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The Black Woman Is God

The black woman is god!

To merely respect the great black woman is a trivial

thing; indeed she is to be worshiped as a living
goddess! we are to wait on the black queen as a
servant, to kiss her feet, to bow in her presence. we
are to love and adore her more than life. for she is
life! she is creation, and she is love,

Most African cultures, including that of ancient kemet
are matrilineal. this means that ones identity is
through his or her mother. the mother, the black
queen, is the creator, the life force, the sustainer
and the producer of life and ones identity.
"you know that in our country there were even
matriarchal societies where women were the most
important element. On the bijagos islands they had
queens. they were not queens because they were
the daughters of kings. they had queens succeeding
queens. The religious leaders were women too, "
---amilcar cabral, return to the source, 1973
in kemet, rulers were often pictured with their
mothers and ruled equally with their queens.
"It is said to be the custom among the Nubians,
when a king dies and leaves a son, and also a
nephew, the son of his sister, that the latter reigns
after his uncle, instead of the son, " -- the black
queen in ancient kemet shared civic duties with her
male counterpart. from the Afrikan perspective the
feminine energy is glorious and vital!
In both the bible (exodus) and the quran (sura), it is
spoken that shortly after being led out of egypt, the
israelites constructed and began worshiping a
'golden calf'. upon further inspection, it is obvious
that this 'golden-calf' is in fact the kemetan cow
(see below). after spending so many years in kemet
and observing the complex practices, culture and
spiritual system of the egyptians (a system
thousands of years in the making, with roots from
the nubian people of kush -- the egyptians were
children and a colony of the kushites), it would be
thought that moses would understand that the
kemetans were not 'idol worshipers'. that the image
of the cow goddess only symbolically represents the
nourishing and life-giving energy; the same energy
in the black woman, the same energy that is an
aspect of the all-encompassing transcendental god
(neberdjer). so the israelites were in fact emulating a
kemetian practice; the practice of devotional
veneration to both the black woman, and to god!
it has now been undisputably proven that the human
race originated in africa. we now know that all
humans can trace their roots to a family in africa. we
know that the first mother is an african woman. the
beautiful black queen is the original woman, the
mother and creator of us all.
She is the feminine energy of the divine (father-
mother-son) trinity (asar-aset-heru). she embodies
powerful aspects of the feminine energy: love,
wisdom, healing and nurturing. after being
dismembered by set who represents uncontrolled
passions and worldly desires, the many pieces of
asar's body were scattered across the globe. aset
now embarked a long quest of devotional love in
which she successfully found and collected the pieces
of asars body. with this energy of love and healing
she healed his body. after this resurrection, aset
becomes impregnated by the spirit of asar. she gives
virgin-birth to the prototype hero heru: the
conqueror of the lower (wordly) self. heru attains
divine-consciousness (identification with the higher
self) and defeats set (ignorance) by doing battle with
maat(truth, justice, righteousness). aset was said to
have been a darkskinned child and was called
khnemet-ankhetí (the living lady of love). ttere are
statues throughout europe, especially greece,
depicting aset as the prototype madonna. in these
statues, she can be seen holding and suckling the
baby heru. the mary-jesus relationship and
personalities are based on this black madonna
the sister of asar and aset. she represents nature
and death. she represents the illusion of the physical
world. nebethet represents the lower nature, and the
mortal life: that which lives and dies. her sister aset
is the complimentary aspect of existence:
enlightenment, the transcendental and immortal
reality of the divine and the spirit; the true essence,
that which is eternal and abiding. the path of the
aspirant is to become heru (as mortals, to become
aware of our eternal essence, to identify with the
divine, the immortal sustaining spirit that lives in and
supports all of nature and creation). to become one
with heru is to eventually become one with with asar
(pure consciousness, pure spirit). while asar's union
with aset (cosmic consciousness and wisdom)
produced heru, his drunken union with nebethet
(nature) produced anpu (inipu). so to become asar is
to attain a transcendental consciousness that knows
both the spirit (aset) and nature (nebethet).

