Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING

Sustainable Eco-Tourism development in


Ghana: A case study of Lake Bosumtwi

SPECIAL STUDY REPORT

ABDUL-GANIYU ADAMS

JUNE 2003
2

CHAPTER ONE
ECO-TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Eco-tourism offers a tremendous opportunity to provide a less consumptive source of
income from natural resources, improved local standards of living, foster cultural
exchange and understanding and promote bio-diversity conservation. This view is upheld
by IUCN (1996) which stated that ecotourism: "...is environmentally responsible travel
and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate
nature (and any accompanying cultural features - both past and present) that promotes
conservation, has low negative visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-
economic involvement of local populations."

Gunn (1994) sees tourism as encompassing all travel with the exception of commuting."
McIntosh and Goeldner (1986) say that "tourism can be defined as the science, art, and
business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them, and graciously
catering to their needs and wants. Tourism according to Mieczkowski (1995) since the
Second World War has grown at an unprecedented pace faster than most other economic
sectors and has developed into arguably the world‟s largest industry. Its contribution to
the economies of nations is in the areas of providing employment and earning foreign
exchange, which for Ghana ranks only behind cocoa exports revenue.

Ecotourism has been marketed as a form of nature-based tourism, but it has also been
studied as a sustainable development tool by NGOs, development experts and academics
since 1990. The term ecotourism, therefore, refers on one hand to a concept based on a
set of principles, and on the other hand to a specific market segment. The International
Ecotourism Society in 1991 produced one of the earliest definitions: "ecotourism is
responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well
being of local people."

Thus it is a development strategy, which can help in the attainment of local development,
however the activities of man is impeding the growth of eco-tourism and its obvious
3

benefits to the local economy and the nation as a whole.In June 1992, with much pomp,
leaders of 178 nations gathered in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil for the Earth Summit, with the
goal of mobilising, coordinating and financing international action on an ambitious
agenda to help preserve and protect the global environment. At the earth summit several
treaties and conventions were signed by nations promoting sustainable development.

However the so-called road from Rio has turned out to be a lost highway. This is
manifested in the situation where massive areas of woodland and forest are falling to the
chain saw, while countries are haggling over terms of treaties. Further, agreement and
conventions forged are not being fully implemented (Time Magazine, Special Edition
Nov.1997). Though Ghana is a signatory to conventions and treaties on protecting
biodiversity, endangered species, tropical forests, wetlands, and the ozone layer,
deforestation, overgrazing, and periodic drought have led to desertification and soil
erosion. Ghana‟s wildlife populations, depleted by habitat loss, are further threatened by
poaching.

In the late 19th century, in the then Gold Coast, hardwood forests covered the southern
half of the country. Considerable portions of these once-extensive forests have been
destroyed, and today about 39.7 percent (estimated in 1995) of the country is forested.
Not all of these forests are commercially viable, however about 1.3 percent (1990-1996)
of the remaining forest is lost every year (Encarta 2003). According to Inkoom (1999)
it is widely acknowledged that Ghana is losing its forests resources rapidly due to
unsustainable exploitation and poor farming practices.

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT


In the light of these developments, Ghana has earmarked the tourism sector, which
largely depends on the environment and culture and to some extent history, to play a
leading role in the drive to develop, based on increased investment and growth. This view
was echoed by the sector Minister, when he indicated that the government has started the
implementation of strategies to make the tourism sector, the leading employer and
4

economic sector and the second leading foreign exchange earner, by increasing tourists
arrivals to one million by the year 2007 (Daily Graphic, Monday May 20.)

However the focus of the nation has been lob-sided, as emphasis has most often been
placed on historical or heritage, cultural and conference tourism, with little emphasis on
ecological tourism, though it helps preserve ecological processes, bio diversity and
biological resources and promotes improved land use patterns and environmental
consciousness due to its heavy reliance on the afore-mentioned natural processes and
resources and its inherent advantages of ensuring the development of the local economy.
The eco-tourism sub-sector mainly relies on the preservation of natural phenomena and
resources to attract tourist into the country to generate the required foreign exchange and
play the role it has been allotted in national development. This is to be done in a situation
of continuous plunder of the natural resource base of the country, a factor that might
hinder the performance of the sub-sector.

Hence, any attraction that has been earmarked for development in the drive to promote
tourism needs to be assessed for its viability and sustainability over time. The Lake
Bosumtwi basin, has been a tourism attraction for a long time with very little research
being conducted on its sustenance and for how long it can be relied on to attract tourists.
Inability to conduct research on the sustainability of the attraction may result in
overstepping the capacity of the attraction which results in eco-tourism destroying the
environment and hence eco-tourism.

Eco-tourism should necessarily be conducted in a sustainable manner in order to attain its


much talked about benefits. Hence, eco-tourism should meet all the requirement of
sustainable development. Turner (1988) conceptualizes sustainable development within a
framework of an acceptable economic growth and socio economic development without
depleting the national capital stock or the natural environmental asset stock. Also Allen
(1980) views it as “development that is likely to achieve lasting satisfaction of human
life. Similarly, the United Nations Environmental Programme and the Worldwide Fund
5

for Nature define sustainable development as “improving the quality of life while living
in the carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems.”(ICUN/UNEP/WWF, 1991)

1.2 OBJECTIVE
The main purpose of this special study was to assess the sustainability of the Lake
Bosumtwi as an ecological tourism destination in terms of social, environmental and
economic sustainability, which constitutes the three principles of sustainable
development. Being one of the few ecological tourism sites in the country, its
sustainability would in a way determine the overall sustainability of the tourism sector,
which is taking centre stage in generating revenue for the country. Thus, the objectives of
this study are outlined as follows:
i. To assess the socio-economic impact of eco-tourism on the people in the lake area.
ii. To assess the cultural impact of eco-tourism in the communities.
iii. To assess the environmental impact of eco-tourism development in the lake area.
iv. To assess the general sustainability of the site based on the prevailing socio-
economic and environmental conditions in the lake basin.

1.3 SCOPE
The study is limited to the communities in the Lake Bosumtwi basin and the development
of the lake into an ecological tourism destination and its subsequent impact on the socio-
cultural and economic lives of the people.

1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The study was carried out through an initial desk study on available literature and
subsequent field visits to the lake area and interactions with inhabitants of the nearby
settlements. Questionnaires were also administered to a sample population to gather
information on living conditions around the lake. Further semi-structured questionnaires
were administered in stakeholder institutions. There are twenty-two settlements along the
banks of the lake, of similar characteristics. The sample population of ninety was taken
from five of the settlements selected at random. Eighteen people were then interviewed in
each of the five settlements. At this stage quota sampling was adopted, interviewing nine
6

males and nine females in each of the settlements. The sample size was obtained by using
a formula deduced by Achinah (2001), which is presented below:

N 23615
1 N ( e) 2 1 23615(0.05) 2
n n n 88
h 4.5

Where n is the sample size


“N” is the sampling frame or total population
“e” is the maximum allowable error, based on the confidence level chosen
“h” is the average household size
The advantage of combining the various sampling methods was to reduce cost, time as
well as collect data that reflects the situation in all the settlements.

