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LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

STRUCTURA CURSULUI

 LECTIA 1: Fonetica, Alfabet, Scrierea cu majuscule, Titluri

 LECTIA 2: Articolul

 LECTIA 3: Pronumele, Substantivul, Genitivul

 LECTIA 4: Numeralul cardinal si ordinal

 LECTIA 5: Familia, Zilele saptamanii, Lunile anului

 LECTIA 6: Adjectivul si Adverbul

 LECTIA 7: Cum exprimi ora in limba engleza?

 LECTIA 8: Prepozitii

 LECTIA 9: Prezentul Simplu si Continuu

 LECTIA 10: Trecutul Simplu si Continuu


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LECŢIA I – LESSON 1 Lectia 1

Fonetica (Phonetics)

Pronunţia în limba engleză

 Vocale ( vowels)

 Consoane (consonants)

 Diftongi (diphthongs)

 Alte simboluri ( Other symbols)

Vocale (vowels)

Vocale sunt clasificate în limba engleză în vocale lungi şi vocale


scurte.

Pronunţia acestora va fi exemplicată în tabelul următor: Pronuntia in limba


engleza

Vocale lungi ( long Vocale scurte ( short


vowels ) vowels )
meet ship head
farm hat above
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coo foot mother


(US)
horse sock (UK)
bird cup
Consoanele
Consoanele (consonants)

Consoanele sunt clasificate în limba engleză în voiced şi voiceless.

Pronunţia acestora va fi exemplicată în tabelul următor:

voiced voiceless
!
book pen
day town
give cat
very fish
the think
zoo say
vision she
jump cheese
look
run
yes
we
moon
name
sing

Pronunţia diftongilor va fi exemplificată în tabelul următor:


Diftongii
Diftongii

day
eye
boy
mouth
nose (UK)
nose (US)
ear (UK)
hair (UK)
pure (UK)
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Alte simboluri ( Other symbols) Alte simboluri

/ h&nd / hand
restaurant
happy
butter (US)
influenza
little

r – se pronunţă numai înaintea unei vocale în British English


!
four four apples

Accentul
Accentul
 Accent principal (main stress)
 Accent secundar (secondary stress)
 Despărţirea silabelor (syllable division)

main stress
expectation
secondary stress
retell
. syllable division
system

Alfabetul (The alphabet) Alfabetul

a [ei] b [bi:] c [si:] d [di:] e[i:] f[ef] g[dji:] h [eitch]


I [ai] j [gei] k [kei] l[el] m[em] n [en] o [ou] p [pi:]
q
x [eks]
[kju:] r [a:] s [es] t ti:] u [ju:] v [vi:] w['dablju:]

y [wai]
z [zed]
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!!! Când pronunţaţi pe litere (în special la telefon) folosiţi alfabetul


fonetic pentru a evita confuziile.
Alfabetul fonetic
Alfabetul fonetic (The Phonetic Alphabet)

A Alpha B Boy
C Charlie D Day
E Earth F Fox
G Golf H housel
I Italy J Joy
K Kilo L Lady
M Michael N November
O Oliver P Pope
Q Question R Romeo
S School T Tax
U Uniform V Victoria
W Whisky X X – ray
Y Yankee Z Zoo
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Names (Nume) Nume

First
Last
Name/Christian Middle
(Middle Name/Surna
Name (primul Name
sau Initial) me
nume sau (al doilea
(Initiala) (Numele de
numele de nume)
familie)
botez)
Helen Beatrice M Brown
David Mark W Smith
Dialog
Dialogue

What's your full name please? – Care este numele tau complet?

My first name is Maria and my last name Pascalli. – Prenumele meu


este Maria si numele de familie este Pascalli.

Sorry , what was your last name again? – Imi pare rau, imi puteti
repeta numele dvs. de familie?

Pascalli.

I'm sorry I don't understand. Could you repeat that more slowly please.
– Imi pare rau darn u inteleg. Ati putea repeta dar mai rar, va rog.

Pasc-all-i.

How do you write that? Could you spell it please? – Cum se scrie? Ati
putea sa-mi spuneti pe litere, va rog?

P-a-s-c-a-double l-i - P-a-s-c-a-doi l-i

And your first name please? – Si prenumele dvs. va rog?

Maria

Pardon? – Pardon?

Maria – M-a-r-i-a.
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And what is your telephone number please? – Care este numarul dvs.
de telefon, va rog?

2-3-8-7-1-8

Thank you. – Multumesc.

You're welcome. – Cu placere.

!!! Cand apar se dubleaza doua litere vom spune in engleza


"double __" si litera respective. !
Exemplu: “double l” in Antonella
Scrierea cu
Capitalisation (Scrierea cu majuscule) majuscule

Atunci cand spunem pe litere este necesar sa mentionam


daca se va scrie cu majuscule (CAPITALS) sau cu litere
mici (small )cuvantul respectiv.
"How do you spell UNESCO
"Capital U-N-E-S-C-O." / Cu
please?"/ Cum scrieti pe litere
litere mari U-N-E-S-C-O.
UNESCO?
"Capital T dash capital O
"How do you spell T-Online
small n-l-i-n-e."/ Cu litere mari
please?"/ Cum scrieti pe litere T-
T liniuta litera mare O litere
Online?
mici n-l-i-n-e.
"How do you spell 1&1 Profi "1 ampersand 1 capital P small
please?"/ Cum scrieti pe litere r-o-f-i." / 1&1 cu litere mari P
1&1 Profi? cu litere mici r-o-f-i.
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Titles (Apelative) Apelative

Young male
(tanar barbat)
Note: Used with the
first name. (Se
Master Edgar/
Master foloseste cu
Stapane Edgar
prenumele)
Rarely used today.
(Este folosit rar in
zilele noastre.)
Adult male (married
or unmarried). (Se Mr.
Mr. foloseste cu genul Smith/Domnul
masculine – casatorit Smith
sau necasatorit).
Young or Adult
Miss
Female
Miss Thatcher/Domnis
(unmarried) (tanara
oara Thatcher
femeie necasatorita)
Mrs.
Female (married)
Mrs. Reynolds/Doamn
Doamna (casatorita)
a Reynolds
Female (married or
unmarried) (Femeie
casatorita sau
Ms. Brown/
necasatorita)
Ms. Doamna/Domnis
Note: Often used in
oara Brown
business. (Se
foloseste adesea in
afaceri)

Exercitiu: Exercitiu

Scrieti numele dvs. pe litere folosind alfabetul fonetic.


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Recapitulare Recapitulare
Lectia 1
1. Fonetica

2. Alfabetul

3. Scrierea cu majuscule

4. Titluri
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Lectia 2 – Lesson 2 Lectia 2

Articolul Articolul

În limba engleză există trei articole:

 A (articol nehotarat)
 AN (articol nehotarat)
 THE (articol hotarat)

Nu se foloseşte articol atunci când se face referire la lucruri în general,


iar articolul “the”nu reprezintă “all” (toţi).

Exemplu:
Exemplu

"Books are expensive." = (All books are expensive.)

Cărţile sunt scumpe. = (Toate cărţile sunt scumpe.)

"The books are expensive." = (Not all books are expensive, just the
ones I'm talking about.)

Cărţile sunt scumpe. = (Nu toate cărţilr sunt scumpe, doar cele despre
care vorbesc.)

A / AN

“A” şi “AN” sunt articole nehotărâte în limba engleză.


!
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 Se foloseşte articolul “A” atunci când substantivul la care


faci referire începe cu o consoană.

 Se foloseşte articolul “AN” atunci când substantivul la


care faci referire începe cu o vocală.
Exemplu
De exemplu:

"I saw an elephant at the zoo." (Am văzut un elefant la grădina


zoologică.)

"I ate a banana for lunch." (Am mâncat o banană la prânz.)

THE

 Se foloseşte articolul “THE” atunci când persoana cu


!
care vorbeşti ştie sau îşi poate da seama despre ce
persoană / lucru vorbeşti.
Exemplu
De exemplu:

"The apple you ate was rotten." (Mărul pe care l-ai mâncat a fost
stricat.)

"Did you lock the car?" (Ai închis maşina?)

 De asemenea, se foloseşte articolul “THE” atunci


când s-a menţionat deja lucrul despre care se !
vorbeşte.
Exemplu
De exemplu:

"She's got two children; a girl and a boy. The girl's eight and the
boy's fourteen." (Ea are doi copii; o fata şi un băiat. Fata are opt ani şi
băiatul are paisprezece ani. )

 Se foloseşte articolul “THE” atunci când facem referire la


lucruri singulare precum: Soarele, vantul, lumea, etc.
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De exemplu:
Exemplu

the sun, the wind, the world, the North Pole etc.

!!! Totuşi dacă doriţi să faceţi referire la un anumit lucru dintre acestea
ar trebui să folosiţi a/an.
Exemplu
De exemplu:

"I could hear the wind." / "There's a cold wind blowing." (Am auzit
vântul. / Bate / suflă un vânt rece. )

"What are your plans for the future?" / "She has a promising future
ahead of her." (Care sunt planurile tale de viitor? / Ea are un viitor
promiţător în faţa ei.)

 NU SE FOLOSEŞTE articol cu ţări, state, judeţe, provincii,


lacuri, munţi, cu excepţia "The United States". !
Exemplu
De exemplu:
He lives in Washington near Mount Rainier. (El locuieşte în
Washington lângă Mount Rainier )

 Se foloseşte articol când ne referim la ape, oceane, mări:

De exemplu: My country borders on the Pacific Ocean. (Ţara mea


are graniţe la Oceanul Pacific.)

 NU SE FOLOSEŞTE articol atunci când vorbim despre lucruri


în general. !
Exemplu
De exemplu:
I like Russian tea. (Imi place ceaiul rusesc.)
She likes reading books. (Ei îi place să citească cărţi.)

 NU SE FOLOSEŞTE articol atunci când vorbim despre


mâncare, locuri şi transport.
Exemplu
De exemplu:
He has breakfast at home.(El ia micul dejun acasă.)
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I go to university.(Merg la universitate.)
He comes to work by taxi.(El vine la serviciu cu taxiul.)

