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Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones

in Margallah Hills National Park

A thesis; submitted to Department of Biological Science,


Quaid- i- Azam University Islamabad,
in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of degree of

M. Phil

in

Environmental Sciences

By

Saadullah Ayaz

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES


Quaid- i- Azam University, Islamabad
2005
IN THE NAME OF
ALLAH
THE MOST BENEFICENT
THE MOST MERCIFUL

(AND HE IS ALONE THE HELPER)


"Like water, air and soil, biological diversity is the hub of the wheel of life. Destroy it, and the wheel,
however technologically sophisticated…,
will no longer run"
(Anonymous)
CERTIFICATE

It is certified that the Department of Biological Sciences, Quaid- i- Azam University, Islamabad, do hereby
accept the thesis by Mr. Saadullah Ayaz in its present form, as satisfying the thesis requirements for the
award of degree of M. Phil in Environmental Biology.

Supervisor: ____________________
Prof. Dr. Tahira Ahmad
Environmental Biology Section
Department of Biological Sciences
Quaid- i- Azam University
Islamabad.

____________________
External Examiner: Dr. Ghulam Akbar
Head, World Wide Fund for Nature
Islamabad Office

Chairperson: ____________________
Prof. Dr. Samina Jalali
Chairperson
Department of Biological Sciences
Quaid- i- Azam University
Islamabad.

Dated: August, 2005


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS iii


LIST OF FIGURES v
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF ANNEXURES vii
ACKNOWLDEGEMENTS ix
ABSTRACT xi
1 INTRODUCTION 13
2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 18
2.1. Biodiversity and Protected Areas 18
2.2. Geographic Information System (GIS) in Biodiversity Assessment 20
2.3. Ecological Zonation and Biodiversity Core Zones/ Hotspots 21
2.3.1. The Paradigms of Zonation 22
2.4. Margallah Hills National Park 27
3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 21
Table. 3.2. Domin- Hadaĉ Values 33
A Single Individual 33
The area of interest (AOI) comprising of MHNP was extracted from the satellite imagery using the
ARCView® 3.1 (Fig. 3.14) 40
Defining Training Areas 41
Class Credibility 41
4 RESULTS 51
Jeffrey, A., et al. (1994). People, Parks and Biodiversity: Issues and Population-Environment
Dynamics. IUCN- The World Conservation Union. 95
Moir, W. H., Ludwig, J. A. and Scholes, R. T. (2000). Soil Erosion and Vegetation in Grasslands of the
Peloncillo Mountains, New Mexico. Maercian Journal of Soil Science. The Soil Science Society of
America. (:64). p. 1055- 1067. 96
Annex- I 112
LIST OF NATIONAL PARKS IN PAKISTAN (AS OF 2005) 112
COVER VALUE FOR SPECIES 122
1 122
2 122
3 122
4 122
5 122
6 122
7 122
8 122
9 122
10 122
DOMIN- KRAJINA VALUE 122
Annex- VI 123

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park i
FUEL WOOD CONSUMPTION DATA 123
Annex- VII 93
Asslam’o aliaikum! 94
Saadullah Ayaz 94
FACILITY 96

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park ii
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

AOI Area of Interest


BA Bioregional Approach
BAP Biodiversity Action Plan of Pakistan
BR Biosphere Reserve
CBCP Community Based Conservation Paradigm
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio Summit 1992)
CDA Capital Development Authority, Islamabad
DEM Digital Elevation Model
DIC Digital Image Classification
FCC False Color Composite
GIS Geographic Information System
GPS Global Positioning System
ha. Hectares
IADB Inter- American Development Bank
ICDP Integrated Conservation and Development Paradigm
ICT Islamabad Capital Territory
IUCN The World Conservation Union
km Kilometer
LCC Lambert Conformal Conic
m Meters
MBC Meso- American Biological Corridor
MCIC Margallah Conservation and Information Centre
MHNP Margallah Hills National Park
NVRPA Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority
PAs Protected Areas
PCDR Parallelpiped Classification Decision Rule
PEPC Pakistan Environmental Protection Council
PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal
PSL Pseudo- species Level
RRA Rapid Rural Appraisal

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park iii
RA Reciprocal Averaging Ordination
RMSE Root Mean Square Error
SED Spectral Euclidean Distance
TM Thematic Mapper
TPPAP Traditional Parks and Protected Areas Paradigm
TWINSPAN Two- Way Indicator Species Analysis
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
WCMC World Conservation and Monitoring Centre
WWF World Wide Fund

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park iv
LIST OF FIGURES

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park v
LIST OF TABLES

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park vi
LIST OF ANNEXURES

Annex- I List of National Parks in Pakistan 112

Annex- II Flora of Margallah Hills National Park 113

Annex- III Fauna of Margallah Hills National Park 116

Annex- IV Relevant Web Sites 119

Annex- V Performa for Phytosociological Data 121

Annex- VI Performa for Fuel- wood Consumption 122

Annex- VII Socio- economic Questionnaire 123

Annex- VIII Performa for Ecological Data 124

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park vii
Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park viii
ACKNOWLDEGEMENTS

I invoke all due praises to Almighty Allah, who bestowed with me with labor, knowledge and intelligence to
successfully complete this task. All respect to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) for enlightening my conscience with
the essence of faith in Allah, converging all His kindness and mercies upon me.

I am immensely pleased to acknowledge the keen and persistent support extended by Prof. Dr. Samina
Jalali, Chairperson, Department of Biological Sciences and former Chairperson Dr. Afsari Qureshi. Their
overall patronization was extremely helpful in completing the work.

Owing great debt of gratitude, I would thank Prof. Dr. Tahira Ahmed for taking up the responsibility as my
supervisor. Her patience, guidance, encouragement, scholarly supervision and selfless help have been the
sole asset during the course of this research.

Many sincere thanks are extended to my friend Zafeer Saqib, Ph. D Scholar, who spent his days and nights
working with me.

The technical help provided by Mr. Salman Ashraf, Head GIS at WWF Lahore, is praise worthy. He
contributed his precious time in analysis the GIS data. Special thanks are extended to Asim Daud Rana
(WWF- Lahore) for helping with the analysis and maintaining high esteem of professionalism.

I am extremely grateful to Dr. Ghulam Akbar, Head, WWF- Islamabad for his guidance. Mr. Qasim,
Manager WWF Islamabad, Mr. Babar Coordinator Environmental Education WWF and Mr. Yasir Aziz,
Environmental Education Officer WWF are also thanked for their cooperation.

No proper words can be used to thank my worthy teachers Prof. Dr. Rizwana Aleem and Prof. Dr. Mir Ajab
for being a source of information on the technical side. The name of Mushtaq Ahmad from Plant Taxonomy
Lab is specially mentioned in this regard.

Mr. Aurangzeb Awan, Deputy Director Forests from CDA, is acknowledged for his kind cooperation and for
being my host at the Margallah Hills National Park.

This publication is an outcome of the precious contributions made by a number of professionals from a
broad range of disciplines. I thank them all for sharing their valuable knowledge. They include; Kashif
Sheikh (Biodiversity Programme IUCN), Mr. Abid Ghafoor (Asst. Prof. Arid University) and Dr. Maqsood
Anwar (NARC Islamabad).

The great endurance of Lateef, Arjumand and Lubna, from Arid Agriculture University and my friend Aamir
Jadoon (Plant Scientist) are praise worthy, who accompanied me in field facing the rugged conditions and
hot weather.

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park ix
I cherish the sweet moments spent with my lab fellows; Sadiq Ibrahim, Raheel Zuberi, Audil Rasheed,
Sheikh Saeed, Syeda Maria Ali, Syeda Hina Fatima, Naseem Sheikh, Majahabeen Niazi, Ayesha Karamat,
Saira Naqvi, Yasmeen Zafar, Mohammad Ishtiaq, Waqar Ahmad, Waqar Azeem and Hina Naureen. The
fellows; Mr. Khalid and Mr. Mohammad Afzal are also duly acknowledged for their help in the lab.

My senior lab fellows Dr. Ghulam Ali Awan and Mr. Rizwan, Irshad are specially thanked for enriching my
technical knowledge and providing with valuable suggestions in carrying out the research. Dearest friend
Abdul Qadir is thanked for lending a helping hand and facilitation during the work.

I pay tribute to my father Dr. Mohammad Ayaz, Park Planner, WWF- Pakistan (Ex- Director General,
Pakistan Forest Institute) and brother, Abdullah Ayaz (Ex- Project Officer, WWF) for their love and
encouragement. In fact their technical know how in the subject matter guided me all the way.

Utmost respect is offered to Dr. Mohammad Mumtaz Malik, Chief Conservator of Wildlife, NWFP for
providing me with an opportunity to be a part of the conservation efforts in Pakistan.

The privilege of having company of my friends can never be forgotten. They include: Ishtiaq Hussain (Plant
Physiology), Munawar Ahmad (Bio Technology), Faisal Nouroz (Plant Physiology), Fazal Hadi (Phyto-
hormones), Mohammad Ismail (Microbiology), Aqeel Saleem (Microbiology), Zakir Hussain (Taxonomy),
Dr. Athar Abbas (Microbiology), Wajahat Ali (Taxonomy), Amir Jadoon (Computer Sciences), Amir Jadoon
(Geo Physics) and many others.

Special credit goes to my cousin and friend Fakhr e Alam from Gray Matter Graphics, for graphical
designing and preparing the layout of this publication.

Saadullah Ayaz

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park x
ABSTRACT

National parks are being managed round the world by making use of different tools in order to safeguard
biodiversity and ecosystems. Ecological zonation is one of the tools, which is used to delineate an area into
different sub- units (zones) on the basis of their ecological characteristics. It is a geographically based
procedure through which it became possible to integrate the ecological, social and cultural values of the
ecosystems. Its main objective is to regulate and manage the use of resources in the defined sub- areas
and also allows protection of sensitive areas.

This study deals with the ecological zonation of the Margallah Hills National Park (MHNP) in order to
ensure its effective management. The zones were declared on the basis of ecological features, nature of
land use and the services being derived. For this purpose assessment of the area was done by evaluation
of the state of vegetation, ecological parameters and socio- economic survey in order to assess the burden
on the resources of the national park.

Flora was used as an indicator of forest biodiversity. A total of 44 randomly as well as systematically laid
stands (comprising of 10 quadrats in each stand) were laid in the park area. The data collected included
species composition and cover percentage. The ecological data on the parameters of logging/ lopping,
grazing, erosion, fire, agriculture and stone quarries was collected by using various disturbance indicators
and their verifiers.

The geographical data was collected by recording the coordinates for field using Geographical Positioning
System (GPS) during the phytosociological and ecological survey.

The phytosociological data was processed by using TURBOVEG®. The cover values of flora were instated
into TWINSPAN (Two Way INdicator Species ANalysis), which resulted in identification of thirteen plant
communities in the Margallah Hills National Park.

Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for spatio- temporal analysis, in which the ground truthed
vegetation and ecological data were analyzed in order to generate vegetation classification and distribution

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park xi
maps. GIS software ARCView® 3.1 was used for this analysis. The Supervised Image Classification by
Maximum Likelihood Algorithm was used on a geo- rectified satellite image of the park area.

The logical units for zonation were marked on the basis of easily recognizable topographic features such
as: major creeks, distinct ridges and roads and the study area was divided into 64 logical zonation units.

The phytosociological and ecological data was analyzed and applied to the zonation units. Based on the
subjective classification, the zonation was carried out. In first step the area was divided into two major
classes/ categories viz., scrub zone and pine zone. Similarly the sub- zones were formed on the basis of
presence of erosion/ bare soil in each of the major classes. In the next step, the management zones were
declared upon the presence to exotic species in the area.

The core biodiversity zones were declared upon the criteria that they harbor a great diversity of species and
at the same time have not been significantly impacted and altered by human activities. About 70 percent of
the original habitat in such zones is intact. Based on the subjective classification, a principle tree was
prepared to carry out zonation. The core biodiversity zones were marked in each of the pine and scrub
vegetation zone. Eight of the logical units were marked as core zone in the scrub vegetation while seven in
the pine vegetation.

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park xii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1 INTRODUCTION

The earth’s biological resources are vital to our economic and social development (Annan 2000). The
diversity of life forms on earth is essential for maintaining the ecological balance among the organisms
(Jeffrey et al. 1994). Biodiversity is the key indicator of health of the environment in which we live (BAP
2000). Our cultural identity is deeply rooted in our biological environment. Plants and animals are symbols
of our world, preserved in flags, sculptures and other images that define us and our society. We draw
inspiration just from looking at the nature’s beauty (Annan 2000). Due to its crucial role in our lives, there is
a growing recognition that biological diversity is a global asset of tremendous value (UNEP- WCMC 1998).

About 1.75 million species have been identified on earth, though estimates range from 3 to 100 million
(CBD 1992). While considering the Global Biodiversity Index (UNEP-WCMC 2002), our country Pakistan is
located in such a position, where there is medium level of species richness (Fig. 1.1). The species diversity
of Pakistan includes: about, 5,500 to 6,000 species of vascular plants (Nasir & Ali 1979) and around 3,000
indigenous crop verities. The faunal diversity includes; 174 mammals (BAP 2000), 668 birds (Roberts
1991), around 177 species of reptiles, 22 species of amphibians, 198 freshwater fishes and about 5,000
species of invertebrates (BAP 2000) have been recorded from the country.

On the basis of tremendous variation in its ecological features, Pakistan has been divided into nine
ecological zones by World Wide Fund (WWF) in 1998 (Figure 1.2), which shows the great ecological
diversity of our country.

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

(Source: National Biodiversity Index UNEP- WCMC 2002.)

Fig: 1.1. An Index of Diversity from a Database of Species Richness and Endemism in
Countries around the World

The loss of biodiversity threatens our existence and also interferes with essential ecological functions.
Threats to species and ecosystem have never been so great as they are today. Human population places
greater demands on ecosystems, as a result species extinction continues at an alarming rate (WWF 1998).
Ecosystems are being fragmented or eliminated. Population of innumerable species is declining and many
are already extinct. These extinctions are irreversible (BirdLife 2004) and pose a threat to our own well-
being. The loss of biodiversity often reduces the productivity of ecosystems and weakens their ability to
deal with natural disasters such as floods, droughts, and hurricanes, and with human- caused stresses,
such as pollution and climate change.

Today the ecological threat is greatest with continuing loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitats. The
biodiversity is fast heading towards complete annihilation (IUCN 2000). Loss of habitats is the principal
cause of the present high rate of global extinction and poses a severe threat to all ecosystems (UNEP-
WCMC 1998). Keeping in view its tremendous value, efforts are being made to conserve biodiversity
around the world.

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Fig: 1.2. Ecological Zones in Pakistan

The conservation of biodiversity revolves around different approaches. One of the important is by
management of ecosystems in form of various protected areas (Dourojeanni 2000). National parks are
among such ecologically significant areas that are managed to safeguard biodiversity (Maxakovsky 2002).
These parks are being managed around the world to conserve their intrinsic worth and typical ecosystem,
landscape and the cultural elements and to allow the ecological cycle propagate itself in its original state
(WWF 1998). In order to conserve its rich biodiversity and to protect the ecological integrity of its rich
ecosystems, Pakistan has declared 17 of its ecologically significant areas as national parks (IUCN 2000).
(List attached as Annex- I).

For meeting conservation objectives, the national parks are being managed by making use of different
tools. Zonation is one of such tools that is important for national park management (Trisurat 1990) and has
already been widely and effectively used in different countries (Akbar 2003).

Zonation is a term used by conservation planners to denote the division of land into logical units, in order to
limit or manage use in sub defined areas (Trisurat 1990). It is carried out often to regulate activity in a
particular area to meet management objectives, usually related to conservation (Jain 1997). The purpose of

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

zoning is to carry out land- use planning and to separate areas with similar sets of potentials and
constraints for development (FAO 1996). It is a kind of grouping of various resource functions according to
different levels of management restrictions (Muziol 1999). Specific programmes can then be formulated to
provide the most effective support to each zone (FAO 1996). The major objective is to safeguard various
resource functions by ensuring that management is compatible with the prevailing conditions of the area, so
that the different interests of natural environment and human society are reconciled and balanced (FAO
1996).

Zonation is a geographically based procedure that communicates specific resource management objectives
and strategies. It takes into account ecosystem structure, function and sensitivity as well as the
opportunities for existing and potential public use. Through zonation it becomes possible to integrate the
ecological, social and cultural values of the ecosystems (Rao 2001). The zonation tool is applied on the
basis of primary determined goals, objectives, resource analyses and the use capabilities of the park
landscape. It helps the resource managers by separating areas of conflicting uses and in managing areas
for multiple uses (Trisurat 1990).

Zonation also helps in regulating and managing the use of resources in defined sub- areas and also allows
protection of sensitive areas (Muziol 1999). It thus ensures concentration of conservation efforts on those
areas that are most vulnerable, which are regarded as: “Core Zones”. The idea of core zone is analogous
to the concept of “Biodiversity Hotspots”, as described by British ecologist Norman Myers in 1998 (Mayers
1998). He designated areas in which there is a disproportionate number of endemic species and are losing
habitat at a high rate.

The basic concept of zonation system follows Mayers concept, which suggests a highly protected core area
surrounded by a buffer zone. The core area protects critical habitat and species and the buffer zone allows
a broader range of uses and is intended to insulate the core from threats to its conservation status (Trisurat
1990). The level of detail to which a zone is defined depends on the scale of the study and sometimes on
the power of the data processing facilities (FAO 1996). This idea can be applied at a range of levels from
defining management zones in individual protected areas to planning landscape or ecosystem conservation
schemes where only the core areas are represented by protected areas (IUCN 2003).