1.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY


Due to constraints with respect to cost and time, the study was restricted to a sample
chosen from the entire population. Hence its application to the entire population may not
be accurate.

1.7 ORGANISATION OF THE REPORT


The report was prepared and categorized into five chapters. Chapter one involves a
general introduction of the work, problem statement, objectives and research
methodology among others. Chapter two is primarily concerned with review of available
literature on Lake Bosumtwi. Data collected through primary and secondary sources is
presented and analysed in chapter three. Findings and recommendations are embodied in
chapter four, with summary and conclusion taking up chapter five.
7

CHAPTER TWO
ECO-TOURISM: CONCEPT AND ISSUES
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
This part of the study deals with the amount of research work that has been carried out on
the field of study and the institutions that have been involved in the promotion of ideas in
the eco-tourism sub-sector.

2.1 What is tourism?


Taken literally, tourism is defined as “the organization and operation of (especially)
foreign holidays especially as a commercial enterprise” (Oxford Reference Dictionary,
1995). The Cambridge International Dictionary (1995) defines tourism as “the business
of providing services such as transport, places to stay or entertainment, for people who
are on holiday.”

Gunn (1994) believes that tourism "encompasses all travel with the exception of
commuting." McIntosh and Goeldner (1986) say that "tourism can be defined as the
science, art, and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them,
and graciously catering to their needs and wants." They also introduce the notion that
tourism is interactive in that they believe that "tourism may be defined as the sum of the
phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers,
host governments, and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these
tourists and other visitors (p. 4). D'Amore (1987), Taylor (1988), and Dann (1988) say
that tourism is not only an interactive process but also a vehicle for world peace.

Contrary to the opinions expressed above, Nash (1989, pp. 37-52) views tourism as a
"form of imperialism." He sees it as a dichotomy of the have and the have nots with
lesser developed countries serving the pleasures of the more developed countries. For the
purpose of this study tourism was considered to be attracting visitors and catering for
their needs and promoting interaction between the host communities and the visitors for
mutual benefit.
8

2.2 What is eco-tourism?


Though eco-tourism lacks one clear definition, it has been classified by the International
Eco-tourism Society (1991) as: "… responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the
environment and sustains the well-being of local people".
In addition, In addition, the World Conservation Union (1996) defined eco-tourism as
"…visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas …has low negative visitor impact and
provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations".
Though there are various definitions of what is meant by eco-tourism, some
characteristics come to the fore as salient ones. These are were in May 2000, as part of
the side events on the 8th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable
Development (CSD 8), when groups of Indigenous Peoples Organizations, NGOs and
other members of Civil Society provided a proposal on guidelines for ecotourism and
decided that eco-tourism is sustainable tourism, which follows clear processes that:

Ensures prior informed participation of all stakeholders,


Ensures equal, effective and active participation of all stakeholders,
Acknowledges indigenous peoples communities' rights to say "no" to tourism
development - and to be fully informed, effective and active participants in the
development of tourism activities within the communities, lands, and territories,
and
Promotes processes for Indigenous Peoples and local communities to control and
maintain their resources.

2.3 Sustainable Tourism or Eco-Tourism


According to Koeman (1995),"eco-tourism" is a relatively new idea that has dramatically
captured the attention of many people from a variety of backgrounds. It seems to be a
catch-all word that has different meaning to different persons. To some it means
ecologically-sound tourism; to others it is synonymous with nature tourism, alternative,
appropriate, responsible, ethical, green, environmentally friendly or sustainable tourism.
Despite the continued debate about exactly what eco-tourism entails, it seems that most
agree that Eco-tourism must be a force for sustaining natural resources. Eco-tourism is
nature travel that advances conservation and sustainable development efforts.
9

Eco-tourism is distinguished from other forms of educational or nature based tourism by


a high degree of environmental and ecological education. Eco-tourism contains a
significant portion of human wilderness interaction that, coupled with the education
provided, tend to transform tourists into strong advocates for environmental protection.
Eco-tourism practice minimises the environmental and cultural impacts of visitors,
ensures that financial benefits flow to host communities and places a special emphasis on
financial contribution to conservation efforts.

"Sustainable tourism" is often equated with nature or eco-tourism; but sustainable


tourism development means more than protecting the natural environment - it means
proper consideration of host peoples, communities, cultures, customs, lifestyles, and
social and economic systems. It is tourism that truly benefits those who are on the
receiving end, and that does not exploit and degrade the environment in which they live
and from which they must earn a living after the last tourist has flown back home. It is
tourism that enhances the material life of local communities, without causing a loss of
traditional employment systems, acculturation or social disruption.

Thus tourism is brought within the debate on sustainable development in general.


Sustainable development (and therefore sustainable tourism) takes into account three
central points:
the necessary interactions between the environment and economic activity;
long-term time scale; and
inter- as well as intra-generational equity - providing for the needs of current
societies without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs.
To sum up, Koeman (1995), states that “it is important to note that eco tourism can be,
but is not automatically a form of sustainable tourism. To achieve sustainable eco-
tourism involves balancing economic, environmental and social goals within an ethical
framework of values and principles”

2.4 Tourism in Ghana


10

Tourism is one of the country‟s expanding service activities. The most important tourist
destinations are the colonial fortresses at Cape Coast and Elmina, which were once major
transhipment points for tens of thousands of slaves on their way to the New World.

Tourism in Ghana can be traced to the first visit of Don Diego d‟Azambuja when he set
his foot on the shores of Elmina, then known as Edina in search of spices and other exotic
things not found in his own country Portugal. Since then tourism has grown to assume
great dimensions to encompass heritage or cultural, historical, conference and ecological
tourism.

Tourists to Ghana are now welcomed by an array of attractions including the


Independence Arch, Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum, the European Forts and Castles along
the coast, the Aburi Botanical Gardens in the Eastern Region, the Bomfobiri Wildlife
Sanctuary with its waterfall, Bobiri Butterfly Sanctuary, Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary and
the Manhyia Palace can be found in the Ashanti Region. The craft villages of Anhwia and
Bonwire, where „kente‟ is woven and the Pankronu pottery village are also located in the
Ashanti Region. In the northern region tourists can visit the Larabanga Mosque, ruins of
the Nalerigu Defence Wall and the Salaga Slave Market.

Ghana has become a destination for almost all forms of tourism, as is evidenced in the
holding of the African-African-American Summit, the Homecoming Summit all falling
under conference tourism. Also, the Pan-African Arts Festival which is held biennially
helps some people in the Americas trace their roots and constitutes heritage tourism.
Historical tourism is one area that Ghana has been noted for worldwide, being home to
twenty-nine of the thirty-two castles and forts the Europeans used in the obnoxious slave
trade. These forts are widely visited by the African-American who find the experience
traumatic. These include the Elmina and Cape Coast Castles in the Central Region.