Exercitii
Exercitii

1. Folosiţi articolul nehotărât „a / an” sau articolul zero în locul


punctelor:

1. There were many dogs in the park. One dog was ___ Dalmatian.

2. Lions and ___ tigers are both endangered animals.

3. She is wearing ___ blue T-shirt and red earrings.

4. California is ___ state in the United State of America.

5. Christmas comes once ___ year.

6. ___ bee is __ insect.

7. The Danube is ___ river.

8. I went to the shop to get ___ bread.

9. He broke ___ plate when he was washing dishes.

10.You should take ___ coat.


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2. Completaţi spaţiile libere cu articolul nehotărât “a /an”:

Exemplu: We read …… a newspaper.

We read a newspaper.

1. Ann likes ……cat.


2. Mike has got …….old motorbike.
3. Let's sing ……..song.
4. Peter has got …….uncle in Berlin.
5. Kate needs ……..new bed in her room.
6. He has got …….exercise book in his school bag.
7. I must find ……..black dress.
8. We listen to …….English song.

3. Completaţi spaţiile libere cu articolul nehotărât “a /an”:

1. There is …….new German book on the desk.


2. She's reading ………old novel.
3. They've got …….idea.
4. He is drinking …….cup of tea.
5. The girl is ……engineer.
6. Bucharest has got …….airport.
7. This is ……..expensive house.
8. ……..bird is flying above the tree.
9. My mother has got ……..beautiful dress.
10. My friend likes to be ……..lawyer.
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4. Completaţi spaţiile libere cu articolul hotărât “the” unde este


necesar sau marcaţi cu “-“ acolo unde consideraţi că nu este
necesar:

Exemplu: I enjoyed …. The summer in …..Greece.

I enjoyed the summer in - Greece

Hello Ann,

I arrived in ……Romania last Tuesday. We left …..Bucharest, flew


over .…Carpathians and made a quick stop in ……London. There we
went shopping in …….Unirea, visited …….Antipa Museum and
enjoyed a sunny afternoon in …..Herastrau Park.
On the following day we left for Brasov. ……time on board wasn't
boring as there were two films to watch on …….TV. ……people on
……plane were all …….Roamnian. Before we landed at …….Henri
Coanda airport., ……hotel I stayed in was on …..corner of …….32nd
Street. I don't like …….hotels very much, but I didn't have ……time
to rent an apartment.
Please say hello to Paul and Laura.
Yours,
Dan
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Recapitulare Lectia 2 Recapitulare


Lectia 2
1. Articolul:

– articol nehotarat - a

– articol nehotarat – an

– articol hotarat - the


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Lectia 3 – Lesson 3 Lectia 3

PRONUMELE PERSONAL

Nominativ Nominativ

I = Eu
You = Tu
He = El
She = Ea
It = El, Ea (pentru obiecte, lucruri neinsufletite)
We = Noi
You = Voi
They = Ei

Exemplu Exemplu

I live in New York. (Eu locuiesc in New York.)


Do you like playing tennis? (Iti place sa joci tennis?)
He doesn't want to come this evening. (El nu vrea sa vina in
seara aceasta.)
She works in London. (Ea lucreaza in Londra.)
It won't be easy.(Nu va fi usor.)
We are studying pronouns at the moment. (Studiem pronumele
in momentul acesta.)
You went to Paris last year, didn't you? ( Noi am fost la Paris
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anul trecut, nu-i asa?)


They bought a new car last month. (Ei au cumparat o masina
noua lua trecuta.)
Genitiv
Genitiv

Mine = Al meu
Yours = Al tau
His = Al lui
Hers= Al ei
Ours = Al nostru
Yours = Al vostru
Theirs = Al lor
Exemplu
Exemplu

That house is mine. (Aceasta casa este a mea.)


This is yours.(Acesta este al tau.)
I'm sorry, that's his.(Imi pare rau, acesta este al lui.)
Those books are hers.(Aceste carti sunt ale ei.)
Those students are ours.(Acesti studenti sunt ai nostri.)
Look over there, those seats are yours.(Uita-te chiar acolo, acele
scaune sunt ale voastre.)
Theirs will be green.(Ale lor vor fi verzi.)

Dativ Dativ

(to) me = mie
(to) you = tie
(to) him = lui
(to) her = ei
(to) it = Lui, ei (pentru obiecte, lucruri neinsufletite)
(to) us = noua
(to) you = voua
(to) them = lor
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Acuzativ Acuzativ

me = pe mine
you = pe tine
him = pe el
her = pe ea
it = pe el, pe ea (pentru obiecte, lucruri neinsufletite)
us = pe noi
you = pe voi
them = pe ei
Exemplu
Exemplu

Give me the book.(Da-mi cartea.)


He told you to come tonight.(El ti-a spus sa vii diseara.)
She asked him to help.(Ea l-a rugat pe el sa o ajute.)
They visited her when they came to New York.(Ei au vizitat-o
pe ea cand s-au dus la New York.)
She bought it at the store.(Ea l-a cumparat de la magazin.)
He picked us up at the airport.(El ne-a luat de la aeroport.)
The teacher asked you to finish your homework.(Profesoara v-a
rugat sa terminate tema.)
I invited them to a party. (I-am invitat la o petrecere.)

NOTA !
Pronumele posesive au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivele posesive
(my, his, her). Diferenta este ca obiectul urmeaza adjectivul
posesiv, darn u urmeaza pronumele posesiv. !
Exemplu: Exemplu
Possessive Pronoun: That book is mine. – Cartea este a mea.
Possessive Adjective: That is my book. – Aceasta carte este a mea.
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Acuzativ
PRONUMELE DEMONSTRATIVE

PRONUMELE DEMONSTRATIVE this, that, these, those se


refera la obiecte.

This si these sunt pronume demonstrative de apropiere.

That si those sunt pronume demonstrative de departare.


Exemplu
Exemple:

This is my house. (Aceasta este casa mea.)


That is our car over there. (Aceea de acolo este masina noastra.)
These are my colleagues in this room. (Acestia sunt colegii mei
din camera aceasta.)
Those are beautiful flowers in the next field. (Acelea de pe
campul urmator sunt flori frumoase.)

Possessive Adjectives

Adjectivele posesive - my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their sunt
adesea confundate cu pronumele posesive. Adjectivul posesiv face
referire la substantiv pentru a arata posesia.

I'll get my books. (Voi adduce cartile mele.)


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Is that your car over there? (Aceea de acolo este masina ta?)

That is his teacher, Mr Jones. (Acesta este profesorul lui, dl. Jones.)

I want to go to her store. (Vreau sa merg la magazinul ei.)

Its color is red. (Culoarea lui este rosu.)

Can we bring our children? (Puten sa aducem si copiii nostrii ?)

You are welcome to invite your husbands. (Ne face placere sa-I

invitam pe sotii vostri.)

They bought their children a lot of presents. (Ei au cumparat copiilor

lor o multime de cadouri.)

SUBSTANTIVUL Apelative

Genul substantivelor:

 Genul masculine (man, father, boy)

 Genul feminin (mother, sisiter, aunt, nurse, actrees)

 Genul neutru (atunci când nu exista nici o specificare de gen


masculine sau feminin: dog, nose, hand)

 Genul comun (atunci când substantivul poate fi şi masculine


şi feminin, genul reieşind din context: teacher, worker,
singer, American, writer)
Pluralul
Pluralul substantivelor: substantivelor

!!! Regula generală: singular + s

Singular + s
singular plural
car cars
book Books
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cap Caps
roof Roofs
teacher teachers
day Days
boy Boys
lamp lamps
hat hats
cup cups

EXCEPŢII:

Substantivele terminate în ch, sh, s, ss, z, x fac pluralul în es. !


singular plural
box boxes
sandwich sandwiches
suitcase suitcases
brush brushes
class classes
ciucus circuses

Excepţie! : stomach – stomachs, epoch - epochs

 Substantivele terminate în y fac pluralul în două feluri:


!
 Dacă y este precedat de o vocală, acesta va ramâne şi
se va adăuga s.

 Dacă y este precedat de o consoană, acesta se va


transforma în i la care se va adăuga es.

vocală + y + s
singular Plural
boy boys
day days
play plays
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Consoană + y = ies
singular plural
city cities
lady ladies
baby Babies
country countries
factory factories

Substantivele terminate în o fac pluralul în două feluri în !


funcţie de perioada când au intrat în limbă.

 Singular + s

 Singular + es

Singular + s
singular plural
piano pianos
radio radios
domino dominos
Singular +es
singular plural
potato potatoes
tomato tomatoes
negro negroes

Sustantivele de origine greacă terminate în sis fac pluralul !


în ses.

singular plural
crisis crises
thesis theses
analysis analyses
basis bases

Substantivele terminate în fe sau f fac pluralul în ves, f !


transformându-se în v.

singular plural
life lives
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wife wives
knife knives
shelf shelves
leaf leaves
thief thieves
wolf wolves
scarf scarves / scarfs

 Substantivele de origine greacă, latină, franceză, italiană fac


plural în doua feluri ca în limba de origine (nomenclatura
ştiinţifică) şi ca în limba engleză (vorbirea curentă).
!
singular plural
vertreba vertrebrae
datum data
stratum strata
phenomenon phenomena
criterion criteria
plateau plateaux

Substantive cu
SUBSTANTIVE CU PLURALE NEREGULATE plurale neregulate

SINGULAR PLURAL Traducere


child children copil
die dice zar
foot feet picior
goose geese gâscă
louse lice păduche
man men bărbat
woman women femeie
mouse mice şoarece
ox oxen bou
tooth teeth dinte
fish fish peste
sheep sheep oaie

Substantive numarabile si nenumarabile (Countables and


uncountables)

In engleza sunt substantive numarabile si nenumarabile.


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Substantivele numarabile sunt majoritatea substantivelor (le poti


combina cu numere): ex. One egg - two eggs; a boy – two boys.

