidevalveis ableto carrylargerflow ratesand hencelendsitselfto the power
\ and actuatorcontrolrole.
\
a The way valveis describedby :
fr
. Numberof portsor openings (ways): 2 wa y , 3 wa y ,4 wa y , 5wa y ,e t c .
. Numberof positions: 2 positions, 3 positions, etc.
hr
. Methodsof actuationof the valve: Manual,air pilot,solenoid, etc.
. Methodsof returnactuation: Springreturn,air return,etc.
hrr
. Specialfeaturesof operation: Manualoverrides, etc.
hr

-
!\

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fa

rrr

- 21
-
li

As a signalelementthe directionalcontrolvalve is operatedby for example,a


roller lever to detect the piston rod positionof a cylinder.The signal element
can be small in size and createa small air pulse.A signalpulsecreatedwill be
at full operatingpressurebut have a smallflow rate.

312wayrollerlevervalve(without
andwithidlereturn)

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As a processingelementthe directional
controlvalveredirects,generatesor
cancelssignalsdepending The processing
on the signalinputsreceived. ele-
mentcan be supplemented withadditionalelements,suchas the AND-function
andOR-functionvalvesto createthedesiredcontrolconditions.

valve:singlepilotvalve
312wayair actuated

22

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) As a powerelementthe directional controlvalve must deliverthe required
\ quantityof air to matchthe actuatorrequirementsand hencethereis a need
) icr largervolumeflow ratesand thereforelargersizes.This may resultin a
argersupplyportor manifold beingusedto deliverthe airto the actuator.
)
\ 5 2 wayvalvefor cylindercontrol:doublepilotvalve
)

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D

e ',i:rr-returnvalve and its derivatives

)
- r elur n v o tv e De riv oti v e s
+

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)
| [b;i I one wcy flow control volve
t

a S h uttl e vol ve

+
Ttlrn nra<crrro rrnlrra
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Qui ck exhoust vol ve
I

-^e non-return valveallowsa signalto flowthroughthe devicein onedirection Non-return


valves
ard in the otherdirectionblocksthe flow.Thereare manyvariations in con-
s:':ctionand sizederivedfromthe basicnon-return valve.other derivedval-
a "es utilisefeaturesof the non-return
valveby the incorporationzofnon-return
s ements.The non-return valvecan be foundas an elementof the one way
'clv controlvalve,quick exhaustvalve,shuttlevalve and the two-pressure
a
r A YE.

+
23
Flowcontrolvalves The flow controlvalverestrictsor throttlesthe air in a particular directionto
reducethe flow rate of the air and hencecontrolthe signalflow. lf the flow
controlvalveis leftwideopenthenthe flow shouldbe almostthe sameas if
the restrictoris not fitted.In some casesit is possibleto infinitelyvary the
restrictorfromfullyopento completely closed.lf the flowcontrolvalveis fitted
with a non-return valvethen the functionof flow-control is unidirectional
with
full free flow in one direction.A two way restrictorrestrictsthe air in both
directions of flow and is not fittedwith the non-return valve.The flow control
valveshouldbe fittedas closeto the workingelementas is possibleand must
be adjusted to matchthe requirements of the application.

Flowcontrolvalve

Pressure
controlvalves Pressurecontrolvalvesare utilisedin pneumaticsystems.Thereare three
maingroups:
. Pressure
regulatingvalves
. Pressure
limitingvalves
. Pressure
sequence valves

The pressureregulatingvalvecontrolsthe operatingpressurein a controlcir-


cuit and keepsthe pressureconstantirrespective
of any pressurefluctuations
in the system.

The pressurelimitingvalvesare utilisedon the up-streamsideof the compres-


sor to ensurethe receiverpressureis limited,for safety,and that the supply
pressureto the systemis set to the correctpressure.

24

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The sequencevalvesensesthe pressureof any externalline and compares


the pressureof the line againsta presetadjustable
value,creatinga signal
whenthe presetlimitis reached.

r Pressure valve
sequence

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2(^)

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-.e combined functions of variouselementscan producea newfunction. The Combinational
valves
^ew component can be constructedby the combination of individual
elernents
- :r manufactured in a combinedconfigurationto reducesizeandcomplexity. An
exampleis the timerwhichis the combination of a one way flowcontrolvalve,
a reservoir
anda3l2 way directional controlvalve.

Timedelayvalve

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valvesincludethe oneway flowcontroland the two hand


Othercombinational
:
startvalve.

25
2.4 Processors:valvesand To supportthe directional
controlvalvesat the processing level,there are
logicelements variouselementswhichcondition
the controlsignalsfor a task.The elements
are:
. Twopressure valve(ANDfunction)
. Shuttlevalve(ORfunction)
Theseelementsderivetheirconstruction fromthe non-return valveand have
logicbasedroles.A specialfeatureis thattheyare fittedat a junctionof three
lines,therefore
theyhavethreeconnections, two in andoneout.

Twopressure
valve(ANDfunction)

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ll,If J
--l
J
J
J
J
J
The furtherdevelopmentof processing elementsin pneumatics
aboutthe modularsystems,whichincorporate directional
has brought
controlvalvefunc- J
to performa combinedprocessing
tionsand logicelements
size,costandcomplexityof the system.
task.This reduces
J
processing
Modular unit
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

26
R

I
!>

\ -.e actuatorgroupincludesvarioustypes of linearand rotaryactuatorsof 2.5 Actuators: working


t

\
. a'vingsize and construction.
The actuatorsare complemented by the final elementsand directional
D ::^trol element,whichtransfersthe requiredquantityof air to drivethe ac- controlvalves
\ :-a:cr.Normallythisvalvewillbe directlyconnected
to the mainair supplyand
a ':ed closeto the actuator
to minimiselossesdueto resistance.

t
lriuatorwithfinaicontrolelement
,

,
\
t

,u

\
-
\
D

E
r::-a:ors canbe furtherbrokendownintogroups:
- .
ra
- ^earactuators
- Singleactingcylinder
- Dcubleactingcylinder
. ictary actuators
-
- \laneWpe
- A r motors
-
5
r:--r:ators,linearand rotary
t,

ra

ra

ra

rrr

- 27
ri
ta
--
r)

<
\
{

.<

2.6 Systems: <


Thecontrolof thecylinder is an importantconslderationin the development of
controlcircuits control Thepneumatic
solutions. energyis to be transferred to thecylinder
via <
a finalcontrolelement or directional
controlvalve.Thedirection of motionof
thecylinder by thevalvepushbutton.
is controlled A circuitis developeo. <
Controlcircuitforthesinole The Problem
actingcylinder Thepistonrod of a singleactingcylinderis to advance
whenair is applied. -
when the air is removed,the pistonis to automaticallv
returnto the initial
position.
-
Solution -
A valveis to createa signalwhena pushbutton is pressedandto cancelthis
signalwhenthepushbutton is released.The3i2waydirectional control
valveis
a signalgenerating valve.lt is suitablefor the controlof a singleacting
-
cylinder.
Thecircuitthereforeincludesthefollowing primaryfeatures:
. Singleactingcylinder -T
withonesupplyconnection andoneexhaust or vent
portandthespringfor returnforce
. 312way directional
controlvalve:3 portsand 2 positions,
pushbutton
for T
operation
andspringfor returnforce
. Supplyairsourceconnected to the312wayvalve :r
. Airconnectionbetween valveandcylinder

Controlof a singleactingcylinder -r

w -

-!r

W
-
E

!r

-l

-
The 3/2 way controlvalvehas3 ports.The supplyport,the exhaustportand
the outletport.Therelationship
betweentheseportsis determinedby the pas-
sagesthroughthe valve.The numberof variations possibleis determinedby -r
thenumber of positions
drawn.In thiscasetwopositions
arepossible.

28
F-
t\
,l
+ j

-
Initialposition:The initialposition(left-hand circuit)is definedas the 'rest'
\ position All
of the system. connections are made andthereis no manualinter-
ventionby the operator. The air supply is shut off and the cylinderpistonrod
(by
retracted spring return).The cylinder port is connected to the exhaustport
via the body of the valve.The supplypressureis shut off internally by the
valve.

Pushbuttonoperation: Pressingthe pushbuttonmovesthe 3/2 way valve


- againstthe valve returnspring.The diagram(right-hand circuit)showsthe
valvein the actuatedor workingposition.The air supplyis now connectedvia
- the valvepassageto the singleactingcylinderport.The build-upof pressure
causesthe pistonrod of the cylinderto extendagainstthe forceof the cylinder
- 'eturnspring.As soonas the pistonrod arrivesat the forwardend position,the
airpressure in the cylinderbodyreachesa maximumlevel.
-
r\
- hrshbutton release:As soon as the pushbuttonis released,the valvereturn
l'
L
soringreturnsthe valveto its initialpositionand the cylinderpistonrod retracts.

f the pushbuttbnis operatedand then releasedbeforethe cylinderfully ex-


:ends,the cylinderpistonrod immediately retracts.Thereforethere is a direct
oontrolrelationship betweenpushbutton operationand cylinderpistonrod posi-
tron.lt is possible
thatthe cylindermaynotfullyextendin suchcases.

Note:The speedof extensionand the speedof retractionare different.As the


rod movesforwardit is undercontrolof the air supply,Duringretraction
Di:ston
fie speedis mainlycontrolledby the sizeof the cylinderreturnspring.There-
{oreforwardmotionis fasterthanreturnmotion.
t-
I
l-1

!:
I
:\r
I
b.

I-
r\

L-
I
I
l\-
t-
I
lhr
t-
I
hi

29
-_
.L

-
I

{
Controlcircuitforthedouble The Problem
actingcylinder The pistonrod of a doubleactingcylinderis to advancewhena pushbutton is
operatedand to returnto the initialpositionwhenthe pushbutton is released. \
-a

Thedoubleactingcylindercancarryout workin bothdirections of motion,due


\-a
to thefullair supplypressure
beingavailable for extension
and retraction.
I
Solution
A valveis to createone signaland cancelanothersignalwhena pushbutton is
pressedand to changeoverthe signalswhenthe pushbutton is released.The
412way directional controlvalveis a signalgenerating valvewith two signal -
outputports.lt is suitablefor the controlof a doubleactingcylinder.The circuit
thereforeincludes thefollowing features: -

. Doubleactingcylinderwithtwo supplyconnections -
. 4/2 way directional
conlrolvalve:4 portsand two positions,
pushbutton
for
operationandspringfor returnforce -
. Supplyair sourceconnectedlo lhe 412way valve
. Twoairconnections betweenvalveandcylinder -
=

Controlof a doubleactingcylinder
-

-
!r
E

:-

!r

.i-
I
E
I
t t -l
:{

3r

-
I

- I
_J

30
lnitial position: In the initialposition(left-handcircuit)all the connections
are
madeand thereis no manualintervention by the operator.In this unactuated
position,air is appliedto the cylinderpistonrod side,whilethe pressureon the
plbtonsideof the cylinderis exhausted.

Rrshbutton operation: Pressingthe pushbuttonoperatesthe 4/2 way valve


againstthe valve returnspring. The diagram(right-handcircuit)showsthe
valvein the operatedor actuatedposition.In this position,the_q!,rppty
pressure
s connectedto the pistonside of the cylinder,while the pistonrod side is
Eihausle-d.Thd pressureon the pistonside advHnces the pistonrod. Once
full extensionis reached,the air pressureon the pistonside reachesa maxi-
mum.

Pushbuttonrelease:Oncethe pushbuttonis released,the valvereturnspring


rushes the valve into the initialposition.]-he- supplypressureis now con-
nectedto the pistonrod side,while the pistonside is exhaustedvia the ex-
ruust port of the valve. The pistonrod retracts.

llf the pushbuttonis releasedbeforethe cylinderis fully extended,then the


cylinderpistonrod immediately returns.Therefore,thereis a directrelationship
Hrreen pushbutton operationand cylinderpistonrod position.

31
Chapterg

Symbolsand standards
in pneumatics

33
.I
I

3.1 Symbolsand The developmentof pneumaticsystemsis assistedby a uniformapproachto


descriptionsof of the elementsand the circuits.The symbolsusedfor the
the representation
components individual
elementsmustdisplaythe following
characteristics:
. Function
. Actuationand returnactuationmethods
. Numberof connections (alllabelledfor identification)
. Numberof switching positions
. Generaloperating principle
. Simplified
representationof theflowpath

A symboldoesnot represent
the followingcharacteristics:
. Sizeor dimensions of the component
. Particular
manufacturer, methodsof constructionor costs
. Orientationof the ports
. Anyphysical detailsof the element
. Anyunionsor connections otherthanjunctions

The symbolsusedin pneumatics are detailedin the standardDIN ISO 1219,


"Circuitsymbolsfor fluidicequipmentand systems". A summarylistingof the
relevantsymbolsare shownand a more completelistingis detailedin the
TP102book.

The relevantstandardsfor the construction, testingand designof pneumatic


controlsystemsare listedin the referencesectionof this book.

34
The symbolsfor the energysupplysystemcan be representedas individual Air supplyand generation
elementsor as combinedelements.The choicebetweenusing simplifiedor
detailedsymbolsis dependentupon the purposeof the circuitand its com-
plexity.In generalwhere specifictechnicaldetailsare to be given such as
requirements for non-lubricatedair or micro-filtering,
thenthe completedetailed
symbolshouldbe used. lf a standardand commonair supplyis used for all
components, thenthe simplifiedsymbolscan be used.Fortrouble-shooting the
detailedsymbolsare moresuitable.But the detailshouldnot add to the com-
plexityof the circuitfor reading.

andpreparation
Symbolsusedin energyconversion

Supply

Compressor With fixed copocity ,Al


(E
Y
Air receiver n
ond 'T' junction
I
Service equipment

Filter

Woter seporotor
Seporotion ond
filtrotion of porticles

Portiol woter removol


+
-^
Y
$
!3
il
Lubricotor

Pressure regulotor
Metered quontities
of oil possed to
the oir streom +
! Relievingtype -
vent hole for
excess upstreom
pressure - odjustoble

Combined symbols

Air service unit Filter,


Regulotor,
Gouge,
Lubricotor
I
I
Simplifiedoir
service unit

b Pressure source o-

35
\,/alvesymboldescription In generalthe symbolsare similarfor pneumaticsand hydraulics
but each
controlmediumhasspecificcharacteristics
thatare unique.

Directional
controlvalves:symboldevelopment

Vnlvc switr-hinn nositions


ore representeo os squores

The number of squores


shows how mony switching
nnsitinns ihc vnlve hos

Lines indicote flow poths,


orrows show the direction
of flow

Sh rrt o ff n o s i ti ons ore


identified in t h e b o x e s b y
lines drown of riq h t o n g le s

The connections (inlet ond


nr r ilel
-. - s n o wn Dy
nnr tq) nr c

lines on the o u t s id e o f t h e oox


ond ore drown in t h e in it io l nnqi l i nn

JO
The directional
controlvalveis representedby the numberof controlledcon- Directional
controlvalves:
nectionsand the numberof positions. Eachpositionis shownas a separate way valves
square.The designationof the portsis important
wheninterpretingthe circuit
symbolsand the valve as fittedto the physicalsystem.To ensurethat the
and valvesare physically
:crrectlines,connections in place,theremustbe a
reiationship
betweenthecircuitandthecomponents used.

-hereforeall symbolson the circuitmustbe designated


and the components
-sed shouldbe labelled
withthe correctsvmbolanddesionations.

controlvalves:portsandpositions
Directional (ways)

Number of p orts

Number of p ositions

Woy directionol
control volve

-7 /a Woy directionol
control volve
Normolly closed

Woy directionol
control volve
Normolly open

L/2 - Woy directionol


control volve

'/
z- - Woy directionol
control volve

g '| g -
Woy directionol
control volve
Mid nosition r:losed
I

A numbering systemis usedto designate directionalcontrolvalvesand is in


accordance systemwas utilised
with ISO5599(Draft).Priorto this a lettering
are presentedhere:
and bothsystemsof designation

Port or Connection tso 5599 LetteringSystem


Pressure port 1 P
Exhaustport 3 R (3/2way valve)
Exhaustports 5,3 R,S(5/2wayvalve)
Signaloutputs 2,4 B,A
Pilotlineopensflow1 to 2 12 Z (singlepilot3/2way)
Pilotlineopensflow1 to 2 12 Y (512way valve)
Pilotlineopensflow1 to 4 14 Z (512way valve)
Pilotlineflowclosed 10 Z,Y
Auxiliarypilotair 81,91 Pz

Examples
of designations

38
,I
'I
I
ra

ra
e
a

rl

The methodsof actuation of pneumatic controlvalvesis dependent Methodsof actuation


directional
t
uponthe requirements of thetask.Thetypesof actuation
vary,i.e.mechanical,
pneumatic, and combinedactuation.
electrical The symbolsfor the methodsof
t
actuation
aredetailedin lso 1219.
, Whenappliedto a directional mustbe givento the
controlvalve,consideration
of the valveand alsothe methodof returnactuation.
methodof initialactuation
t
Normallythesearetwo separatemethods. Theyare bothshownon the symbol
eitherside of the positionboxes.Theremay also be additionalmethodsof
J
actuationsuchas manualoverrides, whichareseparatelyindicated.

Methodsof actuation
t

Mechonicol
t
Generol monuol operotion Ff
t
L
Pushbutton (t'
rr-l_
of-
\
-
Lever operoted
+ -l-r-
\ Detent lever operoted Ff
r-f.- __r-
:[-
t
Foot pedol
+--hnnit
Spring return
I
lr '

Spring centred r-l


V/Vl- -j\i\ /\
: Rolle r oner ot ed
-rJ-|
ta)
a
:
ldle return, roller r
Pneumotic
ffi_
Direct pneumotic octuotion --*fL
- Indirect pneumotic -r-> --J-I
octuotion (piloted)
--
:
Pressure releose -=f L
ra

E lec t r ic ol

S
-"
inc
'Y'-
le s o l e n o i d n n p r n t ia n
VI
----t_

Double solenoid n n o r n iin n


,fl-
a
Combined
-J- --l--- --
Double solenoid n n d n iln t t-
H\ I t a-
i/tt\m
operotion with monuol ?_ ___J4
override

39
t
t

Non-return
valvesandderiva- The non-return
valve(checkvalve)is the basisfor the developmentof many
tives combinedcomponents. Thereare two mainconfigurations for non-return
val-
ves,withandwithoutthe springreturn.

Non-return
valvesandderivatives

Check volve -+-


Spring looded check volve

Shuttle volve:
,^-,
UK T UN C t I O N

Tw o p re s s u re v o lv e
'AND' f u n c t io n

Quic k e x h o u s t v o lv e

Flowcontrol Mostflow controlvalvesare adjustable.The one way flow controlvalveper-


mitsflowadjustment'inonedirection
onlywiththe non-rqurnfitted.The airow
showsthat the componentis adjustablebut does not reierto the directionof
flow;it is diagrammatic
only.

Flowcontrolvalves

Flow control volve


---T--
-_t
odjustoble

One-woy flow
con trol volve

I 40
'h,
valvesare generallyadjustable
Pressureregulating againstspringcompres- Pressure
regulating
valves
sion.Thesymbolsaredistinguished
according to thefollowing
types:
. Pressuresensing:downstream, upstreamor external
. Relieving
or non-relieving pressure
andfluctuating
. Adjustable
or fixedsettings

Thesymbolsrepresent the pressurevalveas a singlepositionvalvewitha flow


In the caseof the pressureregulator
paththatis eitheropenor closedinitially.
the flow is alwaysopen,whereasthe pressuresequencevalveis closeduntil
the pressure reachesthe limitvalueas set on the adjustable
spring"

Pressure
valves

Ad ju stoblepressure reguloting
volve , n on-relieving type fiw
7T-
ArJ ir retnhlo nrpeqr

volve, relieving type


(overloods ore vented)
tr e r ca t r ln lin n

f^[/,-
/T-
Qa n rra n n a

externot source
r r nlr r o

#lu/^,
-T-
Qcn rro n n a

r-line
r r nlr r a

il,f'
l-

Qonrranna rrnlrra

: onrb ino tion

I
t 41

I
Linearactuators and
The linearactuatorsor cylindersare describedby theirtypeof construction
methodof operation.

w The singleactingcylinderand the doubleactingcylinderform the basisfor


designvariations.
The use of cushioning
mountingsduringdeceleration
to reduceloadson the end capsand
of the piston is importantfor long-lifeand
smoothoperation.The cushioningcan be either fixed or adjustable. The

w cushioningpistonis shownon the exhaustair side of the piston.The arrow


indicatesadjustable

Linearactuators
cushioningand notthe directionof cushionedmotion.

S ingle octin g c y lin d e r

Double oct in g c y lin d e r [Frr-


r,rr---lr
Double octin g c y lin d e r r-TF
with double e n d e d p is t o n ro d -FIrJ-
Double octin g c y lin d e r
mr---------l-
with non-od ju s t o b le c u s h io n in g
in one dire c t io n
tu- ;-
Double octin g c y lin d e r li/+
with single o d ju s t o b le c u s h io n in g li--;r-
Double octin g c y lin d e r
with odjust o b lec u s h io n in g
of both end s
l|{l]F------
7--------T

42
r-
+
\
t
Rotaryactuatorsare dividedinto continuousmotionand limitedangleof rota- Rotaryactuators
tion.The air motoris normallya highspeeddevicewith eitherfixedor adjus-
tablespeedcontrol.

w
Unitswith limitedangleof rotationare fixedor adjustablein angulardisplace-
ment.. The rotaryactuatormay be cushioneddependingupon the load and
speedof operation

,
Rotarymotion
W
Ai r m otor, rototion in one dire c t io n /9\
h\
fi xed copocity (E
t
Y
,u
\ni
, Air m otor, rototion in one dir e c t io n
\
)'
I
b.-
vor io blecopocity
,1F
Ai r m otor, rototion in both di re c t io n s rd,
vo r io b le copocity

R otor y octuotor
W
--t\_
l i m i te d trovel
r ototi on in both directions -+)-
Thereare a numberof important
symbolsfor accessories
whichare utilisedin
conjunctionwith pneumatics.
Theseincludethe exhaustair symbols,visual
F: indicators
andthe methodsof connection
of components.

Auxiliarysymbols

-
Exho ust port
-F: V
Exho ust port
with threoded connection +V
hr
-
i-
Si l encer -{D
Lin e connection (fixed) _l_
I
L-
-
C r ossinglines
( no t connected) +
(a
I
I
hh P ro q q t tr a n^t t^^
r
i
:r Y
h-
Vi suo l indicotor -a

-F:

!--
43
t\ aa
3.2. Safetyrequirementsfor Thereare a limitednumberof standardsand regulations for pneumatic
sys-
pneumatlcsystems tems. Thereforefor all factorsaffectingsafety,ieferencemust be made to
existinggeneralguidelinesand regulations from a numberof differenten_
gineeringfields.

Safetyrequirements
for consideration
shouldbe given to the followingguidelineswhen operating
pneumaticclamping
devices pneumatic
cylinders
underclampingconditions.

The controlsystemfor the pneumaticclampingdevicesshouldbe designedor


arrangedin sucha way as to avoidaccidentaloperation.Thiscan be achieved
by meansof:

' Manually-operatedswitchingdeviceswithprotectivecovers,or
. Controlinterlocks

. Pressuretransducers,
or
. Pressuresequencevalves

A failureof the air supplt'-must


not causethe clampingdeviceto openduring
the machiningof a clampedworkpiece. Thiscan be ach-ieved
by meansof:
. Pressurereservoirs
. Controlinterlocks(memoryvalves)

Environmental
pollution Twoformsof environmental
pollution
mayoccurin pneumatic
systems:
. Noise:causedby the escapeof compressed air
' oil mist:causedby lubricantswhichhavebeen introducedat the compres-
sor or via a serviceunit and which are dischargedinto the atmosphere
duringthe exhaustcycles

44
l
Measuresmust be taken against excessiveexhaust noise. This can be Exhaustnoise
) by meansof:
achieved

t . Exhaust
silencers

) Silencersare used to reducethe noiseat the exhaustportsof valves.They


operateon the principleof exhaustair flow controlby creatinga greateror
I lesserflow resistance.Normalsilencershave only limitedinfluenceon the
speedof the pistonrod. In the case of throttlesilencers,however,the flow
I resistanceis adjustable.
Thesesilencersare usedto controlthe speedof the
cylinderpistonrod andthe valveresponsetimes.
t
Anothermethodof noisereductionis to fit manifoldswith connections
to the
t exhaustportsof the powervalvesand thus to dischargethe air via a large
sornmonsilenceror to returnit to a reservoir.

-he exhaustair of mechanically driven tools or mechanically controlled Oilmist


-achines containsatomised oil whichoften remainsin a roomfor some con-
sderabletimein the formof a vapour,whichcan be breathedin.
pCliutionof the environment is particularly
acutein caseswherea largenum-
aer of air motorsor large-diameter
cylindersare fittedin an installation.

trSectivecountermeasures
mustbe takento reducethe amountof oil mistthat
:vf€s to the atmosphere.

rVrenmaintaining or workingwith pneumaticsystems,care mustbe takenin Operational


safety
:e removaland the reconnection of air lines.The energystoredin the tube or
soe will be expelledin a very shorttime with enoughforceto causesevere
rnudashof the line whichcan endangerpersonnel. Wherepossiblethe air
srould be isolatedat two differentpoints,removingthe air pressurebeforethe
dsconnectionis made.An additionaldangeris in the disturbance of particles
are:o the air blastwhichcauseseye hazards.

3l- rost controlsystemssafetydevicesand guardswill be fittedfor the protec-


rr cr personnel. Theseshouldneverbe manipulatedas the safetyof person.
ret Tay be at risk.

45
t-At
l4i

Chapter4
Systematic
approach
to pneumatic
solutions

47
gt-uarErE qFwl no rlt]llEEsllElli rtcslrE

The solutionto a controlproblemis workedout accordrng to a S;sre- r'r'1-


documentation playingan importantrolein communicating the f n3 rg5r,1-rg
circuitdiagramshouldbe drawnusingstandardsymbolsand labellinEC:--
prehensive documentationis requiredincluding
mostof the followrng:
. Displacement-step or motiondiagram
. Flowchartof the process
. Circuitdiagram
. Partslistof all components in the system
. Description of the operationof the system
. Maintenance andfault-finding information
. Sparepartslist
. Technical dataon the components

4.'l Designof the circuit The layoutof the circuitdiagramshouldcorrespond to the controlchainflow-
diagram chart,i.e.thereshouldbe a signalflowfromthe bottomof the circuitto thetop.
The energysupplyis important and mustbe includedin the circuit.The ele-
mentsrequired for the energysupplyshouldbe drawnat the bottom.Simplified
or full componentsymbolscan be utilised.In largercircuits,the energysupply
section(serviceunit,shut-offvalve,variousdistribution connections etc.)can
be drawnseparately.
J
Controlchainflowchart
J
A CT UA T I NG
DE V I CE S
J
O ut p ut s

F I NA LCO NT RO L
E L E ME NT S
Co n t ro l s ig n o ls J
=
J
J
Lr- J
J

z-
PROCESSINGELEMENTS
Processor signols
J
a J
o
z-
J
E.
ul
I NP UTE L E ME NT S
l nnr r i c i nnnl c
J
z
L!