There are four unique attractions in the country, located in four different regions, which
draw a large number of tourists annually, both local and foreign. These are; the Kakum
National Park, with its canopy walkway, suspended about a hundred feet above the forest
11

floor, which is one of the three canopy walkways in the world. It is home to some
endangered bird and animal species including Diana monkeys, Frazer-eagle owls, the
African grey and Senegal parrots, elephants, bongos and the red river hog. In the Western
Region, tourists can visit Nzulezu, a town built completely on stilts above water in a
marshy area.

In the Ashanti Region is the country‟s only natural lake, Bosumtwi located in a crater
amidst lush green hills, which is one of the seven meteor impact lakes in the world.
The Mole Game Reserve established in 1971 and covering 1,870 square miles and home
to ninety-three mammals including lions, elephants, baboons, Mona monkeys, buffaloes,
hartebeests, warthogs and hippopotamuses, nine species of amphibians and thirty-three
species of reptiles is found in the Northern Region.

Since the late 1980s the tourism sector has received considerable attention in the
economic development strategy of Ghana. The numbers of tourist arrivals, as well as
expenditure by tourists have steadily increased, while both public and private investment
activity in various tourism sub-sectors have expanded.

The adoption of the Ghana Industrial Code, (1985) PNDCL 116, marked a serious start to
tourism development in Ghana. The code offered concessions, incentives and guarantees
to foreign investors, financiers, Ghanaian institutions and business entrepreneurs who
wanted to invest in Tourism in Ghana. In 1987, the government adopted the National
Tourism Policy, with the objectives of developing tourism to become a major contributor
to the economy, through job creation and foreign exchange generation and to make
tourism the bedrock of development and enhance Ghana environment and heritage.

The government established a Ministry of Tourism in 1993, now Ministry of Tourism and
Modernisation of the Capital, to underscore its commitment to tourism development, and
with assistance from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the
World Tourism Organisation (WTO), has prepared a 15-Year Tourism Development Plan
for the period 1996 to 2010. The goals of this plan are outlined as follows:-
12

1. To lay the foundation for the qualitative takeoff of the tourism industry.
2. Develop an integrated tourism product and a positive image of Ghana as a
destination.
3. Enhance visitor satisfaction and increase Ghana‟s share of the tourism market.
4. Promote leisure, travel as a major form of recreation among Ghana‟s populace.
5. Maximize the contribution of tourism to the economy in terms of foreign
exchange and job creation.
6. Promote tourism as an option for rural development and national integration.
To be able to attain the above goals, and for ease of implementation, some strategies were
drawn up, which ultimately leads to the goals. Principal among the strategies are the
following:
1. Reviewing and updating of tourism policies to reflect ongoing trends and the
growing importance of tourism to the economy
2. Reviewing the organisational structure of tourism administration especially the
Ghana Tourist Board
3. Enhancing the tourism product through-
a. Enhancing selected tourism attractions based on heritage, ecological, ethno,
adventure, conference and recreational tourism.
b. Upgrading the standard of existing receptive facilities.
c. Developing the basic infrastructure of tourism
d. Reviewing visa requirement for tourists
4. Recognizing the possible negative impacts of intensive tourism development on
the environment, culture and applying measures to conserve historic sires, the
natural environment and cultural traditions.
5. Enhancing delivery capacities of the public and private sector tourism institutions.
The decision to promote the tourism sector to play a leading role in the development of
the country has been backed by action in various forms like fairs and conferences such as
the Pan-African Fair for Arts and Music (PAFAM), PANAFEST- a biennial arts festival
and the African-African American Summit. With the implementation of these strategies,
the sector is expected to grow and play a leading role in the growth of the economy. The
performance of the tourism sector over the years is presented in Table1
13

TABLE 1: PERFORMANCE OF THE TOURISM SECTOR (1988-1998)


YEAR ARRIVALS RECEIPTS (US $m)
1988 113,784 55.34
1989 125,162 72.09
1990 145,780 80.83
1991 172,464 117.70
1992 213,316 166.90
1993 256,680 205.62
1994 271,310 227.60
1995 286,000 233.20
1996 304,860 248.80
1997 325,438 265.59
1998 347,952 284.96
Annual Average Growth Rate 20.5% 41.3%
Source: Ghana Tourist Board, 1999.

Spanning the period of 1985 to 1989, Ghana moved up from the seventeenth position to
eighth in 1998 among the top 20 leading tourism revenue earners in Africa (WTO, 1999).
Table 1 shows that international tourist arrivals in Ghana has increased steadily from
nearly 114,000 in 1988 to about 399,000 in 2000, at an annual average growth rate of
about 20 percent. With respect to tourist's expenditure, international tourism receipts
grew at an average annual rate of 41.3 percent from about $55.3 million in 1988 to about
$386.0 million in 2000. This makes Tourism the third largest earner of foreign exchange
currently, ranking behind mineral and cocoa exports.

However the focus of the nation has been lob-sided, as emphasis has most often been
placed on historical and cultural tourism, with little emphasis on ecological tourism,
though it helps preserve ecological processes, bio diversity and biological resources and
promotes improved land use patterns and environmental consciousness due to its heavy
reliance on the afore-mentioned natural processes and resources. Hence in an effort to
save the natural environment, the 15-year Tourism Development Plan has identified
several national parks in each of the country's ten regions. These will be developed to
form the basis for the country‟s eco-tourism product component of the tourism industry.
14

2.5 World bodies, the environment and eco-tourism


Many interested organizations have pushed forward the idea of sustainable development;
of primary importance is the United Nations. Thus in 1972 the United Nations established
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), headquartered in Nairobi, which
played a leading role in the convening of leaders of nations for deliberation on
environmental issues at Stockholm, Nairobi, Rio de Janeiro and Kyoto

The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) encourages and coordinates sound
environmental practices throughout the world. It grapples with ways to approach
environmental problems on an international level, provides expertise to member
countries, monitors environmental conditions worldwide, develops environmental
standards, and recommends alternative energy sources. UNEP‟s work is guided by
principles adopted at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development, also
known as the Earth Summit. The summit, which took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was
the largest such conference ever held, attracting with more than 100 national leaders. It
was the third international environmental conference hosted by the UN.

The first UN environment conference took place in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1972. It


adopted general environmental principles, such as the idea that one country‟s actions
should not cause environmental damage to another. It also raised awareness about the
international aspects of environmental damage. A second conference was held in Nairobi,
Kenya, in 1982.

The 1992 Earth Summit was larger and more ambitious than its predecessors. Its major
theme was sustainable economic development, meaning development that does not use
up or destroy so many of the world‟s natural resources that it cannot be sustained over
time. The meeting produced an overall plan, called Agenda 21, in which large developing
countries promised to develop their industries with an eye toward protecting the
environment. Another treaty adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit deals with the issue of
biodiversity—that is, the variety of different living organisms in a particular habitat or
geographic location. Under the treaty, nations agreed to preserve important habitats for
15

animals and plants. Wealthier countries also agreed to pay for the right to extract
commercially profitable substances from rare species in protected areas of developing
countries. It is in this vein that the UNDP, an agency of the United Nations aided the
Ministry of Tourism to draw up the 15-Year National Tourism Development Plan, with
the aim of conserving the environment as well as preserving tourism sites.