Substantivele nenumarabile nu se pot combina cu numere si sunt


invariabile avand forma numai de singular sau de plural; acestea
pot denumi fie notiuni concrete (water, salt, steel, trousers,
!
scissors, furniture, money, luggage), fie notiuni abstracte (advice,
business, beauty, knowledge, philosophy, poetry, love, peace).

Substantivele nenumarabile pot fi insotite de unele constructii


precum:

A cup of coffee/tea

A glass of milk/beer/wine

A bottle of beer/wine

A sheet of paper

A drop of water/oil

A piece of furniture

A loaf of bread

An item of news

A bit of information/news/work/luck/evidence

A grain of corn/sand

A piece/word of advice

A pot of jam

A lump of sugar

A slice of bread/ham/cheese
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Genitivul
GENITIVUL
Genitivul sintetic
 Genitivul sintetic

- se adauga desinenta ‘s la substantivul respectiv care are forma de


singular sau plural:
Exemplu
Exemplu:

The pupil’s book – cartea elevului

The chlidren’s toy – jucaria copiilor

11. prin adaugarea apostrofului fara s:

Exemplu:

My cousins’ house – casa verisorilor mei

Our neighbours’ daughter – fiica vecinilor nostril

The Smiths’ children – copii familiei Smith

Mr. James’ opinion – parerea dl. James


Genitivul
 Genitivul prepositional prepozitional

se formeaza cu ajutorul prepozitiei “of”


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Exemplu: Exemplu

The roof of the house – acoperisul casei

The clothes of the girl – hainele fetei

The keys of the car – cheile masinii

The name of the school – numele scolii.


Exercitiu
Exercise 1

Completati cu formele corecte de plural:

singular plural
thief
church
tomato
fork
lamp
turkey
life
nose
potato
bus
Exercitiu
Exercise 2

Completati cu formele corecte de plural:

singular plural
staple
wolf
piano
kangaroo
fork
cloud
fireman
friend
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hero
boy
Exercitiu
Exercise 3

Completati cu formele corecte de plural:


singular plural
fly
night
pencil
belief
person
door
key
leaf
toy
tornado

Exercitiu
Exercise 4

Completati cu formele corecte de plural:

1. bike -
2. cat -
3. cake -
4. watch -
5. invitation -
6. game -
7. box -
8. cage -
9. desk -
10. pencil -
Exercitiu
Exercise 5

Completati cu formele corecte de plural:

1. scarf -
2. family -
3. boy -
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4. house -
5. city -
6. man -
7. child -
8. sandwich -
9. nurse -
10. shelf -
Exercitiu
Exercise 6

Completati cu formele corecte de plural:

1. half -
2. kilo -
3. woman -
4. foot -
5. mouth -
6. sheep -
7. penny -
8. bus -
9. day -
10. fish -
Exercitiu
Exercise 7

Completati cu formele corecte de plural:

1. ox -
2. roof -
3. potato -
4. knife -
5. deer -
6. chief -
7. photo -
8. brother-in-law -
9. video -
10. series -
Exercitiu
Exercise 8

Completati cu formele corecte de plural:

1. tomato -
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2. tooth -
3. aircraft -
4. chorus -
5. mouse -
6. crisis -
7. passer-by -
8. radius -
9. grown-up -
10. crossroads -
Exercitiu
Exercise 9

Completati propozitiile cu forma de singular sau plural a


substantivelor din paranteza:

Example: There is a ____ on the table. (book/books)


Answer: There is a book on the table.

1. The dog is sitting on my………... (bed/beds)


2. There are two …………on my desk. (pencil/pencils)
3. I have got two ………. (brother/brothers)
4. They are riding their ……... (bike/bikes)
5. We have got a ………. (dog/dogs)
6. How many ………..have you got in your bag? (book/books)
7. My mother has got a new ……….. (computer/computers)
8. There are three windows in the ………. (room/rooms)
9. Susan has got four ………. (poster/posters)
10. There is one …………on the floor. (pen/pens)
Exercitiu
Exercise 10

Alaturati urmatoarele constructii substantivelor:

advice, chocolate, jam, lemonade, meat, milk, oil, rice, tea, tennis

Exemplu: a cube of sugar

1. a piece of …..
2. a packet of ……
3. a bar of ……..
4. a glass of ……
5. a cup of …….
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6. a bottle of …….
7. a slice of ……..
8. a barrel of …….
9. a game of ……..
10. a jar of ……..
Exercitiu
Exercise 11

Completati cu forma corecta de genitiv:

1. the coats of the ladies

the lady's coats


the ladies' coats
no genitive possible

2. the countries of Blair and Chirac

Blair's country and Chirac's


Blair and Chirac's countries
Blair and Chiracs countries

3. the hobbies of the women

the womens hobbies


the woman's hobbies
the women's hobbies
the womens' hobbies

4. the shoes of the players

the players' shoes


the players's shoes
the player's shoes

5. the future of our boys

our boy's future


our boys' future
our boys's future

6. the diary of my boss


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my boss's diary
my boss' diary

7. the clothes of men

mens clothes
men's clothes
mens' clothes

8. the business of Anne and Francis

Anne and Francis' business


Anne's and Francis' business
Anne and Francis's business
Anne's business and Francis's
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Recapitulare Lectia 3 Recapitulare


Lectia 3
1. Pronumele

- pronumele demonstrative

- adjectivele posesive

2. Substantivul

– Genul substantivelor

– Pluralul substantivelor

– Substantive cu plurale neregulate

3. Genitivul

– Genitivul sintetic

– Genitivul prepozitional
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Lectia 4 – Lesson 4 Lectia 4

NUMERALUL CARDINAL Numeralul cardinal

1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten

11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen
20 twenty

21 twenty-one
22 twenty-two
23 twenty-three
24 twenty-four
25 twenty-five
30 thirty
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40 forty
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety
100 one hundred
200 two hundred
250 two hundred and fifty
1,000 one thousand
2,000 two thousand
2,574 two thousand five hundred and seventy-four
1,000,000 one million
2,000,000 two million
1,000,000,000 one billion

Numeralul ordinal
NUMERALUL ORDINAL

the 1st / first = primul


the 2nd / second = al doilea
the 3rd / third = al treilea
the 4th / fourth = al patrulea
the 5th / fifth = al cincilea
the 6th sixth = al saselea
the 7th / seventh = al saptelea
the 8th / eighth = al optulea
the 9th / nineth = al noualea
the 10th / tenth = al zecelea
the 11th / eleventh = al unsprezecelea
the 12th / twelfth = al doisprezecelea
the 13th / thirteenth = al treisprezecelea
the 14th / fourteenth = al patrusprezecelea
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the 15th / fifteenth = al cincisprezecelea


the 16th / sixteenth = al saisprezecelea
the 17th / seventeenth = al saptesprezecelea
the 18th / eighteenth = al optusprezecelea
the 19th / nineteenth = al nouasprezecelea
the 20th / twentieth = al douazecilea
the 21st / twenty-first = al douazecilea
the 22nd / twenty-second = al douazecisiunulea
the 23rd / twenty-third = al douazecisidoilea
the 24th / twenty-fourth = al douazecisipatrulea
the 30th / thirtieth = al treizecilea
the 50th / fiftieth = al cincizecilea
the 100th / hundredth = al o sutalea

Scrieti urmatoarele cifre in litere:

1245, 570, 2.152.343, al 14-lea, 300, 999, al 23-lea, 2006, 145.


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Recapitulare Lectia 4 Recapitulare


Lectia 4

1. Numeralul cardinal

2. Numeralul ordinal
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Lectia 5 – Lesson 5 Lectia 5


Familia si gradele
de rudenie
FAMILIA SI GRADELE DE RUDENIE

Jack is married to Ann. She is his wife and he is her husband. They
have a daughter and a son. The son's name is Mike and the daughter's
name is July. The live next to Ann's parents, John and Monica. John is
Ann's father and Monica is her mother. John is Jack's father-in-law
and Monica is his mother-in-law. Mike is John's grandson and July is
Monica's granddaughter. Ann has a sister and brother. Her sister's
name is Mary and her brother's name is Frank. Frank has two children,
Dave and Sharon. Sharon is Ann's niece and Dave is Ann's nephew.
Ann is their aunt and Jack is their uncle.

Husband (sot) Wife (sotie)


Son (fiu) Daughter (fiica)
father–in-law (socru) mother-in-law (soacra)
Uncle (unchi) Aunt (matusa)
Nephew (nepot de unchi/matusa) Nice (nepoata de unchi/matusa)
Grandfather (bunic) Grandmother (bunica)
Granddaughter (nepoata de
Grandson (nepot de bunic/bunica)
bunic/bunica)
Father (tata) Mother (mama)
Brother (frate) Sister (sora)

Exercitiu: Exercitiu

Completati folosind correct posesivele (my, your, son's, Jack's


etc.):
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I my
You your
He his
She her
It its
We our
You your
They their
Jack Jack's

Jack is married to Ann. She is his wife and he is ……..husband. They


have a daughter and son. The ………name is Mike and the ……….
name is July. The live next to Ann's parents, John and Monica. John is
Ann's father and Monica is …….mother. John is Jack's father-in-law
and Monica is ………mother-in-law. Mike is ……..grandson and July
is Monica's granddaughter. Ann has a sister and brother. ………
sister's name is Mary and her …….name is Frank. Frank has two
children, Dave and Sharon. Sharon is Ann's nice and Dave is Ann's
nephew. Ann is …….aunt and Jack is …….uncle.

Zilele saptamanii
The days of the week (Zilele saptamanii)
Zilele saptamanii Weekend
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
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Prepositions (Prepozitii) Prepozitii

Pentru zilele saptamanii vom folosi prepozitia on.

Exemplu:

This year my birthday is on Saturday.

Pentru “weekend” folosim at.

Exemplu:

I never work at the weekend.

! Zilele saptamanii se scriu intotdeauna cu majuscule. !


Lunile anului
The months of the year (Lunile anului)

January Ianuarie
February Februarie

March Martie

April Aprilie

May Mai

June Iunie

July Iulie

August
August
September
Septembrie
October
Octombrie
November
Noiembrie
December
Decembrie
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Prepositions (Prepozitii) Prepozitii

Pentru lunile anului folosim prepozitia in.