E NE RG YS UP P L Y
J
S o urc e
J
J
J
48
J
J
)
)a

t
-
t
This layoutmeansthat the circuitdiagrammust be drawnwithoutconsidering
the actualphysicallocationsof each of the elements.lt is recommended
I that
all cylindersand directionalcontrol valves be drawn horizontallywith the
cylindersoperatingfrom left to right,so that the circuitcan be more easily
understood.

The Problem 4.2 Circultlayout


The piston rod of a double-actingpneumaticcylindertravelsout if eithera
manualpushbuttonor a foot pedalis operated.The cylinderreturnsto its start-
The pistonrod will returnprovidedthe manual
ing positionafterfullyextending.
actuatorshavebeenreleased.

Circuitdiagram

1(P)

2(A) 1.4 1.3

5
3

Solution
The valve 1.3 is mountedat the full extensionpositionof the cylinder.The
circuildiagramshowsthis elementsituatedat the signalinput leveland does
not direcllyreflectthe orientationof the valve.The mark on the circuitat the
extendedcylinderpositionindicatesthe physicalpositionof the valve 1.3 for
orruil operation.

5 t' the controlis complexand containsseveralworkingelements,the control


shouldbe brokendown into separatecontrolchains. A chaincan be formed
b 'or eachfunctionalgroup.

Whereverpossible,these chainsshouldbe drawn next to each other in the


sameorderas the operatingsequence.This is not alwayspossible.

49
<

4.3 Designation
of individual All elementsshould be Actuatedinitialposition
elements shown in the circuit
diagram in the initial
position:here the valve
is initiallyactuated.This
must be indicated (for
example,by an arrow,or
in the case of a limit
switch by drawing a
cam). The valve is
shown in the oDerated
state with the left hand
positionin line with the
supplyport. The signal
at 2(A) is initiallyactive
due to operationof the
rollerelement.

The numbering systemof the individual


elementsin the circuitdiagrambelow
relatesto theworkinggroupnumberandthefollowing criteria:

0. Energysupplyunit
1, 2, 3 etc. Numbering of individualworkinggroupsor controlchains
1.0,2.0etc . Workingelement
.1 Controlelement
.01,.02etc. Elements between the controlelementand workingelement
.2, .4 etc. Elements whichinfluence the advancestrokeof the cylinder
.3, .5 etc. Elements whichinfluence the returnstrokeof the cylinder

Circuitdiagram

50
. Signalflowfrombottomof circuitto the top. Summary
. Energysourcecanbe shownin simplified form.
. Physicalarrangement of the elementsis ignored.
. Drawthe cylindersand directional whereverpos-
controlvalveshorizontally
sible,cylindersextendingfromleftto right.
. Designateall elementsin the completedinstallation the same as in the
circuitdiagram.
. ldentifypositionof the input signalsby a mark (limitvalve).lf signalsare
issuedin one directiononly, showan arrowon the mark.
. Showelementsin the initialpositionof the control.ldentifyactuatedele-
mentsby a cam or arrow.
. Drawpipelinesstraightwithoutcross-overwhereverpossible.Junctionsare
indicatedby a dot.

Pneumatic
systemdevelopment The development of The life cycle of a
solutionsfor pneumatic pneumaticsystem
control systems is de-
pendentuponmethodical
C O N T R OLP R OB L EM planning.

(,' The various phases in-


A N A L YS IS
volvedin the life cycleof
ll e fi n e th e o b i e c ti v e such systemsare shown
of th e p n e u mo ti c s y s te m here.
(,
D ES IG N
De v e l o p o s o l u ti o n fo r
t he p n e u mo ti c s y s te m

Jt
\/
IMP L EME N T A T IO N
Cons tru c t, i n s to l l , te s t o n d
c om m is s i o n th e p n e u m o ti c s y s te m
s.
J t-
3
E VA L U A T IO N
Chec k th e p e rfo rmo n c e o f th e
pneu m o ti c s y s te m to m e e t
t h e o n o l y s l s o b j e c ti v e
\7

M AIN T EN AN C E
S er v ic e on d m o i n to i n th e p n e u mo ti c
s y s t em t o me e t th e p e rfo rm o n c e o f
t he o n o l y s i s ,re q u i re m e n ts
It
U P G R AD IN G
M odif y o r u p g ro d e th e s y s te m
t o me e t n e w re q u i re m e n ts

51
Analysisof a pneumatic The firststepis the definitionof objectivesfor the projectwith a cleardefinition
controlproblem of the problem(s).Designor development of the solutionis not involvedat the
analysisstage.A flowchartof the totalprojectplancan be developedto define
the step-orientatedprocesses.

Design Therearetwo stagesof designdevelopment.

The first is the overallsystemdesignwhere generalsystemshardwareand


controlmediumdecisionsare made. At this stagealternative
solutionsmay be
addressed for consideration.

Thenextstageof thedesignprocessinvolves
thefollowing:
. Development
. Documentation
of hardwaresystems
development - preliminary
documentation
J
. Definition
of further
. Timeschedules
requirements
for projectimplementation
J
. Productlistsand specifications
. Costingdata
J
J
lmplementation The projectis implementedusing the designspecifications.The hardware
componentsare orderedand then constructed to form a system. A delivery J
datecan be estimated for the systemcompletion
sioningdrawnup. Priorto the systeminstallation,
and a schedulefor commis-
the system'sfunctionsmust J
be fullytested. This is important
The installation
and connection
to ensurethat on-sitework is not delayed.
processinvolvesthe mountingof controls,actuators,sensors
of serviceunits.The installation
mustbe fullycompleted prior
J
to any attemptto operatethe controlsystem. Once installation
is completed,
the commissioning stage is reached. When the functionaltest of all com-
ponentsis completed,the systemas a whole can be functionallychecked.
Finallyto ensurethe sequenceoperatesunderall conditions, the machine
must be cycledunderall of the expectedand specifiedoperatingconditions,
e.g.productfailure,emergency conditions,
manualcycle,autocycle,blockages
J
etc.The machineis not considered commissioned
havebeenpassedthroughthe machineunderproduction
untila quantityof products
conditions.
J
qnd -J
Evaluation Uponcompletion of the commissioning processthe finalresultis evaluated
The benefitsof improvedproduction
comparedto the originalspecification.
reducedcostswillbe apparent
and
if the machineor systemis properlymaintained.
J
-J
-J
-J
-r
-J
_-
_
=J
52
-.t
-
Maintenance
is essentialtominimise
the systemdowntimes. Maintenance

Regularand carefulmaintenance helpsto increasethe reliabilityof a system


andto reducethe operatingcosts.

After a certainnumberof cycles,some componentsmay show signsof early


deteriorationwhichmightbe due to incorrectproductselectionor a changein
Basicpreventivemaintenance
operatingconditions. carriedout at regularinter-
vals helpsto diagnosefailuresof this kindandthusavoidssystemdowntimes.

Afterthe systemhas beenin servicefor sometime,the reliability


of the system
can be improvedthroughcomponentreplacement or upgrade.

s
13
qI

53
ChapterS

55
Thereare two primarymethodsfor constructing
circuitdiagrams:
. The so-calledintuitivemethods,alsofrequentlytermedconventional
or trial-
and-errormethods
. The methodicaldesignof a circuitdiagramin accordancewith prescribed
rulesand instructions

Whereasmuchexperience and intuitionis requiredin the firstoaseand above


all, a greatdeal of time wherecomplicated circuitsare concerned;designing
circuitdiagramsof the secondcategoryrequiresmethodicalworkingand a
certainamountof basictheoretical knowledge.

Regardless of whichmethodis usedin developing the circuitdiagram,the aim


is to end up with a properlyfunctioningand reliable operatingcontrol.
Whereaspreviouslyemphasiswas placedon the least expensivehardware
solution,moreimportance is now attachedto operational
reliabilityand easeof
maintenance by a clearlayoutand documentation.

This inevitablyleadsto increasedusageof methodicaldesignprocesses.In


such cases,the controlis alwaysconstructedin accordancewith the given
procedureand is less dependentupon personalinfluencesfrom the designer.
In manycases,however,morecomponents will be requiredfor the methodical
solutionthanin a circuitdevisedby the intuitivemethod.

This additionalmaterialrequirement will usuallybe rapidlycompensatedfor by


time-savingat the project stage and also later in terms of maintenance.
Generally,it must be ensuredthat the time spent in projectdesignand par-
ticularlyin simplifyingthe circuit,is in reasonableproportionto the overallef-
fort.

Regardlessof whichmethodand whichtechniqueis usedto producea circuit


diagram,the basic requirements
are sound fundamentalknowledgeof the
devicesconcernedand knowledgeof the switchingcharacteristics
of the com-
ponentsused.

5 . 1 . Directcontrol of a The simplestlevel of confrolfor the singleor doubleactingcylinderinvolves


pneumaticcylinder directcontrolsignals.Directcontrolis used.wherethe flow rate requiredto
operatethe cylinderis relativelysmall,and the size of the controlvalveis also
smallwith low actuatingforces.lf the valve is too large,the operatingforces
requiredmaybe too greatfor directmanualoperation.

56
-l

The Problem 5.2


A singleactingcylinderof 25mm diameteris to clamp a componentwhen a Dlrect control of a
pushbuttonis pressed.As longas the pushbuttonis activated,
the cylinderis to slngle acting cylinder
remainin the clampedposition.lf the pushbuttonis released,the clampis to
retract.

Clamping
device

Solution
The controlvalve used for the singleactingcylinderis the 3/2 way valve.ln
this case,sincethe cylinderis of smallcapacity,the air consumption
is low and
the operationcan be directlycontrolledby a pushbutton3/2 way directional
controlvalvewith springreturn.

Circuitdiagram On operatingthe push-


button the air passes
through the valve from
1(P)to the 2(A)portand
h extends the piston rod
againstthe force of the
cylinderreturnspring.On
releaseof the button,the
valve spring returnsthe
3/2 way valveto its initial
positionand the cylinder
retracts.The air returns

w
fromthe cylindervia the
exhaust3(R)port.

Sincethe cylinderis the

P
only workingelementor
actuatorin the circuit,it
is designated1.0. The
final controlelementthat
extends the cylinder is
designated 1.1.

57
5.3 ExercisE1: The Problem
Directcontrol of a A,double.acting cyrinderis to extendwhen a pushbutton
doubleacting is operated.Upon
releaseof the pushbutton
the cylinderis to retract.The cylinderis of smallbore
cylinder (25mmdiameter)requiringa smailfrowrateto
operateaithe correctspeed.
Exercise

Drawthe circuitdiagramfor
theproblem.
Designatethe valves and
indicatethe numbering
sys-
tem for the connections
(ports).
Describethe operationof
thecircuit.

P
W
W
Notes:

58
Circuitdiagram Question
What happens to the
cylinder,if the pushbutton
is
pressed for a very short
period,and is then immedi-
atelyreleased?

HJ@-F

Notes:

59
5.4 Indirectcontrol of a For controllingcylindersat high speedor of largediameter,the air flow re-
pneumaticcylinder quireddetermines whethera largersize controlvalveshouldbe used.The
operatingforce to actuatethe valve may be relativelylargeand in this case
indirectcontrolis preferable.
A similarsituationexistswhena cylinderoperates
at highspeed,and requiresa largevalvethat cannotbe directlyoperated.The
controlelementwill havea largeorificesize and flow rateand be operatedby
pilotair to assistopeningagainstthe switchingforce.This is indirectcontrol.
The supplyline can also be short,sincethe controlvalvecan be mounted
closeto the cylinder.Theotheradvantage is thatthe signalelement(i.e.push-
button3/2 valve)can be smallin size,sinceit onlyprovidesa signalto operate
the controlvalveand is not required Thissignal
to operatethe cylinderdirectly.
elementwillbe of smallersizeandhavea shorterswitching time.

Example2: The Problem


Indirectcontrol of a A largediametersingleactingcylinderis to extenduponoperation of a push-
singleactingcylinder buttonvalve.
The pushbutton
valveis situatedat a remoteposition.Thereforeindirectcontrol
shouldbe used to operatethe cylinder.The cylinderis to retractonce the
remotepushbuttonis released.

Clampingdevice J
J

I
r-

t
J
J
J
_l
J
-l
J
J
-J
J
J
60 J
J t
I

-
Solution
- In the initialposition,the singleactingcylinderis retractedand the control
\ valve1.1 is in the unactuated due to the springreturn.The pushbut-
position,
a
ton valveis in the springreturnpositionwith the connectionat 2(A) exhausted
to atmosphere. Therefore the onlyactivelinesare the 1(P)linesof the two 3/2
it way valves.
\-
t
The 312way pushbutton
\ Circuitdiagram
valve (1.2) opens the
t
1(P) air supply to the
hr\ 2(A) port and generates
a signalat the 12(Z)pilot
L\ port of the controlvalve.
t
The controlvalve 1.1 is
I
hr.r actuated against spring
lt
I
forceand the 1(P)lineis
h\ openedto the 2(A) port,
It
I
causingthe singleacting
b-
cylinderto extend.The
signalat the 12(Z) line
remainsas long as the
pushbutton is helddown,
and therefore the
cylinder remains ex-
tendeduntilthe pushbut-
ton is released.This is
an indirect pushbutton
controlof the cylinder.

lf the pushbuttonis released,the springreturnclosesthe 1(P)portof the 3/2


way valveand exhauststhe 2(A) lineto atmosphere, This removesthe actuat-
ing pilotsignalat the controlvalve.The controlvalveis returnedto the initial
positionby the returnspringand the singleactingcylinderlineis exhausted to
atmosphere. The springin the cylinderretractsthe cylinderto the initialposi-
tion.
The controlvalve can be fitted closeto the cylinderand be large in size to
controlthe largeborecylinder.The pushbutton can be smallin sizeand fitted
remotely.

61
5.6 Exercise2: The Problem
lndirectcontrolof a A doubleactingcylinderis to extendwhen a pushbutton
is operated.Upon
doubleacting releaseof the pushbutton
the cylinderis to retract.
cylinder
Thecylinderis 250mmdiameter
andconsumes
a largevolumeof air.

Positional
sketch
Exercise

Drawthe circuitdiagramtor
theproblem.
Designate thevalvesand in-
dicate the numberingsys- J
temfor the connections.
J
J
J
J
J
Notes:

IJ
J

62
Question
,
What happens to the
, cylinder,if the pushbutton
is
pressed for a very short
periodand is then immedi-
,
atelyreleased?
t Describethe operationof
thecircuit.
t

Notes:

63
F.esto:,Djdactic

5.7 Logicfunctions: The pneumatic shuttlevalveand the two pressurevalvehavelogicfunctions.


AND,OR The shuttlevalvehas the characteristic of an OR function,wherebyat least
eitherof two inputsX or Y are requiredto generatean outputat portA of the
valve.In the caseof the two pressurevalve,the characteristic is that of the
ANDfunction, wherebybothinputsX andY are required to initiatean outputA.
Thetwo pressure valveandthe shuttlevalvenormally controlthe inputsignals'
passageto ensurespecialconditions are met in a circuit. For example,inter-
locks,safetymeasures andoperating conditionswhichare requiredpriorto the
actuation of a cylinder.The logicelementshaveprocessor rolesin a circuit,
wherebysignalsareprocessed to meetthe specialconditions.

5.8 Example3: The Problem


The logic ANDfunction; The pistonrod of a doubleactingcylinderis to extendwhen two 312way
the two pressurevalve pushbuttonvalvesare actuated. lf eitherof the pushbuttons
are released,
then
the cylinderis to returnto the initialposition.

Circuitdiagram

J
J
J

l.o

-.l
J
Solution
The two pressurevalveis connectedto the junctionbetweenthe two 3/2 way
pushbutton valves.Upon operationof one of the pushbuttons, a signalis
generated at the X or Y sideof the two pressure valve. Thissignalis blocked
by the two pressure valve.lf the secondpushbutton is alsooperated,thenthe
two pressure valvewill produce a signalat port A which the
operates control
valve14(Z)pilotsignalagainstthe springreturnandthe cylinderextends.

J
64
J
J
I

The controlvalvecan be a 412way or a 512way valveand can be of a size


whichsuits the flow rate requiredfor the cylinderspeed.lf eitherof the two
signalsproduced via the pushbuttonvalvesis removed, thenthe two pressure
valvewill relievethe 14(Z)signalbackthroughthe exhaustport of the non-
operated3/2 way valve.The springin the controlvalveswitchesthe 5/2 way
valveto the initialposition.The outlet2(B) is activewith the outlet4(A) ex-
haustedto atmosphere andthe cylinderretracts.

I An alternativesolutionto usingthe two pressurevalve is to use two 3/2 way


) valvesin series.Herethe signalis passedfromvalve1.2to valve1.4andthen
on to the 14(Z)portof the 5l2way controlvalvebut only if bothpushbuttons
) are operated.lf eitherpushbuttonsare released,
thenthe signalat 14(Z)of the
controlvalveis exhaustedat the non-operatedpushbutton valve.
I
l Circuitdiagram
a
b
a'

l
l
t
5

Ir
}

5
5
65
5.9 Exercise3: The Problem
The logicANDfunc-
tion; the two
pressurevalve

Exercise

Drawthe circuitdiagramfor
theproblem.
Designatethevalvesand in-
dicatethe numberingsys-
tem for the connections
(ports).

J
J
J
oooooo

Notes:

oo
fr

\.r

Describe the operation of


the circuit.

1,1
14(Z
a

\r,

ir

rt

r-

<l

<l
5.10Example 4: The Problem
Thelogic OR function:
the shutile valve l9oybrg Sgting cyrinder
is to extendif one or bothof two pushbuttons
operated'
lf bothpushbuttonsarethenreleased, are
thecylinder
is to retract.

Solution
The shuttrevarveis connectedto the junction
buttonvarves.Uponoperation betweenthe two 3/2 way push_
of on"ditn" pushbuttons, a signaris generated
at the X or y side of the shuttrevatve.
inis signatpassesthioughthe shuttre
valve and is emittedat port A. This
*u"r.", the controrvarvevia pirotport
14(z), andthe cyrinderextends.Tne
conirotvarvecan oe a-itz wayor a 5/2
way valve and can be sized to suit
the.frow ,,"1.i"qrirJo-for the cyrinder
speed'lf bothof the signalsproducedui"
tn" pushbutt-o-|-u"i",are removed,
then the shurilevarvewirrreieasetni tilzl
pir"i .igrJ o"it"tnrough rhe ex_
haustport of one ot the *uy u"iu"r.
.3rz ihe returnspringin the controrvarve
.rrit:T:,tlg. ?/2 yuv-y?r,ve to the init[r ptsition.The ouilet2(B) is
tne outlet4(A)exhausted activewith
to atmosphere,'and the cyrinde'ar"E..
Conclusion
lf the cylinderis to retracton.reaching
its fuily extendedposition,roilerrimit
valvesshourdbe usedto confirmtn"t
il-.,i.positionhas beenreached.In addi_
tion,a memoryvarveshourdue titteJiol'i'n"
.ontrorof the cyrinder.
1.Et',

Circuitdiagram

t
t

l
t t.o

I
)
1(P ) 1.3
a
)
I
)
a
)
t
)
The rollerlimit switchgeneratesa signalwhichreversesthe controlvalve 1.1
L when the cylinderis fully extended.The rollerlimitswitch1.3 is a 312way
,
valvewith springreturn.This is definedas a stroke-dependent controlwhere
t the positionof the cylinderis confirmedby limitswitch.In this casethe push-
D
buttoncan be operatedfor a shortdurationand the cylinderwill fully extend.
I The 5/2 way memoryvalveretainsthe 14(Z)switchedpositionuntilthe revers-
D ing signalis receivedfrom rollerlimitswitch1.3. A furtherrefinement to the
\ op€rationof this cycleis to ensurethat the cylinderis fully retractedbeforethe
D pushbutton canextendthecylinder. Thisrequiresan additional limitswitch1.6.
a
- j Circuitdiagram
a

-
a
rl
D

b
D

ra

-
The additionof the two pressurevalve 1.10 and the rollerlimit switch1.6
i ensuresthatthe cylinderis fullyretracted
beforethe cylindercan be extended.
.l The conditions requiredto initiateextensionare eitherof the pushbuttonsin
additionto the cylinderin the retractedposition(1.6). Whenthe cylinderis
a extendedat position1.3,the cylinderretractseven if the pushbuttonsare still
ooerated sincethe limit1.6is inactive.
t
.
I 69
,
5.11Exercise4: The Problem
The logic OR func-
tion; the shutflevalve a magazine. lf eithera pushbuttonor a
r is to extend.Oncethe cylinderis fully
sition.A 312wayrollerlevervalveis to
re cylinder.
Exercise

Drawthe circuitdiagramfor
tneproblem.
Designate thevalvesand in_
dicate the numberingsys_
tem for the connections
(ports).

Notes:

70
W
Describethe operationof
thecircuit.

-
F:
-
hi

-
-a

r{t
-

-=r

r*

rf

hr
..!

\
FI
5.12 Erample5: The Problem
Memorycircuit and speed The pistonrod of a doubleactingcylinderis to
extendwhena 3/2 way push-
control of a cylinder buttonvalveis actuated.
The cylinderis to remainextendeduntila secondpushbuttonis actuatedand
onlyif the firstpushbutton has beenreleased.
The cylinderis to thenreturnto the initialposition.
The cylinderis to remainin
the initialpositionuntil.a newstartsignalis given.The sfeed of the cylinderis
to be adjustablein bothdirections.

Solution

WD 4/.2way or 512way doublepilotvalvespossessthe requiredmemoryfunction.


The valveretainsits lastswitchedpositionuntilan opposingsignalis received.
r9r
!nr"sreasonsignatscreatedby the pushbuttonsignallin!ddvicescan be of
W shortduration.

The flow controlvalvescontrolthe cylinderspeedin both directionsand are


P independently
adjustable.

72
F
I
\
t
lr

ii

-:

\-
Circuit:412waycontrolvalve
\

\r
!

hi
a

hr
t

\,,
t

\i

\r
,
\,.
t

-
-r
D

\
D

Uponoperation of pushbutton 1.2,a signalis generated at the 2(A) port and


ihe pilotpott14(z)of valve1.1.The 5/2way memoryvalveswitchesand the
siEnalfromport4(A)fullyextendsthe cylinder1.0.lf the pushbutton valve1.2
-
-l s released,the signalal14(z) is exhausted at the 3(R)portof the pushbutton
';alve'1.2.The valve1.1 remainsin the switchedpositionuntilthe pushbutton
-f ,'aive1.3 is operated.lf the pushbutton valve 1.2 is releasedand therefore
iere is no signalat 14(Z)then the signalgeneratedby 1.3 will returnthe
"nemoryvalve to its initialpositionand the cylinderretracts.The cylinder
ri 'ernainsretracted untila newsignalis generated al14(Z)by the valve1.2.The
- piston
rylinder rod will extendand retractif thereare no obstructions,but there
fa s no confirmationthat the cylinderis in its fullyextendedposition.lf boththe
'4rZ) signaland the 12(Y)signalare activedue to both pushbuttons being
rcerated,thenthe memoryvalvewillremainin the lastpositionattained.
ts
-'re flow controlvalveshave been fittedto throttlethe exhaustingair in both
= :'ections of pistonmotion.The supplyair is transferred throughthe by-pass
r+ :ieck valve of the llow controlvalves,giving unrestricted supply to the
rl'linder.
r{

r{

= 73
=
5.13 Exercise5: The Problem
Memorycircuitand
speedcontrol of a
cylinder

Exercise

Drawthe circuitdiagramfor
theproblem.
Designate thevalvesand in-
dicate the numberingsys-
tem for the connections
(ports).

Notes:

74
lr

:
t

:
\

\ diagram Questions
f

1. What is the switching


\ statusof the memoryvalve
D
when first fitted to the sys-
\ tem and therefore what
- positionwill the cylinderbe
\ in?
1.O2
- 2. Describethe ooeration
of
\
a the circuit.
\ 3. lf the pushbuttonis held
- operatedeven after full ex-
\ tensionis reached,whatef-
- fect will this have on the
\ cylinderretraction?
,
4. Whatis the effecton the
\--
operationof fittingthe roller
levervalveat the mid-stroke
!r-t positionof the cylinder,i.e.
not at the full extension
\ position?
>

S
\
I

t--D

:
ll'lotes:
:

=
{l
=
a
D

-
a
I
a
!
!
a
a
-
t 75
5.14Exercise6: The Problem
Thequlckexhaust The operationof two identicalpushbuttonvalvesadvancesa formingtool on
valve an edge foldingdevice.For rapid forwardtravel,the circuitutilisesa quick
exhaustvalve.
The forwardmovementfoldsthe edgeof a flat sheet.lf eitherof the two push-
buttonsare released,the doubleactingcylinderis to returnslowlyto the initial
position.
Exercise
Positional
sketch
Drawthe circuitdiagramfor
theproblem.
Designate the valvesand in-
dicate the numberingsys-
tem for the connections
(ports).

Notes:

76
Describethe operationof
the circuit
5.15Example7: The Problem
Pressuredependent A plasticcomponentis embossedusing a die drivenby a doubleacting
control;embossingof cylinder.The die is to advanceand embossthe plasticwhena pushbutton is
plasticcomponents operated.The returnof the die is to be effectedwhen a presetpressureis
reached.Theembossing pressure
is to be adjustable.

of plasticcomponents
Embossing

Solution
Ihe 5/2 way memoryvalveas fittedmay not be in the correctposition.lf the
cylinderextendswhenthe air supplyis turnedon, it is incorrectto reversethe
connections on the 512way valve.Instead,the circuitshouldbe placedin the
correctinitialpositionby operating
the manualoverrides on the 5l2wayvalve.

