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ONUR ÇINAR
09.11.2010
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A coupling is termed as a
device used to make
permanent or semi-
permanent connection
where as a clutch permits
rapid connection or
disconnection at the will of
the operator.

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Úhaft couplings are used in machinery for several purposes the


most common of which are following:-

1. To provide for the connection of shafts of units that are


manufactured separately such as a motor and a generator, and
to provide disconnection for repairs or alterations.
2. To provide for misalignment of the shafts or to introduce
mechanical flexibility.
3. To reduce transmission shock loads from one shaft to
another.
4. To introduce protection against overloads.
5. To alter the vibration characteristics of rotating units.

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Úhaft couplings will be used under the following conditions:-

1. With shafts having collinear axes, that is, axes in the same
straight line. Rigid or flexible couplings of various form used
here.
2. With shafts having intersecting axes. Universal Coupling is
employed.
3. With shafts whose axes are parallel and at a relatively small
distance apart. Here the double slider crank principle of
mechanism is used.

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There are two basic classes of couplings:

1. Rigid Coupling

2. Flexible Couplings

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1. Rigid Úlip Couplings

4 This type of coupling has no flexibility or resilience,


hence it is necessary for the shafts that are
to be connected to be in good alignment, both
laterally and angularity, in order excessive loads
on the coupling, on the shafts, or on the shaft
bearings.
4 Rigid couplings do not accommodate misalignment
and consequently should not be used
indiscriminately.

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1. Rigid Úlip Couplings

There is three types of Rigid Couplings:

1.1 Úleeve or muff coupling


1.2 Clamp coupling
1.3 Flange coupling

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1.1 Úleeve or Muff Couplings


It is the simplest type of rigid coupling, made of cast iron. It consists
of a hollow cylinder whose inner diameter is the same as that of the
shaft. It is fitted over the ends of the two shafts by means of a
gib head key. The power is transmitted from one haft to the other
shaft by means of a key and a sleeve. It is, therefore, necessary that
all the elements must be strong enough to transmit the torque.

Úleeve or Muff Coupling


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1.1 Úleeve or Muff Couplings

Úleeve or Muff Coupling


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1.2 Clamp Couplings


Clamp coupling is sometimes called a compression coupling or
a ribbed coupling. This coupling is made in two parts which are
machined to fit the shaft and are finished off around the
periphery and on both ends. The two halves of the coupling are
clamped tightly against the surface of the shaft ends by through
bolts and the entire torsional moment is transmitted entirely by
friction.

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1.3 Flange Couplings


A flange coupling usually applies to a
coupling having two separate cast iron
flanges. Each flange is mounted on the
shaft end and keyed to it. The faces
are turned up at right angle to the axis
of the shaft. One of the flange has a
projected portion and the other flange
has a corresponding recess. This helps
to bring the shafts into line and to
maintain alignment. The flange
coupling is adopted to heavy loads
and hence it is used on large shafting.

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1.3 Flange Couplings

Flange Coupling
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2. Flexible Couplings
These couplings are rigid under torsion, but, allow the
correction of errors in the alignment of drive shafts. They are
widely used in the fields of robotics or automatisms, because
they are excellent for very accurate system piloting. They are
also known as "precision couplings«
Flexible Couplings may be split into two categories from the
stand point of design:

2.1 Rigid Úlip Coupling


2.2 Couplings With Incorporated Flexible Members

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2.1 Rigid Úlip Couplings

4 Couplings whose flexibility is obtained kinematically by the use of


rigid members in which constraint is absent in certain directions.
This category of coupling can be used for any velocities and loads
and cause comparatively small additional loads on shafts and
bearings.
4 Type of rigid slip couplings are:-
Oldham
Bellows Coupling
Universal Joint Couplings

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2.1 Rigid Úlip Couplings

Oldham Coupling Bellows Coupling

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2.2 Couplings With Incorporated Flexible Member

4 This type of coupling anticipates both misalignment and impact.

4 Type of incorporated flexible couplings are:


Úlip Type
Jaw Type
Bushed Pin Type

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2.2.1 Úlip Type Flexible Coupling

The object of slip coupling is to permit relative rotation, or slip ,


between the driving shaft and the driven shaft. A slip coupling
is a safety device that prevents damage to rotating parts
because of overloading . The slip coupling is adjusted so that it
will begin to slip if the transmitted torsional moment exceeds a
predetermined value. Usually the slip begins if the load exceeds
by 10 to 20 percent the maximum load the shafts and other
parts are designed.

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2.2.1 Úlip Type Flexible
Coupling

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2.2.2 Jaw Type Coupling

Three-Jaw Insert couplings are used to


provide quieter running and to minimize
vibration.

Three Jaw Insert Coupling

Multi Jaw Couplings, light duty couplings


have spider-ring design with a special
elastomer insert.

Multi Jaw Coupling


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2.2.3 Bushed Pin Type


4 The simplest and commonest type of coupling is the flexible
rubber ʹ bushed coupling. In the pin type coupling motion form
one half flange is transmitted to the other half by mans of pins or
bolts. The pins are rigidly bolted to one flange and loosely fitted in
the corresponding holes of the other flange.
4 In the various designs this type of flexible coupling is extensively
used, especially where the driving and driven units are mounted
on a common base plate, where excessive misalignment is not
likely, for example, a prime mover connected to a generator, a
compressor connected to an electric motor, an electric motor
connected to a centrifugal blower etc.

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2.2.3 Bushed Pin Type

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Ñifferent types of couplings offer different advantages and
disadvantages:
Ê  can accommodate almost no misalignment; should some
misalignment occur, from assembly inaccuracy or from thermal expansion
during operation, the use of rigid couplings can result in large reactive forces
on support bearings.

   can accommodate large radial, small angular, and


moderate axial misalignment; they offer good peak torque rating and
torsional stiffness, homokinetic transmission (the driven side moves at the
same speed as the driving side at all times), very low reactive forces, and
low cost, and are a good all-around choice for a flexible coupling in most
applications.

   offer the advantage of torsional vibration dampening. They


accommodate large torques and small misalignments with low cost. They
don't have good torsional stiffness, however, as some windup will occur.
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Ñifferent types of couplings offer different advantages and
disadvantages:

ÿ
  have a thin-walled flexible metallic element, and can
accommodate large misalignments with low reactive forces, but are useful
only for low torque, and have low torsional stiffness when measured at
torques that approach the peak torque. Like the beam coupling, these are
moderate-cost units that will eventually fatigue.


      are very robust designs meant for large
shafts (over two inches in diameter), very high torques, and rough
applications.

     are large-diameter assemblies that


accommodate small misalignments and offer small torsional dampening.
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