2.6 The role of the Lake in the local economy


The role of the lake in the development of its basin cannot be overemphasized. This is
because, the people of the basin rely on the lake for their livelihood, as majority of
inhabitants are fishermen and the women mostly engage in fish-mongering. A small
proportion of the people engage in subsistence farming as a secondary activity along the
banks of the lake (Ofosu 2002)

2.7 History of Tourism at Lake Bosumtwi


Ofosu (2002) indicates that tourism at the lake began as far back as 1919, when the first
Rest House was built on a hilltop at Esaase in the Amansie East District of Ashanti,
however the interest of the people did not support the programme, hence it was short-
lived. In 1927, another rest house was built at Kokwado, but difficulty in accessing the
lake from the Rest House hampered the development o the tourism industry, until feeder
roads were constructed to link the settlements along the banks, by the CPP, NRC and PP
governments, opening up the area to the rest of the country and tourists in particular.

The benefits derived from the tourism industry by the lake area has mostly been in terms
of monetary rewards for services provided for tourists and the increase in infrastructural
facilities to support the communities in general and tourists in particular. This has taken
the form of improved telecommunication facilities, improved road network, connecting
almost twenty-two settlements in the Lake Bosumtwi Basin, and educational facilities.
16

CHAPTER THREE
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
3.0 Introduction
This part of the report is concerned with the presentation of data collected concerning the
lake as an eco-tourism destination and its people.

3.1 Location and size


Lake Bosumtwi is located in the Bosumtwi-Atwima-Kwanwoma District of the Ashanti
Region, thirty-seven kilometers south-east of Kumasi at an altitude of one hundred and
thirty metres above sea level. There are twenty four communities located around the
thirty kilometer rim of the crater, which are located in two districts; Amansie East and
Bosumtwi-Atwima-Kwanwoma Districts. The Lake covers an area of approximately
sixty-four square kilometers, with a diameter of ten and a half kilometers and a recorded
depth of sixty-eight in certain areas of the lake.

3.2 Hydrogeology of the Lake Bosumtwi area


Lake Bosumtwi was formed by a meteoric impact, which threw out some rocks from the
crater. Rocks found in the area are mainly sedimentary and metamorphic with some
granite intrusions. Rock samples collected alongside the banks of the lake and analysed
by John Saul and Elliot (1965) revealed that they are similar to the Ivory Coast Tektites,
which were discovered in 1960 and are believed to meteoric impact rocks.

According to Ofosu (2002), detailed work on the Bosumtwi crater by Jones (1981, 1985)
has concluded from his chemical data, the main rocks that were involved in the
production of the Bosumtwi impact glasses as well as Tektites were Phylites, greywacke,
micro granites and grandiosities, Pepekese intrusions. The profile of the crater shows a
crater with an upraised centre, and is shown in Figure 1
17

Figure 1: CONCEPTUAL CROSS-SECTION OF THE CRATER

Credit: Jones et al (1981)


The structure conceptualized was confirmed by a geophysical survey carried out by the
Geological Survey of Finland in 1997. However, the nature of the structure beneath the
crater and its surrounding area (that is, the existence of fractures and faults) is not yet
known.
Drainage in the lake area is mainly underground and is presumed dwindling and
evaporation takes place daily, resulting in high salinity and thus helps sustain the life of
fish in the lake. Two rivers flow directly into the Lake, Abrewa at Apew and Abo at
Abono. The Lake is located in the Lower Birimian series, with a point in the Upper
Birimian series in the Obuom Ranges as shown in Figure 2

Figure 2: GENERAL GEOLOGY OF BOSUMTWI CRATER


18

3.2 Scientific explanatory research at Lake Bosumtwi


Barnes (1961), Cohen (1963) and Schnetzer et al (1966) are of the view that the age of
the Bosumtwi crate has been established to be well over a million years based on
Potassium-Argon and Rubidium-Strontium dating of impact meltrocks at Ivory Coast and
Bosumtwi. To confirm Lake Bosumtwi‟s meteoric origin, geophysical measurements
involving gravity, aeromagnetic survey were carried out at a mean flight height of 200m
above sea level by Jones et al (1981).

Livingstone (1976) was able to unearth the reasons for the extermination of thousands of
fish in the months of July and August, and attributed it to the gas produced during and
after the decomposition of plant materials that are dumped by rain water in the lake. It
also explained the variation in the fishing season, as fish move to the shallow parts of the
lake for oxygen in these months, resulting in bumper catches. Further, research by Dr.
D.A Livingstone from the University Of Durham, USA revealed a mass deposit of gas in
economic quantities, under the lake, but warned of serious effects of exploration on plant
and animal life in the lake.

3.3 Traditional and Political Administration


Each of the twenty-four communities has a chief. They are all under a paramount chief of
the area. There are unit committees in each of the communities responsible for helping in
decision making and development. There are three assembly persons representing the
communities at the Bosumtwi Atwima- Kwanwoma District Assembly.

The communities in the lake basin are Abono, Pipie I (Mim), Pipie II, New and Old
Brodekwano are under Kuntanasehene, Amakom, under Akokofohene, Dompa under
Ahurienhene, Duase, Ankaase, Anomanako and Obo under Kokofuhene (Okogyeasuo
Offe Kwasi), Antaase, Apew, Detieso, Wawase and Esaase under Asamanhene (the real
caretaker of the lake), Adwafo under Yaasehene, Abaase, Abrodwum, Adjaman under
Abosohene, Nkowi and Assisiriwa under Nana Yaw Barima. There is however a
controversy of the caretakership of Nkowi between the Yaasehene and Nana Yaw
Barimah. This issue is yet to be resolved.
19

It will be of immense benefit t the lake area in general and to eco-tourism development in
particular that peace prevails in the communities to enhance the attractiveness of the lake.
This is because no meaningful development can occur in the midst of civil strive and
unrest. Also, under a stable political or traditional head, it will be easier mobilizing the
people to help in the conservation of the lake.

3.4 Social and Cultural life in the Lake Bosumtwi Basin


The social and cultural life of the people around the lake is much in line with the
Ashantis, being predominantly Ashantis, taking up approximately 84 percent of the
population and the Fantis, from Senya Breku in the Efutu-Senya Breku District of the
Central Region accounting for the remainder.

Puberty rites used to be widely practiced in the Bosumtwi Basin, and were a prerequisite
for marriage; however with the passage of time, the practice is waning. Funerals,
marriages and out-dooring of newly- born babies are the same as that practiced by
Ashantis elsewhere festivals are observed in all the villages with the Akwasidae as the
main one. The caretaker chiefs known locally as adikro in the communities, are allowed
by the paramount chiefs to ride in palanquins during festival celebrations

Fetish groves are also outdoored at every Akwasidae and purification rites are performed
according to the choice of the fetish priests. Some slaughter sheep, dogs, cats and goats to
their gods. Others present mashed plantain with groundnuts. Belief in superstition used to
be very strong in the area, but with the advent of Christianity is gradually being dropped.
The fetish stone at Abrodwum served as a libation point when bad omen occurred and
also during festivals. It is said that when the lake draws nearer to the stone, rituals are
performed in the form of pouring of libations and the lake recedes.