The 5/2 way directional controlvalve is switchedat the 14(Z)port by the


operationof the pushbutton valve 1.2 and the cylinderextends.The plastic
component is embossedby the die underpressure, untilthe presetpressure
set on the sequencevalveis reached.The pressureon the inletside of the
cylinderis connectedto the sequencevalve pilot line 12(Z) and this acts
againstthe presetcompression spring.lf the presetvalueis
of the adjustable
reached,thenthe sequencevalveopensfrom 1(P)to 2(A) and sendsa pilot J
signalto port 12(Y)of the controlvalve.lf thereis no signalall4(Z) thenthe
memoryvalveswitchesand air is suppliedfrom the 2(B) port to retractthe
cylinder.At the sametime the air in the 4(A) port is exhausted and the pilot
J
signalat the sequence valveis relieved.Thereforethe sequence valvecancels
the signalat 2(A)andthe pilotsignaltothe controlvalveat 12(Y).Thecylinder
J
retractsto the initialposition.
The pilotsignalsat 14(Z)and 12(Y)needonlyto
be veryshortpulsesto effectthe positionof the 5/2wayvalve.

7B
]J
lj
IJ
IJ

IJ
lf the pressuresensing. line from the junctionof the pressuregaugeto the
sequencevalve is too lo.ng,it is possiblethat the sequencevilve-may
not
switchcorrectly. lf the cylinderencounters any resistance to motionourini tne

t: forwardtravel,the sequencevalvemay be prematurely


is advisable
triggered.Thereforeit
to includea rollerlimitswitchai ttreextension-iosition to confirm
the full travel.The rollervalveshouldbe placedin series'withthe pressure
LJ sensingsignalto preventearlytriggering
ciseincorporates
of ihe sequence vatve.The nextexer_

L thisadditional condition.

L-
L
t-.
l.-.
LJ
L:
t:
tJ
lr
79
5.16Exercise7: The Problem
Pressuredependent A plasticcomponentis embossedusing a die poweredby a doubleacting
control;embossing cylinder.The die is to advanceand embossthe plasticwhena pushbutton is
of plasticcom- operated. The returnof the die is to be effected
whenthe cylinderrod hasfully
ponents extendedto the embossingpositionand the presetpressureis reached.A
rollerlimitvalveis to be usedto confirmfull extension.
The cylinderis thento
retract.Thepressure in the pistonchamberis indicated
on a pressurbgauge.

Exercise Positional
sketch
Drawthe circuitdiagramfor
theoroblem.
Designate the valvesand in-
dicate the numberingsys-
tem for the connections
(ports). 1. 0

Notes:

80
Circuitdiagram Describethe operation
thecircuit.

r ruJ.
-

B1
5.17 Example8: The Problem
The time delay valve A doubleactingcylinderis usedto presstogethergluedcomponents. Upon
operation of a pushbutton,
theclamping cylinderextendsandtripsa rollerlever
valve.
Oncethe fullyextended positionis reached,the cylinderis to remainfor a time
of T= 6 secondsandthenimmediately retractto the initialposition.
A newstart
cycleis onlypossibleafterthe cylinderhasfullyretracted. The cylinderexten-
sionis to be slowandthe retractionadjustablebut relativelyfast.

process
Cementing

J
J
J
J
J
82

l:-.--
ilh-

\ Solution
-
- lnitiallythe cylindershouldbe at the restpositionbut this is dependent
on the
\ positionof the 5/2 way valve 1.1. This memoryvalve must be positioned
a
manually to ensurethatthe cylinderwillbe retracted
initially.
\r

- Circuitdiagram
)
\
,
\r

-
\i

\i

,
\,\
,

-
-
-t
D

=
\ I

:
-^e startconditionsfor the extensionof the doubleactingcylinder 1.0arethe
-: :c<nowledgement position
of the retracted (rollerlimit1.4)andtheoperation of
:-e startbutton1.2.TheoutputsignalA at thetwo pressure valve1.6pilotsthe
: 2 ',vaymemoryvalve.The signal4(A)extendsthe cylinderwiththe flowcon-
re - ,'alve1.02 (exhaustthrottling)
:'i settingthe speed.The limitswitch1.4 is
::-aciivatedand therefore,evenif the startbuttonis stillheldon, the signalat
' : Z s exhausted by the removalof the limitswitchsignal.
=
="e cylinderreachesthe limitswitch1.3 and produces a pilotsignalfor the
= : -e delay valve 1.5.Thetimedelayvalveis normally closedand onlyopens
::r 2iA) when the presettime, as determined by the adjustable throttle,is
-l -:acred. The air reservoirin the time delay valve fills, and a pressureis
-eacnedthat is sufficient to operatethe valveagainstthe springreturn.A sig-
r-
-3 s produced6 secondsafterthe limitswitch1.3 is operated,and a pilot
s Jral is sentto the 5/2 way valveport 12(Y).The 512way valveswitchesto
-l :-3 nitialpositionwith 2(B) now activeand 4(A) exhausted. The air to the
:-, rcer is suppliedto the returnsideandthe returnspeedis adjustable via the
,a','e1 01.The rollerlimitvalve1.3is de-activated and the pilotsignalto the
:-er is cut-off,therebyremoving the 12(Y)signalfromthe 512way valve.The
-
:r nderretractsto the limitvalve1.4.A new startsignalcan nowoccurwhen
:-; slartbuttonis pressed, sincethe rollervalve1.4is actuated.
-:

rf

\ 83
t

\\
a
5.18Exercise8: The Problem
Thetime delayvalve A doubleactingcylinderis usedto presstogethergluedcomponents. Upon
operation of a pushbutton,the clamping cylinderextendsandtripsa rollerlever
valve.
Oncethe fullyextended positionis reached, the cylinderis to remainfor a time
of T= 6 secondsand then immediatelyretractto the initialposition. A new
start cycle is only possibleafter the cylinderhas fully retractedand after a
delayof 5 seconds.Duringthis delaythe finishedpart is manuallyremoved
and replacedwith new partsfor gluing.The cylinderextensionis to be slow
andthe retraction adjustable,but relativelyfast.

Exercise
Positional
sketch
Drawthe circuitdiagramfor
theproblem.
Designate thevalvesandin-
dicate the numberingsys-
tem for the connections
(ports).

Notes:

J
-l
J
-l
J
J
J
J
84
J
J
J
Circuitdiagram Describethe operationof
thecircuit.

85
l
I
I
t\.
f\-
II
L--

>

:
-
Ghapter6

Development of multiple
L

L
actuatorcircuits
L

\\

-- t

-- t

-rf

-:
6.1 Controlof multiple In the case of multiplecylindercircuits,a clear definitionof the problemis
actuators important.The representationof the desired motion of all actuatorsis
describedusingthe displacement-step diagram.The specialconditionsfor the
startof the sequencemustalsobe defined.

lf the-motion diagramand auxiliaryconditionshavebeenclearlydefined,draw-


ing.of the circuitdiagramcan commence.Usingthe standardrepresentation
and drawinglayout,the circuitis now developedin accordancewith the re-
quirements.

The designprocessand the basicdevelopment of the circuitdiagramdepend


uponthe type of signalprocessingselected.where simplertype! of controls
are concerned,the less favouredmethodof signalcut-outusing idle return
rollersis possible.

In most cases,signalcut-outby meansof reversingvalvesshouldbe incor-


porated.

Anothermethodical
approachtowardsproducinga circuitdiagramis alsocalled
the "Cascade
Method".

This methodfor constructinga circuitdiagramis certainlythe easiestto learn


for controlswheresignalcut-outis effectedby meansof reversingvalves. The
samebasicthinkingis alsobehindthe designof a steppercircuit.

Anotherpointto be observedis the inclusionof auxiliaryconditionsin a control.


It is expedientto considerand includetheseconditions only afterthe basic
circuitfunctionshavebeencompleted.Theseauxiliaryconditionsshouldthen
be incorporated in a step-wisemanner,i.e.,the circuiidiagramshouldbe ex-
pandedstepby step. This is a way to ensurethat the circuitretainsits overall
clarity,evenwhereelaboratecontrolsare concerned.

Examples
followwhichshouldensurean understanding
of the methodsused.

88
\

The Problem Example9:


Two cylindersare usedto transferpartsfroma magazine ontoa chute.when Co-ordinated
motion
a pushbuttonis pressed,cylinder1.0 extends,pushingthe part from the
magazineand positionsit in preparationfor transferby cylinder2.0 ontothe
outfeedchute.Oncethe partis transferred,the firstcylinderretracts, followed
by the second.
The speedof bothcylinders are to be adjustable.
Confirmation of all extended
andretractedpositions
are required.

Transferof parts

tj
tj
]J
IJ

Displacement-step
diagram

L
L

89
Circuitdiagram

1.0 l .J

J
J

Solution
The circuitfor thissequential taskis dependent on rolleroperatedlimitvalves.
The startconditions for the controlare that cylinder1.0 is retractedand the
start button is operated.The processcan be brokendown into steps and
shownon the displacement-step diagram.Whenlookingat the placement of
the rollervalves,the currentactionandthenreactionmustbe analysed. These
will determinethe valvepositioning. The sequenceof the actuatorscan be
described by:
. Valves1.2and1.4 1.0extend
+ Cylinder
J
.
.
Yalve2.2
Valve1.3
2.0extend
= Cylinder
=+Cylinder1.0retract J
. Valve2.3 2.0 retract
+ Cylinder
J
J
J

90
When cylinder1.0 extendsa limit switch is operated. This must have the
effectof advancingcylinder2.0, thereforeit is designatedas valve2.2 (even
number2 for forwardmotionon cylinder2) and is connectedto the 14(Z)port
of the 512way valve 2.1. Next,cylinder2.0 extends,and the reactionis the
operationof the forwardlimit valve which causescylinder1.0 to retractand
hencethe valveis designated1.3 (oddnumber3 for returnmotionon cylinder
1) and connectsto the 12(Y)port of valve1.1.The next reactionis that the
limit switch at the retractedpositionof cylinder1.0 operatesand this must
returncylinder2.0. Thereforethis valveis designated2.3 and is connectedto
the 12(Y)portof the 512way valve2.1. The cylinder2.0 retractsand operates
the rear limit switchon cylinder2.0. The end of the cycle is confirmed.To
obtaina new start,valve 1.1 must receivea signalat the 14(Z)port from a
logicalcombination of the startbuttonand the limitvalvedesignated1.4.
s
+

I
It
tt

t
ti

91
6.3 Example10: The Problem
Signaloverlap In co-ordinatedmotioncontrol,the 5/2way memoryvalvecan onlyswitchposi-
tionswhena singlepilotsignalis present.lf two signalsare operatedsimul-
taneously,i.e.bothpilotsignalson the 512wayvalveare active,a signalover-
lapproblemoccurs.
Thereare variousmethodsof solvingthe problem,but firstlythe overlapmust
be identified.

Displacement-step
diagram

1
1.0 {
0
1
--l
2.0
0
-l
J
J
Circuitdiagram:
signaloverlapcircuit
J

1.O2 2.02

J
J

92
F
L
L

Solution
Forthe controldiagram,the signaloverlapcan be identified
by lookingat the
pilotsignals
on boththefinalcontrol
valves1.1and2.1.

The firstcontrolvalve1.1 has an overlapproblemin the firststep,sincethe


valve1.2 and 1.3 can be activeat the sametime.Therefore the firstof these
signalsmustbe cut shortso that it is not activepastthe usagein step4. The
TJ valve 1.3 shouldbe an idle rollerlevervalvethat only operateswhen the
retractionof the cylinderoccurs.Whenthe startof the cycleis initiated, the
k valve1.3is deactivated sincethe idlerolleris overrun.

tj The secondoverlapproblemis with valve2.1, wherethe signals2.2 and2.3


coincide.The two signalsare activein step 3, whenthe cylinder2.0 is fully
lj extended. Thereforethe firstof the two signalsis requiredto be cut shortto
allowthe secondto operatealone.The valve2.2 mustbe an idle rollervalve
lJ whichis only activein step 2 lor a shortdurationwhen the cylinder1.0 is
movingforwardto the extendedposition.Thereforethe circuitutilisingidle
lJ rollervalves1.3and2.2 is correct,if thismethodof signalcut-outis utilised.

Circuitdiagram

L
L
L
L
l_
l-.
l-.
l-.
l-.
l_- 93
IJ
6.4 Signaleliminationby Signalelimination by meansof a reversing valveis a frequently usedsolution.
reversingvalves Usingthis method,savingscan be madein cuttingotf severalsignalsfrom
individualreversingvalves.The methodis relativelyreliablein operation.This
basicidea is to allowthe signalto be activeonly for as long as is requiredto
switchthe memoryvalves.This is achievedby blockingthe signaldownstream
of the signalelementby meansof a reversing valve,i.e.by supplying energy
to the signalelementonly when the signalis required.An impulsevalveis
usedto effectthe reversal.The maindifficultylies in the selectionof the cor-
rectsignalsfor the reversingvalve.

6.5 Example11: The Problem


Signaloverlap;reversing lf idle returnrollersare not to be usedto providethe signalcut-out,then an
valvesolution additionalreversingvalve is introduced.The circuitin section6.3 showsthe
solutionutilising the overlapof signals.The prob-
idlereturnvalvesto eliminate
lemareasfor the two memoryvalves1.1and 2.1 arethe signalsgenerated by
the valves1.3 and 2.2, whichin this casehavebeeneliminated in one direc-
tion of motion.Anotherway to shortenthe timethe signals,is to removethe air
supplyto thesetwo valvesexceptat the step required.The signalgenerated
by 1.3 is only requiredduringthe start of the sequenceand the signal
generatedby the valve2.2 is only requiredduringsteps2 and 3 and can be
very shortin durationif thereare no opposingsignalsat the memoryvalve1.1
and2.1.

Solution
Referringto the circuitopposite,the reversingvalve0.3 activatesline 51 and
52 consecutively and createsa situationwherethe signalscan neveroverlap
at the memoryvalves1.1and2.1.

Initially
the valve1.4is activesincecylind",t.O is retracted.
Rollervalve1.3is
operatedand initiallyfed with supplyfrom the line (S2),which is still active
from the end of the cycle.Thereforebeforethe manualvalve 1.2 is pressed,
the cylinder1.0 is heldretracteddue to the signalfromline 52 on the 12(Y)
portof thevalve2.1.

Afteroperationof the valve1.2,the reversingvalve0.3 is switchedat the 14(Z)


port:the line 52 is exhaustedof air via port3(S)and port4(A)feedsline 31
withsignalair.The line51 is directlyconnected to the valve1.1port14(Z)and
thb cylinder1.0 extendstowardsthe limitswitch2.2. Yalve2.2 is fed from line
51 and appliesa signalto the pilotport 2(141ol valve2.1 whichthen extends
cylinder2.0.

When cylinder2.0 extendsto limit switch2.3, a signal is generatedat the


12(Y)port of the reversingvalve 0.3. The outputsignalswitchesthe supply
linesfromline 51 to line 52. Therefore, sinceline 51 is no longeractive,the
limitswitch2.2 andthe cylinderadvancing signalsof the memoryvalves1.1
and 2.1 havebeeneliminated.The energising of line52 causesthe immedi-
ate reversalof valve2.1 and the retraction of cylinder2.0 to the limitvalve1.3.
The limitvalve 1.3 is activeand reversesthe valve 1.1 whichretractscylinder
1.0to the initialposition.Thisis confirmed by the operation of limitswitch1.4,
but this valveis not yet active,sincethereis no air supplyuntilthe startbutton
1.2 is operated.Finally,the circuitis set in the initialstatuswith line 52 active
andwaitingfor a newstartsignal.

94
Festo Didactic

2.2
I 2.3
I
Dgvglopqrgnt,
qJ,mqltiplq actualor,

Example12: The Problem


Transferstation; Usinga transferstation,partsare to be transferred
froma verticalmagazine to
using reversing a processingstation.The partsare pushedby cylinder1.0andthentrinsferred
valves ontoa chuteby cylinder2.0 for transferto the-processingstation.The piston
rodof cylinder2'0 is onlyto retractafterconfirmation
that"cyfinOer
1.0hasfully
retracted.
The cycleis to startwhena startbuttonis pressed.Limitswitches
are usedto confirmcylinderpositions.

J
J

Displacement-step
diagram

96
1.3
I 2.3
I

S1
S2
S3

b
b

:t1
Developmentof multipleactuatorcircuits ,f

The sequencehas three steps and overlapis potentiallya problemat two


positions.The firststepis the extensionof cylinder1.0,followedby step2, the
immediateretraction of cylinder1.0.Thereforeit is possiblethat overlapoccurs
on the valve1.1at ports14(Z)and12(Y),unlessthe reversing valvetechnique
is used.The valve1.4 is heldoperatedinitiallyby cylinder2.0, but the start
buttonis a momentarypushbutton,and in most cases,it would not be ex-
pectedthat the start buttonbe operatedfor an extendedperiod.Thereforeit
may be satisfactory that the valve1.2 be usedas the meansof cancellingthe
firstoverlapsignal.

The secondoverlapproblemoccurswith cylinder2.0 and valve2.1, Herethe


problemoccursin step 3, whenthe cylinderis to retractimmediately afterthe
extensionis completed.The first of the two signalson the controlvalve 2.1
mustbe shortin duration.

To removethe overlapthe reversingvalvecircuitis developedwith threelines


feedingthreesteps.The lines51 to 53 representthe individualsteps1 to 3. In
step1 thecylinder1.0is extended, therefore the pilotsignal1.1at port1a@)is
fed from step 1 to line 51. Two movementsoccur in step 2: cylinder1.0
retractsandcylinder2.0 extends. Therefore line2 feedsthe pilotsignals1.1at
port12(Y)and2.1at port14(Z).The thirdstepis cylinder2.0 to retractdue to
the pilotsignal2.1 at 12(Y)whichis fed from line 53. The inputside of the
circuitshowsthatthe valves1.2and 1.4 haveto be operatedto startthe cycle.
The valve 1.3 next operatesand is fed to port 12(Y)of reversingvalve 0.3.
This switchesto activateline 52 and exhaustsline 51. The next movements
are cylinders1.0backand 2.0 out,confirmed by valves2.3 and 2.5 whichare
seriesconnectedto the 12(Y)port of the reversingvalve 0.4. The line 52 is
exhaustedand line 53 activated.The cycleis noWpreparedfor a startcondi-
tion,oncevalve1.4is initiatedby cylinder2.0.

98
!

Chapter7

Trouble-shooting
of pneumaticsysterns

99
Faultdiagnosis Fromthe time that energyis suppliedto the controlsystem,faultdiagnosis
becomesan importantpart of the processto reducecommissioning time and
downtimein the operationof a system.

prior to
Faultdiagnosisinvolvesa numberof distinctstagesof identification
solvingthe problem.Faultsgenerallyoccureither:
. Dueto externalfailureof the machinecomponents
or due to stoppages
. failureswithinthe controlsystem.
Internal

Experiencehas shownthat the occurrenceof controlsystemfailureis rare


comparedwithexternalsensoror machinefailure.

Trouble-shooting
: whatcan In the case of systemfailure,actionmust be taken by the end-userof the
we expectto achieve? system.The actionto be takenis dependenton the complexityof the required
repairwork. lf the problemis relativelysimple,the work will be carriedout
immediately. Wheremorecomplexrepairsare required, servicepersonnel will
be calledin.

Externalfaults and most internalfaults,such as externalsensoror machine


failures,can be identifiedand often solvedby the experienceduser or the
maintenance engineer.lf the problemcannotbe quicklysolved,the charac-
teristicsof the machineat the point of failureand the statusof the control
systemshouldbe recorded.Usingtl"iisinformation, the maintenance engineer
can makea decisionas to the kindof failurethat has occurredand the neces-
saryactionsto be taken.

shouldbe carriedout at the timeof failure,withoutdelay. The


Faultdiagnosis
processesof recordingresultsand potentiallyidentifyingthe simplerfaults
shouldtakeonlyminutes.Therefore, machinedowntime will be minimal,if the
trainedpersonneland diagnostic
toolsare available.

100
I
b
i-
3
rr

\
F 7.1 Documentatlon

of a pneumaticsystemcomprisesthe following:
The documentation
. Clearsystemlayoutdiagramwith labelledvalvesand lines
. Circuitdiagram
. Listof components
. Component datasheets
. Displacement-stepdiagram
. Operatinginstructions
. lnstallation
and maintenance manuals
. Listof sparepartsfor criticalitems
\
U
\ The documentation shouldbe suppliedwhenthe pneumaticsystemis installed
! or delivered.Whenthe systemis modified,the documentation
and the machine
I
historyshouldbe updatedto reflectany changes.This is to ensurethat the
potentialusersand maintenance engineershaveavailablethe currentstatusof
the machine.

ln general,malfunctions
of a systemfall intothe followingcategories: 7.2 The causes and effects
of malfunctlons
. Wear and tear on componentsand lines which can be acceleratedby
influences:
environmental
. Qualityof compressed air
. Relativemotionof components
. Incorrectloadingof components
. In@rreclmaintenance
. Incorrectmountingand connection(i.e.signallinesare too long)

Tttese environmentalinfluencescan lead to the followingmalfunctionsor


* fail.res of the system:
t
r{
. Seizureof units
. Breakages
. Leakages
. Pressuredrop
. lrpnect switching

1n'
Preventive
maintenance Eventhe most intensivemaintenance is of little use when the systemincor-
poratesa designor planningerror or is incorrectlyinstalled.This leads to
damagewhichis characterised in the courseof time by prematurewear and
failureof components.Carefulplanning,evenif this costsa littlemorein some
cases,can considerablyreducethe frequencyof malfunctions and thus failure
and downtime.lmportantpreventive measuresinclude:
. Selectionof the appropriatecomponentsand signal generators.They
shouldbe adjustedto suit the environmental conditionsof
and operational
the system(e.9.switchingfrequency, heavyloads)
. Protectionof components againstcontamination
. Mechanical absorptionof the actuatingforcesthroughadditionalshockab-
sorbers
. Shortlinelengths,fittedwith amplifiers
wherenecessary

Faultfindingof pneumatic As a rule,a newly-designed and installedpneumaticsystemwill run trouble-


systems free for sometime afterinitialadjustments havebeencarriedout. Any instan-
ces of prematurewear may not becomenoticeableuntilweeksor monthslater.
Normalwear may not becomenoticeablefor years. Eventhen,faultsor the
effectsof wear frequentlydo not showdirectlyapparent,with the resultthat it
is not easyto identifythe defectivecomponent.lt is obviouslynot possibleto
cover all the faults which may occur.The malfunctions describedhere are
thereforethose which frequentlyoccur and which are difficultto localisein
pneumaticsystems. Evenmorecomplexcontrolscan be dividedinto smaller
unitsand checked.ln manycasesthe operatorcan eliminatethe faultimmedi-
ately,or at leastidentifythe cause.

102
I

-
I

la

-
t It frequentlyoccursthat sectionsof pneumaticsystemsare extendedwithout Malfunctions causedby
,
enlargingthe necessary air supply.Dependingon the sequence and designof under-sized
air supply
b the plantsection,malfunctions then occurnot continuously but sporadically,
t
withthe resultthatfault-finding
is madeincreasingly
ditficult.
t
Possibleeffects:
t
The pistonrod speedis not alwayscorrect,sincethe actuationof additional
2
components can causesuddenpressuredrops.
The force at the powercylinderdropsfor a short time duringa pressure
drop.

a The samesymptomsmay occuras the resultof changesin orificecross-sec-


tions causedby contaminationor by leaksat connectorswhich have worked
b
j loose(a reduction
in diameter
ot20y" meansa doubling of the pressure
drop).
The necessityto ensurethat the compressed
air fed intothe networkis free of Malfunctions
causedby
- condensateis emphasised.Whateffectscan occurin practicaltermswhenthe condensate
, proportion
of condensate in the compressed
air is too high?
\ Apartfromthe corrosivedamagecausedto surfacesby the condensate
D
which
is. in manycasesextremelyaggressive, thereis the considerable dangerof
\
e seizureof valve componentsif they need to be reset by springforcJ after
beingheldin one switchingpositionfor a considerable time. tubricantswithout
rl
additiveshavea tendency to emulsifyand createresinor gumming.All close_
toleranceslidingfits in valvesare particularly
susceptibleio these resistances
\ to movement.
ia
Malfunctions
caused by
<l contamination

: ' the caseof systemswhichhavebeenin servicefor sometime,an excessive


orcportionof condensate in the compressed air may producerustparticlesin
ra
:a'eeswherelinesare fittedwithoutcorrosionprotection.Thiscontamination
of
:€ nesmayproducethefollowing effects:
rl
. Shckingor seizureof slide-valve
seats
= . Leaksin poppetvalves
. Biockageof flowcontrolvalvenozzles.
:t
.t
.a
!
=

:t
:t
= 133
7.3 Maintenance For pneumaticsystemsthe followingregularmaintenance
routinesare recom-
mended:

Checkthe filter and serviceunits - drain water regularlyfrom traps and


whereused
replenishand adjustlubricators
Discusswith the operatorsof the systemany noteddifferencesin perfor-
manceor unusualevents
Checkfor air leaks,crimpedair linesor physicaldamage
Checksignalgenerators for wearor dirt
Checkcylinderbearingsand mountings

routines
Plannedmaintenance Daily:
Draincondensate from the filtersif the air has a highwatercontentand if no
automaticcondensatedrainagehas been provided. With large reservoirs,a
water separatorwith automaticdrain shouldbe fitted as a generalprinciple.

P Checkthe oil levelin the compressed-air


oil metering.
lubricatorand checkthe settingof the

Weekly:
Checksignalgenerators for possibledepositsof dirt or swarf. Checkthe pres-
sure gaugeof the pressureregulators.Checkthat the lubricatoris fundioning
correctly,

Every3 months:
Checkthe sealsof the connectors for leaks. lf necessary,re-tightenthe con-
nectors.Replacelinesconnectedto movingparts. Checkthe exhaustportsof
the valvesfor leaks. Cleanfilterca(ridgeswith soapywater(do not use sol-
vents)and blowthemout with compressed air in the reverseof the normalflow
direction.

Every6 months:
Checkthe rod bearingsin the cylindersfor wear and replaceif necessary.
Alsoreplacethe scraperand sealingrings.

104
Section

Theory
Chapter1

Fundamentals
of pneumatics
1.1 Physicalpropertiesof alr The surfaceof the globeis entirelycoveredby a mantleof air. lt is an abun-
dantgas mixturewiththe followingcomposition:
. Nitrogenapprox.78 vol."/"
. Oxygen approx.21 vol.Y"

It alsocontainstracesof.carbondioxide,argon,hydrogen,neon,helium,kryp-
ton andxenon.

To assistin the understanding


of the naturallawsas well as the behaviourof
air,the physicaldimensions
whichare employedand theirclassification in the
systemsof unitsare documented below.