The chapter (Applying the Categories) in IUCN’s 1994 “Guidelines for Protected Area Management
Categories”, deals with zonation of protected areas. The guidelines recognize that zonation is an accepted
feature of the management of many protected areas and states that; “…management plans will often
contain management zones for a variety of purposes….”. The IUCN guidelines also recommend that zones
within protected areas should be identified separately for accounting and reporting purposes. The need for
carrying out zonation in protected areas is also highly emphasized in the Biodiversity Action Plan for
Pakistan (BAP 2000), which addresses the biodiversity conservation issue by stating that; “…Most
ecological zones are not adequately presented within the protected areas system”.

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

The process of zonation involves the use of various complex spatio- temporal ecological assessments.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is one of such powerful tools, which is used for representation and
analysis of such ecological functions (Ballantyne 1994). It is a computer based system for the management
and analysis of spatially referenced data and can also be used to create ecological maps for easier input,
storage, manipulation and output (Nicholas 1998).

GIS and remote sensing in combination are used in vegetation or ecotype analysis, habitat evaluation and
monitoring the progress of conservation activities and quantifying spatial patterns of ecosystems. This tool
can be used to geographically display objects according to the attributes in the database (Davis et al.
1990). GIS has already been successfully used in protected areas management (Yan & Fellows 1996) and
also for carrying out zonation of such areas (Amarakul & Sanyong 2002).

This study deals with the ecological zonation of the Margallah Hills National Park, in order to carry out the
ecological assessment of the natural resources and provide future guidelines for its effective management.
The objectives of the study are;

1. To collect data of different ecological parameters in Margallah Hills National Park, in order to
study the state of biodiversity and natural resources,

2. To study the phytosociology and identify the major plant communities of the area,

3. Conduct baseline socio- economic survey and access the effect of biotic activities on the
vegetation of area,

4. Characterize and prepare GIS based thematic vegetation classification map of the Margallah
Hills National Park,

5. To delineate the Margallah Hills National Park into different ecological zones, on basis of the
ecological features, nature of land use and the services being derived,

6. To identify Core Biodiversity Zones for conservation.

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The present study aims at the ecological zonation of Margallah Hills National Park. For the purpose a
review of literature was made on different aspects of this study which is presented as follows:

2.1. Biodiversity and Protected Areas

“Biological diversity” or “biodiversity” is the term given to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns
it forms. It constitutes the web of life, of which we are an integral part and upon which we fully depend
(UNEP 2002).

At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on a comprehensive strategy for
sustainable development, that focuses on meeting our needs while ensuring that we leave a healthy and
viable world for future generations. The key agreement adopted was the Convention of Biodiversity (CBD
1992) also called the “Rio Summit”. It defines biodiversity as: “The variety and variability among living
organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological
complexes of which they are part. This includes the diversity within and between ecosystems. It comprises
of three distinct levels and components, (i) ecological diversity, (ii) species diversity and (iii) ecosystem
diversity” (CBD 1992).

The rich tapestry of life on our planet is the outcome of over 3.5 billion years of evolutionary history. It has
been shaped by forces such as changes in the earth's crust, ice ages, fire, and interaction among all these.
Now, it is increasingly being altered by human activities (UNEP 2002). Explaining the current conditions of
life around the globe, Croombridge and Jenkins in 2001, prepared a report that was published by United
Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation and Monitoring Centre (UNEP- WCMC) in
which, focus was laid on the patterns of global biodiversity. They explained that the natural patterns in
global biodiversity are now obscured by changes brought about by human influence, which is a factor of
overwhelming significance in distribution and status of habitats of all the varieties of flora and fauna.

Our country Pakistan is blessed with a variety of biotic resources. Many studies were done in this regard.
While addressing the importance of biodiversity Mirza in 1998, wrote about the animal biodiversity. He has
described all the habitat types in the country from tropical swaps upto the alpine regions and described all
the associated key animal species, by creating pictorial illustrations of fauna of the eco- zones of Pakistan.

Being a progressive nation and in order to conserve its ecological integrity, Pakistan became a signatory to
the CBD in 1992 and ratified it in 1994. In order to meet the planning requirements of the convention, a
comprehensive strategic and policy frame work was prepared in Pakistan, that is called Biodiversity Action
Plan (BAP 2000). It was prepared after a broad level of consultation with the different stake holders. BAP
lays emphasis on the current status of the biodiversity of Pakistan. It describes the principle goals and

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

broad aims along with planning policies, legislation and the tools for biodiversity conservation and suggests
the necessary measures for the implementation of the conservation efforts in the country.

The objectives of conservation of biological diversity cannot be met without studying the ecosystem
functions. National park being ecologically significant areas are managed to conserve biodiversity and other
natural resources. Many studies are conducted around the world to study the ecology and management of
national parks, some of them are summarized as:

Studying the biodiversity in protected areas, a survey was conducted in 2003 in Great Menderes Delta
National Park of Turkey by Celik et al. In this report they emphasized on the protection of landscapes and
declaration of more protected areas as degradation of lands due to demographic pressures which resulted
in loss of biodiversity. Their investigation dealt with the biodiversity and forest formations in area of Dilek
Penninsula. They outlined different plant communities and described the role of forest formations as
ecologically important biotopes as an important habitats for a number of species.

Focusing on the biodiversity in our country, IUCN- The World Conservation Union in 2000, published a
review of the Protected Area Systems in Pakistan. It gives a detailed analysis of the current situation of the
protected areas in the country and describes the history of setting up and management of these areas.
Protected areas system planning is a systematic logical, organized and goal oriented approach to the
planning and designation of protected areas. This report gives description and situational analysis of all the
protected areas in country and emphasizes on the different conservation needs in Pakistan.

Floral assessment is an important criterion for the assessment of life forms and habitat of an area.
Phytosociology is the science that describes the diversity in plant communities. It is the study of the
characteristics, classification, relationships, and distribution of plant communities (The American Heritage
Dictionary, 4th edn.). Phytosociology attempts to describe the diversity in plant communities and its
methods often involve the quantative estimation of various parameters of vegetation like cover, abundance
and frequency etc. Plant scientists have tried to apply different methods for quantitative estimation of
vegetation. TWINSPAN (Hill 1979), is one of the classification utilities that is most widely used by
phytosociologists for floral biodiversity assessment. It is a FORTRAN based program for Two- Way
INdicator SPecies ANalysis and is an improvement upon the original Indicator Analysis. The results
obtained by TWINSPAN are similar to that of Braun- Blanquet’s table arrangements.

Making use of TWINSPAN numerical analysis, Du- Preez and Venter in 1990 studied the woody-
vegetation in the southern part of Verdefort Dome area in South Africa. They further refined their results
using Braun- Blanquet’s procedures. This analysis resulted in the identification of four sub- communities of
trees. Difference in species composition between the communities and sub- communities was found related
to difference in topography of the area.

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Similarly Hennekens in 1995, introduced the use of TURBO(VEG). It is a computer based software
package that is now being used for input processing and presentation of phytosociological data.

2.2. Geographic Information System (GIS) in Biodiversity Assessment

In the fast changing world different specialized tools are being tested and are used for the assessment of
biodiversity of a particular area. These often include the use of advance techniques and computer
softwares, in order to speed up the task and get reliable assessments. Geographic Information System is
one of such tool that is currently being used for such purposes. It has proved to be useful in analyzing the
spatio- temporal attributes of biodiversity, including: habitat inventories and distribution mapping of
ecosystems. Various studies on the use of GIS in assessment of biodiversity are discussed below:

In a study conducted by Horta in 2002, Geographic Information System was used to map the floral
diversity. Landsat TM image, topographic maps and Digital Elevation Model were used to perform Principal
Component Analysis and maps of the human influence on the ecosystem were generated. The sample
plots were classified according to variation in vegetation degradation. They used regression analysis to
investigate the relationship between vegetation degradation and human and physical factors.

For ecosystem conservation, data is needed on all the elements of diversity, that also includes the factor
associated with increasing or decreasing species richness. Iverson and Anthana in 1998, estimated the
regional plant biodiversity using the GIS modeling techniques in counties of Illinois, USA. Their results
showed that several landscape patterns have general negative influence on plant diversity and species
richness increases with the proportion of forest lands.

Identification of potential habitat sites is a prerequisite of possible subsequent protection of threatened


wildlife in Thailand. Mongkolsawat and Thirangoon (2001), in their study identified potential habitat sites for
7 wildlife species in Phusitan Wildlife Sanctuary. The habitat influencing factors included: forest type,
topography, water resource and distance from human activity centers etc. They applied GIS to each model
in order to identify the most suitable and moderately suitable habitats. Landsat imagery and topographic
maps were employed to generate thematic layers relevant to each model in the GIS database.

Using GIS for habitat analysis, Ahmad in 2001, carried out mapping of dry scrub forest for biodiversity
conservation planning in Salt Range of Pakistan. Remote sensing and GIS were regarded as powerful and
useful tools for biodiversity assessment. He employed Gap Analysis and Rapid Biodiversity Appraisal
methods for the study. The results indicated a total of 17 forest fragments and found that there was a
difference in the forest condition. He results showed that most of the identified priority forest patches were
excluded from the highest levels of protection in the existing management plans.

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.3. Ecological Zonation and Biodiversity Core Zones/ Hotspots

The ecological zonification approach has been widely used in different countries for management of the
natural resources in the protected areas. Literature was reviewed regarding various aspects, which is
presented as follows:

Forest zonation is the most important strategic planning tool for multi- functional forest management.
Explaining this, Muziol in 1999, assessed the condition of the forest resources in Kuala Terengganu in
Malaysia. He used the process of zonation for overlapping the different levels of restrictiveness in forest
areas, in order to improve the management in the specific areas. These could be conservation, tourism and
other type of productive uses of forest resources.

A relationship between forest and environment which includes both the demographic and social
components was explained by Vargas and his colleagues in 1995. They aimed to discern management
zones based on the ecology of oak in states of Jalisco and Colima in Mexico. In their investigation, they
used classification and ordination techniques in order to recognize groups based on species composition
and stand structure in order to identify the environmental parameters that cause variation in the species
composition of these oak forests. Based on this approach they were successful in determining the
ecological parameters that determined the distribution of vegetation in the area.

The zonation process can also be applied to the ecosystems within the protected areas. National park
zoning is a park management device that is applied on the basis of pre determined goals, objectives,
resource analyses and the use capabilities of the park landscape. In 1990, Trisurat and his co- workers
illustrated the practical application of zonation tool in Phu Rua National Park in Thailand. GIS technique
was applied to evaluate the location of the zones. They were successful in demarcation of different zones
base on demography and ecology of the area.

The proper and improper activities in different ecological zones should be decided by consensus of all the
stakeholders. Explaining this, Amarkul and Sirirat in 2001, developed detailed criteria for declaration of
different zones in Phitsanulo Province of Thailand. They also described the role of applying GIS in
developing the strategy for sustainable development in such ecologically significant areas. They
emphasized on the management of resources by delineating the area into protection, production,
development and multiple use zones.

Identification of biodiversity core zones is based on the high concentration of unique wildlife as explained
by Kemp in 2001. In his project document he identified the biodiversity hotspots in order to establish
conservancies in areas around Australia. He further mentioned that hotspots are declared upon two criteria
one revolves round that there are real conservation threats to wildlife in these key areas and the second in
terms of degree of endemism in the area.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Zonation tool has also been tested in Pakistan. While applying this, Akbar in 2003 carried out the zonation
of the valley catchments of Bar Palas valley in district Kohistan. Realizing the variation in the socio-
economic and ecological dimensions of the area, he demarcated the core and buffer zones in the valley
based on the demographic, socio- economic and ecological dimension. He suggested that the area which
is recommended as “Core zone” must be restricted for uses like fuel wood collection and grazing in order to
provide maximum protection to wildlife for their undisturbed breeding, feeding and refuge.

2.3.1. The Paradigms of Zonation

Natural resources do not exist in isolation, their quality and magnitude over different temporal and
spatial scales varies as a result of interaction of biophysical forces. Human beings are the major
interacting variables. Zonation is an option for effective yet sustainable management of natural
resources in a given situation. Anon in 2002, described the different paradigms for the zonation of
protected areas, which are:

Traditional Parks and Protected Areas Paradigm (TPPAP)

This paradigm is based on traditional approach to conservation and management of protected


areas. It gives the idea of eliminating the human component altogether from the conservation area,
which is declared as “Core Zone” and is set aside in total seclusion and is separated from human
influence by erection of boundaries or fences. The area is intensely protected and resource use is
not allowed inside the hard edged boundaries.

This paradigm failed because it created multitude of problems mainly because of eliminating the
stakes of local communities and of the limited resources to erect huge fences around the area or
hire manpower to enforce strict management.

Fig. 2.1. Traditional Parks and Protected Areas Paradigm (TPPAP)

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Integrated Conservation and Development Paradigm (ICDP)

According to this paradigm the core zone is protected by a buffer zone which surrounds it and
where economic incentives are provided for the local communities in lieu of restricting their
activities in the core zone. Buffers zone functions to filter out negative impacts moving into and out
from core areas. This model is widely used in developing world and currently being applied in
Pakistan.

However, this paradigm also has some drawbacks like; lack of monitoring of the magnitude of
threats and improper measures to mitigate these threats.

Fig. 2.2. Integrated Conservation and Development Paradigm (ICDP)

Community- Based Conservation Paradigm (CBCP)

This idea started to emerge in late 1980s. According to it, the biodiversity conservation issue in an
area is merged with the demographic component. This approach emphasizes on developing direct
links between biodiversity and the local communities with the developing of understanding that if
people start realizing the benefits of biodiversity, they will not only care for it but also take actions
to mitigate internal and external threats to biodiversity.

It however takes much longer to establish such links between local communities and biodiversity
for sustainable conservation and requires capacity building and creating sense of ownership and
understanding among the custodian communities.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Fig. 2.3. Community- Based Conservation Paradigm (CBCP)

Besides these paradigms, some other approaches are also being tested, they are:

The Meso- American Biological Corridor (MBC)

This concept was proposed by Wilson & Willis in 1975 and was tested in Central America, which
aims to conserve biological diversity while fostering sustainable development and promoting eco-
friendly production alternatives. Its particular significance lies in the scope and complexity of its
goals and the wide range of institutions and social actors. It involves and emphasizes on
connectivity between habitats and focuses on growing awareness of the need to maintain links
between biological habitat areas to ensure survival and aims to maximize the conservation
functions of protected areas by promoting forms of land- use in the wider landscape that offer both
conservation benefits and sustainable livelihoods. It gives the ideas of four zones, that are:

Core Zones: are locations designated as protected areas, designed to provide secure habitats for
wild fauna and flora.

Buffer Zones: surround protected areas and function to filter out negative impacts moving into and
out from these areas.

Corridor Zones: link core areas with one another and either remain under natural vegetation, or are
managed to ensure that human land- uses are compatible with the maintenance of a high degree
of biological connectivity.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Multiple- Use Zones: are devoted primarily to human use, but managed to facilitate the creation of
broader landscapes that are hospitable to wild species. Each type of zone provides both ecological
and socio- economic benefits as part of an integrated system for regional land- use.

Fig. 2.4. The Meso- American Biological Corridor (MBC)

Bioregional Approach (BA)

Bioregional approach is considered to be a modern idea for the conservation of resources. It


defines a geographic space that contains one or several whole nested ecosystems that are
characterized by its landforms, vegetation, human culture and history etc. This approach gives the
idea of conserving biodiversity at the ecosystem, landscape or regional scale rather than in single
protected areas and that this form of conservation planning should include programmes for
restoration activities and the integration of economic land use with biodiversity conservation.

Fig. 2.5. Bioregional Approach (BA)

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Biosphere Reserves (BR)

This concept comes from UNESCO (1968) and is compatible with IUCN Protected Areas
Management Categories, which addresses the effective planning and management of these areas.
It promotes solution to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity along with its sustainable use,
ensuring an interaction and balance of humans with nature.

The boundaries of biosphere reserves are not static. Its concept is based on two distinct
management tools, (i) participatory management approach and (ii) a geographical zoning scheme.
The zoning schemes give and idea of three zones, that are:

Core Zone: are legally protected and devoted to the conservation of the biodiversity.

Buffer Zone: surrounds core area where only activities compatible with the conservation objectives
are allowed.

Transition Zone: surrounds the buffer zone where sustainable resource management initiatives and
practices are allowed, with the cooperation of the population. The management of this area is done
according to the local custom of the communities.

Fig. 2.6. Biosphere Reserve (BR)

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.4. Margallah Hills National Park

Margallah Hills National Park (MHNP) is one of the important protected areas in Pakistan. It is being
studied for its ecological significance. The various studies conducted in the MHNP are reviewed as:

Vegetation and soil survey was conducted at various topographic levels of Chirani Peak by Sultan in 1990.
He described the various plant communities and the altitudinal variation in forest crop in relation to the
properties of soil in Margallah Hills National Park.

Fatima in 1999, studied the phytosociology along both sides of the streams of the catchment area of Rawal
lake in Islamabad. She used TWINSPAN in order to analyze the collected data. Selecting 7 stands in total
she divided the area in two major zones i.e. one with less disturbed Dodonaea viscosa vegetation that is
native to Margallah Hills and the other more disturbed area with widely spreading Lantana camara
vegetation along with a number of annual grasses.

A comparison of the burnt and un- burnt sites with the overall effect of fire occurrences on vegetation, soil
and viability of vesicular- mycorrhizal propagules was made by Rashid in 1995. The study was conducted
on fire behavior in relation to its ecological effects in Margallah Hills. He found that the burnt plots were rich
in nutrients, but were devoid of any stratification. Soil nutrients increased after fire occurrence then
gradually decreased to the level of un- burnt soils. He also concluded that the burnt plots were subjected to
severe erosion due to exposed slopes on which the vegetation was lost due to fire.