The caretaker chiefs have their own traditional courts of arbitration which tried offenders
in minor cases like stealing and assault, and fines are usually imposed on the convicted
20

offenders. Those who are dissatisfied with the ruling of the minor courts can appeal to the
court of the paramount chiefs (Amanhene) for redress. Chiefs as usual speak only through
linguists (Akyeame).

The tourism industry necessarily brings together people of diverse cultures to interact.
However one of the tenets of eco-tourism is preservation of local traditions and culture,
thus it becomes necessary to ensure that the activities of tourists do not in any way pose a
threat to the preservation of local culture or does not in any way attempt to adulterate it.
This is not the case of the Lake Bosumtwi, as tourists are not in any way controlled and
stray where they are not wanted, and engage in activities that are contrary to the norms of
the people. It must be noted that most of the foreign tourists who visit the lake are
students and conservationist and thus acknowledge the need to as much as possible leave
the culture of the local people untouched and hence authentic.

However the local tourists, and for that matter Ghanaian tourist to the lake are causing
discomfort to the people as the youth are being exposed to indecent lifestyles portrayed
by these local tourists who should have known better. A case in point is the display of
nudity in public and an abhorrent activity of having sex in the lake in the full view of
other tourists and the local people. This is a situation may result in rebellious youth and
increase vice in the communities.

Thus, after the tourists have left, they would have left behind, a community in disarray
due to their influence on the youth and subsequent clash of culture between the older
generation‟s lifestyle and the youth‟s adulterated culture. This is contrary to the definition
presented by Allen (1993), which emphasizes that eco-tourism practice minimises the
environmental and cultural impacts of visitors.

3.4.1 Population Characteristics


The population structure of the lake are is typical of most Ghanaian communities, with a
large proportion falling into the age grouping 0-14years, then thinning out as it
approaches the senile age group. The populace is a youthful and growing one, with
21

majority being females, accounting for fifty-one percent of the population. The age-sex
distribution of the population is presented in Table 2.

TABLE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE POPULATION


Age Cohorts Male Female Total Percentage (%)
0-4 33 38 71 15.8
5-9 33 34 67 14.9
10-14 28 27 55 12.3
15-19 22 21 43 9.6
20-24 20 17 37 8.2
25-29 15 20 35 7.8
30-34 12 15 27 6.0
35-39 11 12 23 5.1
40-44 11 8 19 4.2
45-49 9 8 17 3.8
50-54 6 6 12 2.7
55-59 4 4 8 1.8
60-64 3 4 7 1.6
65-69 5 3 8 1.7
70+ 8 12 20 4.5
TOTAL 220 229 449 100
Source: Field Survey, 2003
Deducing from Table2, the dependency ratio was estimated, which shows a worse
situation than that of Ashanti Region and the nation. This is presented in Table 3

TABLE 3: AGE-DEPENDENCY RATIO


National Ashanti Region Lake Basin
Independent 53.1% 52.3% 50.78%
Dependent 46.9% 47.7% 49.22%
Dependency Ratio 1:0.88 1:0.91 1:0.97
Source: Field Survey, 2003 and 2000 Population and Housing Census Interim Report

The implication of having a higher age dependency ratio is that there is a greater
likelihood of having less disposable income to save and thus invest. This is because
income earned will most likely be used to cater for the large number of dependants.
Hence, savings in the communities of the Lake Bosumtwi basin is expected to be low and
subsequently capital formation for investment is also going to be low. This probably
explains the low level of economic activities in the area.
22

The survey covered eighty-eight households and encompassed 449 people, indicating an
average household size of 5.1 people per household; however it was realized that the
modal household size is four. The distribution of the population, based on household
sizes is presented in Table 4.
TABLE 4: HOUSEHOLD SIZES
Household Size ( x ) Respondents ( f ) ( fx )
1 8 8
2 4 8
3 9 27
4 26 104
5 9 45
6 8 48
7 10 70
8 8 64
9 0 0
10 0 0
11 0 0
12 6 72
TOTAL ∑f =88 ∑fx=449
Source: Field Survey, 2003 Average House hold size =∑fx/∑f
449/88 = 5.1 people per household

3.5 Economic Activities


3.5.1 Occupational characteristics
People living around the lake are predominantly fishermen and carry out subsistent
farming as a secondary occupation. It must be noted that all employed males were
engaged in these two occupations and the women folk are also engaged in fish mongering
and farming. Micro and small scale businesses like basket weaving, carpentry, tailoring
and distillation of local gin are now developing in some of the communities.

From the survey conducted, the employment rate for the lake basin stands at ninety-two
percent with the remaining eight percent unemployed being students and people under
apprenticeship. Due to the nature of inputs used in their economic activities, it is very
easy for people to get into the occupations.
23

The main occupation, fishing in the lake started with a crude method of fishing, using
raffia cane to make the net used for fishing. These raffia cane nets did not last long and
had to be replaced very often. Then bamboo was used with both ends open to allow fish
into it , which was then trapped these methods are said to have persisted until 1927 when
some fishermen from Senya- Breku in the Ewutu-Efutu-Senya District in the Central
region migrated to the area and introduced the wire netting and cast netting. The
fishermen use palm fronds as bait, forming a fence with it in the lake and setting the net
in it. After some days, the palm fronds decay and produce food in the form of greenish
algae for the fish which are trapped when they approach the fronds. The popular variety
of fish found in the lake include Tilapia discolour, known locally as Kaabre, Satheroden
mutifaciatus, Tilapia busmana, Hemichromis faciatus and Barbus, known locally as
„Apatefufuo‟, „Papari‟, „Komfo‟, and „Nkwa‟ respectively.

Attempts to introduce net specifications have not been fruitful, leading to a situation
where even fingerlets (young fishes) are not spared by the fishing net, a practice which is
partly responsible for the depletion of the fish stock in the lake.

The irresponsible behaviour of some fishermen in deciding to do away with the required
net specification might in the long run deplete the fish stock in the lake and greatly offset
the ecological balance in the area. Economically, it might lead to increased poverty level
and general deprivation. Eco-tourism will come to an end, should this happen, as a result
of the decreased attractiveness and uniqueness.