The followingtermsand unitsarerequiredfor definitions


in pneumatics:

BaseQuantities

Unit Symbol Units and unit symbols


TechnicalSystem SystemSl

Length L Metrg(m) Metre(m)


Mass m Kp.s'lm Kilogram(kg)
Time t Second(s) Second(s)
Temperature T DegreesCelsius(oC) Kelvin(K)

DerivedQuantities

Unit Symbol Derivedunits and unit symbols


TechnicalSystem ' SystemSl

Force F Kilopond(kp) NeMon(N) = 1 kg.m/s2


Area A ^
Squaremetre(p') Squaremetre(qr')
Volume V Cubicmetre(mo) Cubicmetre(m")
Flowrate O (mo/s) 1mo/s)
Pressure p (at)
Atmosphere
iT;:'li,?,
1 bar = 1o5Pa

The international
andtechnicalsystemsof unitsare linkedby :

NewtonsLaw: Force= mass x acceleration


F = tTl'€l
wherea is replacedby the
$ue to gravity
acceleration
g = 9.81m/s'r
Pressure :
1 Pascalis equalto the constantpressureon a surfacearea of 1m2with the
verticalforceof 1 N (NeMon).100kPais equalto14.5psi (poundsper square
inch).

108
l-
r-
Sinceeverythingon earth is subjectedto the absoluteatmospheric pressure
(p"t), this pressurecannot be felt. The prevailingatmosphericpressureis
thereforeregardedas the baseand any deviationis termed:

GaugePressure = pg
or
Vacuum =Pv

Thisis illustrated
bythefollowing
diagram
:

Air pressur:e.
relationship
IJ
lj
kPa (bar)

Pat
pl bar

The atmospheric pressuredoes not have a constantvalue. lt varieswith the


geographicallocationand the weather. The rangefromthe absolutezero line
to the variableatmosphericpressureline is called the vacuum range and
abovethis,the pressurerange.

r-- The absolutepressurepaois composedof pressurepatand pressurgpg. ln


practice,gaugesare usgdwhichshowonly the excesspressurepg. Pressure
pabis approximately
onebar (100kPa)greaterthanthe Psvalue.

f--
l,-.

109
of pneumatics Festo Didaetic

1.2 Characteristics
of air shape. lts shapechangeswith
In commonwithall gases,air has no particular
resistance,'i.e.
the slightest Air can
it assumesthe shapeof its surroundings.
be compressed andit endeavours to expand.

law:pressure
Boyle- Mariotte's andvolumerelationship

V1 V3
p1 p3

The applicablerelationship Law; "At constant


is given in Boyle-Mariottes
temperature, the volumeof a givenmassof gas is inversely proportional
to the
absolulepressure", i.e. the productof absolutepressureand volumeis con-
stantfor a givenmassof gas.
p r . V r = P 2 ' Y z = P s ' V s = Co n s t a n t

the aboveprinciples.
exampleillustrates
Thefollowing

Example
calculation pressureis compressed
Air at atmospheric by an air compressorto 1i7ththe
volume.Whatis the gaugepressureof the air assuminga constanttempera-
tureprocess:

pr .Vr =pz.Vz

P2= P1 V1 Note: Yz lYt = 1ft


v2
p1 = pat= 1 bar = 100 kPa

p2 = 1' 7 =7 bar= 700 kPa absolute

Therefore: = pab- pat = (7-1) bar = 6 bar = 600 kPa.


Pgauge

A compressor = 600 kPa musthavea compression


that producesair at pgauge
ratioof 1:7. (Thisassumesthatthe atmospheric pressure
is 1 bar or 100kPa).

110
rl

F
!!'
I
5
The allocationof a controlsystemto one of the threecontroltypesis depend- 1.3 Gontroltheory
efit on the task involved.ln the caseof the programcontrolsystem,the plan-
ner hasthe choicebetweenthe threesub-groups for programcontrol.

ControlsystemprocessingtYPes

Plot control system


Tlse b alwaysa clearrelationship betweenthe commandor referencevalue
nd firg ouFut value provided disturbancevariablesdo not cause any devia-
tirls (DlN 19226). Pilotcontrolsdo not havea memoryfunction.

Enory control system


Whenthe commandor referencevalue is removedor cancelled,in particular
trr completionof the input signal,the output value achievedis retained
(nrennrised). A ditferentcommandvalue or an opposinginput signalis re-
qi€d to returnthe outputvalueto an initialvalue(DlN 19226),.
U
,

E3 Tlrr: (schedule)control
hr a time (schedule)controlsystem,the commandvaluesare suppliedby a
tinedependentprogramgenerator(DlN 19226\.Characteristics of a timing
cofthd systemare,thus,the existenceof a programgeneratorand a time-de'
pendentprogramsequence.Programgeneratorsmay be :

. Cam shafts
. Gatns
. hrncfied cards
. Punchedtape
. Programsin an electronicmemory

Goord:natedmotion control system


h a coordinated motioncontrolsystem,the referencevaluesare suppliedby a
s{fal generatorwhose output values are dependenton the path coveredor
tre pcitibn of a movablepartwithinthe systembeingcontrolled(DlN 19226).
Ft
F3
EI

111
Sequencecontrol system
The sequenceprogramis storedin a programgeneratorwhichrunsthrough
the programstep-by-stepaccordingto the statusattainedby the systembeing
Thisprogrammayeitherbe permanently
controlled. installed
or elsereadfrom
punchedcards,magnetic tapesor othersuitablememories .

icationin accordance
Classif Analoguecontrol system
withthe signaltype A controlsystemwhichoperatespredominantly
with analoguesignalswithin
the signalprocessing
section(DlN19237).

Digitalcontrol system
A controlsystemwhichoperateschieflyusingnumerical
digitalsignalswithin
the signalprocessingsection(DlN19237).

Binarycontrol system
A controlsystemwhichoperatespredominantlywith binarysignalswithinthe
signalprocessingsectionand wherethe signalsare not part of numerically
representeddata(DlN 19237).

Controlsystemsignals

----? Tims
Digitalsignal Binarysignal

112
The classificationof control systemsaccordingto the type of data repre- Classificationaccordingto the
sentationis of a moretheoreticalnatureand is independent of the methodof typeof signalprocessing
solution.Moresuitablefor practiceis the classification
accordingto the typeof
signalprocessingsinceit givesinformation aboutthe methodof solutionto be
chosen.

Controlsystemtypes

Syncfironous control system


A wffol systemwheresignalprocessingis synchronous
to a clockpulse(DlN
-%Jn.

Asvnchronous control system


A controlsystemoperatingwithoutclockpulseswheresignalmodifications
are
*{ rQgeredby a changein the inputsignals(DlN 19237).

Logic control system


A controlsystemwhere specificsignalstatusfor the outputsignalsare as-
sqred to the signalstatus of the input signalsby means of Booleanlogic
:cFnections(DlN 19237).

S:queFce control system


A csrrol systemwith compulsorysteppedoperationwhereswitchingon from
tr€ sEp to the nextin the programis dependentuponcertainconditions'being
sdisfied(DlN 19237).

frrdependent sequencecontrol system


A seqrencecontrolwhose switchingconditionsare dependentonly on time
DD{ 19237).

ne.Cependent
A sequencecontrolsystemwhoseswitchingconditionsare dependentonly on
$qnab fromthe systembeingcontrolled(DlN 19237).

113
Signalflowandthecontrol The controllercan be Controlchain
chain representedas a self-
containedblock, which
can be brokendown fur-
ther. A controlcan al- A CT UA T I NG DE V I CE S
ways be broken down
into the blocksto show
the arrangementof the F in o l c o n t ro l e le me n t s
individual components.
At the same time, this
showsthe signalflow.
P RO CE S S I NG E L E ME NT S

I NP UTE L T ME NT S

S I G NA LF L O W

The controlchainis thus Signalprocessing


characterisedby a signal
flowfromsignalinputvia
signalprocessing to sig-
nal outputand execution
of instructions. S I G NA LO UT P UT
In hardwareterms, this
meansthat inputdevices
processingdevices and
outputdevicesmustexist S I G NA LP RO CE S S I NG
for thesesignals.

S I G NA LI NP UT

HA RDWA RE
B RE A K DO W N

114
,.iFitf
iidHffi:€iiidffitfur-rduiiiAti
es' ' 'Fd$t8'oliactic
tEr
l1i-1

I Thefollowingdiagramshowssomeexamples
of the assignment
of devicesand
signalflow:
l
)
I
)

l Pneum otics/H ydroulics Electrics/Electronics


l
Cylinders Electric motor
Actuoting
t Motors
lnd icotors
devices
Solenoids
Lineor motors
t
Power contoctors
I l ir ec t ionol
cont r ol v olv es
Finol control
elements
Power tronsistors
Semiconductors
I
Dir ec t ion ol Contoctors
Processing
c ont r ol v olv es Reloys
elements
\o n- r et ur n volves Electronic
l ' es s ur e v olv e s (control elements)
components

S',vit
ches Switches
r.; shbutton s Pushbutton s
-'rrit switches Limit switches
)-aaram
w9r ur rr aanaralnrc
Ysr r9r u Lvr o
Input elements Progrom generotors
='cximity signcllers Proximity signollers
Sersors Indicotors
Generotor
'

'

'
:

115
Example

Circuitdiagram

Actuator

Finalcontrol
element
Signalprocessor

Signalinput
(sensors)
J
Energy.supply
(source) J

Thecircuitandthe rayoutof the controrchaincanbe


identified.
The powersectionor worksectionconsistsof the actuator
and the finalcontrol
element. The controlelementreceivescontrolsignals
from the processor.
The signalprocessorprocesses information
sentfromthe signarinputdevices
or sensors.Thesignalflowis fromthe energysource
to the [ower section.

116
=

\
-
- Chapter2
\
a
\
D

\ Air generation
and distribution
-
\
D
\r

-
\rr

-
\i
f

\-D

--D

=u
-
5

\r
-
\
D

-
ra
-

ra

-
rl

rt

ra

\-

\i
For the continuing performance of controlsystemsand workingelementsit is
necessary to guarantee that the air supplyis clean,dry and at the required
pressure.lf these conditionsare not fulfilled,then short to mediumterm
degeneration of the systemwill be accelerated. The effectis downtimeon the
machinery in addition to increased costsfor repairor replacementof parts.The
preparation of the air startsfrom the point of generation and can be con-
taminated by manypotential pointsin the systemrightup to the pointof use.
Thereis no use in preparing goodqualityair and thenallowingincorrect com-
ponentselection to reducethe quality.The_ sqglpment to be Qo,nSi-d-ered
in lhe
generationandpreparation
tu of air include:
. Air comoressor
. Air receiver
. Air filter
. Air dryer
. Air lubricator
. Pressure regulator
. Drainage points
. Oilseparators J
The locationand typeof compressor influencesto a greateror lesserdegree
the amountof particles,oil andwaterthat is takenin or suppliedto a system.
The compressed air shouldthereforebe properlypreparedto preventmal-
functioning
of the consuming deviceswhichareconnected to it.

Poorly-prepared compressed air will inevitably


lead to malfunctions
and may
manifest
itselfin the systemas follows:
. Rapidwearof'sealsandmovingpartsin thecylinders
andvalves
. Oiled-up
valves
. Contaminated
silencers

is achievedby meansof pre-filters


Preparation on the compressorintake,
series-connected
dryers,filtersand separators
for oil and condensate.
Their
mustmatchthetaskrequirements.
selection

Pressure
level As a rule, pneumaticconsumingdevicessuch as cylindersand valvesare
designed for a maximumoperating pressureof 8-10bar. Practicalexperience
has shown,however,that approximately 6 bar shouldbe usedfor economic
operation.The purchasepriceof the compressor system,the efficiency
and
wearof the cylinders and valvesand the installationcostsfor the pipesystem
are at theirmostfavourable in this range. Pressurelossesof between0.1 and
0.5 bar mustbe expecteddue to the restrictions, bends,leaksand pipe-runs,
depending on the size of the pipingsystemand the methodof layout. The
compressor's systemshouldprovideat least6.5 to 7 bar for a desiredoperat-
ingpressure levelof 6 bar.

118
rl

-
f-

: l-!Ltn"pis-thedanger andfluctuating
of sudden consumption,
a coffiressed
air
\, receivercan be installedto stabilisethe pressurein the compressed air net-
t work' In normaloperation, this receiveris filledby the compressor,
with the
\ resultthat a reserveis availableat all times. This also makesit possibleto -
a reducethe switchingfrequency of the compressor.
\
a Characteristicvaluesof consumptionshouldbe determined for large-size factor
com- Utilisation
\ pressorsaccording to normal,mediumand peak loads. Practicehas shown
D
that with a varyingair consumption
severalindividualcompressors can be put
rr to use moreeffectivelythan one largecompressor.An approximate valueof
75% shouldbe takenas the utilisation
factorto be aimedfor with mediumload
-
\r operation.ln orderto makethe correctselection,it is vitalto havea list of all
, the consumingdevicesconnectedto the compressed air networktogetherwith
\i their averageand maximumair consumption, duty cycle and frequencyof
, ooeration.
\r
, The atmospheric air takenin by the compressoralwayscontainsa proportion Whydrycompressed
air?
\ of moisturein the form of watervapour. The higherthe air temperature, the
greaterthe quantityof watervapourwhich it can take up, expressedin % of
-
relativehumidity. lf the saturationpoint of 100% is reached,the water is
precipitatedin the form of droplets. The effectsof this processcan be ex-
- plainedby meansol an example:
-r
i0% humidity)compresses
Beforecompression, the
;aturatedcontentfor 20oC
- r takesup 85 g/h of water.
-
\ outletthe air is saturatedand contains51 g/m" of water.
At the compressor
- Aftercompression,
thetemperature risesto 4OoC.

For 1.43m3/hof compressed


airthe condensate
willthenamountto:
-
1.+3m3/h. 51 g/m3= 72.93gth.
-
The precipitated
condensate
aftercompression
thusamountsto:
-

-= 85 g/h - 72.93g/h = 12.07glh

= lf this moistureis allowedto enterthe pneumatic


system,the consequences
areas follows:
=
Corrosionin pipes,cylindersand othercomponents.This increases wear
and maintenance costs.
Thebasiclubrication in the cylinders
is washedaway.
-r- The switching functionof valvesis impaired,i.e. moremalfunctionsduring
the operatingsequence.
Contamination and damageat pointswherethe compressed air comes
=
directlyintocontactwithsensitive (paintshops,foodindustry).
materials
=
It thereforefollowsthat the watermustin all casesbe removedfromthe com-
'3 pressedair beforeit cancausedamage;the air mustbe adequately dried.

\ D
119
\--
2.1 Air compressor The selectionfrom the varioustypesof compressors availableis dependent
upon quantityof air, pressure,qualityand cleanliness
and how dry the air
shouldbe. Thereare varyinglevelsof thesecriteriadependingon the typeof
compressor.

Compressor
types

Reciprocating
piston Reciprocatingcompressorsare very commonand providea wide range of
compressor pressures and deliveryrates. For higherpressures
multistage
compression
is
usedwith intercooling
betweeneachstageof compression.

The optimum range of pressuresfor reciprocatingcompressorsare ap-


proximately:

up to 400kPa (4barlS8psi) Singlestage


up to 1500kPa(15barl217.5psi) Doublestage
over1500kPa(15bar/217.5psi) Trebleor multistage
Also,it is possiblebut not necessarily
economicto operatein the following
ranges:

up to 1200kPa(12barl174psi) Singlestage
up to 3000kPa(30bar/435psi) Doublestage
up to 22000kPa(220barl3190psi) Trebleor multistage

120
The diaphragmcompressoris used whereoil is to be excludedfrom the air Diaphragm
compressor
supply,for examplein the food,pharmaceuticaland chemicalindustries.
Here
thereis no needfor lubrication
in the compression
area.

The rotarygroupof compressors use rotatingmembersto compressand in- Rotarypistoncompressor


creasethe pressureof the air. They are smoothin operationbut the compres-
sionis not as highas with multistagereciprocating
compressors.

Flow compressorsproducelarge volumesof air at small increasesin stage Flow(turbine)compressors


pressure.The air is accelerated
by the bladesof the compressor'but
thereis
only a small increasein pressureof about1.2 timesthe inlet pressureper .
stage.

Receiversprovideconstantair pressurein a pneumaticsystem,regardlessof 2.2 Air receiver


varyingor fluctuating
consumption.This enablesbriefly-occurring
consumption
peaksto be balanced out,whichcannotbe madeup by the compressor.

A furtherfunctionof receiversis the emergencysupplyto the systemin cases


of powerfailure. The reservoircan*Fejtittedeitnerdownstreamof the com-
pressor,to act as an air chamber,or selectively
at pointswhereconsumption
is
high.

Air receiver

Temperature
Pressure gauge
gauge- \

Pressurerelief
valve
zlHF.
('ltlh)
Air
receiver
Waterdrain

In addition,the largesurfaceareaof the receivercoolsthe air. Thus,a portion


of the moisturein the air is separateddirectlyfrom the receiveras water.lt is
thereforeimportantto drainthe condensate regularly.

The sizeof a compressed


air receiverdependson the:
. Deliveryvolumeof the compressor
. Air consumption
for the applications
. Networksize
. Typeof compressor cycleregulation
. Permissiblepressure dropin the supplynetwork

121
\

Air receiversize \
Air receiversizechart
\
Switchingcycles/h
\-

-
i,

:
.& 5
@

o
:
o
(,
o
:
1
a
0,6
a

s
rl

al

ta
\

-
al

\-
al

PressuredifferenceA p 102kpa \-
(bar/14.5psi)
Example \-
Delivery
volume V = 20 m3/min
Switchingcyclesper hour z'=20
Pressuredrop A P = 1x lo s p a

Result:
Receiversize V=15m3(referto the chart)

122
-

-
\
- Waterproducesa hardeningof seals,corrosionand the washing-out of the 2.3 Air dryers
hr originallubrication
of cylinders.Oil andwatermaycausesealsanddiaphragms
J
to swell.In paint-spraying plants,waterand dust causecontamination, poor
\ paintadhesionand the formation of blisters.In the food,pharmaceutical
and
t
chemicalindustries,oil, dirt,bacteriaand germsdestroythe storageproperties
\ of oroducts.
t

\ The servicelife of pneumaticsystemsis considerably reducedif exeessive


, moistureis carriedthroughthe air systemto the elements. Thereforeit is im-
''i
\r portant1o1l!lhe necessaryair dryingequipmentto reducethe moisture content t,*i',1 r""" t
, to a levelwhichsuitsthe applicationand the elementsused.Thereare three $
\,. methodsof reducing
auxiliary the moisturecontentin air:
t

\ . Lowtemperaturedrying
t . Adsorption
drying
\,r
. Absorption
drying
t

lihe additional
costof installing
air dryingequipment
can be amortised
overa
t
short pay-back perioddue to the reductionin maintenancecosts,_red!'ced
\ oowntime andincreased reliability
oiTneiystem.
C

-r -ne mostcommontypeof dryertodayis the relrigeration dryer. Theseunits Lowtemperature


drying
- rcerateeconomically and the maintenance
and fe,liabfy costsare low. With
-t
'e'rigerated drying,the compressed air is passedthrougha heat-exchanger
s!stemthroughwhicha refrigerant flows.The aimis to reducethe temperature
\ :' the air to a dewpointwhichensuresthatthe waterin the air condensesand
- :'ops out in the quantityrequired.
\r
D

Lc''vtemperature
drying

-\a A ir o u t le t t
ffi ll
-

- inle t
j =:-'n o ra l inn r r nil
Hani ew nh
'"^nnar
" Y" '
-

-rq

--
Qaf- ina.nnl

rt'
-

-3

-.q
DewPoint:
The dew pointtemperature
is the temperature to whicha gas mustbe cooled
to condense
watervapourcontained in the gas.

The lowerthe temperature


the morethe waterwill condenseand reducethe
amountentrappedin the air. Usingrefrigeration
methods,it is possibleto
achievedewpointsof between2oCand SoC.

Beforethe compressed air is outputintothe network,


the air is heatedto bring
the air backto ambientconditions.
The outlettemperatures are approximately
l OoCin winterand approx.3OoCin summer.

Adsorption
dryers The lowestequivalentdew points(downto -gOoC)can be achievedby means
of adsorptiondrying. In this process,the compressed air is passedthrougha
gel and the wateris depositedon the surface,i.e., it is adsorbed.(Adsorb:
wateris deposited on the surfaceof solids.) The dryingagentis a granular
materialof sharp-edged shapeor in beadform. This dryingagentconsists
almostentirelyof silicondioxide.

Adsorption
drying

Moist oir
I f ., \

Hre-ltlter (orl ttlter,)


Shut-off volve Shut-off volve
(open) (closed)

Adsorber 1 Adsorber 2

Ho t o ir ' 1

Shut-off volve Shut-off volve Heotel


(open) (closed)

After filter Fon


Dry o ir

In practice,two tanksare used. Whenthe gel in one tank is saturated,the air


flow is switchedto the dry, secondtank and the first tank is regeneratedby J
hot-airdrying,
J
J
124
J
f--
tr
l
b- -

L-_

l
I

L--
I

b--

l- Absorption dryingis a purelychemicalprocess. The moisturein the com_ Absorption


pressedair formsa compound dryers
\ withthe dryingagentin the tank. Thiscauses
J,
L\
the dryingagentto breakdown;it is then dischirgedin the formof a fluidat
the baseof the tank.Absorption
dryingis not of majorsignificance
in present_
I
It day practice,
sincethe operatingcostsare too highandihe efficiency too low
I
L._ for mostapplications.
Ir
I
L.-

t
!

outl et
L

-\

Condensote
-

- Condensote

- c llgqogr and.oil particlesare also separatedin the absorption dryer. Larger


:uantitiesof oil havean effecton the efficiency of the dryer,howeuer.Forthis
- 'easonit is advisableto includea finefilterin frontof the dryer.
- Tre featuresof the absorption
processare :
- . Simpleinstallation
of the equipment
-
ET
' Lowmechanical wearbecausethereare no movingpartsin thedryer
. No external
energyrequirements.

-:

-
- 125
ta
2.4 Air serviceequipment As a rulethe compressed air whichis generated shouldbe dry, i.e..freeof oil.
For somecomponents lubricated air is damaging, for others,it is undesir,able,
but for powercomponents it may in certaincasesbe necessary.Lubrication of
the compressed air shouldthereforealwaysbe limitedto the plantsections
which requirelubrication.For this purpose,mist lubricatorsare fittedto feed
the compressed air withspecially selectedoils. Oilswhichare introduced into
'the air fromthe compressor are not suitablefor the lubrication of controlsys-
iemcomponents.

Theproblems
thatoccurluithexcessive
lubrication
include:
. Malfunctions dueto excessively lubricated
components
. Oil mistpollutionof the environment
. Gumming-up of paftsoccursafterlengthyplantstandstills
. Difficulties
in adjusting the lubricator
correctly.

Despitetheseproblems,lubrication
of the compressed
air by meansof mist
lubricators
maybe necessaryin certaincases:
. Whereextremely rapidoscillating
motionsare required
. Withcylindersof laigediametei,from approximately 125mmupwards.As
far as possiblelubricators
shouldbe installed onlydirectlyupstreamof the
consuming cylinders.
;
I Theselection of the correctsizeof lubricatoris determined
by the air consump-
tion of the cylinders, sinceall lubricatorsrequirea minimumvolumetric flow
beforethey beginto deliveroil (checkthe responsethreshold).This means
that if the lubricator is sizedtoo large,it may undercertaincircumstances be
i- whilejf it is too small,leikageaiiwhichmaybe presentcan cause
11gffective,
the lubricator to dry out duringidle periodF.As a generalprinciplecylinders
with heat-resistant sealsmustnot be suppliedwith lubricated compresiedair,
sincethe specialgreasewhichformsthe originallubrication wouldbe washed
out.

126
Air generationand dislribution F+sio Didactic

: Air lubricator t-s


Lubri cal l r)
\

t
Viaduct
D ri pc h a m b e r
Valverestriction
-

-
a

ta
Check rralve
t

-
t

,
\r

-t

\a

rrr
Lubricator

= F i l te ru n i t

ra

r+ : :c^ipressedair passingthroughthe lubricatorcauses a pressuredrop


-=':.2.^ the orl reservoirand the upper pari of the lubricator.The pressure
ra : -:':^oe is sufficient
to forcethe oil upwardsthrougha viaductwhere it then
-' -: .io a nozzlewhichcan be seen throughan inspectionglass. Here the
ra
: s a:Jnrrsed and takenup by the air streamto a greateror lesserextent.

: = :cssibleto checkthe oil dosaqeas follows: Checkingthe oil dosage


-,
- : .ce of white cardboardshouldbe held at a distanceof approximately 20
:
-- ''3nr the exhaustport of the powervalve. lf the systemis then allowedto
{t
::='aie for some time rt shouldbe possibleto see only a pale yellowcolour
: ^ :'e cardboard.Drippingoil is a clearsign of over-lubrication
In this case
'-= should be readjusted.
r- -oricator

-l

-t

r-

-
127
-
Removingoil Up to a few yearsago, the generalview was that the oil discharged by the
compressor couldbe usedas a lubricant for the powercomponents.Now it
has beenrecognised that this is not the case. As the levelof heatproducedin
the compressor is very high, the oil is carbonisedand the oil vapourex-
hausted.Thisleadsto an abrasiveactionon cylindersand valves,and service
is considerably
reduced.

Moreover, the oil is deposited on the innerwallsof the pipesand is eventually


absorbedin an uncontrolled way intothe air flow. This fact alonemakescon-
trolledand effectivedistribution impossible.A pipe whichhas becomecon-
taminated in thisway can no longerbe cleanedwithoutdismantling. A further
disadvantage is gumming,whichmeansthat aftera systemhas been at a
standstillfor sometime (afterweekendsand publicholidays), lubricatedcom-
ponentsdo not at firstfunctioncorrectly.A basicrequirement thereforeis that
the oil discharged by the compressor be removedor the compressed air must
be generated in oil-freeform.

pointsshouldbe observed
Thefollowing practice:
in everyday
. As far as possiblecompressor oils shouldbe prevented fromenteringthe
compressed-air network(oilseparators shouldbe fitted)
. For operationfit componentswhich can also operatewith non-lubricated
compressed air
. Oncea systemhas beenoperatedand run-inwith oil, the lubrication must
be continued sincethe originallubrication
of the components will havebeen
flushedawayby the oil.