A preliminary study on the phytosociology of Islamabad was carried out by Khattak in 1989. He selected 30
stands on the basis of uniform physiognomy of the vegetation and made ecological observations and
recognized an independent community in each stand on the basis of highest importance value. He
reported that the general vegetation was mesophytic in central part of Islamabad with a little original
vegetation that prevailed at the periphery of the city.

In order to study the floral diversity and to highlight conservation problems in MHNP, Malik in 1999 followed
the stratified random sampling techniques. In the analysis Supervised Classification by using Maximum
Likelihood Algorithm was used. Thus she prepared a thematic vegetation map by making use of SPOT XS
scene.

To assess the habitat suitability for the mammals, Anwar in 1997, conducted a study on the distribution of
barking deer in the Margallah ranges. He studied the population status and distribution of the species and
reported its association with different plant communities. He concluded that human induced disturbances
have resulted in the habitat destruction, which is the principle cause of population decline of mammal
species in the area.

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1. SITE DESCRIPTION

The Margallah Hills National Park is one of the ecologically significant protected areas in Pakistan. It was
established on 27th April 1980 by the Federal Government, vide order No. S.R.O 443 [1] /80. (ICT), in order
to preserve the natural landscape of the surroundings of the capital city and biodiversity of the area. The
total area of the National Park is 158,83 ha (Management Plan 1992).

The park area represents a scrub forest ecosystem which is considered to be of great ecological importance
due to its species diversity. The proximity of the park to the capital city is its uniqueness. Due to the variety
of its land- use types, the Margallah Hills National Park is considered as a remarkable blend of cultural,
biological, physiographic and recreational avenues.

A view of the Faisal Mosque and Islamabad city is shown in Fig 3.1, where as a detailed Map of Margallah
Hills National Park is shown in Fig. 3.2.

Fig 3.1. View of Faisal Mosque from Margallah Hills National Park

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials and Methods

N

Fig. 3.2. Map of Margallah Hills National Park

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1.1. Location

The Margallah Hills National Park is located in the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) and forms the
northern boundary of Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan.

The area of park lies between geographical coordinates:

330 36’ to 360 33’ N latitude


and 720 50’ to 730 26’ E longitudes

The national park area abodes diverse ecological features. Due to the variability of its land- types
the national park is divided into three components that are:

Margallah Hills

Comprises of most of the Margallah mountainous range, it stretches in north- west of Islamabad
city. The total area of Margallah hills range falling in the national park is 12,605 ha. (Mgt. Plan
1992). It stretches in east towards Murree hills and in west up to the Wah Cement Industries. To the
north it is bounded by the capital boundary behind which lies the district of Haripur, (NWFP).

Rawal Lake

The area of this component is 19,02 ha. including a 2 km perimeter around its lakeshore. It
comprises of a perennial water reservoir with a total capacity of 47,500 acre foot (Mgt. Plan 1992)
Fig. 3.3. The lake provides water for domestic use to the habitants of Rawalpindi. Besides being a
favorite picnic spot, it is also a winter stop- over ground for a number of waterfowl. It serves as a
source of irrigation water for the local farms and also serves in buffering against floods. The
catchment area of Rawal Lake is spread over 275 sq km (Mgt. Plan 1992) and is drained by
Kaurang river, which originates from Murree hills towards north- east.

Fig. 3.3. View of Rawal Lake

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Shakarparian

It is an urban, spacious and partially developed recreational place with a total area of 13,76 ha.
(Mgt. Plan 1992). Shakarparian provides out door recreation and hosts sports and cultural activities.
It includes number of gardens and a sports complex. Shakarparian also hosts a Lok Virsa Museum
and Open Air Theatre and Pakistan Museum of Natural History.

3.1.2. Topography

The topography of the area varies from steep to precipitous, comprising mainly of steep slopes and
gullies of varying elevation from 465 m to 1600 m (Nasir & Ali 1979). Fig. 3.4. The highest peak in
the park area is “Chirani” with a height of 1604 m (Mgt. Plan 1992) Fig. 3.5.

The rock structure is basically of lime stone (Mohammad 1990), predominantly comprised of
greenish- brown shale and the massive grayish- blue limestone. Geologically the rocks belong to
Paleocene and Eocene Period (40- 60 million years old). A fault zone can be traced along the foot
of Margallah hills stretching from Islamabad city up to the Murree town (Fatima 1999).

Fig. 3.4. Topography of Margallah Hills

The soils of the area are derived from wind and water laid deposits. The top soil is very thin
composed of silt clay with reddish appearance with color ranging from dark to yellow brown with a
medium structure and well developed profile. The slopes are mostly rocky having a spongy
structure and are comprised of calcimorphic gray brown soils (Fatima 1999).

The natural streams originating from these hills provide drinking water for all the inhabitants of the
surrounding areas and also support other domestic needs (Shinwari & Khan 2000).

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
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Fig. 3.5. A View of Chirani Peak (1604 m)

3.1.3. Climate

The climate of the area is sub- tropical with moderate summers and winters. The average
temperature is 94 0F. Snow is rare, the average rainfall being 1200 mm per annum (Hijazi 1984).
The maximum average temperature is recorded to be 134 0F in the month of June, while the
maximum precipitation is recorded to be 10 inches in months of July and August. The climatic data
for Islamabad is represented below in figures, 3.6 and 3.7.

Source: www.weatherbase.com
Fig. 3.6. Temperature Data for Islamabad

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Formatted: English (U.S.)

Source: www.weatherbase.com
Fig. 3.7. Precipitation Data for Islamabad

3.1.4. Flora

The area represents the sub- tropical broad leaved evergreen forest type Fig. 3.8. It includes about
608 species of plants, belonging to 101 families and 548 genera (Mohammad 1990). The dominant
species include: Kao (Olea cuspidata), Phulai (Acacia modesta), Bhaikar (Adhatoda vasica),
Granda (Carissa opaca) and Sunatha (Dodonaea viscosa). The vegetation above 1000 m elevation
falls in sub- tropical chir pine zone and comprises of pure stands of Chir (Pinus roxburghii). In some
places the vegetation is dominated by species like: Lantana camara and paper mulberry
(Broussonettia papyrifera). (Detailed floral list is attached as Annex- II.

Fig. 3.8. Vegetation of Margallah Hills

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1.5. Fauna

The park and adjacent areas host 250 species of birds, 38 mammals, 13 taxa of reptiles and
numerous taxa of insects (Mgt. Plan 1992). The key mammal species include: Common Leopard
(Panthera pardus), Rhesus Monkey (Macacca mulata), Gray Goral (Nemorhaedus goral), Barking
Deer (Muntiacus muntjak), Fox (Vulpes bengalensis), Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Porcupine (Hystrix
indica) and Fruit Bat (Pteropus giganteus).

The common bird species include: Himalayan Griffon (Gypus himalayensis), Spotted Owlet (Athene
brama), Rose- Ringed Parakeet (Pisttacula krameri), Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus), Common
Babbler (Turdoides caudatus) and Ringed Dove (Streptopelia decaocta).

The wetland component of the national park is a favorite stop- over ground for a variety of water
birds. (Fatima 1999). Water- fowl include: Marsh Harier (Circus aeruginosus), White- backed
Kingfisher (Halcyon smynrensis), Pintail (Anas acuta), Little Egret (Egretta grazatta) and Mallard
(Anas platyrhynchos).

The fish species in Rawal lake and its tributaries include: Doula (Channa channa), Rahu (Labeo
rohita), Thaila (Catla catla), Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala), Carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) and Talapia
(Tilapia mossambica). The detailed list of fauna is attached as (Annex- III).

3.1.6. Agriculture and Livestock

Majority of the people (about 60%) living in the park area are engaged in agriculture and livestock
production and marketing. They practice subsistence rain- fed agriculture with low yields (Fig. 3.9).
Wheat and corn are the main crops. Some farmers are also cultivating sorghum and practicing
kitchen gardening. In almost all villages farmers are the owners. There are no tenants or owner-
cum- tenants. The average size of livestock holding is five to six animals per household (Mustafa
2003).

Fig. 3.9. Subsistence Agriculture in Park Area

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1.7. Tourism

There are various recreational places in and around the MHNP. Rawal Lake provides fishing,
boating and swimming opportunities to a number of people. Shakarparian is a wonderful place for
those who wish to enjoy in seclusion. The Pakistan Museum of Natural History is located in
Shakarparian and aims at carrying research and providing information to the people about our rich
natural heritage. Lok Virsa Open Air Theatre hosts number of cultural and recreational shows every
year. The play land located near Marghazar is an excellent out door recreational place for children.
The zoo at Marghazar provides opportunities to folks to watch and carry out research of the
indigenous and some exotic animal and bird species.

The Capital Development Authority in collaborations with World Wide Fund (WWF- Pakistan) has
established a “Margallah Conservation and Information Centre (MCIC)” at Marghazar in order to
provide information about the MNHP and raise awareness about the natural resources and
conservation needs. The MCIC also provides information to students and researchers. Fig. 3.10.

Fig. 3.10. Margallah Conservation and Information Centre

Daman- e- Koh is a view point that provides panoramic view of the capital city. Chowki, Pir Sohawa
and Shahdara valley are ideal picnic spots for sight lovers. There are few caves located in the park
area which are a source of attraction for explorers Fig. 3.11.

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Fig. 3.11. Caves in Margallah Hills

The Shah Faisal Mosque, International Islamic University and Quaid- i- Azam University are
situated in the vicinity of the park. The famous archeological site of Taxila and the Taxila
Archeological Museum are also located at the north of MHNP.

The Margallah Hills also provide opportunity of hiking, camping, sight seeing and exploration to a
number of people. The tourist facilities comprise of a boating club, view points, tent village world,
camping sites, hiking and walking trails and a number of hotels and restaurants.

There are a number of spiritual shrines inside and around the national park area. These include: the
shrine of Saint Shah Abdul Lateef, who is famous by the name of “Bari Imam” and the shrine of Pir
Mehr Ali Shah, famous by the name of “Golra Sharif”. A large number of people visit these sacred
places to pay their respects and offer salutations and pray to Allah seeking their intercession.

3.1.8. Population and Social Structure

Human population in the national park is recorded to be 920,00 individuals, living in 37 villages or
small hamlets called Dhoks or Moras which are randomly distributed near or around water sources.
The gender distribution in the area is estimated with a male to female ratio of 55:65.
The traditional councils are called “Jirgas” which retain considerable authority in order of settling
disputes between families and make decisions for social welfare.

Most of the people in the locality work and do business in the twin cities of Islamabad and
Rawalpindi while others are dependent on subsistence agriculture and live stock rearing practices.
The average number of livestock population is 3 to 4 animal heads per house (Mustafa 2003). The
village wise profile of eight main villages is summarized in Table 3.1.

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Table 3.1. Demographic Data for Major Villages in MHNP


Village Population No. of Houses Avg. Household Size
Gokina Khurd 1800 – 2000 260 7
Gokina Kalan 1500 – 2000 270 6–7
Talhar 2800 – 3000 325 6–8
Shadara Kalan 2500 298 6–9
Shadara Khurd 900 – 1200 140 6–8
Mandla 1500 – 2000 206 4 – 10
Jhang Bagial 950 – 1200 110 8 – 10
Rumli 800 120 6–7
Source: (Mustafa 2003)

The communities in the park area are heavily dependant on park resources for timber, fuel wood,
non- timber forest products and subsistence agriculture. This is resulting in the rapid depletion of
natural resources. The deforestation is resulting in habitat shrinkage causing negative trends in the
population of wild flora and fauna which is ultimately adding to the unbalancing of ecosystem.

3.1.9. Management of Margallah Hills National Park

The management of the MHNP is the sole responsibility of the Environment Directorate of the
Capital Development Authority (CDA), which in collaboration with a number of Non Governmental
Organizations (NGOs) manages the national park. The park is divided into 31 beats for better
management. The over all management is supervised by the Director General Environment (CDA).
There is a Deputy Director, 3 Range Forest Officers and number of other support staff to manage
the national park. The office of the Environment Directorate of CDA is located in Sector F-9 in
Islamabad.

The management plan of the park was revised in 1992, by Government in collaborations with
IUCN- The World Conservation Union. It proposes a permanent committee comprising of
Government and Non Government bodies to give advice for the park management.

The resources of the park face the following major threats (Mgt. Plan 1992):

• Fuel wood cutting both for domestic and commercial purposes


• Overgrazing
• Encroachments on forest land for agriculture
• Poaching
• Forest fires
• Stone quarries
• Misuse of other natural resources
• Unorganized tourism

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.2. METHODOLOGY

The present study aims at the ecological zonation and identification of core zones of prime importance in
regard to biodiversity. For the purpose a detailed phytosociological, ecological and socio- economic survey
was conducted in the Margallah Hills National Park. The methodology of the study can be divided in to three
phases i. e:

3.2.1 Preparatory Phase


3.2.2 Field Data Collection Phase
3.2.3 Analyzing Phase

3.2.1. Preparatory Phase

To start with the research work detailed review of literature was carried out regarding various
aspects of the proposed title. Relevant papers were gathered on similar studies by making use of
libraries, relevant web- sites (Annex- IV) and by contacting researchers around the world personally
through post and email. A proposal was developed in order to outline the aims and objectives of the
study and for streamlining of the research work.

Development of Field Survey Performa and Socio- Economic Questionnaire

In order to collect data on different ecological parameters various field performa were developed.
These included: the performa for phytosociological data (Annex- V), fuel- wood consumption data
(Annex- VI) and ecological data (Annex- VII). Each of these performa was personally tested in field
and subsequent rectifications were made from time to time.

Planning of Field Visits

The planning for detailed field visits was done with the suggestions of experts who had a previous
experience of conducting field work in the area and by personal consultation with the local
inhabitants. Keeping in view the rugged field conditions and accessibility to the national park area
from different routes were discussed by making use of available maps.

Acquiring of Field Equipment and Area Maps

The necessary equipment and maps was collected for the study which were:

• Global Positioning System (GPS III) handheld receiver, Garmin 12 XL.


• Compass, clinometer, altimeter, an ordinary measuring tape.
• Digital Camera.
• Topographic Map (1:250 000 scale) of the area showing boundaries.
• Software, ESRI ARCView® 3.1 and ESRI ERDAS® Imagine.
• Satellite image of study of LANDSAT 5 TM with 30 m ground resolution.
• Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of study area with 30 m ground resolution.

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.2.2. FIELD DATA COLLECTION PHASE

For data collection a series of field visits were made to the Margallah Hills National Park. The area
was visited in the months of July, August and September 2004, from several locations in order to
make access to all the possible sampling sites. The different access routes were:

• From Murree Road to Shahdara and Rumli.


• From Marghazar to Damn- e- Koh, Chowki, Pir Sohawa and Makhnial.
• From Chowki to Gokina and Talhar.
• From G-11, to Shah Allah Ditta and Makhnial.
• From Kashmir Highway to Golra.
• Hike to Loi Dandi from Bari Imam.
• Hike to Shahdara from Quaid- i- Azam University.
• Hike from Faisal Mosque to Damn- e- Koh.

Phytosociological Survey

For the phytosociological assessment, a survey was conducted in the MHNP. Flora was used as an
indicator of forest biodiversity as suggested by Mayers (1998), Dallmeier (1998) and Reid et al.
(1993) due to the following reasons:

• Plants are easy to study because they are immobile.


• Plants are more sensitive to environmental changes, such as hydrologic or edaphic changes as
compared to wild animals.
• They are the basis of diversity in the taxonomic groups and are well known to researchers.
• Plants, in general, have a central role in terrestrial ecosystems and also provide adequate
information to interpret biodiversity indices.
• The diversity of plants in a region does not fluctuate over short time intervals.
• Data on plants is often available and easier to collect.
• Areas with high plant species richness tend to have high species richness in other groups of
animals.

As the area represents the sub- tropical broad leaved evergreen vegetation and is dominated by the
shrubby and medium sized trees, so quadrat size suitable for scrub vegetation was selected. Each
of the stand comprised of ten quadrats with a size of 100 m2 (10 x 10 m). Thus a total of 44 stands
were laid in the park area. Measuring tape and objects like colored ribbons and stones were used in
field to define the quadrats. The stands were laid randomly as well as systematically in field in order
to cover the variation of vegetation for different site conditions. The following two parameters were
considered for defining the stands:

I. The stand was large enough to contain all the species belonging to the plant community.
II. The vegetation was uniform with in the stand.

The phytosociological data collected from each quadrat included its species composition and cover
percentage of individual species. The cover values were determined by visual estimation and

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

registered on eleven- grade Domin and Hadač scale (Mueller- Dombis & Heinz 1974). The scale is
presented in Table. 3. 2.

Table. 3.2. Domin- Hadaĉ Values


Domin Score Cover %age
+ A Single Individual
1 Seldom ( with insignificant Cover)
2 <1
3 1-4
4 5-10
5 11-25
6 26-33
7 34-50
8 51-75
9 76-90
10 91-100

Visual estimation of crown diameter was calculated as follows: (Barbour et al, 1987).
 D1 + D2 
2

Crown cover =  4  π

Where, D1 = First measured crown diameter


D2 = Second measured crown diameter

The cover percentage was determined as;

Total Cover of Individual Plant


Percentage Cover = X 100
Total Area Sampled

The plant species that were collected from field were classified and identified with the help of
taxonomists from the Department of Biological Science, Quaid- i- Azam University. Thus complete
floristic list of the species was prepared for reference (Annex- II). Plants were named following
(Stewart 1957) and (Nasir & Ali 1972).