Exemplu:

Christmas is in December.

In England it rains a lot in April.

My birthday is in September.

! Lunile anului se scriu intotdeauna cu majuscule.


Anotimpurile
The seasons (Anotimpurile)
Spring Autumn
Winter (iarna) Summer (vara)
(primavara) (toamna)
Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov

Prepositions (Prepozitii)
Pentru anotimpuri folosim prepozitia in.

Exemplu:In Russia it is cold in (the) winter.

! Anotimpurile nu se scriu cu majuscule. !


Exercitii
Exercitiu:

Scrieti data nasterii dvs. si data curenta.


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Recapitulare
Recapitulare Lectia 5 Lectia 5

1. Familia si gradele de rudenie

2. Zilele saptamanii

3. Lunile anului

4. Anotimpurile
LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Lectia 6 – Lesson 6 Lectia 6

Adjectivul
ADJECTIVUL
Adjectivele sunt folosite pentru a descrie substantivele. Adjectivele
sunt intotdeuna invariabile.
Exemplu
Exemplu: He is a good doctor.

Exemplu: beautiful trees, they are happy

NOTA !!!

11.Adjectivele nu au forma de singular sau plural, masculin,


!
feminin sau neutru.

12. Adjectivele au intotdeauna aceeasi forma! Nu adaugam


niciodata “-s” la un adjectiv.

13.Adjectivele pot fi puse si la sfarsitul propozitiei daca se refera la


subiectul propozitiei respective.
Exemplu
Example: My doctor is excellent.

GRESIT !!!: difficults books

REGULA: Adjectivele preceda substantivul.

Example: a wonderful book very interesting people !


ATENTIE!
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 Nu asezati adjectivul dupa substantive.

GRESIT!!: an apple red

ADVERBUL Adverbul

Adverbele modifica verbul. Ele arata How (Cum) este facut un anumit
lucru.
Exemplu
Exemplu: How does he she sing? - He sings beautifully.

REGULA: Adverbele se formeaza de obicei adaugand “-ly” la un


adjective.

Exemplu: beautiful - beautifully, careful - carefully Exemplu

ATENTIE!

 Unele adjective nu isi schima forma cand devin adverbe ! !


Exemplu: fast - fast, hard - hard

 Pentru adjectivul “good”, adverbul folosit va fi “well”.

GRESIT!!: He plays tennis good.

REGULA: Adverbele pot modifica si un adectiv. In acest caz,


adverbul precede adjectivul.
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Exemplu: She is extremely happy. They are absolutely sure.

REGULA: Adverbele de frecventa (always, never, sometimes, often,


etc.) se aseara de obicei intre auxiliary si verbul principal:
!
Exemplu: He is often late for class. Do you always eat in a
restaurant? They don't usually travel on Fridays.

ATENTIE! !
 Adverbele de frecventa care exprima “infrequency” (nefrecveta)
nu se folosesc in propozitii negative sau interrogative:

GRESIT! Does she rarely eat fish? They don't seldom go to


the cinema.

 Adverbele de frecventa pot aparea adesea si la inceputul


propozitiei:

Exemplu: Sometimes, he likes to go to museums. Exemplu

 Adverbele de frecventa vor fi asezate dupa verbul “to be”.

Example: He is sometimes late for work. Exemplu

Exercitiu:
Exercitiu

Adverb or adjective ?

1. I feel bad /badly about what happened yesterday. I didn't know you
were going to take everything so serious / seriously.

2. This beer tastes too bitter / bitterly for my liking.

3. She looked at me tender / tenderly and said soft / softly that I


looked good / well in my shirt.

4. I could easy / easily convince him not to become too excited with
all the media attention.

5. He turned the car cautious / cautiously as not to drive into the nice
/ nicely laid-out border of the neighbours.
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6. Have you ever been wrong / wrongly accused of something?

7. "My brother is an incredible / incredibly successful businessman",


he said cynical / cynically, "he's just gone bankrupt for the fifth time!"

8. Unfortunate / Unfortunately, all the milk has gone sour / sourly


overnight.

9. She hasty / hastily ran down the stairs, quick / quickly picked up
her coat and umbrella and disappeared in the unusual / unusually
mysterious night.

10. The number of visitors to the exhibition dropped considerable /


considerably in the second week.
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Recapitulare
Recapitulare Lectia 6
Lectia 6

1. Adjectivul

2. Adverbul
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Lectia 7 – Lesson 7 Lectia 7

HOW TO TELL TIME IN ENGLISH


I usually get up at a quarter past six - that's six fifteen in the morning. I
have breakfast at seven o'clock and then take the bus to school at half
past seven. I usually arrive at school at a quarter to eight. Sometimes,
the tube is late and I arrive at about eight. I am at school until twelve
o’clock. Then I go home at noon. In the afternoon, I usually do my
homework until five fifteen. I usually finish my homework at a quarter
to five and play tennis till half past seven in the evening. At night, I
usually go to bed at eleven o'clock.

Reguli de exprimare a orei in limba engleza: !


In engleza, folosim “past” pentru a Folosim “to” pentru a arata cat
exprima ora dupa o anumita ora este ceasul pana la ora
pana la jumatate, sau 30 minute respective, de la 31 minute
trecute de ora respectiva. pana la ora exacta.
In engleza folosim “o’clock” numai Putem exprima de asemenea
atunci cand exprimam ora exacta. ora in grupuri de cate doua
cifre.
Exemplu: It’s seven o’clock.
Exemplu: It’s nine thirty-four.
Atunci cand ne referim la diferite !!! In engleza folosim “ at
momente din timpul zilei vom night” NU in the night.
folosi: in the morning, in the
afternoon, in the evening.

Top of Form
Exprimati in engleza urmatoarele ore:

10:30, 12:45, 9:45, 4:25, 7:55, 6:10, 2:28.


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Recapitulare
Recaptitulare Lectia 7
Lectia 6

1. How to tell time in english


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Lectia 8 – Lesson 8 Lectia 8

PREPOSITIONS Prepozitii

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME

 At, On, In:

Aceste prepozitii sunt folosite pentru a exprima ora si data evenimentelor,


activitatilor, situatiilor:

e.g. at three o'clock. in June. on Monday.

 At:

at + particular time (perioada a zilei): dawn, midday, noon, night, midnight, nine
o'clock etc.. e.g. at dawn.

at + the + a particular time in a week/month/year (perioada a


saptamanii/lunii/anului): start/end of the week/month/year, weekend. e.g. at the
start of July.

at + calendar festival season (anotimpuri, sarbatori calendaristice): Christmas,


New Year, Easter etc.. e.g. at Easter.

at + meal (masa a zilei): breakfast, lunch, mid-morning, tea, dinner, supper etc..
e.g. at breakfast.

 On:

on + day of the week (zi a saptamanii): Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday etc. e.g.
on Thursday.

on + particular part of a day (moment anume al zilei): Friday morning,


Saturday afternoon. e.g. on Sunday evening.

on + particular date (data anume): 25 July 2001, 4 January. e.g. on 19 March.

on + calendar festival day (sarbatoare calendaristica): Christmas Day, Palm


Sunday. e.g. on Easter Sunday.

 In:

in + the + a part of a day (moment al zilei): the morning, the afternoon, evening.
e.g. in the afternoon.

in + month (luna): January, February, March, April, May etc.. e.g. in June.
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in + season of the year (anotimp): Spring, Summer, Autumn. e.g. in Winter.

in + specific year (an): 1988, 1989, 1990 etc.. e.g. in 1999.

in + the + a specific century (secol anume): nineteenth century. e. g. in the


twentieth century.

in + historical period of time (perioada istorica): the Dark Ages, Pre-historic


Times. e.g. in the Middle Ages.

NOTA!!! Nu se folosesc prepozitii daca ziua/anul are each, every, last, next, this
inaintea acestora:
!
e.g. I go to England every Christmas ( not at every Christmas )

I'll see you next Monday afternoon. ( not on Monday afternoon )

Martin left home last evening. ( not in the evening )

 For and Since:

Aceste prepozitii explica how long (de cat timp) un eveniment, activitate, situatie
continuua:

e.g. for three days since last Thursday

 For:

for + a period of time (perioda de timp): two days, one week, three months, four
years e.g. for the weekend.

e.g. Michael went to Latvia last year for three weeks.


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I am in Poznan for ten days.

My cousin will be visiting the West Indies for two months next February.

 Since:

since + a point of time (perioada de timp) + past tense: last week, the war
ended, 1990, yesterday.

e.g. My sister and her husband have worked in India since 1991.

Ann has been very ill since yesterday evening.

 During and While:

Aceste prepozitii arata o perioada de timp in care un eveniment, activitate sau


situatie a avut loc:

e.g. during the next month while I was swimming.

 During:

during + a noun or phrase (substantiv sau expresie): the war, the nineteenth
century: e.g. during my schooldays.

e.g. Magda received many telephone messages during the last week.

I am seeing Simon during the morning.

Winston will return to England during the Christmas Holiday.

 While:

while + subject + verb: to eat, talk, swim, walk etc.

e.g. We will take you to the theatre while we are in London.

While Joanna was in Spain, she didn't go to a bull fight.

NOTA ! In Engleza, While poate fi adesea inlocuit de when cand au acelasi


inteles.

while + infinitive + -ing (Present Participle): thinking, running, driving etc..

e.g. While swimming in the sea, Mike was attacked by a shark.

Ella met Andrew while studying English at Oxford.


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

 Before and After:

e.g. before the weekend after the holiday

 Before:

before + a noun (substantiv): Monday, Christmas, examinations etc.. e.g. before


the weekend.

before + subject + verb: to eat, study, swim, talk. etc..

e.g. He spoke to his teacher before the examination began.

Before you say anything, I must explain why I am here.

before + infinitive + -ing (Present Participle): to read, write etc.. e.g. before
eating. -

 After:

after + noun (substantiv): the lesson, the meal etc. e.g. after the journey

after + subject + verb: to draw, sit, read etc..

e.g. Patricia was very happy after she won the tennis match.