128
l\
Air generationand distribution Festo Didactic
L-

t--

L-_

\- -ne setectionof llrr; correctfriierplays an importantrcle in determrning air filter


the Compi'essed
::ality and performance of the workinqsystemwnich is to be suooliedwiti'
L.-
::r'cressed iir One character-istic ot comoressecl-airiilters:; 'he oore size
t- ^e oore siz: of lhe tir;erelelrent indicaiesthe minrmurnoarrtrcl€l size which
t- ::.i be filteredout of the compressedair For examole.a S-micronfilterele-
Ir -.:"i f;ltersout rr1oi:rticles'"vhose drametert,; greaierthan 0,005mm With a
I
L.
;-:aore design.cornpressec .rrr filtersare arso abie to seoarateccn,jerr;ai
:-::f the compressedair. Tire collectedcondensatemust be drainedbefoi,:
i*
L.-
- -
= ) . . , ^^^A^
- A r . us ur
rrrd
'h ^ rtta x i mt-tncro n d e n s a te n ri trk otherw i se tt w tl l be i -,6-l ni ro-
.,:c r ^ r ne at r s l re a i |
I,
it l:l"oressor air filter

ta
I
\
t-
i.
\.r

Pressure
\ Regulator

-
\-
-

-
Lubricator
-
\
F,tte'.
rnit
-
DrainScrew
--:

-<l =':= 1-:--:: :cndensateaccumulatesit is advisableto fit art automatic


- - : =-:ar' :": i'lanuallyoperateddrarncock The automaticdrainuses a
-< '- :='z'^- -. :-3 e'rel of condersatein the bowl and when the lrmitis
3 S :t-r o o e n S :t /? i ,a l that tl ects th' - under
-{ )a L:
' ondensate

-
ffi

The compressed air passesthroughthe filter from left to right and is fed
througha baffleplatein the filterbowl. The effectof the baffleplateis that the
air is causedto rotate,and the heavierdust particlesand waterdropletsare
spunby centrifugal forceagainstthe innerwall of the filterbowl. They then
run downthe wall of the housingand collectin the filterbowl, The air which
hasbeenpre-cleaned in thiswaythenpassesthroughthe filterelement, which
filtersoutthe smallerdirtparticles.Thefilterelementin thiscaseconsistsof a
highly-porous sinteredmaterial. The degreeof separation dependson the
poresize of the filterelementused. Insertswith differentporesizesare avail-
able. Theusualporesizesarebetween5 micronsand40 microns.

A furtherimportantcharacteristic of compressed-airfiltersis the degreeof


separation,or efficiency,
whichindicates the percentage of particlesof a par-
ticularsizewhichcan be separatedout. The efficiencyis quotedfor a particle
size,e.g,efficiencyof 99.99%for 5 microns.

The filtrationactionof a compressed-air


filter is retained,even after long ser-
viceandwithheavycontamination. However, undertheseconditions, the pres-
suredropbecomesdisproportionately highand the filterbecomesan energy-
waster.

In orderto recognise the correcttime to changethe filterelement,a visual


inspectionor a measurement of the pressuredifferenceacrossthe filtershould
be carriedout. The cartridgeshouldbe changedor cleanedwhen the pres-
suredifferenceis 40 to 60 kPa (0.4to 0.6 bar).

Maintenance Dependingon the natureof the compressedair availableand the numberof


components filtersrequirea greateror lesseramountof
fitted,compressed-air
maintenancework. Maintenance workmeansthe following:
. Replacingor cleaning
the filterelement
. Draining
thecondensate

Whencleaningis required,the manufacturer's mustbe observed


specifications
concerning the cleaningagentsto be used. Manycleaningagentsare unsatis-
factoryfor filterbowls(e.9.,trichloroethylene)
sincetheyproducestresscracks
in the plasticfilterbowls,whichmaythenburstwhenre-subjected to pressure.
As a rule, it is sufficient
to use lukewarmsoapywaterappliedwith a non-
abrasivebrush. The filterelementsshouldthen be blownout in the opposite
directionto the normalairflow.

Compressed
airregulators The compressed air generatedby the compressor will fluctuate.Centrallylo-
cated regulatorsfittedto the compressedair networkensurethat there is a
constantsupplypressure(secondary pressure)irrespective of the pressure
in the mainloop(primary
fluctuations pressure).

Changesin the pressurelevelin the pipe systemcan adverselyaffectthe


switchingcharacteristicsof valves,the runningtimes of cylindersand the
of flowcontroland memoryvalves.
timingcharacteristics

130
A constantpressurelevelis ihus a prerequisite for the trouble{reeoperationof
a pneumaticcontrol.[_[ ord9,1to provideconstantp-re9su-fe_cgndltio-ns, the
pressurereduceror pressureregulatoris fitteddownstream of the compressed
air filter and has the task of keepingthe-operating pressureconstant-rggard-_
less of pressurefluctuations in the system.The air pressure
or air consumptign.
shouldbe matchedto individual requirements
upstream of eachplantsection.

The systempressurewhich has provedin practiceto be the best economic


andtechnical compromise generation
betweencompressed-air andthe efficien-
is approximately:
cy of the components
. 6 bar in the powersectionand
. 4 bar in the controlsection.

A higheroperatingpressurewouldleadto inefficientenergyutilisationand in-


creasedwear,whereasa loweroperating pressure wouldleadto poor,efficien-
cy, particularly
in the powersection.

Pressureregulator:relieving Pressureregulatorwith vent


hole

!3
!3 t hole

rI
t
The principleof operationis as follows:

t The inputpressuremustalwaysbe higherthanthe outputpressure.'1-The


g4e is regulatedby a diaphragm.
pres-
The outputpressureactson one side of the
diaphragmand a springacts on the otherside- The springforcecan be ad-
!! I{ned by meansof an adjustingscrew.When the outputpressureincreases,
the diaphragmmovesagainstthe springforcecausingthe outletcross-section-
E al areaat the vaMeseatto be reducedor elosedentirely.Thusthe pressureis
regulatedby the volumeflowingthrough.
tY

T
I
:- 13'
L-
-
Whenair consumption increases,
the operatingpressuredropsand the spring
forceopensthe valve. Regulation of the presetoutputpressureis thusa con-
tinual openingand closingof the valve seat. To preventthe occurrenceof
flutter,air or springclampingis providedabovethe valvedisc. The operation
pressure is indicatedon a gauge.

lf the pressureon the secondaryside increasesconsiderably,for example


duringcylinderload changes,the diaphragmis pressedagainstthe spring.
The centrepieceof the diaphragm
thenopensandthe compressed air canflow
to atmospherethroughthe ventholesin the housing.Thisrelievesthe exces-
sivesecondaryairpressure.

Pressureregulator
without Pressureregulatingval- Pressure
regulator:
non-relieving
venthole ves withno ventholeare
available commercially.
With these valves it is
not possibleto exhaust
the excessive com-
pressedair producedby
suddenloads,

lf no air is drawnoff on
the secondaryside, the J
pressurerisesand pres-
ses the diaphragm
J
againstthe compression
spring. Thus,the com-
pression spring moves
the plungerdownwards
and the flow of air is
closedoff at the sealing
seat. The compressed
air can continueto flow
only when air is drawn
off on the secondary
side.

Whenthe outputpressureincreases, the diaphragm movesagainstthe spring


areaat the valveseatto be reducedor
forcecausingthe outletcross-sectional
closedentirely.Thusthe pressureis regulatedby the volumeof air flowing
through.

Settingand adjusting The pressureregulatorcan be adjustedbetweenthe limitsof zero and the


supplypressureof the compressornetwork.The adjustmentto a higherpres-
sure is achievedby increasing springcompression.Whenreducingpressure
settings,it is necessary to relievethe pressure
wellbelowthe limitrequiredto
relievethe air fromthe vent and then increasethe pressureup to the lower
limitrequired.lt is not possibleto simplyadjustthe pressuredirectlydownto
the desiredvalueas indicated on the pressure
gauge.

132
serviceunit: of operation Air serviceunit

The air serviceunit is a cornbination


of elements:
. air filter
Compressed
. air regulatorand gauge
Compressed
. Compressed
air lubricator

Air serviceunitsymbols

Tle bllowingpointsshouldbe noted:


. The total air throughputin m3/hdeterminesthe size of the unit. lf the air
throughputis too high,a largepressuredropoccursin the units.The values
specifiedby the manufacturershouldbe qbserved
. The workingpressuremay not exceedthe value statedon the serviceunit.
The ambienttemperatureshould not exceed50oC (maximumvaluesfor
flastic bowls).

133
Maintenance
of air serviceunits Thefollowing
routineservicemeasures
are necessary
on a regularbasis.
. Compressed air filter: The condensate levelmustbe checkedregularly,as
the heightspecified on the sightglassmustnotbe exceeded.Theaccumu-
lated condensatecould othenruise be drawn into the compressedair
pipelines. The drainscrewon the bowl mustbe openedto drainthe con-
densate.The filtercartridgein the filtermustalsobe cleanedif it is dirty.
. Compressedair regulator: This requires no servicing,providedit is
preceded by a compressed airfilter.
. Compressed air lubricator : lf fittedcheckthe oil levelin the sightglassand
top up, if necessary, to the levelindicated.The plasticfilterand lubricator
bowl mustnot be cleanedwith trichloroethylene. Only mineraloils may be
usedfor the lubricator.

2.5 Air distribution In orderto ensurereliableand trouble-free a numberof points


air distribution,
mustbe observed.Amongthesepointsthe correctsizingof the pipesystemis
important. Also the pipe material,flow resistances,pipe layoutand main-
tenance.

Sizingpipesystems ln the case of new installations,


allowanceshouldbe"made in all casesfor
extensionof the compressed-air network.The main line size determinedby
currentrequirements shouldthereforebe increasedto includean appropriate
safety margin. Plugsand shut-offvalvesallow extensionto be carriedout
easilyat a latertime.

lggse,soccgr11all pipesdue to flow resistanqes.Flowresistancesare repre-


sentedby restrictions,
bends,branchesand fittings. These lossesmust be
madeup by the compressor. The idealto aim for is a pressuredrop in the
entirenetworkof approximately10 kPa(0.1bar).

In orderto achievethisvalue,the totalpipelengthmustbe known. Forfittings,


branchesand bends,equivalentpipe lengthsare determined.The choiceof
the correctinternaldiameteris also dependenton the operatingpressureand
delivery of the compressor. Selectionis best made with the aid of a
nomograph:

Flowresistances Any influenceor chan,ge the pjpesystemmeansinterference


of !i1gc!_o11.ryithin
qtI]he_air flow andthl,s gn increaseof the flow resistancb.This leadsto a
gg@fLuggg pressuredrbp ?!gng_ the pipe syS-terii.Since 6iiniXg-s,b-"nq5,
are_reqq!1ed
adaptersand.fittings in all compressed-air network_s, this pressure
cannot
.drop_ be avoided but ,c-?lbe consitlijrablyred_uq,ed !y 1cglilg pipes
favourably,q[gqsing_
sqrltgbjemateriqlsgnd assembli ng the fittingscorrectly.

134
ffiiqffi, $

The choiceof suitablepipematerialis determined placed Pipematerial


by the requirements
on a moderncompressed-air network:
. Lowpressure losses
. Freedomfiom leaks
. Resistant
to corrosion
. Capability
of systemexpansion

lr selectinga suitablepipe material,consideration


mustbe givennot onlyto
crice per meterrun but also to anothermajorfactor,the installation
costs.
T,heseare lowestwith plastics ltaslic pipescan be joined100%airtightby
-eans of adhesives or fittingsandcaneasilybe extended.

3opperand steelhavea lowerpurchasepricebut mustbe brazed,weldedor


.: ned by means of threadedconnectors;if this work is not carriedout
::nectly,swarf,scale,weldingparticles
or sealingmaterials
maybe introduced
-:c the system.This may leadto majormalfunctions.For smalland medium
3 ameters,plasticpipesare superiorto othermaterialsas regardsprice,as-
sernbly, maintenanceandeaseof extension.
A,rdistribution
system Pipinglayout

1-2% gradient

Reservoir
within
l a pneumatic
system

rysE i"";',1?iffi"s
! Int6rmediate
reservoir
for !
severalconsuming devices
Condensatecollector
tank
i

I
! r;.ai from correctsizingof the pipingand the qualityof the pipe material,
:,:-ect pipelayoutis the decisivefactorin determining the economic operation
! :' :e compressed-air system.Compressed air is fed intothe systemat inter-
, a s cy the compressor.lt is oftenthe casethat consumption at consuming
l :E.,3esrisesfor onlya shorttime. Thismayleadto unfavourable conditions
in
l
:-+ ccmpressed-air network. lt is thereforerecommended that the com-
) :r:s.sed-airnetworkshouldbe producedin the form of a ring main. A ring
-1 - ensureslargelyconstant pressure conditions.
)
:-:ssure fluctuations
in the networkmakeit necessaryto ensurethatthe pipes
) a-: rounted securelyin orderto avoidleakagesat screwedand brazedcon-
E--Jr t 5.

i
t
I
I
I 135
Air ringmain

Production
plont

Foreaseof maintenance, repairor extension of the networkwithoutinterfering


with the overallair supply,it is advisableto sub-dividethe networkinto in- J
dividualsectionsby meansof shut-offvalves. Brancheswith T-piecesand
manifolds withplug-incouplings makeit possibleto supplyadditionalconsum- J
ingdevicesas the needarises.In orderto protectthe consuming
condensate
clination.
devicesfrom
fromthe mainline,branchlinesmustbe laidwith an upwardin- J
Ringmaincross-connected

P roduct io n
pronr

Despitethe bestwaterseparation in the pressuregeneratingsystem,pressure


dropsand externalcoolingmay producecondensate in the pipe system. In
orderto discharge
thiscondensate, the pipesshouldbe inclined1-2%;thiscan
alsobe carriedout in steps. Thecondensate canthenbe discharged fromthe
systemvia waterseparators at the lowestpoint.

It is advisableto fit the branchlineswith standardballvalvesor shut-offvalves.

136
B

:
t

t
r5

h
,D

D
Directionalcontrolvafves
ID

-
\,
U
\"
D

\,
t

tU

\
D

a
b

\
U

a
it

!
!
q
t

q
-
+
J

IJ

a
I

-
aa
Directional controlvalvesare deviceswhichinfluencethe pathtakenby an air
stream.Normallythis involvesone or all of the following:allowingthe passage
of air anddirecting it to particular
air lines,cancelling air signalsas required
by
blockingtheir passage and/orrelievingthe air to atmospherevia an exhaust
port.The directionalcontrolvalveis characterised by its numberof controlled
connections or waysand by the numberof switching positions.Additionalintor-
mationis given to define the methodsof actuationto achievethe various
switchingpositions.The construction of the valveis importantwhen analysing
the flowcharacteristics of the valvesuchas the flow rate,pressurelosses,and
switchingtimesfor a particularapplication. Generallythe symbolis adequateto
representthe operationalcharacteristics of the valve in comparisonto other
elements in the circuil.The samesymbolfor a directional controlvalvemaybe
applicable for manydesigns,construction methodsand characteristics.

3.1 Configuration The designprincipieis a contributory


factorwith regardto servicelife,actuating
and construction force,switchingtime,meansof actuation,meansof connection and size.

Designsare categorised
as follows:
. Poppetvalves:
- Ballseatvalve
- Discseatvalve
. Slidevalves: '
- Longitudinal
slidevalve
- Longitudinalflat
slidevalve
- PlateslidevalvO

Poppetvalves Withpoppetvalvesthe connections are openedand closedby meansof balls,


discs,platesor cones. The valveseatsare usuallysealedsimplyusingelastic
seals. Seatvalveshavefew partswhichare subjectto wear and hencethey
have a long servicelife. They are insensitiveto dirt and are robust. The
actuatingforce,however,is relativelyhigh as it is necessaryto overcomethe
forceof the built-inresetspringandthe air pressure.

Slidevalves In slide valves,the individual


connections are linkedtogetheror closedby
meansof spoolslides,spoolflatslidesor slidingdiscvalves.

3.2 2l?way valve The 212way valvehas two portsand two positionS.lt is rarelyusedexceptas
an on-offvalve,sinceits only functionis to enablesignalflow throughand
oncein the closedposition.
cannotreleasethe air to atmosphere

lf air is to be releasedon closing,then the 312way valvemust be used.The


212way valve is normallyof the ball seat constructionsimilarto the 312way
valve.lt is generallymanually operatedor pneumatically
operated.

138
Directionalcontrol valves Festo Didactic
-

-
Tirs J,2 way valve is a srgnalgeneratrng valve,with the charactei-isiic
that a 1l.J J,2 'r,ravralve
\
- sicnai on the outputside of the valve can be generatedand also cancelled
way valve has three portsand t'ryopositronsThe additionof the ex
h\ -ne 3,2
J
^aLsi port 3(R) enablesthe signalgeneratedvia the passagethroughthe 3r2
..jayvalve to be cancelledThe valve connectsthe outputsrgnal2(A; to ex'
-a
, ^.r.st 3(R)and atrnosphei-ein the initialposition.
\
J
3 2 way valve:ballseat
\
a

-
!-

i'-

: sc'ng forcesa ball againstthe valve seat preventingthe compressedair


'-:- ilowrngfromthe air connection1(P)to the workingline21A). Actuationof
- :-e .,aiveplungercausesthe bail to be forcedaway from the seat. In doing
:^ s i:e opposrngforce of the resetspringand that generatedfrom ine com-
-r
-
:':sseo arr must be overcome The air supplyis then open to the outputside
l':ie valveand a signalis generated.Once the plungeris releasedthe 1(P)
:rr: is blockedand the output port 2(A) is exhaustedup the stem of the
I\tr- 3 !:lger and the signalremoved.The valve is actuatedmanuallyor mechani-
-I- :a,i't in this case A separateactuationhead couldbe auxiliarymountedto the
I
lr- . arle top to operatethe plungerindirectlyby pushbutton.rolleror lever.The
I- a:ruatronforcerequiredis dependenton the supplypressure,springforceand
L- :^e frictionin the valve.The actuationforce limitsthe feasiblesize of the valve
a^d the cross-sectional area of the valveseat must be small The construction
l-- :' ine ball seat valve is very simpleand henceis relativelyinexpensrve.The
: slrnguishing featureis the compactsize achievable.

II
lr-

t-
lh-

139
a singleactingcylinder
3/2 wayvalvecontrolling

\
1
\
1.0 ta
\

In this circuitthe 3/2 way valve1.1 controlsa singleactingcylinder1.0.The


pushbutton activatedvalveis at restwiththe 1(P)portblockedand the cylinder
exhaustedto atmosphere via 3(R).The operationof the pushbuttondivertsthe
1(P) supplyto the 2(A) port and the cylinderextendsagainst spring force.
Whenthe pushbutton is released, the valvereturnsby and
spring, the cylinder
is returned to its initialpositionby the cylinderreturnspring.

140
\

Elir6ctioEalcontrol valves Festo Didactie

312way valve: disc seat normallyclosed, un-actuated

--e valve shown here is constructedon the disc seat principle.The sealingis
s ltole but effective.The responsetime is short and a small movementresults
- a large cross-sectional area being availablefor air flow. Like the ball seat
.a\/es. they are insensitiveto dirt and thus have a long servicelife. The 3/2
'ray valves are used for controls employing single-actingcylinders or for
=:enerating signalssuppliedto processingelementsand finalcontrolelements.

32 wayvalve:discseatnormally
closed,actuated

141
1-

Directionalcontrol valves FestoDidactic J


J
-J
Valvesof the singledisc seat type are non-overlapping.
-J
When operatedslow-
ly. thereis no loss of air Actuationof the plungerfirstcausesthe exhaustarr -J
line from 2(A) to 3(R) to be closed,as the plungerrests on the disc On
pressingfurlher,the disc is liftedfrom the seat allowingthe compressedair to -J
flow from 1(P)to 2(A) Resettingis effectedby the resetspring.On releaseof
the plunger,the 1(P; port is blockedand the supplyport is then openedto
I
atmospherethroughthe 3(R) exhaustport.This valve.shownon the previous
page.is referredto as normallyclosed,sincethe outputside 2(A) is ctosedotf -J
from the 1(P) port at the initial,unactuatedposition The normallyopen con-
figurationis shownbelow J
3l2way valve:discseat normallyopen,un-actuated -J
J
J
J
J
-J
2(A) -l
J
)
3 (R)
1( P )
-J
J
J
A 3l2way valvein whichthe normalpositionis open to ftow from 1(P) to 2(A). J
is referredto as a normallyopen valve. Initiailythe i(P) Bortis connectedto
the 2(A) port throughthe stem of the valveand the valvedisc seat is closedat J
the 3(R) port.when the plungeris operated,the 1(p) air is initiailyblockedby
the stem seat and then the disc is pushedoff its seat to exhaustthe outputarr J
to atmospherevia the passage2(A) to 3(R). when the plungeris released
the pistonwith the two sealingseats is returnedto the initialpositionby the
returnspring.once againthe 3(R) port is blsckedand air is suppliedfrom 1(p)
J
to 2(A). J
The valvescan be actuatedmanually,meehanically, electricallyor pneumati-
j
cally Differentactuationmethodscan be appliedto suitthe application.
J
J
J
J
J
t+z
-I
!l
\

ts Directionalcontrolvalves Festo Didactic

-
=
3 2 way valve:disc seat normallyopen, actuated
\

F5
\=D

\-b

\.=5

\r
-
\'r
D
\r
D
\r
-D

-a
--E

\=U

- C rcuitdiagram
l!
-.t
f

\
-
=

-=

rt
-

it
H
- iris circuitthe 3i2 way valve is normallyopen and at the rest condition
s-cpliesair to the cylinder1,0.Therefore the cylinderis initiallyextended.
= ;ocn opef?tion of the manual312wayvalve1.1, the cylinderretracts dueto
:-e release of airvia 2(A)to 3(R).

-
1AQ

-
--{
!-

Directionalcsntrol valves Feslo Didactic


J
J
J
-J
Rollerlevervaivewith idie
ieturrt
The idle rollerlevervaive is a one way trip valve.lt is designedto operatein
one directionof cam movementDastthe rollerhead.Thereforeihe valve must r
be siruatedjust beforethe limit of cylindertravel.The cylindercam overruns
the limitswitch.The valvemust be fittedwith the one way trip operatingin the I
correctdirectionof motion.The stgnalgeneratedby the idle rolleris of relative-
ly sherl duration The ,valveis used to generateshort durationsignalsto
preventsignaloverlap.
I
3"2 way nand slidevalrre The 3/2 way hand slide 312way hand slidevalve
-J
valve is used to supply
-J
air io a leg of the supply
neiworkupstreamof the
eonsumingdevices.The
J
constructron oi this valve
is simpleand it is uiilised
J
as a shut-offvalve. The
unit is compactand has
two detent positions to 3 (R)
-J
.-J
hold the 'ralve open or
closed. By moving the
casing.line 1(P) is con- 2(A) 1(P)
nected to the outlet 2(A) -
in one positionand 2(A1 -
with 3(R) in the other
positionwhich exhausts --J
air from the network.
-_
)
Pneumatically actuated The pneumatically actualedSl2way valveis operatedby an air signalat 12(Z).
3/2 way valve using no internalauxiliaryair assistance.This is referredto as single pilot
operationsincethereis only one controlsignaland the valvehas springreturn. -J
ln the initialposition,the vaiveis normallyclosedsincelhe 1(P)port is blocked
by the disc seat and the 2(A) port is exhaustedto atmosphere. -J
J
Circuitfor the 312way valve,normallyclosed
-J
1.0
-J
J
11
t. I --J
.J
-J
J
J
J
J
l AA
l++
J
triifrctloiral control vatuBs

t,
t The pneumaticallyactuatedvalve can be used as a final controlelement,with
indirectcontrol.The signalior extensionof the cylinderis initiatedindirectly
a pushbuttonvalve 1.2 which supoliesthe conirol signal to the final control
by

element1 1 The'ralve1.1 can be of relativelylargesize in comparison to the


pushbuttonsignalelementand the signalelementcan be fitted at a remote
distancefromvaltre'1.1,

i 312wayvalvesinglepilot,normally
closed,un-actuated

Alr appliedat the '12(Z)por1.


movesthe valveplungeragainstthe resetspring.
The connections 1(P)and 2(A)are connected generating a signalat po'12(A)
ard the 3(R)exhaustportis blocked.Uponreleaseof the signalat port12(Z),
:,e giiotspoolis returned to the initialpositionby the returnspring. The disc
:$qsesthe connection between1(P)and 2(A). The excessair in the working
rne2(A)is exhausted through3(R).

32 wayvalve,singlepilot,normally
closed,actuated

t +3
{
Directionalcontrol valves
Festo Didactic
J
J
J
The single piiot 3/2 way vairrecan be
normallyopen.The pofis nave duarrores
configuredas normallyclosed or as -J
in whichfor the normailyopen func_
tion the 3(R) and 1(p)ports are interchanged.
The head of the varvewith port -J
1212\can be rotated1gOu
-J
3/,y^y vatve,
singlepitot,normafu
offi -J
f
10(z)
-J
-J
1(P)
J
2(A) J
J
=J
J
lf a normallyopen valveis usedat the position
-J
of valve1.1,
initiallyextendedand upon operationoi tne pusnbufton. then the cylinderis
the cyrinderretracts. --.
)
Circuitfor lhe BIZwayvalvenorrnatty
operr,lndirect
I
J
J
-J
J
J
-J
J
Servocontrolled:3i2 way roller To avoid a high actuatingforce. mechanically
levervalve controlleddirectionalvalves can
0e equippedwith an internalpilot valve and
The valve actuatingforce is oftenthe determining
servo assrstanceallowsfor largerbore valves
servo piston to assist opening.
factorin appticationsand the J
ing forces.This increasesthe sensitivityof the
to-be operat*o*itn small actuat_
system. J
J
r+o
J
J
J
I-
L Direetionaleontrol valves Festo Didactic

L-.
L-.
L-. j smatlhole connectsthe pressureconnection1(P) and the pilotvalve lf the
L_ -: er lever is operated.the pilot valve opens Compressedair flows to the
s:rc pistonand actuatesthe main vaivedisc.The firsteffectis the closingof
^: cath 2(A)to 31R)followedby the seconddisc seat openingthe airwayfrom
- r to 2(A1 This type of valvecan be used as eithera normallyclosedvalve
:- -ormally-open valveby changingportsand rotatingthe head.

3 2 way valve,internalpilot,normallyclosed
LJ
LJ
L:
L:
LJ
LJ
3( R)

tj
L-- 3 2',vayvalve,internalpilot,normallyopen

L-. ctl--1
| 2(A )

\ lt hnnr
L-- -
r\ ll rl"'
1(P )' 'r(R )

t-.
L-.
LJ
L--
L-
L
L-.
L-.
L:
tj 1AJ

L-
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tfu*c=e€r#s#.++ Fes-=B+@ J

3.4 €? vr+E:v.efu.e Ttt+ €'? vr.4yva€ve+.?sbarr +]F!E +F+ E,g+s_-+.sr,E*..:a$

:J

:J
J
J
2IB\
J
J
1 tEt\ J
J
J
J
A dise=seat
4jZwayualvcis s:imitar.
in r.:anstruqtten af two
te ihe cembinatien )
3fEwayvalves,
encvatvenermelty
r,:tecedandtheethernermalty
epen,
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
148
b
b
b

Whenthe two plungersare actuatedsimultaneously, 1(P)to 2(B) and 4(A) to


3(R) are closedby the firstmovement.By pressingthe valveplungersfurther
againstthe discs,opposingthe resetspringforce,the passagesbetween1(P)
to 4(A)and from2(B)to 3(R)are opened.The plungerscan be operatedby an
auxiliarymounteddevicesuchas a rollerarm or pushbutton.