Socio- Economic Survey

A detailed survey was conducted in order to assess the socio- economic conditions of the people
living in the park vicinity. For this purpose frequent visits were made to the villages to conduct
personal interviews with the community. The exercise was facilitated by female field investigators
(interns from WWF). Their participation in the survey was helpful in obtaining information from the
female folks. A questionnaire (Annex- VIII) for conducting the socio- economic survey was
developed after consultation with an Environmental Sociologist. Subsequent rectifications were
made after the pre- testing of the questionnaire in the field.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Based on 20% sampling intensity, the following eight villages were selected at random for socio-
economic survey. They were:

• Shahdara
• Talhar
• Gokina Kalan
• Gokina Khurd
• Shah Allah Ditta
• Malwar
• Rumli
• Jhang Bagial

Interviews were conducted in the above mentioned sampled village in accordance to the PRA and
RRA Techniques (Chambers 1994). Both Random and Snow- ball sampling methods were used, in
which interviews were facilitated by few influential informers from within the community.

Ecological Survey

In order to collect the data, various ecological parameters were taken in to consideration. They
were:

• Logging/ Lopping
• Grazing
• Erosion
• Fire
• Agriculture
• Stone quarries

The data for these parameters was recorded in already described 44 stands, that contained
randomly and systematically laid ten quadrats of 100 m2 (10x10 m) size. Visual estimation method
was employed to record the disturbance in the quadrats (Goldsmith and Harrison 1976). (Annex IX.)

The various disturbance indicator and their verifiers along with the scores used in the field (Modified
from Ahmad 2001) are described in Table. 3. 3.

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Table. 3. 3. Disturbance Indicators and their Verifiers Used

INDICATORS VERIFIERS

i). Presence of wood debris


Logging/ Lopping ii). Signs of lopping
iii). Presence of stumps
i). Presence of droppings
ii). Presence on animals in or around plot
Grazing
iii). Signs of grass cutting
iv). Grazed grass.
i). Exposed roots
Erosion ii). Rill/ gully formation
iii). Stony soil surface
i). Presence of burnt ash or vegetation
Fire
ii). Burnt stems

i). Presence of crops in or around plots


ii). Signs of ploughing
Agriculture
iii). Clearance of vegetation
iv). Leveled area or Terracing
i). Presence of excavated sites
Stone Quarries
ii). Presence of loose rubble

The scores that were used to quantify these disturbance indicators (Modified from Ahmad 2001) are
given in Table 3.4 below.

Table. 3. 4. Score for Disturbance Indicators


Description Score
No Visible Effect 1
Not Visible Effect 2
Visible Effect at Moderate Level 3
Visible Effect at Remarkable Level 4
Visible Effect at Very High Level 5

Similarly, different scores were developed in order to collect the topographical data. The data for
slope was recorded by using a Clinometer. The scores used to define the slope (Saqib 2003) are
given in Table. 3. 5.

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Table. 3. 5. Score for Slope


Score Description Slope
0 Level 00 – 30
1 Gentle 40 – 80
2 Moderate 90 – 160
3 Steep 170 – 260
4 Very Steep >260

A Compass was used for recording aspect. The following codes were used (Louis 1989) are given in
Table 3. 6.

Table. 3. 6. Code for Aspect


Aspect Code
North 0
East 2
South 4
West 2.5
North- East 1
South- East 3
South- West 3.3
North- West 1.3

Geographical Data/ Ground Truthing of Data

The geographical data was collected by recording the coordinates of sampling stands for
phytosociological and ecological survey. In order to collect the data for later verification and use for
vegetation and ecological classification through GIS software. The observation was made in each
stand using the GARMIN® Global Positioning System (GPS III) handheld receiver (Fig 3.12).

Fig. 3.12. GARMIN® Global Positioning System (GPS III) Handheld Receiver

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Fuel- wood Consumption Data

The data for fuel- wood consumption in villages and other sites were collected through
questionnaire. Shrines of Bari Imam and Golra Sharif were the major fuel- wood consumption sites,
where it is used for cooking. The data was collected through conduction of visits to consumption
sites and personal interviews with the people.

Tourists Data

The data for tourism was recorded at various famous tourist spots within the national park area. For
this purpose personal observations and physical counting were done. The following were the major
tourist sites:

• Marghazar
• Daman- e- Koh
• Chowki
• Pir Sohawa
• Loi Dandi
• Bari Imam
• Golra Sharif
• Shahdara

3.2.3. ANALYSING PHASE

Socio- Economic Data Analysis

In order to analyze the socio- economic data, the feed back obtained from the communities through
questionnaire were incorporated into Microsoft® Excel spread sheet. Graphs were generated from
the available data in order to get a comprehensive picture of the results.

Phytosociological Data Analysis

Organization

In order to organize the field data, it was incorporated in Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet. The data
was instated with corresponding cover values for individual species in a two- way matrix. The data
file was converted to Comma Delimited Text File (CSV) format, which allowed the data table to be
easily retrieved into application used for processing.

Processing

The data was processed by using TURBOVEG® (Hennekens 1995). It is a MS Windows® based
computer software package that is now being used for input processing and presentation of
phytosociological data. TURBOVEG® is comprised of easy to use data base management system

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

and provides methods for input, import, selection and export of phytosociological data in different
relevés.

The species data was exported from TURBOVEG® in Cornell Condensed Format, which served as
input for the classification and ordination program (TWINSPAN).

Analysis

The data for cover of sampled plots were instated to TWINSPAN (Two Way INdicator Species
ANalysis), following Hill 1979. It is a FORTRAN based computer package designed primarily for
ecologists and phytosociologists that is used to analyze and classify the vegetation data. The
program first constructs a classification of the samples, and then uses this classification to obtain a
classification of the species according to their ecological preferences. The two classifications are
then used together to obtain an ordered two- way table that expresses synecological relations
between species. This package aims at recording the floristic variation and to detect natural groups
of quadrats. TWINSPAN is based on Reciprocal Averaging Ordination (RA).

In RA the samples were placed in order according to the abundances of the various species. These
were then assigned weights to correspond with the relative sample positions and the sample scores
were re- calculated. The samples were then placed in order, according to their scores and the
species weights were re- calculated in a recursive process. Finally, this settled down with the
samples in the best order according to their species composition and the species in the best order
according to their occurrence in the samples. Following steps were involved in TWINSPAN analysis.

I. Ordinate the samples by Reciprocal Averaging.


II. Find the best place (center of gravity) at which to split the data set into two groups.
III. Identify the species showing the most difference in occurrence on the two sides (+ve and –
ve) of the split. These are termed as indicator species.
IV. Use these species to do a refined ordination and verify the best split.
V. Calculate indicator scores for the samples (adding +1 for each positive indicator species
present and –1 for each negative indicator species).

This process can then be repeated going down in the forms of a dendrogram in each of the sub-
group, until the required number of classes is obtained. The division between classes can be
described in terms of the differences and the indicator species.

Based on the TWINSPAN classification of the vegetation, a dendrogram was obtained for whole
classification of vegetation. All the plant communities thus obtained were classified and described on
the basis of the ecological prevalence.

Tourists Data Analysis

The tourist’s data was incorporated in Microsoft® Excel spread sheet. Graphs were generated in
order to analyze the data.

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Geographical Data Analysis

As a result of phytosociological analysis, thirteen plant communities were identified in the Margallah
Hills National Park. In order to mark these communities on the satellite image, the ground truthed
geographical data was analyzed using GIS, in order to generate vegetation classification maps.
Similarly the ecological zonation was carried out using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The
analysis was performed in following steps:

I. Generation of Thematic Land Cover/ Vegetation Classification Map

A thematic land cover/ classification map shows the spatial distribution of a particular theme
(like vegetation classes) on the satellite image. The process involved assigning a finite
number of individual classes or categories to continuous raster pixels of the satellite image.
This way, the contained information was converted into a continuous raster pixel that
spreads the multiple spectral bands of image into definite classes. These classes represent
different physiognomic features of ground, like vegetation types etc.
For developing the land cover/ vegetation classification map of the MHNP, the geo- rectified
satellite image of the park was used. The GIS software ESRI ARCView® 3.1 was used for
this purpose. This process involved the following steps:

a. Acquiring Satellite Image and Digital Elevation Model

To start with the analysis of geographical data, a geo- rectified satellite image of LANDSAT-
5 Thematic Mapper (TM), with a ground resolution of 30 m, was acquired from GIS Lab of
WWF- Lahore (Fig. 3.13). The satellite image was taken on 11th April 2000, at 10:30 am.

Fig. 3.13. LANDSAT- 5 TM Satellite Image (30 m Ground Resolution) Showing MHNP and surrounding
areas of Islamabad city

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

A Digital Elevation Model (DEM), with 30 m resolution of Pakzone 1, comprising of the


major portion of the study area was also acquired from GIS Lab of WWF Lahore (Fig. 3.3).

b. Extraction of Area of Interest (AOI)

The area of interest (AOI) comprising of MHNP was extracted from the satellite imagery
using the ARCView® 3.1 (Fig. 3.14)

Fig. 3.14. Digital Elevation Model of AOI with Logical Zonation Units
(30 m Ground Resolution)

c. Supervised Image Classification

Supervised Image Classification by Maximum Likelihood Algorithm was used (Horta 2002).
Classified images were filtered by using neighboring function to eliminate under-
represented groups of pixels. This procedure was used because of the availability of DEM
and knowledge of the vegetation of the area. On screen polygons were drawn, that defined
known vegetation types of the area that were already recorded by the ground truthing during
the field work.

The supervised image classification involved the following steps:

Feature Space Image


Defining Training Sites
Classification Process
Class Credibility

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Feature Space Image

It has a similar raster file structure as an ERDAS Imagine® file, expect that instead of raster
satellite image pixels it represents the plot of two bands, which is often called a “Scatter
Plot”. Different colors in this scatter plot represent different densities of the pixels in the
image with particular brightness. For this image classification, the False Color Composite
(FCC) was used with a band combination of 342. This band combination gives maximum
information for vegetation classes. Band- 4 of near- infrared strongly reflected vegetation in
infrared region and Band- 2 exhibits maximum reflectance of vegetation in visible part of
electromagnetic spectrum.

Defining Training Areas

A training area is the sample of earth’s surface feature that is recognizable on the satellite
image with known information and confidence. For defining and refining the signatures of
different vegetation classes, the non- parametric signatures are used which defines the
training areas in form of polygons and rectangles. The already analyzed and ground truthed
vegetational data was referred to check the accuracy of the process and to identify the know
plant communities on the satellite image.

Classification Process

To generate a signature the Parallelepiped Classification Decision Rule (PCDR) was used.
In PCDR the data file values are compared with the upper and the lower limits of the
parallelepiped. The size of the rectangle depends upon the Spectral Euclidean Distance
(SED), which is specified before growing an individual class in the feature space image.
Hence all the pixels with the defined hard boundaries were classified as the class they are
named against. The method of defining training areas with non- parametric signatures has
an advantage that it provides with the confusing boundaries in the form of overlapping
rectangles. Such over lapping classes should be avoided the signature identification
process. This resulted in a better class identification and classification.

Class Credibility

To assess the credibility of the sample sites for each vegetation cover class, spectral
signatures for each individual site were observed and the subtle spectral variations in these
signatures were taken into account. These spectral signatures provided an extra support in
finalizing any of the selected signatures that lead towards better class identification.

Preparation of Altitudinal Land- Cover Distribution Graph

The data from the Thematic Vegetation Classification Map was plotted on a Graph using MS® Excel.
The obtained graph shows altitudinal distribution of different land- cover classes in percentage. The
elevation was derived from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the percentages of different land-
cover classes were obtained from the Digital Image Classification (DIC).

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Preparation of Logical Zonation Units

In order to generate maps for the zonation of MHNP, on screen digitization of the satellite image
was carried out using the “Digitizer” extension of the ESRI ARCView® 3.1. The zonation logical units
were selected on the basis of easily recognizable topographic features such as: major creeks,
distinct ridges and roads (Shaw 1999). A separate ESRI ARCView® theme was laid in which the
watersheds of the area were marked in order to facilitate the exercise. The contour lines with a
contour interval of 10 m were also laid as a separate theme in order to get help in recognizing the
salient topographic features on the satellite image.

By this process whole of the study area was divided into 64 logical zonation units. Each unit has a
different area depending upon the topography. The logical zonation units (Fig. 3.15) were numbered
as 1, 2, 3,…, 64 accordingly.

Fig. 3.15. AOI with marked Watersheds and Logical Units

Generation of Zonation Map

In order to generate the Zonation map for MHNP, the data from the Vegetation Classification Map
was analyzed in MS® Excel and the area of each vegetation class was obtained on percentage
basis. Similarly the data from ecological analysis was also incorporated. The obtained data resulted
in formation of a principal tree showing the distinct vegetation zones. This data was incorporated in
ESRI ARCView® in order to generate map of these zones by marking the logical units with different
color schemes that were described by a legend.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Based on the subjective classification according to the ecological parameters of the area, the
zonation was carried out/

The area was divided into two major zones on the basis of occurrence of dominant species.

In second step each of two major zones was then subdivided into two zones on the basis of
relative proportion of characteristic/ dominant tree species.

The sub- zones in these major zones were declared on the basis of relative abundance
dominant species.

The sub- zones formed at step two were again divided into minor zones on the basis of
proportionate soil erosion/ bare soil.

The minor zones were divided into management zones. This bifurcation was carried out by
presence exotic species.

The Core Biodiversity Zones

The core biodiversity zones were identified in both the vegetation types as of scrub and
pine vegetation zone on the basis of dominant species that have lesser erosion and lesser
presence of exotic species.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

4 RESULTS

4.1. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL RESULTS

The phytosociological data was analyzed in order to get a comprehensive picture of vegetational cover of
the area. This data was incorporated in TWINSPAN (Two- Way INdicator Species ANalysis), which is a
widely used algorithm for the classification of vegetation. To get the results a total of 440 quadrats were laid
at random in 44 sampling stands, which were subjected to TWINSPAN analysis. A presumptive
TWINSPAN classification analysis is presented in Fig. 4.1.

Five levels of the classification of vegetation were considered. The division resulting at level I was
considered as groups. The division at the level II was considered as sub- groups due to sufficient variation
in the floral composition. The next three levels i. e. Level III, IV and V were considered as communities.

Level I.

Division of 440 Quadrats in Group I

At the very first level all the 440 quadrats were divided into two un- equal sized groups i.e. The
negative group 2 and positive group 3. The negative group -2 contained 240 quadrats and the
positive group 3 contained 200 quadrats. The division took place at eign value of 0.414 at the
second iteration. The indicator species for this group along with their Pseudo- species Level (PSL)
value were: Dodonaea viscosa (-2), Acacia modesta (1), Celtis australis (1), Carissa opaca
(-2), Dicanthium annulatum (1) and Malvastrum coromandelianum (1).

Level II.

Division of 240 Quadrats in Negative Group 2

The negative group that was formed as a result of first bifurcation at Level I of the TWINSPAN
analysis was sub divided into negative group 4, with 43 quadrats and negative group 5, with 197
quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value of 0.376 at the second iteration.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Fig. 4.1. Dendrogram Showing TWINSPAN Vegetation Classification at Five Levels

Fig. 4.1. Dendrogram Showing TWINSPAN Vegetation Classification at Five Levels

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Division of 200 Quadrats in Positive Group 3

The positive group 3 was sub divided into group 6, with 150 quadrats and group 7, with 50
quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value of 0.472 at iteration 2.

LEVEL III.

Division of 43 Quadrats in Negative Group 4.

The negative group 4 was sub divided into two groups. The group 8, with 24 quadrats and the
group 9, with 19 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.359 at second iteration.

Division of 197 Quadrats in Negative Group 5.

The negative group 5 was sub divided into two sub- groups. Group 10, with 83 quadrats and group
11, with 114 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value of 0.262 at second iteration.

Division of 150 Quadrats in Group 6.

The group was sub divided into two sub- groups. Group 12, with 36 quadrats and group 13, with
114 quadrats, the bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.329 at iteration 2.

Division of 50 Quadrats in Group 7.

The group was sub divided into group 14 with 41, quadrats and group 15 with 9 quadrats. The
bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.515 at iteration 3.

LEVEL IV.

Division of 24 Quadrats in Negative Group 8

The group was further divided into group 14 with 4 quadrats and group 17, with 20 quadrats. The
bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.392 at iteration 2.

Division of 19 Quadrats in Negative Group 9

The group was further divided into group 18, with 6 quadrats and group 19, with 13 quadrats. The
bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.412 at iteration 3.

Division of 83 Quadrats in Negative Group 10

The group was further divided into two groups; the group 20, with 13 quadrats and group 21, with
70 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value of 0.284 at iteration 2.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Division of 114 Quadrats in Negative Group 11

The negative group 11 was further divided into two sub- groups. The group 22, contains 94
quadrats and the group 23, contains 20 quadrats. The bifurcation took place with the eign value of
0.253 at iteration 2.

Division of 36 Quadrats in Group 12

The group 12 was further subdivided into sub- group 24, with 16 quadrats and group 25, with 20
quadrats. The bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.311 at iteration 2.

Division of 114 Quadrats in Group 13

The 114 quadrats of group 13 were subdivided into group 26 with 89 quadrats and group 27, with
25 quadrats. The bifurcation took place with the eign value of 0.310 at iteration 3.
Division of 41 Quadrats in Group 14

The 41 quadrats in group 14 were sub divided into subgroups 28, with 14 quadrats and sub- group
29, with 27 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value 0.460 at iteration 4.

Division of 9 Quadrats in Group 15

The group 15 with 9 quadrats was divided into group 30, with 7 quadrats and group 31, with 2
quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value 0.706 at iteration 3.

LEVEL V.

Division of 4 Quadrats in Group 16

The division failed due to in sufficient number of species.

Division of 20 Quadrats in Group 17

The group 17 with 20 quadrats was divided further into two groups. The group 34, with 7 quadrats
and group 35 with 13 quadrats. The division occurred at the eign value 0.407, at iteration 3.

Division of 6 Quadrats in Group 18

Group 18 were further divided into group 36, with 3 quadrats and group 37, with 3 quadrats. The
division took place at the eign value of 0.572, at iteration 2.