3.5.2 Income Levels


Average household income in the Lake area is ¢260,000 drawn from earnings from
farming and fishing. Based on the World Bank‟s classification of poverty, two levels
were identified in the area; poverty line described as those earning below two-third of the
average household income constitute 32.1 percent of the population, and hardcore
poverty level described as those earning below one-third of the average household
income constitute 11.5 percent. The distribution of incomes among the households in the
lake area is presented in the Table 5.
24

TABLE 5: INCOME DISTRIBUTION


Income / Month(¢ ) Midpoint ( x ) Response (f ) fx
¢1,000 - ¢100,000 ¢50,500 0 0
¢101,000-¢200,000 ¢150,500 30 ¢4,515,000
¢201,000-¢300,000 ¢250,500 25 ¢6,262,500
¢301,000-¢400,000 ¢350,500 10 ¢3,505,000
¢401,000-¢500,000 ¢450,500 11 ¢4,955,500
¢501,000-¢600,000 ¢550,500 2 ¢1,101,000
Source: Field Study, 2003 ∑f=78 ∑fx=¢20,339,000
Average Household Income =∑fx/∑f =¢20,339,000/78 ≈¢26,100

The communities provide little service to tourists, thus gains very little from the
attraction. This is mostly earned by the craftsmen engaged in basket weaving in the lake
area, and the boat operators, who transport tourist on the lake for sight seeing.

Visitors to the lake area mostly carry their own food and water and do not depend on the
communities for the supply of their needs. Most of the local tourists to the area visit on
public holidays in large groups and usually bring along all they need and stay only for a
day. Foreign visitors to the area are mostly students and people interested in the scientific
nature of the attraction and usually lodge at the Hotel, where they are provided for. This
group of people conduct research and spend very little on other things and to a large
extent have little impact on the local economy.

The economic activities carried out in the lake area are all seasonal in nature and thus
earnings fluctuate with the seasons. The effect being that the standard of living in the area
is not stable; it rises and falls with the seasons. The fishing season last between July and
September, whiles the farming season also lasts between April and October, with the
fishing season breaking into it.

3.6 Infrastructural Facilities


3.6.1 Water and Sanitation
There are seven boreholes and five hand-dug well functioning in the twenty-four
communities along the lake crater, which is inadequate. Hence majority of the people
depend on rain water and the lake and the streams flowing onto it
25

The twenty four communities have three KVIPS and nineteen pit latrines, which due to
the high soil water content are unreliable as they cave in regularly and have to be
relocated frequently. Hence majority of the people defecate indiscriminately along the
slopes and into the streams leading into the lake, a situation which has led to poor
sanitation and increasing prevalence of dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera and also malaria.
Due to the apparent lack of adequate potable water sources and the consequent use of
water from the lake and the streams, indiscriminate defecation on the slopes of the crater
results in faeces being washed into the water sources by runoff water from rainfall.

3.6.2 Health
There are three clinics and a dressing station in the lake area. However, almost all
medical cases are reported to the Catholic Hospital in Pramso. The Catholic Hospital also
provides mobile health service to the communities and helped train traditional birth
attendants to assist pregnant women in the course of delivery. The leading diseases
reported by respondents are sanitation-related like diarrhoea and cholera. Currently, the
Hospital is providing maternal health service to the communities.

3.6.3 Education
There are nine nursery schools, nine primary schools and five junior secondary schools
located within the twenty four communities. In settlements with no schools, pupils walk
to the nearest community with a school to attend school, covering an average distance of
about two kilometers.

Of the sample population covered, 67.5 percent have attained formal education up to the
primary level, 7.6 percent up to secondary level and 2.9 up to tertiary level. 22.1 percent
of the population have no formal education whatsoever, and illiteracy rate is estimated in
the twenty-four communities is 60 percent, indicating that not all the people who had
formal education can read and write in English or any of the Ghanaian languages, mainly
due to dropping out of school along the line. Educational attainment of respondents and
members of their households is presented below in Table 6.
26

TABLE 6: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT


Sex Middle/ J.S.S Secondary Tertiary Never Total
Male 153 18 8 41 220
Female 150 16 5 58 229
Total 303 34 13 99 449
Percentage 67.48% 7.57% 2.90% 22.05% 100%
Source: Field Survey, 2003.

The tourism industry has not opened the area fully, with only Abono being connected by
a road in good condition to Kuntanase, the district capital. All the other twenty-three
communities are connected together by a ring road in a deplorable situation. The ring
road is not surfaced and not motorable in the rainy season, hampering health care
delivery by the Mobile Health Team (MHT) from the Catholic Hospital in Pramso.
However visits by the MHT are frequent when the roads become motorable.

In terms of basic education, the existing facilities are inadequate, in terms of quantity,
and quality. There are nine Primary Schools with a threshold population of 2000,
indicating they are meant to provide for a population of 18,000, indicating a backlog of
over 5000 people, who need three more Primary Schools. There are three junior
secondary schools in the twenty-four communities. With a threshold population of 2500,
the three schools are meant to cater for 7500 people, and thus has a backlog of over
15000 people who need at least six more junior secondary schools. There is no second
cycle institution in the lake area, hampering the acquisition of higher education and skills,
which are prerequisites in development.

Water; though present in a large quantity, though not potable, thus making potable water
inadequate in terms of supply in the communities. This forces the people to use water
from the lake and its tributaries, increasing the incidence of water and sanitation related
diseases like cholera and diarrhoea. This situation creates a negative image of the lake
area and may scare off tourists.
27

3.7 General History and Perceptions


3.7.1 Origin of the Lake
Oral history has it that on one brisk afternoon of Akwasidae, a sacred Sunday, a hunter
called Akora Bompe, hailing from Asaman near Kokofu in the present day Amansie-East
District in the Ashanti Region went on a hunting expedition and discovered the lake. It is
said that he shot an antelope, which did not die. He then chased the antelope until it
jumped into a pond, which turned out to be the lake.

He however met another farmer called Ntookooko, who claimed to have discovered the
lake and was staying at Kwaakyeman in the south-eastern part of the lake. They lived
peacefully together until a misunderstanding ensued between them, which escalated into
a large scale war between the Ashantis and the Akims for approximately two weeks. The
Ashanti forces comprising of people from Akokofe, Kuntanase, Kokofu, Ahurien, Aboso
and Asaman eventually emerged victorious and the chiefs who led the people in the war
asked their subjects to settle along the crater to forestall any comeback attempt by the
Akims.

3.7.2 Perceptions, Taboos of the Lake


Lake Bosumtwi is said to be associated with an antelope spirit and animals especially
cows were slaughtered to please or pacify the gods to have an ample catch every year,
and refusal to do so spelt doom for fishermen. The Asamanhene was the sole custodian of
the lake and as such supervised the pacification and purification process after
consultation with the chief of Abrodwum.

In the olden days, it was an abomination to throw any metallic object into the lake and
offenders were severely sanctioned, including being prevented from fishing in the lake
for some time and pacification of the gods with Schnapps (an alcoholic drink) and sheep.
Metal hooks and wire netting were not used in fishing due to this belief. Women in their
menstrual period were forbidden to bathe in the lake, and were said to continue bleeding
even after their period should have ended until libation was poured to appease the gods.
28

The fetish groves or shrines in the area are said to help some of the people by solving
their problems, especially with regards to provision of children, after which the children
are sent to the groves for purification and sheep presented to the grove or shrine.
Some of these fetish groves and shrines are „Osere Ka‟, „Gyaabour’, „Kyerapete‟,
„Taakwaku‟ and the Abrodwum stone.