Thevalvehasa non-overlapping exhaustconnectionand is returnedto its start


positionby the spring.The valvesare usedfor controlsemployingdouble-act-
irtgcylinders.

Thereare otheractuating
Gircuitdiagramr412wayspringretut:nvalve
methods and types of
construction availablefor
the 412way valve includ-
ing pushbutton,singleair
pilot, double air pilot,
roller lever actuated,
spool and sliding plate.
ln the main,the 412way
valveis utilisedin similar
roles as the 512 way
valve.

ln general lhe 412 way


b GrqJitdiagram:5l2way springreturnvalve
valve is replacedby the
512way valve. The 5/2
way valve has ad-
vantagesin construction
of passagesand allowing
the exhaustof both ex-
tensionand retractionair
for cylinders to be
separately controlled.
The 512way valve circuit
carries out thei same
primarycontrolfunctions
as the 412way valvecir-
cuit.

149
.{
Directionalcontrolvalves Festo Didactie
J
J
i
I
3.5 4/3way valve The 4/3 way valve has four ports and three positions.An exampleof the 4/3
way valve is the plateslide valve with hand or foot actuation. lt is difficultto fit
othermeansof actuationto these valves. By turningtwo discs,channelsare
r
connectedwith one another.
-J
413wayplateslidevalve,midpositionclosed -J
-J
3(R ) 3(R ) 3(R ) :J
-J
4(A )2(B
J
J
J
J
J
-J
-J
-)
413wayplateslidevalve,crosssection

-J
J
-J
--l
-J
._.
__

--

-..
-J
-J
-J
J
150
J
J
\
Directionalcontrol valves Festo Didactic

: In thrs examplethe valve


4,3wavvalvecrrcuit
\ lines are closed in the
middle position. This
enablesthe prstonrod of
a cylinderto be stopped
in any positionover its
rangeof stroke,although
intermediatepositionsof
the prstonrod cannotbe
located with accuracy.
t Owing to the compres-
sibility of air. another
positionwill be assumed
if the load on the piston
rod changes

--: 5,2 way valvehas five portsand two positions. fhe 512way valveis used 3.6 5/2 way valve
^ . - ^ ,d, t;^^ l
- .;r,,,ry ^^ a,rqr
ar ^ vJ[tttol
^- for
element the control
of cylinders.An exampleof
: ''= 52 way valve,the longitudinal slidevalve,uses a pilot spool as a control
t:-oonent. This connectsor separatesthe corresponding lines by means of
: :-giiudinalmovements.The requiredactuatingforce is lower becausethere
a-: ,rinimalopposing{orcesdue to compressed air or spring.Sealingpresents
: =:'cblem in this type of slide valve The type of fit known in hydraulicsas
-::al to metal,requiresthe spoolto fit preciselyin the bore of the housing. In
:-=rmatic valves,the gap betweenspooland housingbore shouldnot exceed
-:12-0.004 mm, as otherwisethe leakagelosseswill be too great.To save
:-:se expensivefittingcosts,the spool is oftensealedwith 0-ringsor double-
:,: cackingsor the bore of the housingis sealed with 0-rings. To avoid
:=-aging the seals,the connecting portscan be distributedaroundthe circum-
';-:-ce or Ine spoornouslng.
^{
f h^
^^^^l
F

slideprinciple
= 2 way valve:longitudinal

=
rr

-l
12(Y) 5(n)4(A)1(P)2(B)3(S) 14(z)

rrfi

re

r{
12(Y) s(R)4(A)1(P)2(B)3(s) 14(z)

:
t3l
\a
*-
Directionalcontrolvalves FestoDidactic

-
t'-

:-
<<

All forms of actuationcan be used with longitudrnal slide valves,i.e manual.


mechanrcal. electricalor pneumatic. These types of actuationcan also be <
used for resettingthe valve to its starting position. The actuationtravel is
r;onsiderablylargerthanwitlrseai valves. <

_..]
Circuit:512way valveand doubleactingcylinder
'l
r.0 '-l
-J

-J
'l

-J
1t

r(s) 1.3
-J
J
-J
-J
Anothermethodof sealingis to use a suspendeddisc seat with relativelysmall -J
switchingmovement.The disc seat seal connectsthe 1(P) port to eitherthe
2(B) port or the 4(A) port.The secondaryseals on the spool pistonsconnect
J
the exhaustpofts to the outletports.There is a manualoverridebuttonat each )
end to manuallyoperatethe valvespool.
-l

discseat,position1
5/2 suspended
J
J
J
4(A) 2 (B ) J
J
J
J
j
14(z) 5( R) 1 (P ) 12 (Y \
J
J
j
J
J
152
J
t-.
L- Directionalcontrol valves Festo Didactic

L-
L:
L-
L_ Tne 512way doubleair pilot valve has the characteristicof memorycontrol.
The last switchedpositronis retaineduntila new switchingpositionis rnitiated
oy a uniquepilot signal from the oppositeside to the last signal This new
cosrtionis memoriseduntilanotheruniouesiqnaloccurs

discseat,position
I 5/2suspended 2

4(A) 2 (B )
L:

14(z) 5(R) 1(P ) 1 2 (Y )

l,f:unringof rollerlevervalves: 3 . 7 Reliableoperationof


ire reliabilityof a controlsequenceis heavilyoependentupon the correct valves
L: 'ittingof the limit valves. For all designsof limit valvesthe mountingmust
allowsrmpleadjustmentor readjustment
preciseco-ordination
of the limitvalve positionin orderio
arr-ie','s of the cylindermotionswithina controlsequence.

= :: rg of rralves:
ioar from a careiulselectionof valves,correctfittingis a furtherprereqursite
':' :eliablesuritchingcharacteristics,
trouble-freeoperationand easy accessfor
-ep.rirand nraintenance work.This appliesboth to valvesin the powersection
L_- and rral,res in the controlsection.

L- vlanually-actuatedvalvesfor signalinputare generallyfittedon a controlpanel


cr control desk. lt is thereforepracticaland convenientto use valves with
L: actuatorsthat can be fitted onto the basic valve Variousactuatorsare avail-
ablefor a wide varietyof inputfunctions.
L:
L:
L..
t:
t:
t-.
L: tcJ

L-
ltrSf,'€ 'i

Whenfittingcontrolvalves,particularcare shouldbe takento provideacces-


sibilityfor repair,extensionor modification
work. Numberingthe components
and utilisingvisual indicatorsfor the most importantcontrolsignalsreduces
faultfindinganddowntimesconsiderably.

Powervalveshavethe task of actuatingpneumaticdrivesin accordance with a


specifiedcontrolsequence.A basicrequirement for powervalvesis to alloW
rapidreversalof the actuatoronce the controlsignalhas beentriggered.The
powervalveshouldthereforebe positionedas closelyas possibleto the ac-
tuator in order to keep line lengths,and thus switcfuingtimes, as short as
possible.ldeally,the powervalveshouldbe fitteddirectlyto the drive.An addi-
tionaladvantageof this is that connectors,tubingand assemblytime can be
saved.

154
Ghapter4

Valves

155
-s
Valves FestoDidactic J
J
I
J
valves
1.1 Non-return Non-return valvesare deviceswhichpreferentially stopthe flow in one direction
anci permii flow in the oppositedirection. The pressureon the downslream -J
side acts againstthe restrictivecomponent,therebyassistingthe sealingeffect
of the valve.
:J
\l
-<
Oheckvalves Check valves can stop the llow completelyin one direction.In the opposite
directionthe flow is free with a minimalpressuredrop due to the resistanceof
the valve. Blockingof the one directioncan be effectedby cones,balls,plates -J
or diaphragms.
=J
Checkvalve
-J

-J
-J
J
-J
-J
J
)

:J
J
Junctionelements Elementsfittedat a three way junctionwhrchhave non-returncharacteristics
directthe movementof signalair The two valveshere referredto as junction
_J
elementshave logrccharacteristics whrchdeterminethe passageof two input
signals The two pressurevalvetequirestwo srgnals(ANDfunction)to produce -J
an outputand the shuttlevalverequiresat leastone signalinput(OR function)
to producean output.Theseare processing elementswherebytwo signalsare J
processedinternallyand the resultingsrgnalis outputat portA
J
-J
J

J
J
J
J
tco J- l
.-,
I
Valves Fests Didactic
I
:

: -',vopressurevalve:AND function The two pressurevalve Twopressurevalve


has t\Noinletsand one IogicANDfunction
- outlet Compressed air
- flows throughthe valve
\
D nnl v if
v|t|j ||v|Y|'u 'u g v ci nnnl c ata en-

\ pliedto both inlets. One


D input signal blocks the
flow. lf signals are ap-
it plied to both X and Y,
the signal which is last
, applied passes to the
outlet. lf the input sig-
D nals are of differentpres-
srrres the larner of ther'
'v
,qt yvr

D Nvopressuresclosesthe
t
valve and the smallerair
, pressureis transferredto
the outlet aS an output
D signal,The two pressure
valve is used mainly for
i- interlocking conirols,
safety controls. check
q
D functions and logic
nnoreti r'nc
t

rl

\t

a l' :..,il two pressure


valve
-
a

ra

:
.a

ra

a
-
{

+
f
-::rio pressure to the two inputsignalling
valvecircuitis equivalent devices
t - -i3r'res,
i.e. one afterthe other.The signaloutput is passedall the way
-':-gi onlyif bothsignalelements areoperated.
{
.t
157
r+
-
--t
Valves Festo Didactic
J
J
J
I
seriesANDfunction
Circuit:
I
I
-J
-J
:J
-J
-J
-J
-J

Shuttlevalve: This non-return element Shuttlevalve:OR function


-.1
logicOR function has two inletsand one
outlet. lf comoressed air
-J
)
is applied to the first
inlet,the valveseatseals
the opposing inlet.A sig-
nal is generatedat the
-- I
outlet.Whenthe airflow
is reversed, i,e. a
cylinderor valve is ex-
hausted, the seat
-J
remainsin its previously -J
assumed position be-
cause of the pressure J
conditions.
J
This valveis also called
an OR comoonent. lf a
cylinderor controlvalve
--.
is to be actuatedfrom --.
two or morepositions,
shuttlevalve shouldbe
a
.J
USEO .
J
J
J
J
J
158
J
E

:
rl

:
\
- - tie example shown, a cylinderis to be advancedusing a hand operated
\ ":, r'e eitherlocallyor from a remoteposition.
D
\
D I'cuit: shuttlevalveandthedoubleactingcylinder
\,
D

\Y

\
b

rl

\ S--:e valvescan be linkedto createadditionallogicoR conditions e.g. as


U
:-rfrF below:if any of threepushbuttons
are operated,
the cylinder1.0 is to
a : r:e10.
D

a
t
I 'cult:shuttlevalvesin series

-
a
-
t
-
ll

-
t-

i
+

t
a

\
1
159
\
,
Valves Festo Didactic
I
I
{
-,lit

-|
Quickexhaustvalve Quick-exhaust valvesare usedto increase the pistonspeedof cylinders.This -d
enableslengthyreturntimesto be avoided.particularly with single-acting - |
cy|inders.T h e p rin c ip |e o f o p e ra t io n is t o a ||o wt h e c y |in d e rt o r e t r a c t o r e x t e n
at its nearmaximumspeedby reducingthe resistance to flowof the exhaust-
ingairduringmotionof thecylinder. To reduceresistance, theair is expelled to -J
atmosphere closeto the cylinder via a largeorificeopening. The valvehas a
supplyconnection (P) and an outlet(A). In this direction of flow the air is
passedfreelyvia the openingof the checkvalvecomponent. PortR is blocked -l
by the disc <l

r<
Quickexhaustvalve,flow to the cylinder

-l
--1

-J
{

<
A
-
<

lf air is suppliedto the (A) port, the disc seals the (P) port and the air is
expelledto atmospherethroughthe silencedlarge orifice(R). This increases
the potentialspeed of exhaustcomparedwith the exhaustport of a final control
valve. lt is advantageous to mount the quick-exhaust valve directlyon the
cvlinderor as nearto it as oossible.

t ou
Valves FestoDidactic

-
Quick exhaustvalve,exhaustfrom the cvlinder
\
-
\
t

-a
)>

\
,

-
tD

-
t

\
,
L

,D

\r

-. t

quickexhaust
3ircuits: valve
\r

\
D

i
;D

::

-
t

rl

-b
-
=
r*

-f
:

:!
\

\it
-F
Valves Festo:DidaEtlG .-t

J
J
J
4.2 Flow control valves Flowcontrolvalvesinfluencethe volumetricflow of the comoressedair in both
directions.lf a check valve is fittedto the flow controlvalve,the influenceof r
speedcontrolis in one directiononly.The valvecan be fittedas a valveblock
in the circuitor attacheddirectlyto the cylinderport. I
Throttlevalve,bi-directional Throttlevalves are normallyadjustableand the settingcan be locked in posi- _J
tion. Due to the compressibilityof air, the motioncharacteristics of a cylinder
vary with load and air pressure.Thereforeflow control valves are used for
-J
speed controlof cylinderswithin a range of values. Care must be taken that
the flow controlvalve is not closed fully, cutting off air from the system.The
open flow settingshouldbe lockedin place.
J
-J
Throttlevalve
J
J
J
J
J
J
-l
J
-J
J
J
Characteristics
of flowcontrolvalvesaccording principle:
to construction
J
Throttlevalve:
ln the throttlevalve,the lengthof the throttlingsectionis greaterthan its J
diameter.
J
Diaphragm valve:
In the diaphragmvalve,the lengthof the throttlingsectionis less than its J
diameter.
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
162
J
-t

Valves Feslo Didactic


-
h

: The throttlingdeviceshown here is commonlyknownas a one way flow control One way flow control
\ valve.With this type of valve,the air flow is throttledin one directiononly.A VAIVE
checkvalve blocksthe flow of air in the bypassleg and the air can flow only
throughthe regulatedcross-sectionIn the oppositedirection, the air can flow
freely through the opened check valve. These valves are used for speed
regulationof actuatorsand if possible,should be mounteddirectlyon the
cvlinder.
,
One way flow controlvalve
t

-
a

\,

:
\
D

\
,

-
I
r-

=-^damentally,there are two types of throttlingcircuits for double-acting


:r -oers:

. S.:polyair throttling
. =x:raustair throttlinq
lr

f-

IT

ral

rt

II

ra
FestoDidactic

Supplyairthrottling For supplyair throttling, Supplyair throttling


one way flow controlval-
ves are installedso that
the air entering the
cylinderis throttled.The
exhaustair can escaPe
freelythroughthe check
valveof the throttlevalve
on the outletsideof the 1.02
cylinder. The slightest
fluctuationsin the load
on the piston rod, such
as occur for examPle
when passing a limit
switch,leadto verYlarge
in the feed
irregularities
speedif the suPPlY air is
SupplY
throttled. airthrot-
tling can be used for
single-acting and small
volumecylinders.

Exhaustairthrottling With exhaust air throt- Exhaustair throttling


tling,the supplyair llows
freelyto the cylinderand
the exhaustair is throt-
tled. In.,this case, the
pistonis loadedbetween
two cushionsof air. The
first cushioneffectis the
supply pressureto the
cylinderand the second
cushionis theexhausting
air beingrestrictedat the
one way flow control
valve orifice.Arranging J
throttle relief valves in
this way contributes sub-
stantiallyto the imProve-
-I
J
ment of feed behaviour.
Exhaust air throttling
should be used for J
doubleactingcYlinders.
J
J
t
J
164
-J
-J
=
-
E

=
Valves : 'FeStb,Didditic;
t-Bt
[-45-l
=

:
\-b
Pressurecontrolvalvesare elementswhichpredominarTtly influencethe pres- 4.3 Pressurevalves
of the pressure.Theyare dividedinto
sureor are controlledby the magnitude
+ thethreegroups:
\ . Pressure
-> regulating
valve
. Pressure
limiting
valve
\ . Sequence
-> valve
\
-iD The pressureregulatingvalve is dealt with underthe section"Air Service
\r
Equipment". The role of this unit is to maintainconstantpressureeven with
fluctuating
supply.The inputpressuremustbe greaterthanthe requiredoutput
Dressure.
\rr-
iD

\=-> Pressureregulating
valve

\\
-L

:!
\I
+
\--D

'!
:!

-
\

:!
---
-
3
ih-e pressurelimitingvalvesare usedmainlyas safetyvalves(pressurerelief Pressurelimitingvalve
= ',ralves).They preventthe maximumpermissible pressurein a systemfrom
ceingexceeded.lf the maximumpressurehasbeenreachedat the valveinlet,
{ ine valve outletis openedand the excessair pressureexhauststo atmos-
er'Iere.The valveremainsopenuntilit is closedby the buih-inspringafter
:t -eaching thepresetsystempressure.

I
.t

I
:'
165
T
valve
Seouence The principle on whichthis valveactsis the sameas for the pressurelimiting
valve. lf the pressureexceedsthatset on the spring,the valveopens.Theair
flowsfrom 1(P)to 2(A). Outlet2(A) is openedonly if a presetpressurehas
builtup in pilotline12(Z).A pilotspoolopensthe passage1(P)to 2(A).

pressure
Adjustable valve
sequence

2(A) 1(P) 12(z)

Sequence in pneumatic
valvesare installed controlswherea specificpressure
is required
for a switching
operation(pressure-dependent
controls).The signal
is transmitted
onlyafterthe required pressure
operating hasbeenreached.

Circuit:sequencevalveoperation

1.1

t oo
E Valves Festo Didactic

:
3omponentsof differentcontrolgroupscan be combinedinto the body of one . 4.4 Combinationalvalves
\
-rit with the features.characteristics
and construction
of a combination
of val-
.:s Theseare referredto as combinational valvesand theirsymbolsrepresent
t
:-e variouscomponentsthat make up the combinedunrt.The followingunits
::r be definedas combinational valves:

- Timedelayvalves: for the delayof signals


Air controlblocks: for reversingor oscillating
cycles
t
5 4 way valve : consistingof four212way valves
Air operated8 way valve: two 412way valvecombinations
- rpulse generator: multr-vibratorcycles
,'acuumgeneratorwith ejector. for pick and placeapplications
D
S:eppermodules: ior sequential controltasks
lommand memorymodules: for startupwith signalinputconditions
t

-::Te delayvalveis a combined3l2way valve,one way flow controlvalve Timers


a
=-: ?'reservoir. The 3/2 way valvecan be a valvewith normalpositionopen
:- : :sed The delay time is generally0-30 secondsfor both types of valves
- - -s rg additionalreservoirs, the time can be extended.An accurateswitch-
: :- : Te is assured,if the air is cleanand the pressurerelatively
constant.
-
!!
- -.: delayvalve:normally
closed
\-

rrl

\
-
E

rr

{|

-
{|

rl

ra

2
N
.-l
Valves FestoDidactic
J
J
I
r
Referringto the previousdiagram,the compressedair is suppliedto the valve
at connection1(P). The controlair flows into the valve al 12(Z). lt flows r
througha one way flow controlvalve and dependingon the settingof the
throttlingscrew,a greateror lesseramountof arrflowsper unit of time intothe :J
air reservoir. When the necessarycontrolBressurehas built up In the air
reservoir,the pilot spool of the 3i2 way vaiire is moved downwards. This I
blocksthe passagefrom 2(A) to 3(R). The valvedisc is liftedfrom its seat and
thus air can flow from 1(P)to 2(A). The time requrredfor pressureto buildup
-J
in the air reservoiris equalto the controltime delayof the valve.
c
:J
lf the time delayvalveis to switchto its initialposition.the pilotline'12(Z)must
be exhausted.The air flowsfrom the air reservoirto atmosphere throughthe
bypassof the one way flow controlvalve and then to the-exhaustline. The -J
valvespringreturnsthe pilotspooland the valvedisc seat to their initialposi-
tions.Workingl ine2(A)exhauststo 3(R) and 1(P)is blocked
J
J
Time delayvalve:normallyopen
J
J
J
ro(z)
J
1( P)
J
')

1 0( z) 1o(z)
T
J
J
3( R) 3( R ) -J
-J
2(A) 2 ( A) -J
--l
1( P) 1 ( P) J
J
The normallyopen time delay valve includesa 312way valve which is open
J
Initiallythe output 2(A) is active.When the valve is switchedby 10(Z) the
output2(A) is exhausted.The resultis that the outputsignalis turnedoff afte:
J
a sei time delay. J
J
J
168
J
al
lHffi-Eiitt,',,',,)''"t!,
:,t:,1
; ;,i.riA
;i*.*ffid#

The circuitbelowutilisestwo time delayvalves,one a normallyclosedvalve


(1.5)and the othera normally openvalve(1.4).Uponoperation of the start
button1.2,the signalgenerated passesthroughthe valve1.4and initiatesthe
movementof cylinderextensionvia the 14(Z)port of the memoryvalve 1.1.
The time delayvalve1.4 has a shorttime delayset of 0.5 seconds.This is
longenoughto initiatethe startsignalbutthenthe 14(Z)signalis cancelled by
the timer 10(Z)pilot signal.The cylinderoperateslimit valve 1.3. The time
delayvalve1.5 receivesa pilotsignalwhichafterthe presettime opensthe
timer. Thissuppliesthe 12(Y)signalwhichreversesvalve1.1and retractsthe
cylinder.The new cyclecan only startif the startbuttonhas been released.
The releaseof the pushbutton resetsthe timer 1.4 by exhausting the 10(Z)
signal.

Circuit:timedelayvalves

169
Ghapter5
I

Actuatorsand output
devices

171
Actuatorsand outputdevices Festo Didactic

LT

Ll
J
I
<
An actuatoris an outputdevicefor the conversionof supplyenergyinto useful Ll
work. The outputsignalis controlledby the controlsystem,and the actuator I
I
respondsto the controlsignalsvia the final controlelement.Other types of L
output devices are used to indicatethe status of the control system or ac-
tuators. -l
\_
<
The pneumaticactuatorcan be describedundertwo groups,linearand rotary: \_

. Linearmotion .T
- Singleactingcylinders
<
- Doubleactingcylinders L

. Rotarymotion
_r
- Air motor
- Rotaryactuator

5.1 Singleactingcylinder Withsingleactingcylinderscompressed air is apptiedon onlyone sideof.the


pistonface.The otherside is opento atmosphere.The cylindercan produce
workin onlyone direction.The returnmovement -
of the pistonis effectedby a
built-in
springor by theapplication
of an externalforce.Thespringforceof ihe
built-inspringis designedto returnthe pistonto its start positionwith a -
reasonably highspeedunderno loadconditions.
-

Singteactingcylinder
-
-

-)

-j
-J
-J
-J
-J
J
r
J
J
J
.J
J
J
172
J
J
I
II

IT

:
\,

\
, For singleactingcylinders with built-inspring,the strokeis limitedby the
naturallengthof the spring.Singleactingcylinders arethereforeonlyavailable
t in strokelengthsof up to approximately
80 mm.

t Theconstruction andsimplicityof operationof thesingleactingcylindermakes


it particularly
suitablefor compact,shortstrokelengthcylinderstor the follow-
t ingtypesof applications:

D
. Clamping of workpieces
. Cuttingoperations
. Ejectingparts
,
. Pressingoperations
. Feeding andlifting
,

t The singleactingcylinderhas a singlepistonsealwhichis fittedto the air Construction


supplyside.Theexhaustair on the pistonrodsideof the cylinderis ventedto
D
atmosphere throughan exhaustport.lf this port is not protectedby a gauze
coveror filter,then it is possiblethat the entryof dirt particlesmay damage
\ internalseals.Additionally a blockedventwillrestrictor stopthe exhausting
air
- duringforwardmotion, andthemotionwillbe jerkyor maystop.Sealingis by a
\r flexiblematerialthat is embeddedin a metalor plasticpiston(Perbunan).
Duringmotion, thesealingedgesslideoverthecylinder bearingsurface.
: Therearevaryingdesigns
of singleactingcylinders
including:
\
. Diaphragmcylinder
-
\, . Rolling
diaphragmcylinder
D

',Vth the diaphragmcylinder the frictionduringmotionis lessand


construction
: ihere is no slidingmotion.They are used in shortstrokeapplications, for
:iamping. embossingandliftingoperations.
:
' irre examplebelowthe pistonrod of the singleactingcylinderadvances Controlof a singleacting
: ,r-e^ a buttonis operated.On releaseof the buttonthe pistonreturnsto the cylinder
it --.ld position.
A normallyclosed3l2wayvalveis required for thisdirectcon-
t

- Directcontrolof a singleactingcylinder Whenthe 3/2 way valve


ra is actuated,compressed
t air flows from 1(P) to
2(A) and the exhaust
a
J port3(R)is blocked.
The
cylinderextends. When
t the button is released
the valve return spring
J' operates andthecylinder
chamber is exhausted
.t through the 3(R) port
with the comoressed air
.t connection 1(P)blocked,
The cylinder retracts
t underspringforce.
-
r(l

-
\
a
\
Actuatorsand output devices I
\
I
;I
I
\
I
I
With indirectcontrol of a lndirect normally
control, closedvalve \
I
cylinderthe 3/2 way con- I

trol valve is piloted by \


the 312 way pushbutton
valve1.2.In thisway the \
final controlelementcan
be of large orifice size. \
The control valve then
matches the cylinder
bore size and flow rate
requirements.The push-
buttonvalve 1.2 indirect-
ly extends the cylinder i
1.0 via the final control
element 1.1. When the
pushbutton is pressed, -
the signal 12(Z) pilots
the final controlelement -
to extend the cylinder
against spring force. lf -
the button is released,
the signal12(Z)exhausts
-i I
and the control element
returnsto the initialposi- -I
tion retracting the
cylinder. i.
i
-
In the case of a normally I
Indirect
control,
normally
openvalve --
open 3/2 way valve
being used, the cylinder
is initiallyextendedand
when the pushbuttonis
I -\
operated the cylinder
retractsunder the spring
force. The final control l
element 1.1 is not
switchedat the rest posi- .-
t}
tion.The cylinderis pres-
surised whilst at rest in
the initial position.The
! -
circuit is drawn with the
-
Il'
valve 1.2 unactuatedand
with the cylinderinitially r-
extendeddue to the sig-
nal 2(A) being active at
valve1.1. i

!t
-
s
)