Division of 13 Quadrats in Group 19

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Group 19 with 13 quadrats was sub divided into Group 38 with 10 quadrats and group 39, with 3
quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.414 at iteration 2.

Division of 13 Quadrats in Group 20

This group was divided into two groups, the Group 40, with 1 quadrats and group 41, with 12
quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.323 at iteration 2.

Division of 70 Quadrats in Group 21

The group 21 was divided into two groups: the group 42, with 12 quadrats and the group 43, with
58 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.247 at iteration 2.

Division of 94 Quadrats in Group 22

This group was divided into two groups: the group 44, with 84 quadrats and the group 45, with 10
quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.205 at iteration 4.

Division of 20 Quadrats in Group 23

Group 23 was divided into two groups: the group 46, with 19 quadrats and the group 47, with 1
sample. The division took place at the eign value 0.460 at iteration 2.

Division of 16 Quadrats in Group 24

The group 24 with 16 quadrats was divided into two groups: the group 48, with 5 quadrats and the
group 49, with 11 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.367 at iteration 2.

Division of 20 Quadrats in Group 25

This group was further divided into two sub- groups: the group 50, with 6 quadrats and the group
51, with 14 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.325 at iteration 2.

Division of 89 Quadrats in Group 26

This group was divided into two sub- groups: the group 52, with 50 quadrats and the group 53, with
39 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.325 at iteration 1.

Division of 25 Quadrats in Group 27

This group was divided into two sub- groups: the group 54, with 19 quadrats and the group 55, with
6 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.403 at iteration 2.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Division of 14 Quadrats in Group 28

This group was divided into two sub- groups: the group 56, with 4 quadrats and the group 57, with
10 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.647 at iteration 4.

Division of 27 Quadrats in Group 29

This group was sub divided into two groups: the group 58, with 3 quadrats and the group 59, with
24 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.364 at iteration 2.

Division of 7 Quadrats in Group 30

This group was divided into two sub- groups: the group 60, with 5 quadrats and the group 61, with
2 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.610 at iteration 3.

Division of 2 Quadrats in Group 31

The further division of this group failed.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

4.1.1. Plant Communities in Margallah Hills National Park

The TWINSPAN classification resulted in the identification of thirteen major plant communities, i.e.
(H, I, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X and Y) (Fig. 4.1). These are described in detail as:

Pinus roxburghii- Myrsine- Mallotus phillippinensis Community (H).

The upper reaches of Margallah Hills ranging above 950 m were dominated by this community. On
the higher altitudes (exceeding 1000 m) the vegetation totally comprised of pure stands of Pinus
roxburghii. At lower elevations the pine was found mixed with Myrsine africana. The transition zone
between 800- 950 m was characterized by the presence of Carissa opaca bushes and a good
cover of Mallotus phillippinensis along with M. africana which were found mixed with the P.
roxburghii trees. The ground flora consisted of a variety of perennial grass species such as
Dicanthium annulatum and Cynodon dactylon.

Dodonaea- Carissa- Olea cuspidata Community (I).

This type of vegetation dominated the southern slopes at lower altitudes in the park area. At
southern aspect and altitude below 650 m, the vegetation comprised of pure stands of Dodonaea
viscosa. At higher altitude on northern, or north- eastern slopes D. viscosa was mixed with Carissa
opaca bushes. At altitudes range of 650- 800 m the vegetation comprised of these two species with
an increased cover of Olea cuspidata.

Dodonaea- Carissa- Dicanthium annulatum Community (P).

Such type of community was found in extreme southern aspects with elevation below 650 m. Most
of the area comprised of a mixed vegetation of Dodonaea viscosa and Carissa opaca. The signs of
soil erosion due to exposed surface were highly visible in such areas. The ground was semi-
graveled and dry, with very less ground cover comprising of tufts of grasses like Dicanthium
annulatum.

Dodonaea- Carissa- Adhatoda vasica Community (Q).

This plant community was observed at elevation between 500- 750 m. At drier southern aspect and
lower elevation the vegetation comprised of stands of Dodonaea viscosa along with Carissa opaca.
At elevation range of 600- 750 m and cooler northern aspects the vegetation comprised of these
two species along with good cover of Adhatoda vasica bushes. The soil in such areas was dry and
stony with scanty distribution of grasses.

Dodonaea- Mallotus- Ziziphus nummularia Community (R).

In most of the middle reaches of the Margallah Hills such type of community was observed.
Dodonaea viscosa dominated the area along with good growth of Mallotus phillippinensis, while

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Ziziphus nummularia was found in protected patches away from influence of grazing animals.
Much of the area was located in flat regions where the slope was less and the soil was drier. These
areas showed higher species diversity and the edaphic conditions were good for growth of
perennial grass species. Such vegetation was found in the protected pockets of the core zone of
the national park.

Dodonaea- Cassia- Adhatoda vasica Community (S).

This type of plant community was reported in negative group of vegetational analysis. This area
was subjected to lesser biotic pressure and showed good ground cover. At more open places the
number of Adhatoda vasica bushes increased along with Dodonaea viscosa. Much of the area
showed thick patches of undisturbed vegetation. At lesser disturbed places there were scanty
Cassia fistula trees mostly around human settlements. Fire incidence was common in such type of
vegetation because of the availability of a good amount of combustible material.

Adhatoda- Buxus- Mallotus phillippinensis Community (T).

This plant community was reported from small area of the national park. It dominated the medium
elevation throughout the Margallah Hills or some western part with medium elevation of 600- 800
m. These areas lie in saddles around human settlements with some signs of grazing and
trespassing. Most of the vegetation was comprised of Adhatoda vasica with Mallotus
phillippinensis. Buxus papillosa was found in relatively more disturbed areas. The area had good
developed soil. The accessibility to the area is enhanced by less steep slopes. Much of the area
was located in plainer regions where the slope was lesser and the soils were drier.

Adhatoda- Buxus- Dodonaea viscosa Community (U).

This community was recorded from cooler shady northern aspects with elevation between 650- 800
m elevation. There are villages and settlements around the area where Adhatoda vasica
dominated with occasional presence of Buxus papillosa. In drier places, where natural vegetation
was very much disturbed, Dodonaea viscosa was found with scanty grass cover.

Acacia- Carissa- Dicanthium annulatum Community (V).

This plant community dominated the medium elevation throughout the Margallah Hills or some
western part with elevation range of 600- 800 m and extreme southern areas with low water
availability. There was lesser biotic pressure on the vegetation thus the original vegetation of
Acacia modesta was the most dominant species. However, the area was subjected to erosion. The
area generally was located in plainer regions of the national park where the slope was very gentle
and the open patches were covered with sparse growth of grasses like Dicanthium annulatum.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Acacia- Adhatoda- Cynodon dactylon Community (W).

This community was recorded from drier southern aspects in medium elevation range between
650- 800 m elevation. The area was dominated by thick cover of Acacia modesta. The drier open
slopes were occupied by Adhatoda vasica bushes. The area was disturbed and showed signs of
erosion and grazing. The ground flora was comprised of a good cover of grass species Cynodon
dactylon. Soil in the area was stony and dry.

Acacia- Lantana- Carissa opaca Community (X).

Such plant communities were reported from southern end of the national park that face Islamabad
city and around recreational sites of Daman- e- Koh and Pir Sohawa. The original vegetation was
comprised of Acacia modesta and Carissa opaca. The slope was generally gentle and the open
spaces in the canopy were occupied by Lantana camara. Such places were mostly found around
disturbed sites. Some places were subjected to soil compaction and erosion. The absence of
associated species indicated grazing of livestock in the area.

Carissa- Cynodon- Olea cuspidata Community (Y).

Such plant communities were reported from southern end of the national park that face Islamabad
city. The area shows lesser influence of human and livestock activities because of having dense
canopy cover comprising of Carissa opaca as major species with Olea cuspidata in protected
places. The open patches were occupied by good ground cover of grasses like Cynodon dactylon.
This community represents much of the original flora of the national park, which is least disturbed
by any biotic influence.

Cynodon- Sageretia- Otostegia limbata Community (O)

Around tourist’s spots such type of community was observed, where there was high human impact
and lesser grazing. Such areas showed high biotic stress due to increased human influence as
indicated by the presence of Sageretia brandrethiana and Otostegia limbata. The good cover of
Cynodon dactylon in some areas indicated lesser grazing pressure. The soil conditions were
mostly very poor with eroded and compacted. The vegetation is highly disturbed in these areas.

4.2. SOCIO- ECONOMIC SURVEY RESULTS

Based on 20% sampling intensity, a survey was conducted in eight sample villages situated inside
the MHNP. The objective was to study the socio- economic conditions of the area besides
obtaining feed back from the people about their attitude towards biodiversity and conservation
needs, evaluation of the current situation of the resources and quantification of the biotic pressure
on them. The results are presented as follows:

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

4.2.1 Population of Sampled Villages

The population of the villages falling in the national park is directly related to the state of the natural
resources and biodiversity in the area. These communities are highly dependent on the park
resources and meet their demand by consuming the natural resources of the park. According to the
results, Shah Allah Ditta was the most populated village with an estimated population of 45,00
people. Shahdara and Talhar were also very populated with a population count of 3,500 and 3,000
people respectively. Gokina Kalan and Gokina Khurd have a population of 2,000 individuals each.
The population of eight sampled villages in represented in Fig.4.2.

4.2.2. Average Household Size

The average household size in the park area varied from 7- 9 individuals. The maximum household
size was recoded to be 9 in Jhang Bagial. Talhar and Gokina Khurd villages had an average
household size of 8, while Shah Allah Ditta, Shahdara, Gokina Kalan, Malwar and Rumli had an
average household size of seven persons. The average household size of the sampled villages is
represented in Fig. 4.3.

Approximate Population of Sampled Villages

5000
4500
4500
4000
3500
3500
3000
3000
2500
2000 2000
2000
1500 1200
1000 800

500 262

0
li
an

tta
r

ial
a

rd

ar

m
lha
ar

g
u

Ru
l

w
Di
Ka
hd

Kh

Ba
Ta

al
lah

M
a

g
Sh

in

in

an
Al
ok

ok

Jh
ah
G

Sh

Fig.4.2. Approximate Population of Sampled Villages

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Average Household Size

10
9
9
8 8
8
7 7 7 7 7
7

0
Shahdara Talhar Gokina Gokina Shah Malw ar Rumli Jhang
Kalan Khurd Allah Ditta Bagial

Fig. 4.3. Average Household Size in Sampled Villages

4.2.3. Monthly Income

The people of the MHNP are poor. There are not many economic activities in the area resulting in
their increased dependency on the natural resources which are utilized for subsistence living. Most
of the people work or do business in the nearby cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The average
monthly income on the people in the sampled villages in MHNP is represented in Fig. 4.4.

Monthly Income of People


30
Below 3000
25
25
Number of Sampled Houses

22 3 to 5000
20
20
16
17
16
17 17 6 to 1000
15 13 13 13
12 12
11 11
11 to 2000
10 10
9 9 9
10
7 above 2000
6 6 6
5 5 5
4 4 4
5 33 3
2 2
1 1 1

0
a
n

rd

li

al
a

ar

ar
itt
la

um

gi
r

hu
da

lh

w
Ka

Ba
R
Ta

al
K

h
ah

la

M
a

g
in
Sh

in

Al

an
ok

ok

ah

Jh
G

Sh

Fig. 4.4. Monthly Income of People in Sampled Villages

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

4.2.4. Livestock Population

The major factor causing degradation of habitat of the national park is the presence of livestock
and associated human activities. People own a large number of animal heads to meet their
demands of milk and meat. The highest livestock population was recorded in Talhar village with a
total animal heads of 1857, village Shahdara host 834 animal heads, Gokina Kalan and Shah Allah
Ditta hosts 1207 and 788, while Jhang Bagial has 752 animal heads. The average number of
livestock by type in the sampled villages is given in Fig.4.5.

Livestock Population in Sampled Villages

1200
1071
Goat/
Sheep
1000
Cow

800
723
Buffallow
705

600
600 Donkeys
455 450 / Mules
400 360

258
200 200 193
175
200 141
120 120
90 101 100
47 52 40 43
19 22 30 1213 23 10 3 11 9
0
Shahdara Talhar Gokina Gokina Shah Allah Malwar Rumli Jhang
Kalan Khurd Dit t a Bagial

Fig. 4.5. Livestock Population in Sampled Villages

4.2.5. Land Ownership

The habitants of the villages inside the MHNP practice subsistence agriculture. Most of the people
in the villages have no agricultural land while others own small land areas. These agricultural
practices are rain- fed and merely meet their food demands. Details of agricultural land holdings of
the people in the sampled villages are given in Fig. 4.6.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Land Ownership in Sampled Villages

25
Below 5

20
20
6 to 10
18

11 to 25
15
Kanals

13 25 to 40
11 11
10 above 40
10 99 9 9

7 77

5 5
5 4

2 2 2 2
1 1
00 00 00 00 0 00 00 00
0
Shahdara Talhar Gokina Gokina Shah Allah Malwar Rumli J hang
Kalan Khur d Dit t a Bagial

Fig. 4.6. Land Ownership in Sampled Villages

4.2.6. Fuel- wood Consumption

The folks in the park area are heavily dependent on the park resources for meeting their energy
demands. The fuel- wood is collected by the people for heating and cooking purposes. Such
activities pose threat to the vegetation in the park. The data for fuel- wood consumption is
presented in Fig. 4.7.

Fuelwood Consumption

25

22
SUMMER

20 19 19 WINTER
18 18
17
16
15 15
15 14 14
13
Mounds

11
10
10
8
7

0
Shahdara Talhar Gokina Gokina Shah Allah Malwar Rumli Jhang
Kalan Khurd Dit t a Bagial

Fig. 4.7. Fuel- wood Consumption Data for Sampled Villages

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

4.2.7. Opinion about the Importance of National Park to their Livelihood

Though the folks in the area are not much educated but due to their dependence on the natural
resources of the area, they do realize that the park resources are vital and important for their
livelihood. The opinion of the people in this regard is represented in Fig. 4.8.

Importance of the NP to the Livelihood

71
Percentage of Respondents

20

7
2

Not at All Some Fair Good A Lot

Fig. 4.8. Opinion about the Importance of MHNP to their Livelihood

4.2.8. Opinion about their Concern for Biodiversity

The people living inside the park boundaries do have sufficient awareness about the role of
biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem health. The response obtained from them about their
concern for the biodiversity is presented in Fig 4.9.

How Much Do You Care About Biodiversity

71
Percentage of Respondents

14
8
3 4

Not at All Some Fair Good A Lot

Fig.4.9. Opinion about the Concern for Biodiversity

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

4.2.9. Changes Observed in the Park Resources in Past Ten Years

There was a growing concern among the local folks about the changes in the park area. Most of
the people thought that the forest cover has not changed significantly in past ten years; therefore
the population of wildlife species has not been significantly affected. But there was a growing
concern about the increase in tourist activities and an increase in human population and pollution
in the area. The results are summarized in Fig. 4.10.

Changes Observed in NP Resources in Past 10


100
Years
89 Increase
90 85

80 Decrease
Percentage of Respondents

70 64
No Change
60

50
42
38 40 36
40
31
27
30
22
20 14
11
10
1
0
Forest Cover Population of Tourism Human Pollution
Wildlife Population
Species

Fig.4.10. Opinion about Changes Observed in MHNP in Past 10 Years

4.2.10. Awareness about the Obligations of a National Park

The people were also interviewed about their awareness of obligations of the national park. Most of
the people didn’t have an idea even about what a national park is?. Very few of them had some
idea about their obligations. The results are shown in Fig. 4.11.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Awareness about the Obligations of the NP

87
Percentage of Respondents

7
4 2 0

Not at All Some Fair Good A Lot

Fig. 4.11. Awareness about the Obligations of a NP

4.2.11. Threats to Resources of the National Park

According to the people’s view, poor management was considered as the major threat to park
resources, while growing population, tourist activities and forest fires were regarded as serious
threats. The results are presented in Fig. 4.12.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Major Threats to The Resources of the NP


40 38

35
30
Percentage

25
20
20 17
15 11
9
10
5 3 2
0

se
m

es
en

ng

s
s
s
is

ire
U

er
es

em

lid
zi
ur

th
e

F
ra
en

ds
To

bl

O
ag

st
G

na

an
ar

re
an
n/

Aw

ai

/L
Fo
ti o

t
us

es
la

of

or

-s
pu

rri
Po
ck

on

ua
Po

La

Q
/
ng
hi
is
/F
ti g
un
H

Fig 4.12. Major Threats to the Resources in MHNP

4.3. TOURISTS SURVEY RESULTS

The results of the tourist’s survey revealed a high visitation in the park area. These activities have high
impact on the park resources and contribute towards their degradation. The data of weekly tourist visitation
on the major picnic spots is summarized in Fig. 4.13.

Weekly Tourists Visitiation

2500
2120
1970
2000
No. of Tourists

1640

1500 1250
1120
970
1000 800 850

500

0
if
ar

ki

di

a
oh

wa

am

ar

ar
ow

n
az

-K

Da

Sh

hd
Im
gh

oh
Ch
-e

a
ra
ri
i
rS
ar

Lo

Sh
Ba
an

ol
M

Pi

G
m
Da

Fig. 4.13. Weekly Tourist Visitation Data for Famous Picnic Spots in MHNP

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

4.4. ECOLOGICAL SURVEY RESULTS

The geographical data was analyzed using GIS techniques in order to obtain vegetation distribution maps
of the MHNP. The GIS software ESRI ARCView® 3.1 was used for this purpose.