Why did the Queen smile after the President shook her hand?

After she finishes her studies, Ann will work in Poland.

after + infinitive + -ing (Present Participle): to decide, say, report etc.. e.g. after
crying.

 By, until, till:

e.g. by Sunday until April 1995 till next week

By = not later than

Until/till explica how long (de cat timp) continua sau va continua o activitate.

NOTA!!! Until/till au acelasi inteles: till este forma scurta a lui until.

 By:

by + noun describing time/date (substantive care descriu ora/data): this


afternoon, tomorrow, Thursday.
LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

e.g. Please pay me by Friday morning.

Will you finish your work by four o'clock?

By the end of the year, Donata spoke English very well.

 Until, till:

until/till + noun describing time/date (substantive care descriu ora/data) : next


week, this evening, tomorrow.

e.g. Tom's wife will stay here until/till the end of next week.

Until/till the end of the month, you can use my computer.

The Williams Family lived in Germany until/till 1991.

 From - - - - to/until:

From . . . . . to/until definesc inceputul si sfarsitul unei perioade:

e.g. from April 1989 to July from November until March

 From - - - - - to/until/till:

From + time/day/date/year to + time/day/date/year

e.g. From 1987 until 1991, Mary was at university in Leeds.

Each day, Arthur works in the bank from nine till five thirty.

My shop will be closed from 1st July to 31st August.


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

2 - PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE (PREPOZITII DE LOC)

 At, on, in:

At, on and in sunt prepozitii de loc:

e.g. at the cinema on the wall in the shop

 At:

at + the + place (loc): the cinema, theatre, school, cross roads etc.. e.g. at the bank.

at + specific place (anumit loc): Heathrow Airport, Buckingham Palace: e.g. at


Notre Dame Cathedral.

at + specific address including the house number/name (adresa specifica


incluzand numarul casei/numele): e.g. at 33 rue de La Fayette, Paris.

NOTA ! In Engleza, at nu se foloseste in mod normal cu nume de sate, orase.


!
 On:

on + a/the + surface of a place or object (suprafata unui loc sau obiect): shelf,
wall, floor, ceiling etc.. e.g. on the table.

on + the directions (directii): left/right/other side/nearside/far side: e.g. on the


left.

on + levels of a building (etaje ale cladirii): first floor, second floor, top floor
etc.. e.g. on the ground floor.

on + the + parts of a ship (parti ale vaporului): port side/ starboard


side/bow/stern.

on + parts of the body (parti ale corpului): his foot, her leg, our heads etc.. e.g.
on his left arm.

on + a/the + types of transport (mijloace de transport): horse, bicycle, train,


foot etc.. e.g. on the ferry, on a horse.

NOTA ! Englezii folosesc in a car ( nu on a car ).


!
 In:
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in + names of countries (nume de tari): France, England, Poland etc.. e.g. in


Belgium.

in + names of towns, villages, cities (nume de orase, sate): Warsaw, London etc..
e.g. in Brussels.

in + named places (nume de locuri): Buckingham Palace, the Louvre etc.. e.g. in
Windsor Castle.

in + the + geographical regions (regiuni geografice): Auvergne, Lake District


etc.. e.g. in the Alps.

in + streets, roads, avenues (strazi, bulevarde): Moniuszki, Fish Street etc.. e.g.
in Stratford Avenue.

in + the + rooms and places (camere, incaperi): kitchen, bedroom, foyer,


auditorium etc.. e.g. in the bathroom.

in + the + weather (vreme): sun, rain, hail, snow etc.. e.g. in the fog.

in + parts of the body (parti ale corpului): his foot, her leg, our heads etc.. e.g. in
his foot.

in + a/the + types of transport (mijloace de transport): car, train, van, lorry,


airplane, ship e.g. in a train.

 Exceptii: !
at the moment on holiday in a loud/angry/quiet/low voice

at this/that moment on the radio in a good/bad mood

at the same time on television in a bad temper

at no time on the menu in a suit

at present on the agenda in a new dress

at the end/beginning in clean/dirty/new shoes

!!! Unele expresii se folosesc fara a/the:

at school in bed

at home in business
LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

at school in hospital

at school in prison

at work

at university

at 37 k.p.h.

!!!! Ambele prepozitii on si in pot fi folosite atat pentru


mijloace de transport cat si pentru parti ale corpului:
On se foloseste atunci cand se face referire detaliata la o parte a corpului sau
mijloc de transport.

In se foloseste atunci cand se face referire la pozitie.

e.g. Peter travelled to London on the train. - tipul

John sat in the last carriage of the London train. - pozitia

Joanna has a cut on her left arm. – parte a corpului

Ana has broken a bone in her wrist. – pozitie a corpului

At and in pot fi folosite cu locuri unde se gasesc o multime de oameni: cinema,


theatre, church, stadium etc..

Ambele prepozitii at and to pot fi folosite cu locuri:

e.g. At school, there are forty teachers and four hundred pupils. - no movement
(static)

Marcin is cycling to London to visit his friends. - movement (miscare)

Ambele prepozitii at and to pot insoti anumite verbe: intelesul verbului este altul in
fiecare caz: to throw, run, shout.

e.g. Bill threw a stone to me. ( a friendly action ) – actiune prietenoasa

Bill threw a stone at me. ( a hostile action: intending to hurt someone ) – actiune
hostila

Maria ran to me. ( a friendly action ) – actiune prietenoasa

Maria ran at me ( a hostile action: intending to attack ) – actiune hostila


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Eric shouted to me. ( a friendly action ) – actiune prietenoasa

Eric shouted at me ( a hostile action: intending to express anger ) – actiune hostila

Prepozitia by este adesea folosita cu mijloace de transport: by plane, bicycle,


horse, car, ferry, horse, lorry, ship, train

e.g. The businessmen travelled to Africa by plane and in Africa, they travelled by
car.

NOTA !!! Walking is travel on foot ( NU by foot ).


!
Exercitii: Exerciti1

1. Completati cu prepozitia corespunzatoare:

1. She lives ………a nice flat on the second floor.

2. Our main office is ………. Victoria Street.

3. I'm afraid Jack is not in at the moment. He will be ……..holidays for 3 weeks.

4……….. Christmas Eve we all joined to have dinner together.

5. I worked in a school ……..five years.

6 Someone phoned us twice …………the night.

7.The president lives ……… 10, Downing Street.

8. Our house is ………. a small street.

2. Completati cu prepozitia corespunzatoare:


1. After four years of hard work and study he succeeded ……. getting a university

degree.

2. What are you laughing ……… ? Do you think I look funny?

3. Do these keys belong ……. your brother? I’ve found them ……. the floor.

4. He took a long time to recover ……. his operation.

5. We’ve run ………. salt. Could you lend me some?


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

6. She’s already 30 but she still depends ……….. her parents.

7. My colleague’s a very sensible worker. I completely rely …….. her.

8. Come …….. here. I want to tell you a secret.

3. Completati cu prepozitiile in / at / to sau “-“:

Top of Form

1. She went …………………….home last night.

2. He went ………………………his friend's house.

3. She arrived ………………….Washington for the party.

4. I'm going to stay ……………………home this weekend.

5. Jack works ……………………………the hotel.

6. I'm going to see Paul ……………………..Belgium this winter.

7. I arrived ………………………work early this morning.

8. She came home ……………………..early.

9. They visited ………………………..Romania last year.

10. She's going to travel …………………………French this summer.

4. Completati cu prepozitiile for / while / during:

Top of Form

1. He's been working …………………….three hours.

2. I fell asleep ……………………the film.

3. Did you see Dan ……………………your holiday?

4. We talked ………………………..an hour.

5. He watched TV ……………….I cooked.

6. What did you do ……………………..you were in Brasov?


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

7. I came up with a great idea ………………………..I was thinking about my

aunt.

8. He was out of work ……………………..six months before he found a new

job.

9. I broke my finger ……………………I was playing football.

10. Please, don't interrupt the teacher …………………..he is speaking.

5. Completati cu prepozitiile in / at / on:

Top of Form

 Let's meet ……………………….eight o'clock.

 He was born ………………………..September.

 I went there ………………………..2000.

 She'll be at work ………………………Tuesday.

 We met ………………………..Easter day.

 They drove to Sinaia …………………………September 25th.

 I love to go shopping …………………………..Christmas time.

 We get up early ……………………..the morning.

 Do you dream ………………………night?

 What do you like doing ……………………………weekends?

6. Completati cu prepozitiile in / at / on:

1.He wasn't short, he wasn't tall; he was …………………….average height.

2. The teacher asked the class to do the exercise …………………the bottom of

page 29.
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3. As a child I was always ashamed …………………my parents because they were

uneducated.

4. I was always very good …………………….Mathematics when I was a child.

5. We arrived …………………….Bucharest at 3.30 in the morning.

6. I didn't see you ……………………the party on Sunday.

7. He saw her as the most attractive woman……………the world.

8. Jack is completely useless…………….. sports.

7. Alegeti una din prepozitiile de mai jos pentru a completa spatial

liber:

1. "Late ... school again ?"

 On

 For

 At

 To

2. John is very good ... Physics.

 At

 In

 For

 With

3. This mushroomsoup tastes ... tomatoes !

 Of

 After

 To
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 About

4. That's just typical ... Carol to forget her own birthday.

 With

 On

 For

 Of

5. I'm so glad I got the contract. I'm really keen ... working in Japan.

 To

 On

 For

 With

6. I have been suffering ... flu lately.

 With

 From

 About

 Of

7. I knew you were going to succeed. I'm so pleased ... you !

 With

 For

 At

 Of

8. His wife is so jealous ... him she follows him everywhere !

9. For
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10. With

11. In

12. At

9. His wife is so jealous ... him she follows him everywhere he goes !

 For

 With

 In

 At

10. Yesterday I was angry ... you because I was in a bad mood.

14. At

15. On

16. To

17. With
LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Recapitulare
Recapitulare Lectia 8
Lectia 8

1. Prepositions

– prepositions of time

– prepositions of place
LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Lectia 9 – Lesson 9 Lectia 9

PREZENTUL SIMPLU
In limba engleza, prezentul are doua forme: prezent simplu si prezent
continuu.