F
)
:
D
174
t
b

a
-
a
Actuators ard outF*t devie*s ilesto ilidaclic

nlc :rn ti n n n r,,l i nr lar I unte a.' i n.: : ;viit - , der

t
j' i- ic iiilrpl rrri i :i p i eo i .i d o rl i ti e a c ti rg cyl i nc-dii s si n-:i i arr to tnat oi i he
ngi c y lir rc re r, F { o w e v e r. i h e r= i s rro i e turn spri ng. ai rd the fw o pori s
l
r ierrtitrveiv .t1s srrDDiv- :trrri =.riraltist *crts Tre doi;Dle ilctiirg cylinCei
- r ' ii' t ir ir e i i i a i l l -re c ;i i i rc l e r i = .rb i rt te c:rr;-y oui ,ttork i n both di r' ecti cns
i i ul; , i ri s i a l l a ti o nr-ro s s i b i i i ti easre u i l vei sati fhe i t.,r' i ;e transl erre,
:-ir- r,.1.-i s sor:t,l,r'inaiq13aiei io, li-reioi-v,,rtrei siroKe iiran foi the r'etL,ri
: , . iiec i i v + o rs i o rrs i i ri i l c e ;s i ' e c u c e rl :rn i i e ri si oi -t i ' cd si de bv i ne
,:yl i i '-il er i s r-j r
- , ii' ai ar e a o i i h e c i s to n i ,f,r: T re -or
col i rol of i he
- : - l i t.,,-' l i r.ti :S
) -::'.-: -ri
-],)i :O t.
; : : ia s ii' c i (el e n g th o i l h e i y i i rrc e r i s u ni i i i ri i erl ..rl t!roL:gtr
bL.i ci ' .l tnq.rrtd
- ' - ' r e : x t e i rc l e L 1p rs i o r; rc c l b e al l ow ed i or A s w rth i he si ngi e
, _- : . . , s e a i i n g i s ' c y me a r-:s -i rti
o fs tp i s l cns fi tterj w i tl t seal i nE ri ngs oi '

- i' i: i: - r,r!a a v r),J e v --i o D e iei rl i i te i c i !ow i nqdi reci i oi -r= !srE n -l evel oomLl nf

:- ::i q u ri e m e n i s - i re n c e i i l e i j se of magnets on pi si ons


3g1 1 1 -i i irlerJ
) :l :'.:.lil ,) Ce ia tlOn
- . : - : . - r ' r , ,'
tc a ,1 sth ro u g h c l a m o i n g u * i ts and a:< i ernaishock absorbers
: :, : - ae i - ' r;i te i ' 3:D a c e ]s i i ml i e d
-
'. = --,ti'rr.;iifcir-if irtgiliaieri.tis such a:-iplastic
l
a gsa i ri s i n a rs l i + rl v i ro n l l l ents.i e. arcrd-r' esi starrt
- ' . - . la. r , 1 :rrrg
: : - - a r ad r l a rry i n gc a p a c i ty
' : : ii , i. 1 tro n s' rv ri hs p e c i a l fe a tu te s s Li cn i s i i on-roi ai i ng pi si on rods
' : i' : t . r c o s l o r v a c l u m s u c i to n c u p s

iic
doubleactingcylinder
Cushioned

:J

-J
J
J
J
J
ii iarge 1e-.'=s ai'+ moved by a eytinder,cushioirrngis used rn the erc posi- J
ii=ns to s'rer,r-=udden danraginginr+acts.Beforereachingthe end pos;iion :
:ushioir,,g pislci-:ii:terruptsthe dlieet flow path of th+ air to the cutsiee. n- J
stead a very sn-alland often adjusiableexhaustapertureis open. F6i:hc. l;151
=ai'i of the siicke the cylinderspeeciis progressivelyreduced.lf the pass?Qc
adjustmentis toc small,the cylindermay not reachthe end positiondue to rhe
J
biockageof air.
-J
';l";henlhe pistcn ieverses,air ficws wiihout resisianceihroughthe r;tui:. valve
-J
ini,r the cylindersoace. With very large forces and high accelerationsextra
measuresmusi be taken such as externalshock absorbersto assist the load :J
deceleration. When cushioningadjustmentis being carried out, it is recom-
n":endedthat in order to avoid damage, the reguiatlngscrew should first be
;eiewed ;, fuii,vafid then back+i off in order to allow the adjustmentto b -
J
inilreaqcd to the Opt,nUm+aiuc
Slc,,,lri

it rs iinporlanl ts .cirsroei trtilne a magner l0 tne cylrnder piston. Once


manufacturedthe cylindercannoi rlrmally be fitted with sensor magnetsdue
to tne differencein construction.

176
L
L-.
L.
L-
The cylinderconsistsof a cylinderbarrel,bearingand end cap, pistonwith seal Construction
(double-cuppacking),pistonrod, bearingbush,scraperring,connectingoarts
and seals.

The cylinderbarrelis usuallymadeof seamlessdrav;nsteeltLri:e.To increase


the life of the sealingcomponents,the bearingsurfacesof the cylinderbari.el
are precision-machined. For specialapplications,
the cylinderbarrelcan be
made of aluminium,brass or steel tube with hard-chromed bearingsurface.
These specialdesignsare used where operationis in{requentcr ,,,;l'ierc;
lfr+r'i,r
are corroiiveinfluences.

The end cap and the bearingcap are, for the most part, made of cast material
(aluminiumor malleablecast iron). The two caps can be fastenedto the
cylinderbanel by tie rods,threadsor flanges.

The piston rod is preferablymade from lreat-treateci


steel. l\ r:eriarnt-.rercenl-
age of chromein the steelprotectsagainstrusting. Generallythe threa.cis arre
rolledto reducethe dangerof fracture.

A sealingring is fittedin the bearingcap to seal the pistonrod. The bearing


bush guidesthe pistonrod and may be made of sinieredbronzeor plastic-
coatedmetal.

In front of this bearingbush is a scraperring. lt preventsdust and dirt panicles


fromenteringthe cylinderspace. Bellowsare thereforenot normailyrequired.

The materialsfor the double-cup


packingsealsare:

Perbunan for- 20oCto + 80oC


Viton for- 20oCto + 1g0oC
Teflon for - 80oCto + 200oC

O-ringsare normallyusedfor staticsealing.

L-
L

_!

t-

i{

\
<

<
3
O-ring Shapedring
\

Squarering Grooveringson both sides \-,

-
Cup packing
-
-

Double-cup
packing Supportedgrooveringswith slide ring
L

.: -

L-ring

-!

-,

174
Actuatorsand oulPut devices Festo Didactic

TandemdoubleactingcYlinder

'=:-ired but the cylinderdiameteris restricted.

andemdoubleactingcYlinder

t
)
I

li/ounting
for cylinders
'.lclntingarrangements
)

) Thread

I
Rearflange

Swivelflangefront Swivelflangecentre
l

:
I

r)
Sulivelflangerear

)
179
,
\
,4,"cgf+i +it*,ri - i
c- I
I
<
\
<
I
\
<
The type of mountingis determinedby the mannerin whichthe cylinderis to \
be fitted to a machineor fixture. The cylindercan be designedwith a per-
manenttype of mountingif it does not haveto be alteredat any time. Alterna- <
\
tively,the cylindercan utiliseadjustabletypes of mountingwhich can be al-
tered at a laterdale by usingsuitableaccessorieson the modularconstruction <
\
principle.This resultsin,considerable
simplification
in storage,especiallywhere
<
a large numberof pneumaticcylindersare used as only the basiccylinderand \
optionalmountingpafts needto be stored.
<
The cylindermountingand the pistonrod couplingmust be matchedcarefully
to the relevantapplicationsince cylindersmust be loaded only in the axial
direction. -

As soon as force is transmittedto a machine,stressesoccurat the cylinder. lf


shaft mismatchingand misalignmentsare present, bearing stresses at the -
cylinderbarreland pistonrod can also be expected.The consequences are : -
. High edge pressureson the cylinderbearingbushes leadingto increased \
wear
. Highedgepressures on the pistonrod guidebearings \
. Increasedand unevenstresseson pistonrod sealsand pistonseals.

These stresseslead to a reductionin the servicelife of the cylinderwhich is


ofien considerable.The fittingof supportbearingsadjustablein three dimen- -
sions makes it possibleto avoid this excessivebearingstresson the cylinder
almostcompletely.The onlybendingmomentwhichthen occursis determined -
:.
by the slidingfrictionin the bearings.This meansthat the cylinderis subjected
only to the stress for which it was designed. lt can thereforereach its full
designservicelife. -
4

-
\

-
180
-
\

\
Circuit:controlof a doubleactingcylinder The 412way valve or the Control
of a doubleactino
512 way valve can be cylinder 412wayvalve
used to control the
doubleactingcylinder.In
both casesthe air is ini-
tially suppliedfrom 1(P)
to 2(B) and the 4(A) port
is exhausted. The
cylinder is initiallyheld
under pressure in the
retractedposition.When
the manual valve is
operatedthe 4(A) port is
active and the 2(B) port
is exhausted. The
cylinderis extended,and
remains extended until
the valve is released.ln
the 412 way valve a
singleexhaustport 3(R)
is used.

Circuit:controlof a doubleactingcylinder In the case of the 5/2 Controlof a doubleacting


way valve, the exhaust cylinder5/2 way valve
air is separately ex-
hausted to atmosphere
from one of the two ports
3(S) or 5(R). lt is more
commonfor the 5/2 way
valve to be used for the
controlof the double ac-
tingcylinder.

2 ( B)

3(s)

181
ig
.!
a
ia
b

4
To regulatethe speedof the cylinder,the flow controlvalves1.01and 1.02arc b
fitted to the exhaust side of the cylinder. In this control circuit a 5/2 way .1
memoryvalve is used. The signallingelements1-2 and 1.3 need only operate !
for a shortdurationto achieveswitching.
't a
Exhaustair lhrottlingof a doubleactingcylinder a
:

tj
-l
b

!r

!-

a
-

s
I

t-a
i

>
-a

-
.l
!

-!
{

s
F
g
C
182
C
C
I
Rodlesscylinder 5.3 Rodlesscylinder

t
)
I
)
I
)
t
)
t
)
t
,

- This doubleactingpneumaticlinearactuator(cylinderwithoutpistonrod)con-
! sists of a cylindricalbarreland rodlesspiston.The pistonin the cylinderis
freelymovableaccordingto pneumaticactuation, but thereis no positiveexter-
nal connection. The pistonis fittedwith a set of annularpermanentmagnets.
! Thus,a magneticcouplingis producedbetweenslideand the piston.As soon
I as the pistonis movedby compressed air the slidemovessynchronously with
- it. The machinecomponentto be moved is mountedon the carriage.This
i designof cylinderis specificallyusedfor extremestrokelengthsof up to 10m.
, An additionalfeatureof the rodlessdesignis the flat bed mountingavailableon
the carriageas opposedto the threadedpistonrod type of construction.
a

For the accurate Controlof a rodlesscvlinder


I Rodlesscylindercircuitfor positioning
positioningof the car-
riage,the circuitfor the
l rodless cylinder uses
check valves to prevent
t the carriagefrom creep-
a
ing. Referringto the cir-
I
) cuit, the pushbuttonfor
the carriageto move to
a the rightis the righthand
t
valve 1.2. In this case
ta the valve that exhausts
the air controlsthe mo-
I
tion of the cylinder.

!
+
t2

t
t
183
,
f

l-

5.4 Cylinderperformance Cylinderperformancecharacteristics


can be determinedtheoreticallyor by the
characteristics use of manufacturersdata. Both methodsare acceptable,but in generalthe
<
manufacturersdatais morerelevantto a particular
designand application.
<
Pistonforce The pistonforce exertedby the cylinderis dependentupon the air pressure,
the cylinderdiameter,and the frictionalresistanceof the sealingcomponents.
The theoreticalpistonforceis calculatedby the formula:

Ftn = A.p a=

Ftn = TheoreticalpistonForce(N)

A = UsefulpistonArea(m2)
-
p = OperatingPressure(Pa)
-
Strokelength The strokelengthsof pneumaticcylindersshouldnot be greaterthan 2m and
for rodlesscylinders10m.

With excessivestrokelengthsthe mechanicalstresson the pistonrod and on


-
the nose bearingwould be too great. To avoid the danger of buckling,a
somewhatlarger piston rod diametershould be selected for longer stroke
lengths.
-
-
Pistonspeed The pistonspeedof pneumaticcylindersis dependenton the load,the prevail-
ing air pressure,the lengthof pipe,the cross-sectional
area betweenthe final :.
controlelementand the workingelementand also the flow rate throughthe
finalcontrolelement. In addition,the speedis influencedby the end position
-
cushioning.

The averagepistonspeedof standardcylindersis about0.1-1.5m/sec. With


specialcylinders(impactcylinders),
speedsof up to 10 m/secare,attained. \

The pistonspeed can be regulatedby one way flow controlvalvesand speed


increasedby the use of quickexhaustvalves.

For the preparationof the air, and to obtainfacts concerningpowercosts,it is


importantto knowthe air consumptionof the system.For a particularoperating
pressure,pistondiameter,and stroke,the air consumptionis calculatedby :

Air consumption= Compressionratio. Pistonarea . Strokelength

ratio =
The compression
-

-
\,

-
184
-

(
\
i-

:- -.+--:-lr:f:ai.'+
F-=4ai,ii---='.

rl

I-

1-

I
i
.
Airmotor Deviceswhichtransform 5.5
pneumaticenergy into
Motors

\
mechanical rotaryrnove-
t mentwith the possibility
\ of continuousmotionare
Known as pneumatic
motors. The pneumatic
a motor with unlimited
angleof rotationhas be-
t come one of the most
widelyusedworkingele-
D mentsoperating on com-
pressedair. Pneumatic
t Axialpiston motorSare categorised
accordingto design:
)
. Pistonmotors
D . Sliding-vane
motors
. Gearmotors
t
. Turbines(highflow)

\
-
: Pistonmotors

\
J,

ra -^e workingprincipleof the axialpistonmotoris similarto thatof the radial


- : ston motor The forcefrom 5 axiallyarrangedcylindersis convertedinto a
: '::ary motionvia a swashplate.compressedair is appliedto two pistons
: :rultaneously,
thebalanced torqueprovidingsmoothrunning of themoior.
:
--ese pneumatic motorsare availablein clockwise
-^e maximum or anti-clockwise
rotation.
: speedis around5000rpm,the powerrangeat normalpressure
3 eng 1.5- 19 kW (2 - 25 hp).
ra
<-

3ecauseof theirsimpleconstruction
and the lowweight,slidingvane.motors Slidingvane motors
- :'e usedfor handtools.Theprinciple
of operation
is similar
to theslidinq-vane
r-
I0 r'l'rpressor.
t-

Ar eccentricrotoris contained
in bearings
in a cylindrical
chamber.Slotsare
-tt arrangedin the rotor.Thevanesareguidedin the slotsof the rotorandforced
lutwardsagainstthe innerwallof the cylinderby centrifugal
force. Thisen_
a s"resthattheindividualchambers aresealed.
3 Tre rotorspeedis between3000and g500rpm. Heretoo,clockwise or anti-
{ :lockwiseunitsareavailable units. powerranqe0.1- 17
as wellas reversible
-
{W (0.1- 2a hfi.
:
i
r Il
I

I 185
Actuators alid o,ulpu!:devices Feqto Didaclic

Gearmotors
$Jli:,';iiil H::il:J"3:1ilf,:?1,"JH:ii'flHJ*1""3[ ff3s'J,*",:"iJ:-
motor shaft. These gear motorsare used in applications
with a very high
power rating (44 kW60 hp). The directionof rotationis also reversiblewhen
spuror helicalgearingis used.

Turbines(flowmotors) Turbinemotorscan be used only where a low poweris required.The speed


range is very high. For example,the Dentists'air drillsoperatesat 500,000
rpm.The workingprincipleis the reverseof the flowcompressor.
l

Characteristics
of oneumatic
motorsare:

. Smoothregulation of speedand torque


. Smallsize(weight)
. Overloadsafe
. Insensitive
to dust,water,heat,cold
. Explosionproof
. Largespeedselection
. Maintenance minimal
. Direction
of rotationeasilvreversed

5.6 Rotary actuators -


Rotaryactuator

Designfeaturesof pneumaticrotaryactuators:

. Smalland robust
. Precisionmachinedand henceveryefficient
. Availablewithcontactlesssensing
. Adjustablefor angulardisplacement
. Constructed fromlightweightmaterial
. Easyto install

The compactrotaryactuatoris suitedto roboticsand materialshandlingap- \


plications
wheretherers limitedspace.

186

f,
--::--1.r[
-1---.:::-

optical indicatorsvisuallyrepresentthe operatingstatusof the pneumaticsys- 5.7Indicators


tem and serveas diagnosticaids.

Someof the visualdevicesare :


. Opticalindicators,singleand multiplecolouredunits
. Pin type opticalindicators,for visualdisplayand tactile
sensing
. Counters,for displayingcountingcycles
. Pressuregauges, to indicateair pressurevalues
. Timers,with visualindicationof time delay

With the opticalindicatorsthe colour codes representcertainfunctionsin the Opticalindicators


cycle. The visualindicatorsare mountedon the controlpanelto indicatestatus
of controlfunctionsand the sequentialsteps currenilyactive.The coloursfor
visualindicatorsin accordancewith VDI/VDE0113/57113 are:

Colour Meaning Notes

Red lmmediate Machinestatusor situations requiring


danger,alarm immediate intervention.
No entry.
Yellow Caution Changeor imminentchangeof
conditions.
Green Safety Normaloperation,safe situation,
free entry.
Blue Special Specialmeaningwhichcannot
information be madeclearby red,yellowor
green.
Whiteor General Withoutspecialmeaning. Can
Clear information also be used in caseswhere
there is doubtas to the
suitabilityof the threecolours
red,yellowor green.

187
Chapter6

Systems
t
!

Systems :1li$:ti$j
-

-
-
<
6.1 Selection and mustbe givento the following:
To selectthe controlmediaconsideration \
comparisonof media
. The workor outputrequirements
. \-l
The preferredcontrolmethods
. The resourcesand expertiseavailableto suppoftthe project <
. \
The systemscurrentlyinstalledwhich are to be integratedwith the new
project .=
\
The total projectmay requiremixturesof mediumboth on the controlside and :-
the work side. Therefore,the interfaceor conversiondevicewill be an impor-
tant elementof the processto ensurecontinuityand uniformityof signalsand
data. -\

Firstly, the individualadvantagesand disadvantages


of the mediumsavailable
must be considered,both as a controlmediumand as a workingmedium. -
Thenthe selectionscan be developedtowardsa solution.
-
6.2 Gontrolsystem The development of the controlsystemsolutionrequiresthat the problemis
development definedclearly.Thereare manyways of representing the problemin a descrip- -
tive or graphicalform. The methodsof representing the controlproblemin-
clude:
-
. Positionalsketch -
. Circuitdiagram
. -
Displacement-stepdiagram
. Displacement-timediagram
. Controldiagram -
. Flowchart
. Functionchart -

At the fundamentallevel of pneumaticcontrolthe most commonlyused repre- -


t

sentationsare the positionalsketch,circuitdiagram,.displacement-step


diagram \
andthe displacement-time diagram.

\-

\-

\-

-
{
\

-
\
-
\-
fL

fL

190
F-

_h

F
*r
Festo Didactic

The positionalsketch shows the relationshipbetweenthe actuatorsand the Positionalsketch


machinefixture.The actuatorsare shown in the correctorientation.The posi-
tional sketch is not normallyto scale and should not be too detailed.The
diagramwill be used in conjunctionwith the descriptionof the machineopera-
tion and the motiondiagrams.

sketchexamole
Positional

191

I
b:l
el
cl I

#
Circuitdiagram The circuitdiagramshows signalflow, relationshipbetweencomponentsand
the air connections.There is no mechanicallayoutrepresentation
cuitdiagram.
with the cir- si
<
t
Circuitdiagram I
T

f
e.
el
F
!!r

sr
-

F
The circuitis drawnwith the energyflow from the bottomto the top. The !
variouslevelsof a circuitincludethe energysource,signalinputs,signal -
processing, final controlelementand the actuator.The positionof the limit t
valvesare markedat the actuator.components and linesare identified
by the -
component numbering systemandthe port(way)connection numbers. These
allowcrossreference to the componentson the actualmachineand makethe
circuitreadable.
" F-
c-
F
_e.
€!r
F
'
\-!

s!
F
F
192 F
Thedisplacement-step diagramis usedfor motionsequences in the pneumatic Displacement-step
diagram
and hydraulicfields,The dlagramrepresents the operatingsequenceof the
actuators;the displacementis recordedin relationto the sequencestep. lf a
controlsystemincorporatesa numberof actuators, theyareshownin the same
way and are drawnone belowthe other.Theirinterrelation can be seenby
comparing the steps.

Displacement-step
diagram

In thiscasetherearetwo cylinders1.0and2.0.In step1 cylinder1.0extends


and thencylinder2.0 extendsin step2. Step3 retractscylinder2.0 and step4
rcfractscylinder1.0.Stepnumber5 is equivalent
to step1.

193
Systerns Festo,Didaptic

Functionchad The flow chartand the functionchartare morecommonin the development of


electricaland electronic controlsystems,althoughthe functionchartdoes give
a clearpictureof action,and reactionsin pneumatic sequences
In this casethe sequenceis describedusingthe cylinderdesignations A and B
insteadof 1.0 and 2.0. The extensionsignalis represented as a + and the
retractionas a - . The limit valvesare given the same letteras the cylinderin
lowercase,with the designation of 0 for the retractedpositionand 1 for the
extendedposition.The clampcylinderis extended(A+)and the limitvalvethen
operatedis a1. This limital initiatesthe extensionof B cylinder(B+)whichis :
the rivetingprocess.The rivetingcylinderfully extendsand operatesthe limit
b1. The limitb1 initiatesthe retraction of the rivetingcylinder(B-).The limitb0
is then operatedwhich initiatesthe movementof cylinderA unclamping(A-).
The full retractionof cylinderA is indicatedby the limita0 and this is the initial
conditionrequiredin conjunctionwith the start conditionfor a new cycle to -
commence. \

Functionchart:rivetingprocess t

Stort
position -

-
Clompin

-
Rivetin

Rivetin
\rr

Unclompin

6.3 Field systems (actoric) An importantcomponentin the transferof powerfrom the processorto the
linearor rotaryactuatoris the directionalcontrolvalve (DCV). The selectionof
the size and type of valve determinesmany of the operatingcharacteristics of
the actuator.The development in directional
controlvalves is towards:

. Sub-baseand manifoldmountingwithcommonsupplyand exhaust


. Low powerrequirements for pilotor solenoidoperation
. Multiplefunctionvalves where characteristicsare changedvia wafer and
sealvariations
. Materialchangesand in particular plasticand die caslingmethods \
. Multiplevalvesin singleunitconstruction
. Mountingof the DCVon the cylinder

194

t
-
:

3
Feslo.Didabtic

-
I

-
h

-
\ Manifoldmountingof valves The manifold mounted
D
valves utilisea common
supply port (centre)and
t
exhaust ports (outside).
\ The exhausts can be
tubed away separatelyor
- locally silenced as re-
\
iD quired. The compact
\ and rigid mounting is
iD suitable for a control
\ cabinetconstruction.
D

\
-
\
D

\ In pneumatics,
specialunit is a term used to describea combinationof ac-
- 6.4 Specialunits and
assemblies
a

:
\
- Rotaryindexingtable In many manufacturing Rotaryindexingtable
I processes,it is neces-
.
sary to performfeed mo-
tions in a circularpath.
3 Rotary indexing tables
are used for this pur-
: pose. The powering
device in a rotary index-
i
: ing table is a pneumatic
cylinder in conjunction
a with an air controlblock
whichcontrolsthe move-
] mentcycles.

-
I
2

t
t
t
t

\ 195
,
Systems Festo Didactic

Rotaryindexingtableapplication

The rotaryindexingtable can be used for the one-offproductionof machine


toolsfor pitchcircledrillingpatterns,shiftholes,gearsand so on.

In seriesproductionthe rotaryindexingtable is used on drillingand tapping


machinesor on rotarycyclingmachines. lt can also be used for testing,as-
sembling,drilling,riveting,spot welding,punching,in otherwords anywhere
whererotarycyclicproduction is required.

Pneumatic
feedunit

This unitis a gripperfeed unit.lt is usedfor feedingstripmaterialto machines


or presses.Forthe mostpart,feedersare usedfor transporting tapesor strips.
By usingdifferentclampingand feed grippersit is possibleto clampand feed
rods,tubesand also profiledmaterial. Diaphragmcylindersalternately clamp
and opento gripthe material.

madeby the unit,the feed movements


All movements as well as the clamping
movementsare controlledby two 412way valves.

196
L

Systems

Stripfeederunitin synchronous
operation

The widthof the materialcan be up to 200mm. lf particular


attentionis paidto
certainvalues (high cyclingspeed,dead weightof the material)a feed ac-
curacyof 0.02to 0.05mmcan be attained.

Hydro-pneumatic
feedunit

Theseunits,likethosepreviously
mentioned,
are mainlyusedwherea uniform
workingspeedis required.

The pneumaticcylinders,hydrauliccheckcylinderand air controlblockform a


compactunit. The two cylindersare connectedby a cross-tie.The pneumatic
cylinderis retainedas the workingelement.

-c-
.\

-
{
\

rL
-
When compressed air is appliedto the pneumaticcylinder,the pistonin the <a
ll
hydrauliccheck cylinderis carriedalong with it. This pistondisplacesthe oil
througha throttlereliefvalve to the otherside of the piston. The throttlevalve <
can be adjusted,therebyregulatingthe feed speed. Heretoo, the oil prevents \
the feedfrombeingunevenwhenthe workingresistance changes. {
\
On the returnstroke,the oil can pass quicklyto the otherside of the piston
\-
throughthe returnvalve and thus the returnstrokecan also be made in rapid
traverse.
-
An adjustablestop on the piston rod of the hydrauliccheck cylinder also
enablesthe forward stroke to be divided into rapid traverse and working feed. -
The piston is carriedforwardonly when the cross-tiehas moved againstthe
stop. The speedof the workingstrokecan be regulateci beiweenapproximate- \
ly 30 and 6000mm/min.
\
Specialunits are availablewhich also performa workingstrokeon the return
movement. A second throttlerelief valve providesthe brakingeffect on the \
returnmovement.

-
-

-
.1
\
\r

-r

-\

-\

\
198

-
SectionC

Solutions
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Festo Didactic R

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Exercise1: A double acting cylinderis to extendwhen a pushbuttonis operated. Upon <
L
Directcontrol of a double releaseof the pushbuttonthe cylinderis to retract.The cylinderis of smallbore
actingcyllnder (25mmdiameter)requiringa smallflow rateto operateat the correctspeed. <

Problemdefinition Circuitdiagramwith 5/2 way valve L

--

-
-
:.