4.4.1. Preparation of Thematic Vegetation Classification/


Land Cover Map

Thematic Vegetation Classification/ Land Cover Map was obtained by spectral classification of
satellite image. In this process, the information about the distribution of vegetation was obtained
by converting the multiple spectral bands on a satellite image into definite vegetation classes,
which appeared in form of continuous raster pixels. This map shows 21 different classes of
vegetation. These classes were lumped together and re- coded and represented in 10
vegetational classes. Each vegetational class is defined in a legend using color codes on the
image. Thematic Vegetation Classification/ Land Cover Map of MHNP is shown in Fig. 4.14.

Fig.4.14. Thematic Vegetation Classification/ Land Cover Map of MHNP.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

4.4.2. Altitudinal Distribution of Land Cover Classes

The Altitudinal Land Cover Distribution Graph shows the different land cover classes and their
distribution along the altitudinal gradient. In the graph (Fig. 4.15), X- axis shows the elevation as it
appeared of the Thematic Vegetation Classification Map. While the numbers on Y- axis show the
occurrence of each land- cover class. The distribution of various floral species is indicated by
Vegetation Curves in figure 4.15. These curves are drawn on basis of 50 percent moving averages
of all the classes. These vegetation curves are shown with different colors in the legend.

The Vegetation Distribution Curves

The following are the different vegetation distribution curves formed in the graph.

Conifer Curve

The conifer curve is shown in the graph with dark green color. The curve represents a mixture of
Pinus roxburghii along with little presence of Dodonaea viscosa and Carissa opaca. As per ground
data and the documented conifer zone, most of the conifer forest lies between elevations of 1050 m
to 1510 m, after which the curve shows an abrupt fall thus validating the results of the classification.
The data existing beyond these specified ranges however may be due to the effect of shadow or
mix forest. From the graph it is also clear that relatively larger number of conifers exist between
1450-1550 m of elevation. This is because of the fact that in the lower elevations valley is steep and
closed, resulting in severe shadowing problem, which resulted in more pixels to be classified as
conifer. At higher elevations, certain broadleaved species are mixed with conifer class. The
prevalence to curve upto 1050 m shows the presence of other two associated species of Dodonaea
viscosa and Carissa opaca.

Altitudinal Distribution of Land Cover Classes

120.00
Acacia- Dodonaea- Lantana

100.00
Acacia- Celtis- Adhatoda

80.00 Nyctanthese- Lannea- Broussonetia


Occurence of Land Cover Class

Sparse Grasses/ Soil


60.00

Dodonaea- Carissa- Adhatoda

40.00

Adhatoda- Carissa- Dodonaea

20.00
Pinus- Carissa- Dodonaea

0.00
537

587
629
671
713

755
797

839
881
923
965

1007
1049
1091

1133
1175

1217
1259
1301
1343

1385
1427

1469
1511
1553
1596

-20.00
Elevation (m)

Fig. 4.15. Altitudinal Distribution of Land Cover Classes

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Adhatoda, Carissa, Dodonaea and Broussonetia Curve

This curve is shown in orange color. This curve represents almost a uniform distribution of this
broad leaf vegetation throughout the area, ranging from 587 m- 1596 m. The curve shows a slight
rise in elevation between 710 m – 1510 m. The ground data also confirms the formation of this type
of community which is widely distributed in the park area. The vegetation of Broussonetia papyrifera
is found widely in area where the vegetation is disturbed. The prevalence of this curve at other
elevation is due to spectral reflectance of certain broad- leaved species at higher elevation in the
area.

Dodonaea, Carissa, Adhatoda Curve.

This curve represents the presence to the scrub species of Dodonaea viscosa, Carissa opaca and
Adhatoda vasica and is represented by navy blue color. The abrupt rise in the curve from 670 m to
920 m shows the abundance of these species at this elevation range thus validating the ground
data, which also confirms that these three species are the most widely distributed in the scrub
forest in the Margallah Hills National Park. The slight prevalence of the curve above this range
indicates the presence of a mixture of other species with same reflectance.

Sparse Grass/ Bare Soil Curve

This curve is indicated in graph by magenta color. This vegetation class is reported throughout the
elevation range in Margallah showing more increase between 630 m – 710 m and from 1550 –
1590 meters. Showing more presence of grass species at higher elevation. The decline at medium
elevation is because of the presence of good cover of broad leaved species. A slight rise of this
curve at higher elevation shows scanty distribution of grass lands before conifer zone.

Nyctanthes, Lantana and Broussonetia Curve

This vegetation class is represented in dark red color. Due to spectral reflectance and miss-
classification this class shows prevalence throughout the elevation range. The graph shows high
concentration of these species at lower elevations between 580 m – 620 m. These species were
more abundant in the disturbed areas around settlement and recreational sites that fall in almost
the same range. That validates the ground results. The main reason in the rising of curve is due to
seasonal change because in July shrubs and bushes are lush green and show high reflectance in
5th band, so they have been included in broad leaved class.

Acacia, Celtis and Adhatoda Curve

This curve is represented in light green color, it shows a mixture of the scrub species such as;
Acacia modesta, Celtis australis and Adhatoda vasica. The curve shows high concentration of this
class of scrub species at elevations between 710 m– 960 m indicates abundance of these broad

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

leaved species in the area. The presence of curve at the higher elevations up to 1510 m is because
of higher cover of Celtis australis which in combination with other species has given the same
reflectance thus have been grouped in this class.

Acacia, Dodonaea, Lantana and Carissa Curve

This curve is represented in orange color. It rises at elevation of 670 m and falls at around 1000 m,
showing distribution of this type of scrub uniformly between the range. The continuity of this curve
up to higher elevation is because of presence of higher occurrence of broad leaved species that
gave the same reflectance and were mis- classified into this class.

Bare Soil/ Bare Rocks Curve

This graph shows presence throughout the Margallah hills. The graph shows high presence of bare
soil at elevation up to 750 m. This is probably due to presence of bare soil at lower elevation, as
shown by ground data. The higher presence of bare soil was recorded at drier sunny and southern
slopes in the park area. The prevalence of the curve at higher elevation shows increased number of
rock surfaces at higher altitude that is because of the steep slopes of the area.

4.4.3 Ecological Zonation

Analysis of ecological data resulted in formation of the major ecological zones in the area. A
decision tree made for the analysis is shown in Table. 4.1. This decision tree is based on the
subjective classification developed according to the ecological parameters.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Table. 4.1. Decision Tree Showing for the Analysis and Formation of Zones

Steps ► Step I Step II Step III Step IV


Relative Proportionate
Proportionate
All Zones Major Zones Proportion occurrence of
Soil Erosion
of Dominants Exotic Species
Exotics >5%
Erosion >4%
Exotics <5%
Acacia >3%
Exotics >5%
Erosion <4%
Exotics <5%
Scrub Zone
Exotics >5%
Erosion >4%
Exotics <5%
Acacia <3%
Exotics >5%
Erosion <7 %
Exotics <20
Park Area
Exotics >20
Erosion >7 %
Exotics <20
Pine >3%
Exotics >20
Erosion <7 %
Exotics <20
Pine Zone
Exotics >20
Erosion >7 %
Exotics <20
Pine <3%
Exotics >20
Erosion <7 %
Exotics <20

The following are the major ecological zones formed as a result of analysis.

STEP I. Major Zones

In first step the area was divided into two major classes/ categories viz., Scrub Zone and Pine
Zone (Fig. 4.16). Occurrence of a dominant species was taken as a criterion for this bifurcation.

I. a. Scrub Zone

In this zone Acacia modesta was the dominating species.

I. b. Pine Zone

This zone was classified on the basis of dominating species. In this area Pinus roxburghii (Chir
Pine) was the major species. This zone is indicated in the map by dark green color.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Fig. 4.16. Vegetation Distribution in Major Zones


(Yellow: Scrub Zone, Green: Pinus Zone)

STEP II. Relative Proportion of Dominants in Each Major Zone

Each of two major zones was then subdivided into two zones on the basis of relative proportion of
characteristic/ dominant tree species. A threshold of <3%> was defined to delineate zones.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

II. a. Sub- division of Scrub Zone

Scrub zone was sub- divided into two sub-zones on the basis of relative abundance of
Acacia modesta, the dominant tree species in the zone. Following sub- zones resulted by
this division (Fig. 4.17).

II. a. (i). Relative percentage of Acacia modesta > 3

II. a. (ii). Relative percentage of Acacia modesta < 3

Fig. 4.17. Relative Percentage of Acacia modesta


(Brown- Green: Acacia >3%, Yellow- Green: Acacia <3%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

I. b. Sub- division of Pine Zone

Pine zone was subdivided into two sub- zones on the basis of relative abundance of Pinus
roxburghii, dominant tree species in the zone. Following sub- zones resulted by this division (Fig.
4.18).

II. b. (i). Relative percentage of Pinus roxburghii >3

II. b. (ii). Relative percentage of Pinus roxburghii <3

Fig: 4.18. Relative Percentage of Pinus roxburghii


(Dark Green: Pine >3%, Light Green: Pine <3%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Step III. Proportionate Soil Erosion/ Bare Soil in Each Sub- Zone

Four sub- zones formed at step II were again divided into minor zones on the basis of
proportionate soil erosion/ bare soil.

III. a (i). Class 2. a. (i) Acacia modesta with relative percentage of > 3 was divided into two minor
zones (Fig. 4.19). The zone with scrub more than 3% along with erosion/ bare soil less
than 4% and the other with scrub more than 3% with and erosion/ bare soil more than
4%.

Fig. 4.19. Erosion/ Bare Soil in Scrub Zone


(Brown: Erosion/ Bare Soil >4%, Light Green: Erosion <4%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

III. a (ii) Class 2. a. (ii) Acacia modesta with relative percentage of < 3 was divided into two
minor zones on the basis of soil erosion/ bare soil into minor zones (Fig. 4.20).
The zone with scrub less than 3% along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% and
the other with scrub less than 3% and erosion/ bare soil more than 4%.

Fig. 4. 20. Erosion/ Bare soil in Scrub Zone


(Brown: Erosion/ Bare Soil >4%, Light Green: Erosion <4%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

III. b. (i) Class 2. b. (i). Pinus roxburghii with relative percentage of >3 was divided into two
minor zones on the basis of soil erosion/ bare soil into minor zones (Fig. 4.21).
The zone with pine more than 3% along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% and
the other with pine more than 3 and with erosion/ bare soil more than 4%.

Fig. 4. 21. Erosion/ Bare soil in Chir Zone


(Brown: Erosion/ Bare Soil >4, Yellow: Erosion/ Bare Soil <4%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

III. b. (ii) Class 2. b. (ii) Pinus roxburghii with relative percentage of <3 was divided into two
minor zones on the basis of soil erosion/ bare soil into minor zones (Fig. 4.22).
The zone with pine less than 3% along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% and
the other zone with Pine less than 3% and erosion more than 4%.

Fig. 4. 22. Erosion/ Bare Soil in Chir Zone


(Brown: Erosion > 4%, Yellow: Erosion <4%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Step IV. Subdivision of Minor Zones into Management Zones

The final bifurcation was carried out by using exotic species as a criterion. In this step, first the
scrub was divided on the basis of presence of exotic species.

Step IV a. Division of Scrub minor Zones into management zones:

Step IV a. (i) This minor zone (Fig. 4.23) had percentage of Acacia modesta greater than 3 along
with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% and presence of exotics like Lantana camara and
others less that 20%.

Fig. 4. 23. Presence of Exotic Species in Scrub Zone.


(Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Step IV a. (ii) This minor zone (Fig. 4.24) had percentage of Acacia modesta greater than 3%
along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% along with the presence of exotic
species.

Fig. 4. 24. Presence of Exotic Species in Scrub Zone.


(Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics >20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Step IV a. (iii) This minor zone (Fig. 4.25) had percentage of Acacia modesta less than 3 along
with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 25. Presence of Exotic Species in Scrub Zone.


(Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Step IV a. (iv) This minor zone (Fig. 4.26) had percentage of Acacia modesta less than 3 along
with erosion/ bare soil more than 4% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 26. Presence of Exotic Species in Scrub Zone.


(Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Step IV a. Division of Pine Minor Zones into Management Zones:


Step IV a. (i) This minor zone (Fig. 4.27) had percentage of Pinus roxburghii greater than 3
along with erosion/ bare soil less than 7% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 27. Presence of Exotic Species in Pine Zone.


(Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Step IV a. (ii) This minor zone (Fig. 4.28) had percentage of Pinus roxburghii greater than 3
along with erosion/ bare soil more than 7% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 28. Presence of Exotic Species in Pine Zone.


(Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Step IV a. (iii) This minor zone (Fig. 4.29) had percentage of Pinus roxburghii less than 3 along
with erosion/ bare soil less than 7% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 29. Presence of Exotic Species in Pine Zone.


(Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

Step IV a. (iv) This minor zone (Fig. 4.30) had percentage of Pinus roxburghii less than 3 along
with erosion/ bare soil more than 7% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4.30. Presence of Exotic Species in Pine Zone.


(Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS

The Core Biodiversity Zones

These zones harbor a great diversity of species and at the same time have not been
significantly impacted and altered by human activities (Annon 2002). The original habitat in
such zones is intact (Mayers 1998). Based on the principle tree the Core Biodiversity Zones
were marked in each of the Pine and Scrub zone following the criteria:

Core Biodiversity Zones in Scrub: The zones had the presence of Acacia modesta more than
3% with presence or erosion/ bare soil less than 4% along with the presence of exotics species
less than 5%. The logical units in this zone were; 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 31, 35, and 36. These zones are
indicated in Fig. 4.31 with yellow color.

Core Biodiversity Zones in Pine: The zones had the presence of Pinus roxburghii more than
3% with presence or erosion/ bare soil less than 7% along with the presence of exotics species
less than 20%. Logical units falling in this zone were; 19, 42, 44, 46, 47, 53 and 58. These
zones are indicated in Fig. 4.31 with green color.

Fig. 4.31. Map of MHNP Showing the Core Biodiversity Zones.


(Yellow: Core Biodiversity Zones in Scrub, Green: Core Biodiversity Zone

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION

5 DISCUSSIONS

The present study aimed at the ecological zonation of the Margallah Hills National Park. The zones were
declared upon the quantitative estimation of ecological parameters like type and cover percentage of
vegetation, the threats to natural resources, and nature of land- use. For this purpose ecological parameters
were evaluated in the area by phytosociological, socio- economic and ecological assessment of the park
area.

5.1. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

The phytosociological assessment revealed the tremendous diversity of vegetation in and facilitated in the
demarcation of distinct plant communities in Margallah Hills National Park. The distribution of major floral
species was found dependent on the topographic, edaphic and demographic variables.

The vegetation data was processed through TWINSPAN classification procedures Shaltout et al (1995),
Bork et al (1997), Dixit (1997), Moe and Botnen (1997), Priedistis (1999), Hovestadt et al (1999). The
TWINSPAN analysis resulted in clear demarcation of two very un- equal vegetation groups. The further
classification up to five levels resulted in formation of thirteen plant communities in the area. The
TWINSPAN results not only reflect the general vegetation type in the area but also give the details of the
prevailing plant communities.

On the highest elevation ranging from 1100 to 1600 m, the vegetation comprised of a typical sub- tropical
Pinus roxburghii community. The distribution of this type of vegetation is chiefly attributed to the presence of
adequate soil moisture, with rainfall up to 5000 mm per annum (Champion & Seth 1968). The area is
subjected to frequent fire incidents due to open canopy and dryness especially in the dry months of May and
June (Chhetri 1994). The chir pine is regarded as climax species of this area, which is maintained due to fire
occurences, as it self is much fire tolerant (Chaturvedi & Singh 1987). The under of canopy in this area is
occupied by species like Mallotus phillippinensis, Carissa opaca and Myrsine africana, which occur because
of opening in canopy due to lopping of chir branches (Saqib 2003).

Dodonaea viscosa and Carissa opaca tolerate dry sandy or rocky soils and drought conditions. They favor
areas that receive full sun (Edward and Gilman 1999), therefore they are the major species in the area. Both
these species are less prone to grazing (Bekele 2000) and not very much palatable, thus they have been
able to attain ecological success in the area.

Distribution of species like Dodonaea viscosa, Adhatoda vasica and Olea cuspidata is chiefly attributed to
aspect with elevation ranging from 650 to 850 m. On sunny or southern slopes the vegetation was
dominated by these species. Adhatoda is more vastly distributed because of its hardy characteristic and
occupies well drained sites (Holzner and Kriechbaum 1998). Olea cuspidata is palatable species so was not
reported from areas subjected to grazing as noticed by Bekele, 2000 and was only found in far off protected
patches.

Acacia modesta occupies elevation range between 700 to 850m on sunny slopes with well developed soil. It
is more prone to grazing (Noble and Randall 1998), so was only reported from drier slopes, away from
livestock influence.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
93
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION

Lantana camara is an invader species and only found in cooler forest edges where the original vegetation of
the area was disturbed by biotic pressure, chiefly by tourists activities (Holzner & Kriechbaum 1998).

The species like Sageretia brandrethiana and Otostegia limbata were reported form disturbed areas by
human influence as both of the species are hardy and can survive under biotic influence (Malik & Hussain
1990). Such vegetation was reported from areas around human settlements.

The abundance of grass species like Cynodon dactylon represents protected areas as these species are
highly palatable and were not reported from areas with high grazing intensity.

5.2. SOCIO- ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

People in the area are heavily dependent on the natural resources of the park (Mustafa 2003). A socio-
economic survey was conducted in order to assess the impact of human and other associated activities on
the resources. The results of this survey revealed a direct negative influence on the existing vegetation,
which is resulting in the depletion and loss of habitat, which is the principle cause of species extinction
(UNEP 1995). This can be inferred from the demographic pressure and has a direct impact on the
vegetation and other ecological dimensions of the area.

According to the results obtained, the communities possess a great deal of knowledge about their
environment and how to manipulate to best meet their needs (Brokensha et al. 1980 and Richards 1985).
Majority of the people regard the vegetation and the natural resources as highly significant.