PREZENTUL SIMPLU Prezentul simplu

A. FORMARE Formare

1. La forma afirmativa se foloseste infinitivul fara particula "to" al


verbului:

to swim / swim

I swim
You swim
He swims
She swims
It swims
We swim
They swim

!!! La persoana a III-a singular se adauga terminatia -s: !


2.La forma interogativa se foloseste auxiliarul do sau does (la
persoana a III-a singular) urmat de verbul respectiv:
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Do I swim?
Do you swim?
Does he swim?
Does she swim?
Does it swim?
Do we swim?
Do you swim?
Do they swim?

!!! La forma interogativa numai auxiliarul se conjuga. !


3.La forma negativa se foloseste do not (cu forma sa contrasa don't)
sau does not (cu forma sa contrasa doesn't) pentru persoana a III-a
singular:

I do not (don't) swim


You do not (don't) swim
He does not (doesn't) swim
She does not (doesn't) swim
We do not (don't) swim
You do not (don't) swim
They do not (don't) swim

4.La forma interogativ-negativa se foloseste don't / doesn't,


inversandu-se ordinea dintre subiect si auxiliar:

Don't I swim ?
Don't you swim ?
Doesn't he swim?
Doesn't she swim?
Don't we swim ?
Don't you swim?
Don't they swim ?

!!! Forma contrasa e cel mai des folosita. !


B. FOLOSIREA PREZENTULUI SIMPLU Folosirea
prezentului simplu

1. Pentru a descrie o actiune care se repeta in mod regulat, o


actiune obisnuita, permanenta:
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I go to my office every morning. (Merg la birou in fiecare dimineata).


Do you comb your hair every day? (Te piepteni zilnic?)

Se vor folosi adverbe precum:

 every day, every week, etc.  pozitia: la sfarsit sau la inceput de


propozitie
Exemplu
Exemplu: I eat an apple every day.(Mananc un mar in fiecare zi.)

Every week I go to the supermarket.(In fiecare saptamana merg la


supermarket.)

 usually, often, seldom, always, sometimes, generally, never,


occasionally, etc.  pozitia: dupa subiect
Exemplu
Exemplu: I usually play tennis on Saturday afternoon. (De obicei
joc tenis sambata dupa-amiaza.)

 from time to time, once a week, twice a week, etc.  pozitia:


numai la sfarsitul propozitiei
Exemplu
Exemplu: I go to cinema once a week. (Merg la cinematograf o
data pe saptamana.)
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2. Pentru a exprima un obicei:


Exemplu
Exemplu: He reads a lot. (El citeste mult.)
She doesn't smoke. (Ea nu fumeaza.)

3. Pentru a exprima un adevar general valabil:

Exemplu
Exemplu: Water freezes at 0 degrees. (Apa ingheata la 0 grade.)
Dogs bark. (Cainii latra.)

4. Pentru a reda o succesiune de evenimente scurte:


Exemplu
Exemplu: She unlocks the door, comes in and takes off her coat
near the door. (Ea descuie usa, intra si isi da haina jos langa
usa.)

5. Pentru a exprima o actiune programata in viitor, care face parte


dintr-un program oficial:
Exemplu
Exemplu:The train leaves at five o'clock. (Trenul pleaca la ora
cinci.)

The plane takes off at two o’clock. (Avionul decoleaza la ora


doua.)

We start a new term at school tomorrow. (Vom incepe un nou


semestru maine.)

6. Intr-o propozitie subordonata introdusa prin if sau unless,


atunci cand verbul din principala este la viitor (conditionala de tip
I ):
Exemplu
Exemplu:I'll come if they invite me. (Voi veni daca vor veni si ei.)

7. In propozitii circumstantiale de timp (when, while, after, before,


as soon as, till, until ), unde verbul din principala este la viitor:
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Exemplu:We'll go to the mountains when we have time. ( Vom Exemplu


merge la munte cand vom avea timp.)
Exercitiu
Exercitiu

Cititi textul urmator, incercand sa identificati folosirea


Prezentului Simplu:

John: Hello, my name is John.


Pam: Nice to meet you John.
John: What do you do?
Pam: I work in a school. I'm a teacher.
John: Are you married?
Pam: Yes, I am.

John: Do you have children?


Pam: Yes, I have a daughter and a son.
John: What does your husband do?
Pam: He works as a fireman.
John: Do you usually go to cinema together?
Pam: No, we do not, he is often busy.
John: Where do you like going at weekend?
Pam: We rarely go out together at weekend. However, we like going
to the mountains if we can.
John: What type of music do you listen to?
Pam: I often listen to pop music.
John: See you next Saturday, Pam.
Pam: Goodbye!

PREZENTUL CONTINUU Prezentul continuu

1. La forma afirmativa se foloseste auxiliarul “to be” la care vom La forma


afirmativa
adauga verbul respectiv cu terminatia “–ing”:

I am (I'm) swimming
You are (You’re) swimming
He is (He’s) swimming
She is (She’s) swimming
It is (It’s) swimming
We are (We‘re) swimming
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You are (You’re) swimming


They are (They're) swimming

2. La forma interogativa se inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si La forma


interogativa
auxiliar:
Am I swimming?
Are you swimming?
Is he swimming?
Is she swimming?
Is it swimming?
Are we swimming?
Are you swimming?
Are they swimming?

3. La forma negativa negatia “not” este alaturata verbului “to be” la La forma negativa
care vom adauga verbul respectiv cu terminatia “–ing”:

I am (I' m) not swimming


You are not (aren't) swimming
He is not (isn't) swimming
She is not (isn't) swimming
We are not (aren't) swimming
You are not (aren't) swimming
They are not (aren't) swimming

4. Forma interogativ-negativa se inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si La forma


interogativ -
auxiliar la care se adauga si negatia “not”: negativa

Am I not swimming ?
Aren't you swimming ?
Isn't he swimming ?
Isn't she swimming ?
Aren't we swimming ?
Aren't you swimming ?
Aren't they swimming ?

B. FOLOSIREA PREZENTULUI CONTINUU Folosirea


prezentului
continuu
1. Pentru a descrie o actiune in curs de desfasurare in momentul
vorbirii.
LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Se vor folosi adverbe precum: now, at the moment, just(now), etc

Exemplu: Look! He's wasing his car. (Priveste! El isi spala masina.) Exemplu
What are you doing? (Ce faci acolo?)

2. Pentru a descrie pozitiile corpului:

Exemplu: She's standing. Ea sta in picioare Exemplu


He's leaning against a wall. El sta sprijinit de un perete.

3. Cand e vorba de o actiune viitoare, prevazuta sau programata:

Exemplu: They're buying a new house in May. Ei isi cumpara o casa Exemplu
noua in luna mai.
What are you doing next Monday? Ce faci lunea viitoare?

4. Cand e vorba de ceva care se produce temporar:


Exemplu
Exemplu:I’m visiting my grandparents this week.

5. Impreuna cu often, forever, generally, constantly, never, always,


etc pentru a exprima iritarea sau dezaprobarea:
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Exemplu: This child is forever crying.(Copilul acesta plange mereu.) Exemplu

She is always complaining about her husband. (Ea se plange


intotdeauna de sotul ei.)

!!! Nota: verbele to grow si to get arata trecerea de la o stare la alta.


!
Exemplu
Exemplu: It is getting dark. (Se intuneca.)

My parents are growing older and older.(Parintii imbatranesc pe zi ce


trece.)

Reguli de scriere a verbelor care se termina in “-ing”:


!
Cuvintele care se termina
in doua consoane, adauga To walk walk + ing walking
- add ing
Cuvintele care se termina
in doua vocale + To sleep sleep + ing sleeping
consoana.
Cuvintele terminate in
To jog jog + ging jogging
vocala + g
Cuvintele terminate in
To swim swim + ming swimming
vocala + m
Cuvintele terminate in
To run run + ning running
vocala + n
Cuvintele terminate in
To shop shop + ping shopping
vocala + p
Cuvintele terminate in
To put put + ting putting
vocala + t
Cuvintele terminate in ie To die d + ying dying
Cuvintele terminate in e To phone phon + ing phoning

Intrebari inchise si
deschise
Intrebari inchise si deschise cu Prezentul Continuu
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Raspunsuri afirmative “Yes”

Intrebari inchise -
Raspuns lung Raspuns scurt
raspuns = yes sau no
"Am I reading a "Yes, you're reading "Yes, you are."
poem?" a poem." or "Yes."
"Is he/she reading a "Yes, he/she's "Yes, he/she is."
poem?" reading a poem. or "Yes."
"Are you reading a "Yes, I'm reading a "Yes, I am." or
poem?" poem." "Yes."
"Are we reading a "Yes, we're reading "Yes, we are." or
poem?" a poem." "Yes."
"Are they reading a "Yes, they're "Yes, they are."
poem?" reading a poem." or "Yes."
Raspunsuri
Raspunsuri negative “No” negative

Intrebari inchise -
Raspuns lung Raspuns scurt
raspuns = yes sau no
"Am I listening to "No, I'm not "No, I'm not." or
music?" listening to music." "No."
"No, he/she's not "No, he/she's not
"Is he/she listening to
(he/she isn't) (he/she isn't)." or
music?"
listening to music." "No."
"No, you're not (you "No, you're not
"Are you listening to
aren't) listening to (you aren't)." or
music?"
music." "No."
"No, we're not (we
"Are we listening to "No, we're not (we
aren't) listening to
music?" aren't)." or "No."
music."
"No, they're not "No, they're not
"Are they listening to
(they aren't) (they aren't)." or
music?"
listening to music." "No."

Raspunsuri
complete
Raspunsuri complete
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Intrebari inchise -
Raspuns lung Raspuns scurt
raspuns = yes sau no
"What are you "I'm learning
"Learning English."
doing?" English."
"He's learning
"What is he doing?" "Learning English."
English."
"She's learning
"What is she doing?" "Learning English."
English."
"What are we "We're learning
"Learning English."
doing?" English."
"They're
"What are they
learning "Learning English."
doing?"
English."
Exemplu
Exemplu

A: "Are you learning French?"