Knowledge The controlvalvefor a doubleactingcylindercan be selectedasa4/2 way or


a 512way valve.In this case sincethe cylinderhas a smallcapacitythe opera-
tion can be directlycontrolledby a pushbuttoncontrolvalvewith springreturn. -

On operatingthe pushbutton, the air passesthroughthe valvefrom 1(P)to the


4(A) port and extendsthe piston rod. On releaseof the pushbutton,the valve
spring returnsthe controlvalve to its initialpositionand the cylinderretracts.
Air returnsfromthe cylindervia the exhaustport.
-

200
-

-
i
Sincethe cylinderis the onlyworkingelementor actuatorin the circuit,it is
J"sign"t"Oi.O. fne finalcohtrolelementthat extendsthe cylinderis desig-
nated1.1.

ll the pushbuttonis pressedfor a very shortperiod,the cylinderonly partlally solutlon


extendsandthen retracts,sinCethe springresetsthe Controlvalveas soonas
fre pusnOutton is released.The cylinderand valvewill returnto their initial
posiiion.Thereforewith this circuit,it is possiblethat the cylindernever
ieachesfull extension.To try and achievefull extensionin this case,the push-
buttonmustbe helddownuntilthecylindermovssfullyforward.

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Exercise2: \-
Indirect control of a l,lgl9l".acting cy.tinder
is to extendwhena pushbutton rs operated.Upon
reteaseof the pushbutton the cylinderis to retract.The cylinderis 250mm
doubleacting cylinder diameter
<
andconsumes a largeuotur" oi"ii. L
Problemdefinition
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Knowledge -

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The valve 1.2 when operatedsuppliesa pilot signal to'the 14(Z) port of the Solution
controlvalve 1.1. This generatesa signal at the outlet 4(A) and the cylinder
extends until the pushbuttonis released.lf the pushbuttonis releasedthe
returnsignal is suppliedfrom the 2(B) port of valve 1.1 and the air is vented
fromthe unpressurised sideof the cylindervia the valve1.1exhaustport5(R).

Circuitdiagram

lf the pushbuttonis releasedbefore the cylinderfully extends,the cylinder


immediatelyreturnsto the initialposition.Eventhoughindirectcontrolis used,
the final controlelementis a singlepilot valve and does not have the charac-
teristicof memory.Thereforethe controlvalve requiresa sustainedsignalfor it
iI
to remain operated,Once the pushbuttonis released,this pilot signal is ex- i
haustedthroughlhe 312way valveexhaustport 3(R) and the cylinderretracts.
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Exercise3: .<l
The logic AND from a conveyorbelt. lf the productis t
function;the two )r pressesthe pushbutton,the pick_up
<
pressure valve ensed by a 3/2 way roller lever valve. 3
e cylinder1.0 is to retractto the initial
a
Problemdefinition L
Circuitdiagram
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Theoperating condition for the pick-upcylinderto extendis a logicANDfunc- Solutlon


tion betweenthe productsensorand the operatorpushbutton. Thereforeif a
two pressure valveis usedto combinethe signalsfromthe sensorand push-
buttonthe logicconditionscan be met.The two pressurevalveis connected
betweenthe outlet lines of the two 312way valves.Upon operationof the
pushbutton a signalis generated at the X sideof the two pressurevalve.This
signalcannotpassthroughthetwopressure valve.Oncethe partis sensedas
present,the 3/2 way rollervalvegeneratesa secondsignal,thistimeat portY
of the two pressurevalve.A signalis passedthroughto pofi A. This signal
opelatesthe controlvalvepilotsignal14(Z)againstthe springreturnand the
cyfinderextends.The controlvalvecan be a 4/2 way or a 512wayvalveand
canbe sizedto suittheflowraterequired forthecylinderspeed.lf eitherof the
two signalscreatedby the 312way valvesis removed,the two pressurevalve
will releasethe 14(Z)signalbackthroughthe exhaustportof one of the 312
way valves.The returnspringin the controlvalvethen switchesthe control
valveto the initialposition;
Thecontrolvalveoutlet2(B)is activewiththe outlet
4(A)exhausted to atmosphere andthe cylinderretracts.

205
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Exenarse4: A cylinderis usedto transferpartsfroma magazine.lf eithera pushbutton or a t-


T'helogie OH fa.rnetion; iootpedalis operateci, then the cylinderis to extend.Once the cylinderis fully <
the shuttlevalve extended,it is to retractto the initialposition.A 3/2 way rollerlevervalve is to f
be usedto detectthe full extensionof the cylinder.
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Circuitdiagram I
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Theshuttlevalveis connected to thejunctionbetween thetwo manual3/2 way Solution


vafves.Upon operationof one of the manual312way valves,a signalis
generated at the X or Y sideof the shuttlevalve.Thissignalpassesthrough
the shuttlevalveand is emittedat A. Thisoperates the controlvalvevia pilot
porl14(Z),andthe cylinderextends. A limitvalve1.3sensesthefullextension
positionof the cylinder.The pilotsignal2(A)fromvalve1.3pilotsthe 5/2way
valveat the 12(Y)port and the cylinderretracts.The signalat port 12(Y)is
onlyeffective,if the opposingsignalat port 14(Z)is released.lf bothof the
signalsproduced viathe pushbutton valvesareremoved, thentheshuttlevalve
will releasethe pilotsignal14(Z)backthroughthe exhaustportof one of the
312way valves. ln otherwordsboththe pushbuttons and the foot pedalmust
be inactivefor retractionto occur.The controlvalvecan be a 412wayor a 5/2
way valve and can be sizedto suit the flow rate requiredfor the cylinder
speed.

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Exercise 5: A doubleactingcylinderis to extendfully when a pushbuttonis operated.The
Memoryclrcuit and cylinderis not to retractuntil full extensionis reached.Extensionis confirmed
speed control of a by a rollerlevervalve.The cylinderis to continueforwardeven if the pushbut- l\
cylinder ton is releasedbeforefull extensionis reached.The speedof the cylinderis to
be adjustablein bothdirectionsof motion.

Problemdefinition
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Solutions

1. The memorycontrolvalve 1.1 when firstfittedcouldbe in eitherof the two Question1


positions14(Z)or 12(Y),whichmeansthat it is not easyto predictthe position
of the valvewhenfitted.lf a manualoverridebuttonis available,
thenthe valve
shouldbe manuallyset to the 12(Y)positionbeforeturningon the air supplyto
ensurethatthe cylinderremainsretracledinitially.

2. For normaloperationof the circuit,the valve1.1 shouldbe initialised to the Question2


12(Y)positionbeloreair is applied.The air can be turnedon and the pushbut-
\ ton valve 1.2 then operatedto extendthe cylinder1.0. Operationof valve 1.1
producesa signalal 14(Z)of valve 1.1 whichswitchesthe air to the 4(A) port
of the controlvalve.At the sametime air is exhaustedfrom the unpressurised
side of the cylinder,via the 3(S) port. Once the cylindertravelsto the limit
valve1.3,a pilotsignalis sentto the 12(Y)portof the controlvalve.Thissignal
will switchthe controlvalveif the pushbutton valveis released.The valve '1.1
then suppliesair to the returnside of the cylindervia port2(B) and the unpres-
\ surisedsideof the cylinderis exhausted via port5(R)of valve1.1.

\a The speedof extensionand retraction are controlled by the throttlevalves1.01


and 1.02and in both casesthe speedcontrolis by exhaustair throttling. The
\a valve 1.01 controlsthe returnsoeedand the valve 1.02controlsthe advance
speed.The check valvesfitted in the throttleact as by-passvalvesfor the
supplyair to the cylinders.
Onlythe exhaustedair is throttled.
-
3. lf the pushbuttonis held operatedeven afterfull extensionis reached,the Question3
- cylinderwill remainextendeduntil the pushbuttonvalve 1.2 is released.The
finalcontrolelement1.1 is a memoryvalvewith the characteristic that the last
positionwill be retaineduntila uniqueopposingsignalis received.Thereby,if
the signal14(Z)is appliedcontinuously to the valve'1.1,thena signalapplied
: at 12(Y)by the limitvalve1.3cannothaveany effectuntilthepushbutton valve
1.2 is released.
:
positionof the cylinder,the Question4
4. lf the ro]lerlevervalveis fittedat the mid-stroke
cylinderwill extendup to the limit switchand retract(if the pushbuttonis al-
readyreleased).lf the pushbuttonis inadvertently held downthen the cylinder
- will extendup to the limitswitchand then overrunto the fully extendedposi-
tion. In this case the cylinderwill not returnsincethe only signalavailableto
- returnthe cylinderhas been bypassed(rollervalve 1.3).Thereforeit wouldbe
necessaryto manuallyresetthe controlvalve 1.1 and this would retractthe
cylinder.A returnstrokeis only possibleif the rollerlever valve is manually
-
ooeratedor withthe heloof the manualoverrideof the finalcontrolelement.
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Exercise6: The operationof two identicalpushbuttonvalves advancesa formingtool on <


Thequickexhaustvalve an edge-foldingdevice. For rapid forward travel, the circuit utilises a quick \
exhaustvalve.The fonruard movementfoldsthe edge of a flat sheet.lf eitherof
Problemdefinition the two pushbuttonsare released,the doubleactingcylinderis to returnslowly .J
to the initialposition. -
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Circuitdiagram
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Initial posltlon: ln the initialstate,the cylinderassumesthe retractedposition. Solution
ff both ot the 3/2 way valvesare actuated,a signalis presentat the outputport
A of the two pressurevalve 1.6. This reversesthe 5/2 way controlvalve.The
cylinderextendswith air beingsuppliedvia an unrestricted passagethrough
the one way flow controlvalve 1.03.The actuatortravelsrapidlyto its forward
end positionsince the pressurespace on the piston rod side is rapidly ex-
haustedthroughthe quick exhaustvalve. lf both 3/2 way valves remain ac-
tuated,the cylinderremainsin the forwardend position.

lf at least one of the two pushbuttonsis released.the actuatoris no longer


pressurised, sincethe controlvalvereversesvia the returnspring.The actuator
travelsto its initialpositionunderconditionsof restrictedflow (valve1.03)and
thereforeat a reducedspeed.

The two pressurevalve in combinationwith the hrvopushbuttonvalves does


not fulfilthe functionof a safetystart unit for a bendingapplication.In practice,
this startconfiguration must not be used.lnsteada safetystartcircuitor control
unit mustbe usedto meet localsafetyregulations.

21i1
t

Solutions F

v
Exercise7: A plasticcomponentis embossedusing a die poweredby a doubleacting
Pressuredependent cylinder.The die is to advanceand embossthe plasticwhen a pushbuttonis \
control;embossingof operated.The returnof the die is to be effectedwhen the cylinderrod has fully
plasticcomponents extendedto the embossingpositionand the preset pressureis reached.A .\
rollerlimitvalve is to be used to confirmfull extension.The pressurein the
Problemdefinition pisionchamberis indicatedon the pressuregauge. \

Circuitdiagram --
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Knowledge The power circuitmust firstlybe initialisedby operatingthe 5/2 way memory
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valvemanually(viathe manualoverrides) with the air off. The air can then be
turnedon.
-

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: The cylinderextendsif the 5/2 way directionalcontrolvalve 1.1 is switchedvia Solution
the 14(Z) port by the operationof the pushbuttonvalve 1.2. The plasticcom-
ponentis embossedunderpressureby the die untilthe presetpressureset on
the sequencevalve is achieved.The pressureon the advancingside of the
5 cylinderis fed from a junctionto the limitvalve 1.3 and then in seriesto the
sequencevalve.The signalport 12(Z)al the sequencevalve acts againstthe
\r
presetcompression of the adjustablespring.lf the limitvalve 1.3 is operated
due to full extensionof the cylinderand the presetvalueis reached,then the
\rr sequencevalveopensfrom 1(P)to 2(A) and sendsa pilotsignalto port 12(Y)
of the controlvalve 1.1. lf there is no signalal14(Z), then the memoryvalve
switchesand air is suppliedfrom the 2(B) port to retractthe cylinder.At the
: same time the air in the 4(A) port is exhaustedand the pilot signalat the
sequencevalveis thereforerelievedthroughthe exhaustportof the limitvalve.
: Thereforethe sequencevalvecancelsthe outputsignal2(A) and thus the pilot
signal 12(Y).The cylinderretractsto the initialposition.The pilot signalsat
14(Z) and 12(Y)need only to be very short pulsesto effectthe positionof the
512way controlvalve.
-t

lf the pressureat the sequencevalve pilot line does not reachthe presetlimit
= of the springadjustment,then the cylinderwill remainextended.lf the cylinder
encountersan obstacleor obstructionto the die movementduringextensionto
: the forwardposition,the cylinderwill not retractsince the sequencevalve is
dependentuponthe operationof the limitvalve1.3.
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Exercise8: A doubleactingcylinderis used to presstogethergrued
The time delay valve com'ponents. Upon
operationof a pushbutton, the.clampingcylind6rexterids trip. u rollerlever
valve.once the fullyextendedposiiion-is'reached, "rJ
Problerndefinitlon the cylinderisto remaintor I
a time of r = 6 secondsand then immediatery retractto ttre initiatposition.A n<
new startcycleis only.possible afterthe cylinderhas fullyretracteJand aftera
delay of 5 seconds.The cylinderextensionis to be
slow and the retraclion
adjustable,but relativelvfast. :

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Knowledge Initialiythe cylindershouldbe at the rest positionbut t


this is dependenton the
positionof the 5r2 way varve 1.1. This memory
varve must be positioned
manuallybeforeair is suppliedto the circuitto ensure
that the cylinderwill be
retractedinitially.
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The startconditions for the extensionof the doubleactingcylinder1.0 are the Solution
: acknowledgement of the retractedposition(rollerlimitvalve'1.4)a delayof five
, secondsafterthe end of cycledue to timer 1.6 and the operationof the staft
buttonvalve 1.2. The outputsignalA at the two pressurevalve 1.8 pilotsthe
) 512way memoryvalve at 1aQ). The signal4(A) extendsthe cylinderat a
preset speed via the flow controlvalve 1.02 (exhaustthrottling).The limit
, switch 1.4 is deactivatedand thereforeqven if the start button is still held
down,the signalat 14(Z)is exhaustedby the removalof the limitswitchsignal,
t
t whichresetsthe timer1.6untilthe cylinderhas retracted again.
\
t The cylinderreachesthe limitvalve1.3and producesa pilotsignalfor the time
delayvalve 1.5. The time delayvalveis normallyclosedand only opensport
\ 2(A) if the presettime, as determinedby the adjustablethrottle,is reached.
)
The air reservoirin the time delayvalvefills,and a pressureis reachedthat is
\ sufficientto operatethe timer againstthe spring return.A pilot signal is
t
produced6 secondsafterthe limitvalve1.3 is operatedand that signalis then
a sentto the 5/2 way valveport 12(Y).The 512way valveswitchesto the initial
- positionwith 2(B)activeand 4(A)exhausted. The air to the cylinderis supplied
I
to the returnside and the speedcontrolledby the valve 1.01. The rollerlimit
1.3 is deactivatedand the pilotsignalto the timer'1.5is cut-off,therebyremov-
ing the 12(Y)signalfrom the 5l2way valve.The cylinderretractsto the limit
r] valve 1.4.A new startsignalcan only occurif the rollerof valve1.4 is aciive.
The timer 1.6 activatesafter 5 secondsand the start buttonmust be pressed
\. for a new cycleto commence.
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List of standards
and references

217
ls' r so 1219 Fluidpowersystemsandcomponents;
graphicsymbols

D IN19226 for controlsystems


Terminology

D IN19237 concepts
Controltechnology,

tso 5599 Pneumatic fluidpower;S-portdirectional


controlvalvemountingsurfaces;general
J\'
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218
N. andMeixner,
Bissinger, H.: SimpleConlroland LogicCircuits, References
FestoDidactic,Esslingen,
1978

B.:
Bocksnick, Fundamentalsof ControlTechnology,
FestoDidactic,Esslingen1988

Deppert,W. and Stoll,K.: Pneumatics


in Control,VogelVerlag,1985

W. andStoll,K.:
Deppert, 'Pneumatics
Applications,
VogelVerlag,
1983

W. andStoll,K.:
Deppert, Pneumatics
in Packaging,
VogelVerlag,
1983

W. andStoll,K.:
Deppert, Pneumatics
in Woodworking,
VogelVerlag,
1979

FestoKG.: TechnicalInformation.
Pneumatics

and KoblerR.:
Hasebrink Fundamentalsof PneumaticControl
Engineering,
FestoDidactic,
Esslingen,
1979

Meixner,H. and KoblerR.: Introduction


to Pneumatics,
FestoDidactic,
Esslingen,1979

H. and KoblerR.:
Meixner, Serviceand Maintenance
of Pneumatic
Systems,Esslingen,
1984

219
lndex
\
Subject Chapter
-
2l2wayvalve .....;....83.2 <
3/2wayvalve ....83.3 \
4l2wayvalve ....83.4 <
4/3wayvalve ....83.5 \
S /2wayvalve ....83.6
A bsorptiondrying .B2.3 \
A dsorptiondryers ,B2.3
A ctoric ....86.3
A ctuatingdevice ..81.3
A ctuators ..A2.5 \
Advantageouscharacteristics of pneumatics .... A 1.1
Aircompressor .. .8 2.1
A irdistribution... ..A2.2.82.5
A irdryeis ..82.3 -
A irfilter . . . .A 2.2.82.4 -
A irlubricator .... ..A2.2.B 2.4
Airmotor . . .A 3.1.B 5.5
A irreceiver ......82.2 -
Airservice equipment . . . .8 2.4
A irsupply ....A2.2,82 -
A mplifier ... B 1.3 -
A naloguecontrol ..81.3
A nalysis of problem ...... A4.4 -
A pplications .,......A 1
A synchronouscon t ro l .... B 1.3 -
A uxiliaryenerE y ... B 1.3
B inarycontrol ....81.3
Cascade ..A6.1
Cylinderperforma n c e c h a ra c t e. .ris
. t ic s .85.4 rL
Characteristics of air .....81.2 !

Checkvalves ......A3.1, B 4.1


Circuit diagram . . . . . A 4 . 1 ,A 4 . 3 ,A 7 . 1 , B 6 . 2
Clampingdevices .A3.2
Combinationalval v; .e. .s. . .....A 2.3.84.4
Comparison of mediums . . .A 1.1,B 6.1 \
Components.... ...A2
Compressor ......82.1
Compressedairreg u la t o rs . . . . ..82.4
Condensate .. A7.82.5
Oontrolcircuits- Systems
Controldiagram ...86.2
Control mediumcrit e ria \
... A 1.1
Controlsystemdev e lo p me n t . . . . . .. A4, B 6.2
Controltheory ....B1.3
Coordinated motion .. A6.86.2
Derivedelements .A3.1
Derivedquantities . B 1.1
Designprocess ...A4.4
Designating theelements.,, .
Desigriations.... ,A3.1
Dewpoint .8 2.4 -Arr
Diagnostics ........A7 \
Diaphragm . B 2.4
Diaphragm compressor . . .8 2.1 \

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222 fr

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Subject Chapter
\
t D i ap hragmvalve. ...... ..84.2
\ Digitalcontrol ....:. . . . . . . B 1.3
D i r ectcontrolofapneumaticcyli n d e r ..... A5.1
\ D i r ectionalcontrolvalves .... A2.3,4 3.1,83.1
rD D i scseat ...83.3
-.r
Displacement stepdiagram A 6.2,B 6.2
D D i stinguishingfeatures ,... A 1.1
\ D ocu mentation... ...47.1,86.2
D Do u b feacting cylinder . . . 8 4 . 1, 4 . 2 , 8 4 . 3 ,B 4 . 4 , 8 5 . 2
D ou b lepistonrod ..85.2
- .t
D Drycompressed air . . .B 2
\ Dr ye r s .,...82.3
D Em e r gencystop.. ..A3.2
\ En d p ositioncushioning ....:. ....85.2
En vir onmentalpollution .... A3.2
- Energy . A 3.1,B 2
-a
ID
Exa m ple 1:Directcontrol of asinglea c t in g c y lin d e r ..... A5.2
Example2: Indirect controlof a singleactingcylinder . . . . A 5.5
Example3: The logicANDfunction, the two pressure valve . . . . . A 5.8
Example4: The logicOB function, the shuttlevalve . . . . A 5.10
-r
rir Exa m ple 5: Memorycircuitandsp e e d c oonftarocly lin d e r. . . . . A5.12
Example7: Pressure dependent control;embossing of components. . . A 5.15
<l Example8: Thetimedelayvalve . A 5J7
Exe r cise 1: Directcontrolof adoub lea c t in gc y lin d e r ..... A5.3
\i Exercise 2: lndirectcontrolof a doubleactingcylinder . . . A 5.6
t
Exercise 3: The logicANDfunction; the twopressure valve . . . . . A 5.9
ht Exercise 4: The logicOR function; the shuttlevalve . . ,.. A 5.11
f
Exercise 5: Memofu circuitandspeedcontrol of a cylinder ...'.. A s.tg
IT
Exe r cise 6: Thequickexhaustva lv e ..... A5.14
Exercise 7: Pressure dependent control;embossing of components . . . . A 5.16
Exercise8: Thetimedelayvalve . A 5.18
E
Exh a ustsilencers ... A3.2
Evalu ation ..44.4
- Fa ilu reof control ... A3.2
Fa u ltfinding ...47
h,
Filter s ......82.4
- Fittingof valves . . . .8 3.7
II
Ffowcompressors . .8 2.1
Flo wcontrol elements ...... A3.1
- Flowcontrolvalves . .A 2.3, B 4.2
- Flo wr esistances. ..82.5
r-
t
Ge a r motors..:. ...85.6
ld ler ollerlevervalve ......83.3
il l m ple mentation ....44.4
Ind icators ...85.7
Indirect control A 5.4,B 3.3
- Ind ir ectcontrolof acylinder.... ..A5.4
r- Inp u telement... ...81.3
tso5 5 99 ....A3.1
rl Ju n ctionelements ..84.1
t
Le tte ringsystem ,.. A3.1
rl L in e a ractuators .... A3.1
- L in e a rmotion ....,,..B5
a L o o iccontrol.... ..81.3
-
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J
\

Subject Chapter

Longitudinalslidevalv e ...83.6 \
Lubrication ...82.4.87 <
Maintenanc€..; ..A7.3,82.4 \ \
Malfunctions ......A 7.1,47.2
Manifoldmounting of valves
Memorycontrolsystem
Methodsof actuation ..... A3.1
Modularsystems ..86.3
Motors ....85.5 \
Mounting of rollervalves . . B 3.7
Mountingof cylinders .... B 5.2
Multipleactuators . A 6.1
Noisepollution... .A3,2 -
Non-returnelements ..... A3.1
Non-returnvalves .. A2.3,A 3.1,B 4.1 -
Oil mist ... Ag.2
Oil removal .....82.4 -
Operationalsafety . A3.2
Opticalindicators ..85.7 -
Optimumpressures ...... B2.1
Over-lubrication.. .82.4 -
P ilotcontrolsystem ..:... ......81.3
P ipematerial .... .82.5
Pipelayout .8 2.5 -
P istonforce. .....85.4 :
P istonmotors ....85.5
P lasticpipes .....82.5
P neumatics andcontrolsy s t edme v e lo p me n. .t. . ..... A'1.2 \
P neumaticelements . ... .42.1
P neumatics in review .... A 1.1 !

P oppetvalves ....83.1'
P ositionalsketch ...... ........86.2
P owervalves ...... .....83.7
P ressurecontrolvalves . . . . . A 2 . 3 ,A 3 . 1 ,B 2 . 4 , 8 4 . 3 -
P ressurelevel . .....82
Pressure regulator .42.2
Pressureregulatorwith/without venthole . B 2.4
P ressuresequencevalv e . ......A2.3 -
P rinciplesofair. ..81.1
P rocessors:V alvesandlog ice le me n t s ...:.. ..42.4 -
P roductdevelopment. . . . ......A1.2
Pushbutton .A 2.6,A 3.1
Quickexhaustvalve. ....84.1
Reciprocatingcompres s o r. . . . ..'.......82.1 -
Reliableoperation of valve s .....83.7
Reservoirs i. . . . . .82.2
-
Resfiictors ....:. .84.2
Ringmain .8 2.5
..86.2 -
Rivetingprocess
Rodlesscylinder ..85.3
Rollerlevervalve
Rotaryactuators . . .A 3.1,B 5.6
Rotaryindexingtable ,..:.. ....B6.4
Rotarymotion .,....B5
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t Sublect Chapter
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t Rotarypistoncompressor . B 2.1
- Safetyrequirements for pneumatic
clampingdevices . . . . A 3.2
ID Se a ls. 82.4.85.2
Se r vo -controlled. ... g3.g
\ Se le ction medium
criteriaforworking ..... A 1.1
] mediumsandcompa ris o n . .
Se le ctionof ..86.1
\ - Sele ction
criteriaforsystems ..... A 1.1
D

t
D
3:1 ffiffi :::: :::::
:;:ll
Se q u e ntialcontrolcircuit
:::
'::'::::::
:::::::::::
::::::::
: 3i :3
...86.3'
\ Settingpressure rdgulator . .8 2.4
D Sh iftr egister..... ..86.3
\ valves
Sh u t- off .....82.5
D Sh u ttleORvalve ...84.1
\ Sig n a lconverter .... B 1.3
D Sig n a lflow. .81.3
Sig n a loverlap .......AG
\ Singleactingcylinder .A 2.6,B 5.,1
D
Sizin g pipe. .82.5
J
Slid e valves .83.1
Slid in g-vanemotors...:.. .85.5
t Sp e cialdesignsandassemblies . . .86.4
Stan d ards .....A3
t Stati coutputdevices
Str i pfeeder
........8 5
.86.4
Structure
- Supplyair throttling . B 4.2
t Syn ch ronouscontrol ....... B 1,3
t
Sym b ols anddescriptions
of compon e n t s ........ A3.1
t System forworking
characteristics medium ...... A 1.1
- Systemupgrade .i.... ....A4.4
t Systerns:Controlcircuits ...A2.6 i
Systems:Hardware .86.3
a Tandemdoubleacting,cylinder ...
Thr o ttfevalve,..:.... .....84,2
Timedelayvalvd .
t Ti m e- dependentsequence... i. . . . . ....81.3
- Timers
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Trouble-shooting in pneumaticsystems
Tu r b in emotors .....85.5
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, Two p r essurevalve:A NDfunctio ,. . . .n. . ; . . ...84.1
U tilisationfactor. .....82
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) Ve n tho le . . .8 2.4
Wayvalve.s .A3.1
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