The population of the villages falling in the national park is directly related to the state of the natural
resources and biodiversity in the area. It was observed by the results that the vegetation degradation
occured under influence of associated human activities. The demographic influence alters the natural
environment (FAO 1996). The human impact can be in the form of habitat destruction, species eradication,
over- harvesting and introduction of invasive species (Scott 2003). The results of population distribution in
the national park showed that the highest number of people were inhabiting Shah Allah Ditta, Shahdara and
Talhar. These villages are much developed which has direct impact on the surrounding areas. This can well
be justified from the results, where the areas around these major human habitations show denuded or
disturbed vegetation to a greater extent.

The areas with people with higher income seem to have lower impact on the resources, as they are in
financially better off position to adopt alternate energy sources (Scott 2003), such people own lesser number
of livestock thus their impact on surrounding vegetation for fuel- wood and other consumptive uses is greatly
reduced.

Overgrazing by livestock is very problematic (CBD 2002). It impacts biodiversity through trampling and
removal of biomass, alteration of species composition through selective consumption and changed inter-
plant competition, and redistribution of nutrients through dropping. Changes in grazing intensity and
selectivity inevitably effects vegetation. The higher grazing pressure has more detrimental effects on
biodiversity (UNEP 1995). Similarly the amount of fuel- wood consumed is also related to heavy impact on
resources, as the people are dependent for their timber demand on surrounding forest resources causing
tremendous damage to them (Usman 2003). This is validated by the results as the areas around the major
human settlements have scanty distribution of vegetation.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
94
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION

The socio- economic survey results also show that most of the people don’t know about the obligations of a
national park but are well aware about the importance of biodiversity and natural resources. They have
observed change in the resources of the park especially in regard to the growing tourist’s activities, which
have negative impact on surrounding environment.

Lack of management is considered to be the biggest threat to park resources, while growing population,
tourist’s activities and forest fires are considered as other major threats.

5.3. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

For ecological assessments, the phytosociological data was analyzed in order to mark the major plant
communities on the satellite image and to prepare the vegetation classification map which show the
distribution of major vegetation communities in the MHNP. On this basis the qualification of any area into an
ecological zone was derived. There were certain issues that affected the accuracy of these results.

During the fieldwork, a GPS was used to record position of sample plots. These readings were recorded in
the WGS- 84 datum. During the analysis, a geo- referenced and atmospherically corrected satellite image
was used. According to experts of WWF- Pakistan, the accuracy of this image was within acceptable limits
i.e. RMSE (root mean square error) was less than one pixel or 30 meters.

The use of satellite imagery to classify shrub communities in complex terrain is often problematic. In such
area many land cover types exhibit similar reflectance and small-scale topographic influences on vegetation
patterns create a mosaic of spectral signatures, ultimately resulting in misclassification. Topographic
variability also creates a shadow which further complicates land cover interpretations (Vergas, et al. 1995).

The GPS readings were another source of error in determining the true position on ground as noticed by
Ahmad in 2001. However, this error is generally less than 10- 20 meters ever since the USA government
decided to stop the selective availability option with effect from 1st of May, 2000 (Canadian Management
Resources 2000). GPS along with RMSE errors resulted in assigning sample plots on the ground with
wrong corresponding pixels on the image which in turn affected the accuracy of image classification (Ahmad
2001).

More complex classification errors could be due to the sampling strategies (Charles 2000). Presence of
clouds and their shadow can be the one reason of not identifying some of the classes purely on an image
(Ambareen 2002). The other influencing factor was the sample size that was not large enough to provide a
high confidence level in the map classes (Paul et al, 2001).

5.3.1. The Vegetation Distribution Curves

The distribution of major plant communities along the altitudinal gradient was represented by a
graph (Chapter 4, Fig. 4.15). Each of the plant community showed its altitudinal distribution by a
vegetation curve. These curves were drawn on basis of 50 percent moving averages of all the
vegetation classes.

Some of the curves prevailed through the elevation range in the area. This shows the error in the
classification process. In the documented conifer zone, most of the conifer forest lies between
elevations of 1050 m 1510 m, but the curve shows prevalence below this elevation. The formation of
conifer curve on the lower elevations is due to the inclusion of vegetation in shade, cloud and cloud

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
95
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION

shadow and also due to seasonal variations. The other source may be the mixture of vigorously
growing broad leaves that gave the same reflectance as Pinus on the image (Ambareen 2002).

The scrub species curve that represents a mixture of Adhatoda vasica, Carissa opaca, Dodonaea
viscosa and Broussonetia papyrifera shows slight prevalence above the specified elevation range
which is also due to misclassification, as some of the other broad leaved species gave the same
spectral reflectance resulting in the classification into this vegetation class. This was also noted by
Welch in 2002, in his study in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the same happened in the
classification of the scrub and broad leaved vegetation classes like; Acacia modesta, Celtis
australis, Lantana camara and Adhatoda vasica when these vegetation classes were misclassified
due to the same spectral reflectance.

The curve that represents the distribution of sparse grass and bare soil also shows the mis-
classification. As most of the southern slopes in the park area have almost a uniform distribution of
eroded soil. This behavior can be well justified, as these areas exhibit scanty distribution of any
other plant species. Similarly, a symmetric low value of grass curve indicates the physiognomic
change due to seasonal effect on the vegetation. The growth of grasses is vigorous in months of
July and August and exhibit more reflectance in dark- green range like that of shrubs and bushes.
So it was picked as broad leaved class. The same was experienced by Ambareen 2002 in her
study in Ayubia National Park.

5.3.2. The Zonation

The zonation was carried out by formation of logical zonation units. This was done of the basis of
physical and topographic features in the area. The accuracy of this process was quite satisfactory.
Though the boundary between each zone was clearly demarcated on the map but it is often very
difficult to notice the real boundary on the ground because ecological features on small scale
change continuously (Trisurat et al, 1990). To qualify for any zone a decision tree was developed
base on the subjective classification.

The different parameters that were considered for inclusion in the zone were the type of vegetation,
cover percentage of dominant species, erosion and the presence of invasive species. Dissimilarity
exists between characteristics of vegetation according to aspect. The formation of such type of
zonation was chiefly because of the distribution and cover of the floral species.

The southern aspect of MHNP that faces Islamabad city is more occupied by human habitations
seemed to have a higher degree of soil erosion, grazing pressure and higher presence of invasive
plants species as compared to eastern forests, which revealed that the degradation is directly
related to increased human activities. Same type of result was obtained by Ahmad in 2001 from the
vegetation characteristics in Salt Range of Pakistan where the vegetation cover was much affected
due to the biotic disturbances.

The denuded slopes that are devoid of any vegetation tend to have more erosion (Vargas et al
1995). Similarly in this study the areas falling in the eroded category were near to human
settlements and were under high influence of felling, lopping, trampling and grazing.

A broad similarity can be observed between the vegetation characteristics of habitat in depressions.
Such sites are expected to have deeper soils and better soil moisture conditions and were found

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
96
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION

richer in plant species and have more cover of grasses. This phenomenon was also observed by
Moir et al, in 2000. Thus the zones falling in such areas were richer in species and its diversity.

The presence of invasive species was attributed to the areas which were more subjected to biotic
pressure, as these disturbances cause changes in the original flora, thus the invasive species can
occupy open spaces in vegetation (Heger 1999). Our results also show the same observation. It is
obvious that the areas around the major tourists sites of Daman- e- Koh, Chowki, Pir Sohawa and
Shahdara have more presence of exotic species as compared to far away areas.

5.3.3. The Core Biodiversity Zones

The core zones correspond to the idea of “Hotspots” introduced by Mayers in 1998. These areas
harbor a great diversity of endemic species and at the same time have not been significantly altered
by human activities (Annon 2002). It is regarded as a natural area with high ecological integrity of a
unique and undisturbed ecosystem. The area is fragile and/ or sensitive to disturbance. In this study,
plants were used as qualifiers for biodiversity, as plants in general have a central role in terrestrial
ecosystems and also provide adequate information to interpret biodiversity indices (Mayers 1998).
Areas with high plant species richness tend to have high species richness in other groups of animals
(Dallmeier 1998). The core zones were demarcated on the criteria that more than 70 percent of
original flora was intact.

The core biodiversity zones were identified in both the major plant communities i.e. pine and scrub
zone, where the erosion was less than 4 percent and seven percent respectively. Similarly the
presence of exotic species was less than five percent and 20 percent respectively.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
97
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6. 1. CONCLUSIONS

The TWINSPAN vegetation classification resulted in the identification of thirteen major plant communities in
the Margallah Hills National Park.

Based on the dominant vegetation type two major vegetation zones were identified in Margallah Hills
National Park i. e. Pinus Zone and Scrub Zone. On the basis of vegetation intactness and the threat of
erosion and exotic species, a total of eight logical units were included in core biodiversity zone in pine
vegetation zone, while a total of seven logical units were included in the core biodiversity zones in the scrub
vegetation.

6. 2. RECOMMENDATIONS

The increasing human population and non sustainable resource use are resulting in the depletetion of
natural resources in the park area. This impact can be significantly seen by the disturbance of vegetation in
the area. The following recommendations are made to combat the threat to the resources of the park area:

• There is a need to prepare a comprehensive management plan for the MHNP in consultation with
all the stakeholders like Government agencies, NGO’s and the local communities.

• A participatory strategy for the conservation and management of natural resources should be
developed and implemented in the area.
• There is a need to geographically demarcate the exact boundaries and forest management units in
order to facilitate the effective implementation of the management plan.

• There is a need to initiate awareness and community mobilization process in order to sensitize
people about the conservation and sustainable use needs.

• Ecological and social baseline studies should be conducted in the area, to study the ecosystem
function and the effects of human interactions with the nature.

• Bio- geographical studies should be conducted to address the issues of long term habitat
destruction and ecosystem management.

• A GIS based detailed study should be conducted to demarcate the extent of habitat destruction in
the area.

• Various existing resources should be explored in order to increase the derivation of economic
incentives for the community along with ensuring the sustainable use.

• Management policies should be prepared for future.

• Better law enforcement should be strictly ensured in order to effective implementation of the
management plan and reduce the burden on the resources.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
93
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

• Scientific management of forest and rangelands through participatory approaches should be


initiated.

• There is a need to put an end to illegal exploitation of resources. Prosecution of individuals


involved in illegal deforestation is required.

• Alternate energy technologies should be introduced and promoted in the area, in order to reduce
the pressure of the forest resources.

• The core zones should be protected from further loss and adequate measures must be taken to
protect the fragile ecosystem.

• Economic incentives should be provided to people in the buffer area of the park and they should be
motivated to restrict the consumptive activities in the core zones.

• Areas subjected to more erosion should be protected through biological means by protection and
revival of vegetation and by construction of engineering structures like check dams and gabions.

• Fire incidences should be controlled through community participation and strict law enforcement.
Law enforcement may be ensured and community mobilization for the fire control may be adopted.

• The sustainable tourism should be encouraged in the area, the present tourists facilities may be
further developed. Use of proper media in this regard can prove to be very effective in this regard.

• Alien species and scavengers should be controlled and where possible must be eradicated.

• Habitat of mammal species should be effectively managed and wherever if required the species
may be re- introduced.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
94
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Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
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REFERENCES

Annex- I
LIST OF NATIONAL PARKS IN PAKISTAN (AS OF 2005)

S. #. Name IUCN Category Area (ha.) Province Declaration


1. Ghamot In Process 2, 7394 A. J. Kashmir 2004
2. Machiara Un assigned 1, 3593 A. J. Kashmir 1996
3. Hazarganji- Chiltan V 1, 5555 Balochistan 1980
4. Hingol II 6, 19043 Balochistan 1988
5. Margallah Hills V 1, 5883 Capital Territory 1980
6. Central Karakoram Un assigned 9, 73845 Northern Areas 1995
7. Deosai Un assigned 3, 63600 Northern Areas 1993
8. Handrup Shandoor Un assigned 5, 1800 Northern Areas 1993
9. Khunjerab II 2, 27143 Northern Areas 1975
10. Ayubia V 1,684 NWFP 1984
11. Chitral Gol II 7,750 NWFP 1984
12. Lolusar II 3, 0014 NWFP 2003
13. Saiful Malook II 4,815 NWFP 2003
14. Sheikh Buddin IV 1, 5540 NWFP 1993
15. Chinji II 6,070 Punjab 1987
V (Biosphere
16. Lal Sohenra 5, 1588 Punjab 1972
Reserve)
17. Kirthar II 3, 02733 Sindh 1974

(SOURCE: IUCN- The World Conservation Union 2000)

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REFERENCES

ANNEX- II

LIST OF FLORA RECORDED FROM MHNP

S. No. BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY


1. Acacia modesta Mimosaceae
2. Acacia nilotica Mimosaceae
3. Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae
4. Adhatoda vasica Acanthaceae
5. Adiantum capillus-veneris Pteridaceae
6. Adiantum incisum Pteridaceae
7. Aillanthus altissima Sinaroubaceae
8. Ajuga bracteosa Lamiaceae
9. Albizzia lebbeck Mimosaceae
10. Albizzia procera Mimosaceae
11. Amranthus viridis Amaranthaceae
12. Andropogan pertusus Poaceae
13. Anisomeles indica Lamiaceae
14. Arisaema sp. Araceae
15. Aristida depressa Poaceae
16. Asparagus gracilis Liliaceae
17. Barleria cristata Acanthaceae
18. Bauhinia variegata Papillionaceae
19. Berberis lyciuim Berberidaceae
20. Bidens biternata Asteraceae
21. Bothriochloa pertusa Poaceae
22. Broussonetia papyrifera Moraceae
23. Butea monopserma Papillionaceae
24. Buxus papillosa Buxaceae
25. Cannabis sativa Cannabiaceae
26. Carissa opaca Apocynaceae
27. Cassia fistula Caesalpinaceae
28. Cederella serrata Meliaceae
29. Celtis australis Celtaceae
30. Centaurea iberica Asteraceae
31. Chrysopogan montanus Poaceae
32. Cordia myxa Boraginaceous
33. Cucumis melo-agrestis Cucurbitaceae
34. Cynodon dactylon Poaceae
35. Cyprus alternifolius Cypraceae
36. Dalbergia sisoo Papillionaceae
37. Debregeasia salicifolia Urticaceae
38. Dendrocalamus strictus Poaceae
39. Desmodium gangeticum Papillionaceae
40. Desmostachia bipinnata Poaceae
41. Dicanthium annulatum Poaceae
42. Dicliptera roxburghiana Acanthaceae
43. Dioscorea deltoidea Dioscoreaceae

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44. Dodonaea viscosa Acanthaceae


45. Dombeya sp. Sterculiaceae
46. Ehretia acuminata Boraginaceae
47. Erythrina suberosa Papillionaceae
48. Euphorbia dabia Euphorbiaceae
49. Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae
50. Ficus palmata Moraceae
51. Ficus benghalensis Moraceae
52. Ficus carica Moraceae
53. Flacourtia indica Flacourtiaceae
54. Gloriossa superba Liliaceae
55. Grewia optiva Tiliaceae
56. Helecteris isora Sterculiaceae
57. Heteropogan contortus Poaceae
58. Imperata cylinderica Poaceae
59. Incarvillea emodi Bignoniaceae
60. Ipomoea carnea Convolvulaceae
61. Jasminum officinale Oleaceae
62. Lannea coromandelica Anacardiaceae
63. Lantana camara Verbenaceae
64. Lonicera arborea Caprifoliaceae
65. Mallotus phillippinensis Euphorbiaceae
66. Malvastrum coromandelianum Malvaceae
67. Maytenus royaleanus Celastraceae
68. Melia azedirach Meliaceae
69. Micromeria biflora Lamiaceae
70. Reptonia buxifolia Sapotaceae
71. Morus alba Moraceae
72. Myrsine africana Myrsinaceae
73. Nerium oleander Apocynaceae
74. Onethra rosea Onagraceae
75. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Verbanaceae
76. Olea cuspidata Oleaceae
77. Oplismenus burmannii Poaceae
78. Otostegia limbata Lamiaceae
79. Oxalils corniculata Oxalidaceae
80. Parthenium hysterophorus Asteraceae
81. Pennisetum orientale Poaceae
82. Peristrophe bicalyculata Acanthaceae
83. Phylanthus emblica Euphorbiaceae
84. Phoenix dactylifera Palmaceae
85. Pinus roxburghii Pinaceae
86. Pistacia integerrima Anacardiaceae
87. Pongamia pinnata Papillionaceae
88. Populus deltoides Salicaceae
89. Porana paniculata Convolvulaceae
90. Prunus padus Rosaceae
91. Punica granatum Punicaceae

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92. Pyrus pashia Rosaceae


93. Quercus glauca Fagaceae
94. Quercus leucotrichophora Fagaceae
95. Rhus cotinus Anacardiaceae
96. Rubus ulmifolius Rosaceae
97. Sageretia brandrethiana Rhamnaceae
98. Salix tetrasperma Salicaceae
99. Salmalia malabarica Bombacaceae
100. Salvia officinalis Lamiaceae
101. Scilla griffithii Liliaceae
102. Sesbania sessban Papillionaceae
103. Setaria tomentosa Poaceae
104. Sonchus asper Asteraceae
105. Syzigium cumini Myrtaceae
106. Themeda anathera Poaceae
107. Thevetia peruviana Apocynaceae
108. Trichodesma indicum Boraginaceae
109. Vitex negundo Verbenaceae
110. Vitis trifolia Vitaceae
111. Woodfordia fruticosa Lythraceae
112. Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae
113. Xanthoxylum armatum Rutaceae
114. Xylosma longifolia Flacourtiaceae
115. Ziziphus mauritiana Rhamnaceae
116. Ziziphus nummularia Rhamnaceae