B: "No, I 'm not."

A: "What are you doing?"

B: - "I 'm teaching English."

A: "What language are you learning?"

B: "I 'm learning German."


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Verbe care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu


1)Verbe de perceptie: to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, to smell, to
taste
!
2)Verbe care exprima o activitate mintala: to agree, to believe, to
distrust, to doubt, to find, to foresee, to forget, to guess, to imagine, to
know, to mean, to mind, to remember, to recognize, to recollect, to
regard, to suppose, to think (that) , to trust, to understand

3)Verbe care exprima o dorinta: to desire, to intend, to want, to wish,


etc.

4)Verbe care exprima o posesie: to belong, to have, to hold, to keep, to


owe, to own, to possess

5)Verbe care exprima atitudini, sentimente, stari emotionale: to abhor,


to adore, to detest, to dislike, to displease, to like, to love, to hate, to
please, to prefer, etc.

6)Verbe care exprima o stare, o conditie: to appear, to be, to consist


(of), to contain, to differ, to deserve, to equal, to exist, to resemble, to
seem, to suit

Exista insa si cateva verbe din cele enumerate mai sus care se pot
folosi la continuu dar isi vor schimba sensul: !
to see to perceive (nu se foloseste la aspect continuu)

to meet, to visit, to interview (se foloseste la aspect


continuu)

Ex:I’m seeing my brother tomorrow.

to to hope , to believe (nu se foloseste la aspect


expect continuu)

to wait for (se foloseste la aspect continuu)

Ex: I’m still expecting the answer.


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

to think to believe, to give an opinion (nu se foloseste la


aspect continuu)

to think of / about (se foloseste la aspect continuu)

Ex:I’m thinking about you.

to possess (nu se foloseste la aspect continuu)

to take a bath, a shower, lunch, breakfast (se


foloseste la aspect continuu)
to have
Ex: I’m having lunch.

Nota: Verbul „to have", atunci când nu inseamna „a


avea, a poseda", ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have
breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formeaza
negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului
„to do".

a face pe cineva sa faca ceva pentru tine(verb


cauzativ) - (se foloseste la aspect continuu)

Ex: I’m having my house painted

to be to exist (nu se foloseste la aspect continuu)

comportare temporara (se foloseste la aspect


continuu)

Ex: You are being rude today.

Exercitii
Exercitii:

1. Formulati intrebari pentru urmatoarele enunturi:

 I usually get up at eight o'clock.

 She often goes to the theater twice a week.

 They live in London.


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

 She is a teacher.

 Yes, they have a house.

 I like listening to rock music.

2.Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la interogativ si negativ:

 I love my sister.

 You play the guitar very well.

 I trust my husband.

 I have dinner at seven o’clock.

 He knows my phone number.

 She lives in Bucharest.

 He has a cold shower every day.

 We understand our friends.

 The cat runs away.

 She has two brothers.

3. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ:

 I am reading a book.
 She is writing a letter.
 They are playing football.
 My father is reading the newspaper.
 We are learning Japonese.
 His boy is playing chess.
 I am doing my homework.
 It is snowing outside.
 They are driving too fast.
 My wife is wearing a red dress.
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4. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present


Continuous:

 What you (do) on Saturdays?


 He usually (drink) tea but now he (drink) coffee.
 I (not love) that girl.
 Please be quiet. I (try) to read the newspaper.
 What (you/do) with all that paper and glue?
 I (work) in a factory until I can find a better job.
 This is a very quiet town. Where (people/go) in the evenings?
 Ann? What the children (do)?
I think they (play) in the school yard.
9. What you (do) tonight?
I (meet) Jane at six.
10. Mary usually (learn) languages very quickly but she (not
seem) able to learn
modern Greek.

5. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Prezentul Simplu si


Continuu:

o Bunicul plimba cainele de trei ori pe zi.


o Sambata seara ea iese cu prietenii.
o De obicei mergem in concediu la munte, dar anul acest
vom sta acasa.
o Ce face Mike? Vorbeste la telefon?
o Ce ziar citesti?
o In fiecare dimineata beau ceai si mananc bicuiti.
o De ce deschizi fereastra? Ninge.
o Pamela asteapta un copil in ianuarie.
o Cat de des mananci friptura?
o Ce faci in week-end-uri?
o Auzi vantul? Sufla cu putere in seara aceasta.
o De ce mergi atat de repede azi? De obicei mergi incet.
Ma grabesc pentru ca ma intalnesc cu fratele meu la ora
4.
o El spune mereu ca va repara acoperisul, darn u o face
niciodata.
o Intotdeauna joc la loterie darn u castig nimic.
o Mama doarme acum. Ea doarme intotdeauna dupa-
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amiaza.

Recapitulare
Recapitulare Lectia 9
Lectia 9

1. Prezentul simplu

- formare

– folosirea prezentului simplu

2. Prezentul continuu

– formare

– folosirea prezentului continuu

– verbe care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu


LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Lectia 10
Lectia 10 – Lesson 10
Trecutul – past
TRECUTUL (PAST TENSE) tense

In limba engleza, trecutul are doua forme: trecut simplu si trecut


continuu.

TRECUTUL SIMPLU (PAST TENSE SIMPLE) Trecutul simplu

A. FORMARE

1. La forma afirmativa se foloseste verbul cu terminatia “-ed”- daca


verbul este regulat sau a II-a forma a verbului (eat – ate- eaten) – daca
verbul este neregulat: (lista verbelor nereglate se afla la sfarsitul
lectiei).

learn – learned (verb neregulat)

I learned
You learned
He learned
She learned
We learned
They learned

swim – swam – swum (verb neregulat)

I swam
You swam
He swam
She swam
It swam
We swam
You swam
They swam

2.La forma interogativa se foloseste auxiliarul “do” la trecut –


“did” urmat de subiect si infinitivul verbului respectiv:
LIMBA ENGLEZA - INCEPATORI

Did I swim?
Did you swim?
Did he swim?
Did she swim?
Did it swim?
Did we swim?
Did you swim?
Did they swim?
!
!!! La forma interogativa numai auxiliarul se conjuga.

3.La forma negativa se foloseste did not (cu forma sa contrasa


didn't) urmat de infinitivul verbului respectiv:

I did not (didn't) swim


You did not (didn't) swim
He did not (didn't) swim
She did not (didn't) swim
We did not (didn't) swim
You did not (didn't) swim
They did not (didn't) swim

4.La forma interogativ-negativa se foloseste didn't, inversandu-se


ordinea dintre subiect si auxiliar:

Didn't I swim ?
Didn't you swim ?
Didn't he swim?
Didn't she swim?
Didn't we swim ?
Didn't you swim?
Didn't they swim ?

!!! Forma contrasa e cel mai des folosita. !


Reguli de scriere - verbele regulate: Reguli de scriere

Verbele terminate in -e / -d: like > liked - hike > hiked

Verbele terminate in -y:-


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-y devine -ied daca este precedat de consoana:worry > worried - cry >
cried

-y ramane in radacina verbului, la care se adauga -ed daca este


precedat de vocala: play – played

Folosire trecutului
simplu
B. FOLOSIREA TRECUTULUI SIMPLU (PAST TENSE
SIMPLE)

 Exprima o actiune terminata in trecut.

Se poate folosi cu adverbe precum:, yesterday, last week, last month,


last year, that day, the other day, once in 1990, on Saturday, a year
ago, as, when, then etc.

Ex: They listened to music yesterday. (Ei au ascultat muzica Exemplu


ieri.)

We bought this house ten years ago. (Am cumparat aceasta


casa acum 10

ani.)

He left his old job in 1995 and moved to another one. (A


plecat de la
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vechea sa slujba in 1995 si s-a mutat la alta.)

2. Este o actiune terminata in trecut unde timpul trecut este


implicat sau inteles.

Ex: They met in London. (Ei s-au cunoscut la Londra.) Exemplu

The train was twenty minutes late. (Trenul a avut 20


minute intarziere.)

Why did you leave so early? (De ce ai plecat asa


repede?)

3. Exprima o actiune care s-a desfasurat intr-o anumita perioada


de timp in trecut:

Ex: She worked as a secretary from May till October. Exemplu


(Ea a lucrat ca Secretara din mai pana in octombrie.)

He studied Polytechnics for five years. (El a studiat


Politehnica 5 ani.)

4. Exprima o actiune obisnuita, repetata in trecut.

!!! In acest caz se foloseste: used to

Eg: We used to go to the theatre in our student days. Exemplu


(Obisnuiam sa / Mergeam la teatru cand eram studenti.)

5. Folosim trecut simplu in conditionala de tip II.

Eg: If we moved in Bucharest I would find a job easier. (Daca Exemplu


ne-am muta in

Bucuresti, as gasi un serviuciu mai usor.)


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Trecutul continuu
TRECUTUL CONTINUU (PAST CONTINUOUS)

1. La forma afirmativa se foloseste auxiliarul “to be” la trecut


(was/were) la care vom adauga verbul respectiv cu terminatia “–ing”:

!!!! CONJUGAREA VERBULUI “TO BE” LA TRECUT !


I was We were
You were You were
He/She/It were They were

I was swimming
You were swimming
He was swimming
She was swimming
It was swimming
We were swimming
You were swimming
They were swimming

2. La forma interogativa se inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si


auxiliar: !
Was I swimming?
Were you swimming?
Was he swimming?
Was she swimming?
Was it swimming?
Were we swimming?
Were you swimming?
Were they swimming?

3. La forma negativa negatia “not” este alaturata verbului “to be” la


trecut (was/were) la care vom adauga verbul respectiv cu terminatia
“–ing”:
!
I was not (wasn’t) swimming
You were not (weren't) swimming
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He was not (wasn't) swimming


She was not (wasn't) swimming
We were not (weren't) swimming
You were not (weren't) swimming
They were not (weren't) swimming

4. Forma interogativ-negativa se inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si


auxiliar la care se adauga si negatia “not”: !
Was I not swimming ?
Weren't you swimming ?
Wasn't he swimming ?
Wasn't she swimming ?
Weren't we swimming ?
Weren't you swimming ?
Weren't they swimming ?