Some superstitious beliefs are hinged on some observations and help preserve culture,
thus prevailing ones in the lake basin have to be left intact until the people grow out of
them voluntarily, if they realize its uselessness. The ancient belief of the gods abhorring
any kind of vessels on the lake apart from the „padua‟ might have saved the lake‟s fish
stock from being depleted through the use of boats and fishing trawlers, that have more
room for cargo, in this case fish. The depletion of the fish stock may end the useful life of
the lake as a source of livelihood and an eco-tourism destination.

3.8 Environmental Degradation


An intensified farming activity by the residents in the surrounding communities around
the lake has reduced the tree cover around the lake, which exposes the lake to direct
sunlight and speeds up evaporation. Research work carried out by geologists fro
Copenhagen University in Denmark, headed by Dr. Naana indicates the lake has receded
considerably and is believed to have been up to the rest house at Kokwado. A pillar
erected by the Gold Coast Survey Department on the outskirts of Old Abrodwum, which
was submerged some time ago, can now be seen, confirming the recession of the water in
the lake

According to local fishermen, the fish caught in the lake is also reducing considerably
and attributed the phenomenon to the silting of the lake. This is probably a result of
farming along the slopes of the crater, which loosens the topsoil, which are washed down
into the lake during rainfall. The silt is said to cover the reeds and stumps, where the fish
lay their eggs, reducing the fish population and destroying the reeds locally known as
„enere‟
29

Livingstone (1976) unearthed the reason for the extermination of thousands of fish,
which he attributed to the toxic gases produced from the decomposition of organic matter
(usually leaves and twigs) washed into the lake. This phenomenon is still occurring
during the months of July and August, thus the fishing season lasts between July and
August. This is because, diffusion of oxygen in the lake causes the fish to stay in the
shallow parts of the lake, where they are easily caught in large numbers during this
period. In the subsequent months, when the distribution of oxygen in the lake becomes
even, the fish move to deeper parts of the lake, ushering in the lean season for fishermen.

The natural environment, upon which eco-tourism is being developed, is in danger of


being destroyed through the activities of the people. This is manifested in the reduction in
tee cover in the lake area and subsequent recession of the water level as proved by the
emergence of the Gold Coast Survey Department Pillar, which had earlier been
submerged along with Old Abrodwum.

Also indiscriminate defecation along the banks and slopes of the crater, coupled with the
increasing sippage of household chemicals, soaps and untreated sewage into the lake can
increase the organic load of the lake, a situation which can adversely affect the lake.
From earlier scientific research, the lake is said to be eutrophic, haven supported blue-
green algae growth between 3000 and 9000 years ago, and the resurgence of these
dangerous aquatic weeds such as Eschoraticia crasippes (Water Hyacinth) may hamper
the development of eco-tourism in the lake are, as it emits a pungent and poisonous odour
and causes intense itching on the body of swimmers.

3.9 Management
The Ghana Tourist Board manages activities at the lake, being one of the tourist
attractions in the country. The communities are to a limited extent involved in the
management of the lake, mostly in the physical preservation of the lake. Through the
efforts of Friends of the Earth, all the communities have local units comprising of Sixteen
members of each community, that are undertaking periodic tree planting exercises along
the banks.
30

Some of the members of the communities also act as life guards at the lake, to guide
mostly tourists who want a dip without the threat of crocodiles and to rescue those in
distress. This activity is an unpaid service, and thus voluntary.

In terms of decision making about the lake, the locals are only informed of decisions
taken through their assembly persons and unit committees. Out of the eighty-eight people
interviewed, only ten reported of haven heard of the plans of the Ghana Tourist Board to
turn the lake area into a Natural and Science Museum and an Eco-tourism Park.

The low level of involvement of the local community in the management of the site is
resulting in a situation where the people feel isolated from the projects being
implemented by the Ghana Tourist Board and the BAKD. Also the people see the
utilisation of the lake to generate revenue for the District as depriving them of the chance
to benefit from the lake apart from fishing and apparently do not feel the spread effects of
developments in the district. This is a result of the general apparent neglect of the lake
area in terms of the provision of basic infrastructure.

In managing the tourist site, the Ghana Tourist Board encounters several problems, most
of which is beyond their capacity to overcome or address. This includes the apparent
inadequacy of transport facilities to constantly monitor the site, coupled with the absence
of a local secretariat to bring the institution closer to the attraction, with its office
currently located in Kumasi.

The Ghana Tourist Board has very little control over the activities of tourist who visit the
lake, especially Ghanaians, and as such finds it difficult to control their activities, some
of which are contrary to the lifestyle or culture of the indigenous people. These activities
include washing with soap in the lake and indecent public nudity. There have been
reports of pilferage and muggings of tourists in the lake area, though they are isolated
issues. Also the GTB is finding it difficult to stop the deforestation process around the
crater, as the people clear the land for cultivation of food crops.
31

3.10 Emerging Issues


The Ghana Tourist Board (GTB) in conjunction with the Institute of Meteorology and
Geophysics of the University of Frankfurt, Departments of Physics, Geodetic and
Geological Engineering Departments of the KNUST, the Survey Department and the
Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) is in the process of establishing a
Natural and Science Museum and Eco-tourism Park. There are only three such museums
in the world; Reis and Steinheim in Germany, and Barringer Crater Museum in Arizona,
USA. One of the components off the project is the establishment of a lake resort and
village tourism facilities to promote nature-based recreational and cultural tourism at
Abono.

As part the project, a secretariat is to be set up to administer the Natural and Science
Museum and Eco-tourism Park. The secretariat is to be responsible for the preparation
and dissemination of detailed scientific information profile to attract the attention of the
world scientific community and international donor agencies for further research as a
development guide. It is also charged with the responsibility of conducting land surveys
to provide data for reference maps, and the establishment of an institutional structure to
coordinate and manage scientific research as well as socio-economic and physical
development process of Lake Bosumtwi and its immediate environs.

The Ghana Tourist Board, playing a leading role in the conservation of the eco-system, in
conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, has placed an embargo on any
mining activity within a thirty kilometre radius of the lake and in March 2000 rejected
proposals of a Canadian mining company to start mining activities in the area. To
complement, the traditional authorities in the area have decided to leave a two-kilometre
radius around the lake as an exclusive tourism zone
32

CHAPTER FOUR
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
4.0 SUMMARY
Faced with the threat of dwindling natural resource base, developing countries are turning
to the development of eco-tourism as a tool to develop their local economies as well as to
protect their reduced natural environment. Hence, it is imperative upon these developing
countries to ascertain the extent to which these niches-eco-tourism- can be exploited
without further destroying the fragile eco-system

To assess the sustainability of these niches, one has to assess the effect of developing
them on the environment, economic and social life of the host communities and the
country as a whole. This was done through a socio-economic survey of households in the
lake area, interview of key opinion leaders and stakeholder institutions and a desk study
of available literature on the environment and emerging issues concerning the lake

After analysis of data collected, it was realised that the sustainability of developing Lake
Bosumtwi into an eco-tourism destination is hinged on active participation of all
stakeholders including host communities and improved social and economic
infrastructure.