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REFERENCES

ANNEX- III

FAUNA OF MARGALLAH HILLS NATIONAL PARK

S. No. Common Name Scientific Name Status


Birds
1. Himalayan Griffon Gypus himalayensis Winter Visitor
2. Brain Fever Bird Cuculus varius Winter Visitor
3. Chit Chat Pylloscopus collybita Winter Visitor
5. Booted Warbler Hippolais caligata Winter Visitor
6. Gold Finch Carduelis carduelis Winter Visitor
7. Greenish Warbler Pylloscopus trochiloides Winter Visitor
8. Starling Sturnus vulgaris Winter Visitor
9. Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida Winter Visitor
10. Black- throated Thrush Turudus atrogularis Winter Visitor
11. Pintail Anas acuta Winter Visitor
12. Black- headed Gull Larus rudibundus Winter Visitor
13. Tilyar Surnus vulgaris Winter Visitor
14. Little Stint Calidris munutus Winter Visitor
15. Common River Tern Sterna aurantia Winter Visitor
16. Great Crested Grebe Podicets cristatus Winter Visitor
17. Garganey Anas querquedula Winter Visitor
18. Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus Winter Visitor
19. Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula Winter Visitor
20. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Winter Visitor
21. Shovellor Anas clypeata Winter Visitor
22. Common Teal Anas crecca Winter Visitor
23. Common Pochard Aythya ferina Winter Visitor
24. Sand Martin Riparia riparia Winter Visitor
25. Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius Resident+ Winter
Visitor
26. Herring Gull Larus argentatus Winter and Spring
Visitor
27. Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger Rare Winter Visitor
28. Golden oriole Oriolos oriolus Summer Visitor
29. Ringed Dove Streptopelia decacta Resident
30. Spotted Owlet Athene brama Resident
31. Blue whistling Thrush Myiophoneus caeruleus Resident
32. Rose- ringed Parakeet Pisttacula krameri Resident
33. Tree Pie Dendrocitta vagabunda Resident
34. Wryneck Jynx torquilla Resident
35. Spotted Owlet Athene brama Resident
36. Common Parrot Pisttacula krameri Resident
37. Himalayan Griffon Gypus himalayensis Resident
38. Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus Resident
39. Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus Resident
40. Ringed Dove Streptopelia decaocta Resident
41. Common Crow Corvus brachyrynchos Resident

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REFERENCES

42. House Sparrow Passer domesticus Resident


43. Common Myna Acridotheres tristis Resident
44. Common Hoopoe Upopa epops epops Resident
45. Red- vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer stanfordi Resident
46. Lark Halycon smyrensis Resident
47. - Pyrnonotus cafer cafer Resident
48. Tree Pie Dendrocitta vagabunda Resident
49. Kite Milvus migrans Resident
50. Kestrel Accipeter spp. Resident
51. Kaleej Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos, Resident
52. Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha Resident
53. Black Partridge Francolinus francolinus Resident
54. Grey Partridge Francolinus pondicerianus Resident
55. Chukoor Alectoris chukar Resident
56. Pond Heron Ardeola grayii Resident
57. White-backed Kingfisher Halcyon smynrensis Resident
58. Common Morhen Gallinula chloropus Resident
59. Coucal Centropus sinensis Resident
60. Lesser Golden- backed Dinopium bengalensis Resident
Woodpecker
61. Common Babler Tudoides caudatus Resident
62. Red- wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus Resident
63. Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus Resident
64. White- backed Kingfisher Halcyon smynrensis Resident
65. Little Egret Egretta garzetta Resident
Mammals
66. Fruit Bat Pteropus giganteus -
67. Common Leopard Panther pardus -
68. Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjac -
69. Grey Goral Nemorhaedus goral -
70. Wild Boar Sus scrofa -
71. Rhesus Monkey Rhesus macacca -
72. Jackal Canis aurcus -
73. Red Fox Vulpes vulpes -
74. Porcupine Hystrix indica -
75. Wooly Flying Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereous -
76. Indian Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii -
77. Murree Vole Hyperacrius wynnei -
78. Pangolin Manis temminckii -
79. Hedge Hog Hemiechinus auritus -
80. Porcupine Hystrix indica -
Reptiles (Snakes)
81. - Ptyas mucosus -
82. - Bungarus caruleus -
83. - Naja naja -
84. - Coluber ventromaculatus -
85. - Xenochophis piscator -
86. - Ramphotyphlops braminus -

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REFERENCES

87. - Leptotyphops blanfordi -


88. - Boiga trigonata -
Reptiles (Lizards)
89. - Cyrtopodian scaber -
90. - Hemidactylus flaviviridus -
91. - Varanus bengalensis -
92. - Calotes versicolar -
93. - Eublepharis macularius -
94. - Ophisos jerdoni -
95. - Hemidactylus brokii -
96. - Uromastix hardusichii -
Amphibians (Frogs/ Toads)
97. - Haplobatrachus tigerinus -
98. - Bufo stomaticus -
99. - Bufo melanosticus -
100. - Bufo virdis -
Fishes
101. Doula Channa channa -
102. Rahu Labeo rohita -
103. Thaila Catla catla -
104. Mori Cirrhinus mrigala -
105. Carp fish Cyprinus carpio -
106. Talapia Tilapia mossambica -

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REFERENCES

ANNEX- IV
RELEVANT WEB SITES

Bio Seek (Biodiversity Search Engine) http://www.biodiv.org/search

Eco-Portal (a search engine) http://www.eco-portal.com

Virtual Library of Ecology and Biodiversity http://conbio.net/VL/search

Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/links/search

Biodiversity Organization http://www.biodiversity.org

People and Planet https://www.peopleandplanet.net

Biodiversity Programme IUCN Pakistan http://www.biodiversity.iucnp.org

World Species List - Animals Plants Microbes http://envirolink.org/species

Biodiversity Hotspots https://www.biodiversityhotspots.org

Center for Applied Biodiversity Science http://www.biodiversityscience.org

Conservation International http://www.conservation.org

Wildlife of Pakistan http://www.wildlifeofpakistan.com

IUCN- The World Conservation Union http://www.edu.iucnp.org

World Wide Fund for Nature Conservation http://www.worldwildlife.org

United Nations Environment Programme http://www.unep.org/Biodiversity

Biodiversity Project http://www.biodiversityproject.org

Enviro- Link (Online Environmental Community) http://www.envirolink.org

World Watch Institute http://www.worldwatch.org

National Geographic Society http://www.nationalgeographic.com

Society for Conservation Biology http://conbio.org

United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre http://www.unep-wcmc.org

The Nature Conservancy http://www.nature.org

World Resources Institute http://www.wri.org

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
119
REFERENCES

Biodiversity Support Program http://www.bsponline.org

Investigate Biodiversity http://www. investigate.conservation.org

Interactive Map of Biodiversity Hotspots


http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/home/interactive_map.xml

Biodiversity and World Map http://www.nhm.ac.uk/science/projects/worldmap/worldmap/soft.htm

World Atlas of Biodiversity


http://stort.unep-wcmc.org/imaps/gb2002/book/viewer.htm

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
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REFERENCES

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
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REFERENCES

ANNEX- V

PERFORMA FOR PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL DATA

COVER VALUE FOR SPECIES

QUADRAT No. ► 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SPECIES NAMES ▼
S. No. DOMIN- KRAJINA VALUE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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REFERENCES

Annex- VI

FUEL WOOD CONSUMPTION DATA

S. No: _________ Date: __________ / 2004

GEO REFERENCE:

Longitude: ______________

Latitude: ________________

NAME OF SITE: _________________________

S. NAME OF CONSUMER AMOUNT / MONTH (Mounds) PREFERRED SPECIES SOURCE


No. (National Park/ Market)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
123
ANNEXURES

A
n
n
e
x
-

V
I
I

ECOLOGICAL DATA

S. No: _________
Date: ________________/ 2004

COMPARTMENT No: _______________________ Locality: ______________________

GEO REFERENCE:

Longitude: ___________________
Stand No. ____________
Latitude: _____________________
Plot No. ____________

TOPOGRAPHY

QUADRAT No. ► 1 2 3 10
ALTITUDE (m)
ASPECT
SLOPE (Avg.)
ECOLOGICAL THREATS
S. PARAMETERS ▼ SCORE
No.
1. STEMS
2. STUMPS
3. LOPPING
4. GRAZING
5. EROSION
6. AGRICULTURE
7. STONE QUARRIES

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
93
ANNEXURES

ANNEX- VIII
QUESTIONNAIRE

SOCIO- ECONOMIC AND RESOURCE SURVEY OF MHINP

Asslam’o aliaikum!

The sole purpose of my research here is to learn from locals about natural resources and
biodiversity of Margallah Hills National Park. The information provided by you will be treated
synonymously and will only be used for research purpose. Any input from you here will help
towards conservation of these resources for the benefit of yourself and the coming generations,
because our future is linked with the conservation of this precious asset.

Answering these questions is your moral obligation. Hoping for a positive response and
cooperation.

Saadullah Ayaz

PERSONAL PROFILE: Date: __________ 2004

1. NAME (Respondent) _________________, GENDER □ Male □ Female

2, AGE GROUP □ below 13 yrs, □ 14-20, □ 21-35, □ 36-50, □ 51-65, □ above 65 yrs.

3. POSITION IN FAMILY

□ Grand Father/ Mother, □ Father/ Mother, □ Son/ Daughter, □ Other. _______

4. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

□ Primary, □ Middle, □ High, □ Graduate, □ Masters

5. CAST ___________________, ETHNIC GROUP _____________________

6. NAME OF VILLAGE _____________________

7. OCCUPATION

□ Farming, □ Livestock Rearing, □ Business, □ Teaching, □ Student, □ Service,


□ Military, □ House Keeping, □ None, □ Other. ________________

8. APPROXIMATE AVERAGE MONTHLY INCOME OF ALL FAMILY MEMBERS (Rs.)

□ <3000, □ 3-5000, □ 6-10,000, □ 11- 20,000, □ above 20,000

9. TOTAL FAMILY MEMBERS

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
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ANNEXURES

Males __________, Females____________ Total: ________

Children ________, Literate ____________

10. NUMBER OF LIVE STOCK BY TYPE

FEEDING
TYPE NUMBER GRAZING STALL FEEDING AMOUNT
Cow
Buffalo
Sheep/ Goat
Horses/ Mules
Poultry
Total

11. FUEL WOOD CONSUMPTION

Source: □ Forest, □ Market Consumption (mounds/ month) _______

Preferred Fuel- wood Species _________________________________


Alternatives □ LPG, □ Sui Gas, □ Kerosene, □ Others. ______

Amount/ month _____


12. DO YOU OWN LAND?

□ Yes □ No

AREA CULTIVATED UN- OWN GOVT.


(Kanals) CULTIVATED PROPERTY
Below 5
6- 10
11- 25
26- 40
Above 50

13. AGRILCTURAL PRODUCTION

Name of Crop Yield (mounds) Income (Rs.)

1. _______________ ______________ ____________


2. _______________ ______________ ____________
3. ___________________ __________________ _______________

14. OTHER PRODUCTS (□ Fruits, □ Vegetable, □ Dairy Products etc.)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
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ANNEXURES

Name of Products Yield (mounds) Income (Rs.)

1. __________________ ________________ _______________


2. __________________ ________________ _______________
3. __________________ ________________ _______________

%age of Total Area of Compartment under Agriculture/


Horticultural Practices ________________

VILLAGE PROFILE:

15. FOREST COMPARTMENT No. ______________

16. TOTAL POPULATION OF VILLAGE (DCR) _, (RESPONDENT’S ESTIMATE) __

17. NUMBER OF HOUSES IN VILLAGE (DCR) __, (RESPONDENT’S ESTIMATE) __

18. DISTANCE FROM METALLED ROAD (Km) ________________________

19. ARE THERE ANY CONFLICTS IN VILLAGE?

□ Yes □ No

Reasons for Conflicts


□ Land/ Property, □ Ethnic, □ Political, □ Religion, □ Language

Decision Making Structure of Village _________________________

Number of Conflicts Resolved up till now _____________________

20. BASIC FACILITIES AVAIABLE IN VILLAGE

FACILITY
DETAILS
Health Hospital, BHU, Dispensary, Private Clinic, Quakes
Education College, High/ Middle/ Primary School
Water Supply Pipeline, Water Channel, Storage Tank, Tube Well
Electricity Grid Station, Main Power Line
Access Metelled/ Un Metelled Road, Bridal Path/ Trail
Markets Shop, Huts, Restaurants
Others. _____________

RESOURCE PROFILE:

21. HOW MUCH YOU ARE AWARE OF THE OBLIGATIONS OF A NATIONAL PARK?

□ Not al all, □ Some, □ Fair, □ Good, □ A lot

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22. HOW MUCH DO YOU CARE ABOUT BIODIVERSITY?

□ Not al all, □ Some, □ Fair, □ Good, □ A lot

Suggestions for Conservation _________________________________

23. WHAT IS YOUR DEPENDENCE ON NATIONAL PARK RESOURCES?

□ Fuel wood, □ Fodder, □ Medicinal plants, □ Others (NTFPs) _________

24. IS THEIR ANY NTFP THAT IS BEING COMERCIALLY EXPLOITED?

□ Yes □ No

Name Amount (Mounds) Income (Rs.)

25. DO YOU HUNT OR HAVE EVER HUNTED BEFORE?

□ Yes □ No

Specie Hunted Last Date of Hunt


_________________ ________________

26. DO YOU FACE ANY PROBLEM BECAUSE OF THE WILDLIFE SPECIES


IN YOUR COMPT.?

□ Yes □ No

Kind of Problem _____________________________

27. ANY KIND OF WILDLIFE YOU EVER OBSERVED IN THIS COMPT.?

□ Yes □ No

Species Year
_____________________ ___________

28. CHANGE THAT YOU HAVE OBSERVED IN WILDLIFE POPULATION.

PARAMETERS INCREASE DECREASE NO CHANGE


Total Wildlife Population
Population of Ungulates
Population of Birds
Population of Predators
Population of Scavengers

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park
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29. HOW MUCH IS NATIONAL PARK IMPORTANT FOR YOUR LIVELIHOOD?

□ Not al all, □ Some, □ Fair, □ Good, □ A lot

30. DO YOU THINK THAT THE PARK RESOURCES SHOULD BE CONSERVED?

□ Yes, □ No, □ I Don’t Know

Suggestions for Conservation __________________________________

31. IN YOUR OPNION, WHAT ARE THE MAJOR THREATS TO THE BIODIVERSITY?
(Rating Wise)

THREATS RATING
Population/ Tourism
Lack of Awareness
Poor Management
Grazing
Hunting/ Fishing/ Un sustainable Use
Forest fires
Quarries/ Land slides
Military Activity
Others. __________

Suggestions for Reducing Threats __________________________________

32. ARE THERE ANY OF THE BELOW AGENCIES THAT DISTURB THE
ENVIRONMENT IN THIS COMPT.?

□ Yes □ No

□ Mill, □ Brick Kiln, □ Stone Quarry, □ Shrine, □ Military Establishment,


□ Poultry Farm, □ Dumping Site, □ Others. ____________

33. IS THEIR ANY RECREATIONAL FACILITY IN THIS COMPARTMENT?

□ Yes □ No

□ Zoo/ Park, □ Camping/ Hiking Site, □ View Points, □ Wet land,


□ Tourists Center, □ Other. ________

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34. IS THEIR ANY CONFLICT BETWEEN THE COMMUNITY AND THE


AUTHORITIES OF THE NATIONAL PARK IN YOUR COMPT.?
[
□ Yes □ No

Kind of Conflict _______________________________

Impact of the Conflict on Management of National Park ____________

35. ARE THERE ANY LOCAL NGOs WORKING IN YOUR VILLAGE?

□ Yes □ No

Names ______________________________

Objectives: □ Nature Conservation, □ Women in Development,


□ Human Rights,□ Youth Affairs, □ Basic Education,
□ Sports Activities, □ Infrastructure Development,
□ Village Committee, □ Political, etc.

36. CHANGES THAT YOU HAVE OBSERVED IN THE PARK IN PAST 10 YEARS?

PARAMETERS INCREASE DECREASE NO CHANGE


Forest Cover
Population of Wildlife
Tourism
Human Population
Pollution
Others. __________

Reasons for Change. _______________________________________

37. DO YOU THINK THAT THE PARK IS BEING OVERCROWDED?

□ Yes □ No

38. CHANGES THAT YOU HAVE OBSERVED IN FOREST SPECIE COMPOSITION


IN YOUR COMPT.?

CROP INCREASE DECREASE NO CHANGE


Tree Species
Shrub Species
Range Species
Alien Species

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39. ANY ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT FOR HABITAT IMPROVEMENT IN THE NATIONAL
PARK BY AUTHORITIES IN YOUR COMPARTMENT?

□ Yes □ No

ACTIVITY YEAR DETAILS


Afforestation
Species Reintroduction
Alien Species Eradication
Predator Control
Soil Conservation
Garbage/ Trash Collection
Others. ____________

40. WHAT OTHER ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT TO REDUCE


PRESSURE ON RESOURCES?

□ Provide Alternative Sources of Fuel, □ Improve Management,


□ Raise Awareness, □ Reduce Tourism/ Settlements/ Military Activities,

41. ANY SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARK?


____________________________________________________________

RESEARCHER’ S REMARKS

Respondent’s Attitude: ____________________________________________

Site Conditions: ____________________________________________

Management Issues: ____________________________________________

Conservation Issues: ____________________________________________

Conservation Prospects: ____________________________________________

Resource Potential: ____________________________________________

Other Observations: _________________________________________________

Prescribed Zone: □ Disturbed Zone, □ Military Zone, □ Agriculture Zone,


□ Recreational Zone, □ Sustainable Use Zone, □ Services Zone,
□ Buffer Zone, □ Core Zone, □ Biodiversity Hotspot,
□ Other ______
Field Notes:
__________________________________________________

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