Folosirea trecutului
B. FOLOSIREA TRECUTULUI SIMPLU (PAST simplu
CONTINUOUS)

Pentru a descrie o actiune in curs de desfasurare la un moment dat


in trecut.

Se vor folosi adverbe precum: at this time yesterday, yesterday at 8


o’clock, etc.
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Eg: I was taking a shower when you entered the bathroom. (Faceam
dus cand ai intrat in
baie.)

At five a clock yesterday we were playing football in the garden.


(Ieri la ora 5 jucam
fotbal in gradina.)

Exercitii: Exercitii

1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple:

 I sleep until 10 o’clock every day.

 He meets Maria on Saturdays.

 You speak French well.

 I go to work by bus.

 I make cakes every day.

 I play football.

 I dream every night.

 He often feel ill.

 He understands me.

 She speaks solely.

 Tom hurts his leg.

 Who knows the answer?

 We drink water.

 The baby cries every night.

 His dog always bites me.


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2. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si


interogativ:

1. We heard a terrible noise.

2. She looked at the picture.

3. They drank all the wine.

4. He lost his wallet last night.

5. His wife came at 10:00.

6. She lent you enough money.

7. She found her watch.

8. He sold the car.

9. He forgave his mother.

10. I enjoyed traveling.

11. We worked very hard.

12. Paul rang the bell.

13. He caught a flu.

14. I saw you yerstarday.

15. She ate a hamburger.

3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau


Continuous:

1. He always (wear) a raincoat and (carry) an umbrella when he


walked to school.

2. The boys (play) cards when they (hear) their father.

3. I (see) you yesterday from the bus. Why you (use) a stick?
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4. As we (come) here a policeman (stop) us.

5. While he (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain.

6. I (come) in very late last night and my mother (wake up).

7. You looked very busy when I (see) you last night.

8. He (watch) the TV when the phone (ring).

9. I (share) the same room with my brother when we were children.

10. When I (look) for my gloves I (find) this gun.

11. Yesterday John (wake) up at 6.00 am.

12. He (get) up at 6.15 a.m. and (go) to the bathroom.

13. He (have) a shower, then he (have) a shave and (brush) his teeth.

14. He (eat) breakfast at about 7.00 am.

15. After breakfast he (read) the newspaper. At 7.30 a.m. he (go) to


work.

4. Traduceti in limba engleza:

18.Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta?

19.Ieri nu am mers la scoala.

20.M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata.

21.Duminica trecuta am fost la munte cu parintii.

22.Ieri pe vremea asta ningea.

23.Ce faceai acum o saptamana cand te-am sunat? Ma pregateam sa


merg la Plaza Romania.

24.In timp ce cautam ziarul am gasit revista aceasta.

25.Copii se jucau la calculator cand a venit mama lor.


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26.Când te-ai intors de la Sinaia?

27.Ieri am stat acasa pentru ca m-am simtit rau.

28.Ieri mi-am pierdut portofelul.

29.Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa.

30.Ieri m-am sculat devreme, mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am


plecat la birou.

31.Acum doua zile l-am vazut pe Dan.

32.Cine a câstigat meciul saptamana trecuta?

Verbe neregulate
Irregular verbs (Verbele neregulate)

short 2nd form 3rd form translation


infinitive

abide abided abided a rabda; a inlocui

abode

arise arose arisen a se ridica

awake awoke awoken a (se) trezi

awaked

be was/were been a fi

bear bore borne a purta, a da nastere

beat beat beaten a bate

become became become a deveni


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begin began begun a incepe

bend bent bent a (se) indoi

bet bet bet a paria

betted betted

bid bid bid a ruga; a adresa(un


salut); a porunci
bade bidden

bind bound bound a lega

bite bit bitten a musca

bleed bled bled a sangera

bless blessed blessed a binecuvanta

blest blest

blow blew blown a sufla; a bate

break broke broken a sparge

breed bred bred a creste, a educa

bring brought brought a aduce

broadcast broadcast broadcast a emite(radio, TV)

build built built a construi

burn burnt burnt a arde

burned burned

burst burst burst a izbucni; a navali; a


crapa
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buy bought bought a cumpara

cast cast cast a arunca

catch caught caught a prinde

choose chose chosen a alege

cling clung clung a se agata

come came come a veni

cost cost cost a costa

creep crept crept a se tari, a se furisa

cut cut cut a taia

deal dealt dealt a trata, a se ocupa


de

dig dug dug a sapa

dive dived dived a (se) scufunda,


aploja
dove

do did done a face

draw drew drawn a trage; a desena

dream dreamed dreamed a visa

dreamt dreamt

drink drank drunk a bea

drive drove driven a mana; a sofa


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dwell dwelt dwelt a locui

dwelled dwelled

eat ate eaten a manca

fall fell fallen a cadea

feed fed fed a hrani

fell felt felt a (se) simti

fight fought fought a (se) lupta

find found found a gasi

flee fled fled a fugi

fling flung flung a arunca

fly flew flown a zbura

forbid forbade forbidden a interzice

forbad forbid

forecast forecast forecast a prevedea

foresee foresaw foreseen a prezice

forget forgot forgotten a uita

forgive forgave forgiven a ierta

freeze froze frozen a ingheta

get got got a primi; a obtine

gotten
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give gave given a da

go went gone a merge

grind ground ground a macina

grow grew grown a creste

hang hung hung a atarna; a spanzura

hanged hunged

have had had a avea

hear heard heard a auzi

hide ghid hidden a (se) ascunde

hit hit hit a lovi

hold held held a tine

hurt hurt hurt a lovi, a rani, a


durea

keep kept kept a tine, a pastra

kneel knelt knelt a ingenunchea

kneeled kneeled

knit kinitted knitted a tricota

knit knit

know knew known a sti, a cunoaste

lay laid laid a pune, a aseza

lead led led a conduce


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lean leant leant a (se) apleca, a (se)


sprijini
leaned leaned

leap leapt leapt a sari

leaped leaped

learn learned learned a invata

learnt learnt

leave left left a pleca, a lasa

lend lent lent a da cu imprumut

let let let a lasa, a permite

lie lay lain a sta intins, a se afla

light lit lit a aprinde

lighted lighted

lose lost lost a pierde

make made made a face

mean meant meant a insemna

meet met met a (se) intalni

mislead misled misled a induce in eroare

mistake mistook mistaken a confunda

mow mowed mown a cosi

mowed
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overcom overcame overcome a depasi


e

pay paid paid a plati

prove proved proved a dovedi

proven

put put put a pune

read read read a citi

rend rent rent a rupe, a sfasia

rid rid rid a se descotorosi de

ridded ridded

ride rode ridden a calari, amerge cu


(bicicleta, sania)

ring rang rung a suna

rise rose risen a rasari, a se ridica

run ran run a fugi

saw sawed sawn a taia cu ferastraul

sawed

say said said a spune

see saw seen a vedea

seek sought sought a cauta

sell sold sold a vinde


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send sent sent a trimite

set set set a potrivi, a monta, a


fixa, a apune

sew sewed sown a coase

sewed

shake shook shaken a scutura, a tremura

shear sheared shorn a tunde oi

sheared

shed shed shed a varsa


(lacrimi,sange)

shine shone shone a straluci

shined shined a lustrui

shoe shod shod a potcovi

shoot shot shot a trage, a impusca, a


filma

show showed shown a arata

showed

shrink shrank shrunk a intra la apa, a se


strange
shrunk

shut shut shut a inchide

sing sang sung a canta


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sink sank sunk a (se) scufunda

sunk

sit sat sat a sedea

slay slew slain a ucide

sleep slept slept a dormi

slide slid slid a aluneca

sling slung slung a arunca

slit slit slit a despica

smell smelt smelt a mirosi

smelled smelled

sow sowed sown a semana

sowed

speak spoke spoken a vorbi

speed sped sped a accelera

speeded speeded

spell spelt spelt a ortografia

spelled spelled

spend spent spent a cheltui, a petrece


un timp

spill spilt split a varsa (lapte)

spilled splilled
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spin spun spun a toarce

span

spit spat spat a scuipa

spit spit

split split split a despica

spoil spoiled spoiled a rasfata, a strica

spoilt spoilt

spread spread spread a (se) raspandi

spring sprang sprung a izvori, a (ra)sari

sprung

stand stood stood a sta in picioare

steal stole stolen a fura

stick stuck stuck a (se) lipi, a infige

sting stung stung a intepa

stink stank stunk a mirosi urat

stunk

stride strode stridden a merge cu pasi mari

strike struck struck a lovi

string strung strung a insira


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strive strove striven a se stradui, a nazui

strived strived

swear swore sworn a jura, a injura

sweep swept swept a matura

swell swelled swollen a se umfla

swolled

swim swam swum a inota

swing swung swung a (se) legana

take took taken a lua

teach taught taught a preda, a invata(pe


cineva)

tear tore torn a rupe, a sfasia

tell told told a spune, a povesti

think thought thought a (se) gandi

thrive thrived thrived a prospera

throve

throw threw thrown a arunca

thrust thrust thrust a infinge

tread trod trodden a calca, a pasi

trod

undergo underwent undergone a suferi (shimbari)


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understa understood understood a intelege


nd

undertak undertook undertaken a intreprinde


e

wake woke woken a (se) trezi

waked waked

wear wore worn a purta

weave wove woven a tese

wed wedded wedded a se cununa

wed wed

weep wept wept a plange

wet wetted wetted a (se) uda

wet wet

win won won a castiga

wind wound wound a rasuci, a serpui

withdraw withdrew withdrawn a (se) retrage

wring wrung wrung a stoarce, arasuci

write wrote written a scrie


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Recapitulare
Recapitulare Lectia 10
Lectia 10
1. Trecutul simplu

– formare

– folosire

2. Trecutul continuu

– formare

– folosire

3. Verbe neregulate