4.1 CONCLUSION
What is done to the environment in the lake basin depends in general on the functioning
of the society itself and its perceptions and evaluation of its environment, thus it is only
when host communities realise the benefits of eco-tourism first to themselves, then to the
environment that they willingly participate in the development and sustenance of the site.
33

CHAPTER FIVE
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 FINDINGS
This part of the report is concerned with findings and recommendations and conclusion
drawn from the study. The major findings drawn from the study are categorised into
social, economic, environmental and Managerial and are presented below:

5.1.1 Social
I. Quality and standard of living fluctuates with the farming and fishing seasons.
II. The older generation still uphold traditional values, as against the youth who have
bee tremendously affected their culture.
III. The people are becoming unfriendly to tourists as a result of the activities of some
of the earlier tourists.
IV. The area is neglected in the provision of basic facilities in the district
5.1.2 Economic
I. The occupations are seasonal in nature, being farming and fishing.
II. Incomes in the Lake Bosumtwi Basin fluctuates with the seasons
III. All employed people in the area have secondary occupations.
IV. The people are not benefiting directly from the attraction.
5.1.3 Environmental
I. The environmental practices of majority of the people do not enhance the
conservation of the lake.
II. The water level in the lake is receding.
III. Fish stock in the lake is being depleted due to over-fishing
5.1.4 Managerial
I. The people are only being passively involved in the management of the tourist
site.
II. The site is being remotely managed by the Ghana Tourist Board
34

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS
To help rectify the problems that have to be seen to be impediments to the growth of
sustainable eco-tourism, long and short term recommendations were made, which are
outlined below:
5.2.1 Short-term recommendations
I. A secondary/ vocational /technical school should be established in the area to
help dissipate technology and employable skills in the area.
II. Two KVIPs should be built in each community to improve sanitation
III. Potable water should be made available to the people, by the drilling of at least
ten more boreholes.
IV. Tourists to the lake should be provided with information on the lake and the
culture of its people.
5.2.2 Long-term recommendations
I. Promulgation of a bye-law specifying the type and standard of fishing nets to be
used in the lake
II. Improve the surface of the roads connecting the communities of the lake area.
III. Establishment of a local office for the Ghana Tourism Board to serve as
Information Centre.
IV. Protection of some mammal and bird species in the immediate environs of the
lake after some research is carried out to ascertain the status of these animals.
V. Intensify reforestation of the slopes of the crater.
VI. The community should be actively involved in decision making concerning the
lake basin and its development into a Natural and Science Museum and Eco-
Tourism Park
35

REFERENCES
1. Addo, N .O. et al., (1975) The Impact of Tourism on Social Life in Ghana: Accra,
Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, University of Ghana.
2. Allen, K., (1993). 'South Australian market review', in Down to Earth Planning for
an Out-Of-The-Ordinary Industry, Paper presented at the South Australian Eco-
tourism Forum, August 19-20, Adelaide.
3. Awake! (May 6 2001 Issue,pp14-17) Vol. 82. No 9 © Watch Tower Bible and Tract
Society, Pennsylvania.
4. Cambridge International Dictionary, (1995): Edited by Procter, Paul. Cambridge
University Press
5. D'Amore, Louis J. (winter, 1987). Tourism: The world's peace industry. Business
Quarterly, pp. 78-81.
6. Dann, Graham M.S. (1988). Tourism, peace, and the classical disputation. In L.
D'Amore and J. Jafari (Eds.), Tourism: A vital force for peace (pp. 25-33). Montreal:
D'Amore and Associates, Ltd.
7. Ghana Tourist Board (1999) Tourism Statistical Fact Sheet on Ghana, Accra, Ghana:
Ghana Tourist Board, Research Department
8. Ghana Tourist Board, (Sept-Dec 2001). Planning and Business Development Unit
Quarterly Report
9. Gunn, Clare A. (1994). Tourism planning: Basics, concepts, cases (3rd ed.).
Washington, D.C.: Taylor & Francis.
10. ICUN/UNEP/WWF (1991), Caring for the Earth: A strategy for sustainable Living.
Glard, Switzerland, ICUN/UNEP/WWF
11. Inkoom, Daniel K.B (1999). Management of Non-Reserve Forests in Ghana: A Case
study of Mpohor Wassa East District. SPRING RESEARCH SERIES, No.24.
Dortmund.
12. Koeman, Annalisa. (1989). Recreation versus Conservation: The Resource
Management Dilemma, Thredbo Valley, Kosciusko National Park, Honours Thesis,
School of Geography, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney.
36

13. Lowry, L L. (1994). What is travel and tourism and is there a difference between
them: A continuing discussion. New England Journal of Travel and Tourism,( 5, 28-
29)
14. McIntosh, Robert W., and Charles R. Goeldner (1986). Tourism principles, practices,
philosophies. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
15. Microsoft Corporation© 1993-2001. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2003
16. Mieczkowski, Z (1995) Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation. London,
University Press of America.
17. Nash, Dennison. (1989). Tourism as a form of imperialism. In Smith, Valene L. (Ed.)
Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, pp. 37- 52.
18. Ofosu, Patrick Elliot (2002) Lake Bosumtwi, A Legacy of Ashanti
19. Republic of Ghana, (1996) National Tourism Development Plan (1996-2010)
20. Republic of Ghana, (1996) Vision 2020 (The first Step)
21. Taylor, Gordon. (1988). Understanding through tourism. In L. D'Amore and J. Jafari
(Eds.), Tourism: A vital force for peace (pp. 58-60). Montreal: D'Amore and
Associates, Ltd.
22. The Oxford English Reference Dictionary, (1995): Edited by Pearsall, J and Trumble,
B., Oxford University Press.
23. Time Magazine, Special Edition,( November 1997)
24. Turner, R.K (1998). Sustainable Environmental Management, London, Belhaven
25. WTO (1999) Tourism Marketing Trends: Africa 1989-1998, Madrid: WTO
Commission for Africa.
26. Yirenkyi, Godwin, (1996)2nd Edition, Ghana in Brief

Websites
27. www.unep.fr
28. tourism-web@unep.fr
37

APPENDIX 1
NRC - National Redemption Council
BAKD - Bosumtwi-Atwima-Kwanwoma District
CPP - Convention People‟s Party
GTB - Ghana Tourist Board
IUCN - World Conservation Union
KNUST - Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
KVIP - Kumasi Ventilated and Improved Pit
NGO - Non-Governmental Organisation
PAFAM - Pan-African Fair for Arts and Music
PANAFEST - Pan-African Arts Festival
PNDCL - Provisional National Defence Council Law
PP - Progress Party
UN - United Nations
UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO - United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation
USA - United states of America
WTO - World Tourism Organisation
WWF - Worldwide Fund for Nature