the consort of the wind/air god shu, the goddess
tefnut represents the life force within air, which is
itself a lifeforce. she also represents water and liquid
substances and the power of water.

the mother goddess. she is the mother of asar and
aset (father and mother of the divine trinity asar-
aset-heru). she is the daughter of shu and tefnut
(wind god and goddess). nut represents the heavens
and the sky. she represents these aspects of the
physical universe that we live in. nut lifts up all
righteous aspirants into heaven to take their place as
a shining spirit (star) on her body.(ashby)

the goddess mut is nature itself. she represents
nature's ability to regenerate or recycle herself. just
as vultures sustain their lives by eating the dead
carcasses of animals, she creates life out of death.
her symbol is the vulture. mut takes in death and
brings forth new life for the spiritual aspirant.

androgynous god of the nile with protruding bosom
and belly that represent fertility. the same fertility
that as the nile river, nourished the lands with
annual floods. the goddess hapi nourishes the spirit
as the nile nourishes the lands.

the androgynous god/goddess of creation, action and
battle. the aspirant must become net and take action
for righteousness(maat) and justice.

the great cow goddess of life, creation and nurturing.
the inexhaustible source of energy and vitality that
sustains the universe.

the female aspect of the cosmic reality (asar). she
represents all aspects of both asar and aset. amentet
represents the source of creation.
this powerful lioness-headed goddess destroys, evil,
darkness and ignorance. in this capacity she aids the
aspirant towards truth and the light.

the goddess Maat wears a feathered headdress. She
sustains the universe and creation! maat is peace,
love, harmony, balance, order and justice. she is the
force and balance that hangs stars in galaxies and
pushes galaxies through universes, she causes the
rain to fall and flowers to blossom.
She is the purity and clarity within the heart, mind
and consciousness of the aspirant that leads to
identification with the higher self and conquering of
the lower self. she is balance. she is righteousness.
maat is the foundation of life and culture of the
ancient kemetians, and of any spirant on the
spiritual path. maat is the source of life (ankhu


The black woman is the mother of all men. She is

the creator. She has historically been the central
point of the Afrikan and Afrikan-Diasporas family.
“ I was born of a lioness, child of an Israelite. It is
fitting that i should emulate her. She is my mother;
she strapped me on her back. I was nursed by lions
that wore skirts."
The black woman is a composite and divine
expression of all of the energies and qualities
represented by the goddesses. her vibration of love,
nurturing, healing and life is essential. just as her
energy has created us, only she can save us.

Western media images that distort this truth and her

beauty shall not be tolerated!!! to merely respect the
great black woman is a trivial thing; indeed she is to
be worshiped as a living goddess! we are to wait on
the black queen as a servant, to kiss her feet, to bow
in her presence. we are to love and adore her more
than life. For she is life! She is creation, and she is
The Black woman was there first. Scientists today
have discovered that the Y chromosome in
spermatozoa has 2.8 percent less genetic material
than the X chromosome in the same spermatozoa
specimen. Researchers were able to sift spermatozoa
to produce samples in which 85 percent of the cells
had an X chromosome.

In fact, the X chromosome is five times larger

than the Y chromosome, which means that
females existed for generations without males. To
get the Y chromosome out of an X chromosome, you
lose one of your points, thus the chromosome is
defected, which is why a man has the same
components on his body, that the woman does. For
example, the bosom and unmentionables, however
men don’t breastfeed. Men are a genetic defect of
women. A woman not only breastfeeds her children,
but she nurtures the whole world with her wisdom.

The Y chromosome comes from female scientists, as

Ninti, known as Mother Ninti or Nunet, who
experimented with the side of an X chromosome
maiming it by removing 2.8 percent of X
chromosomes. This resulted in a maimed lower right
stem (see 'xy' photo), giving the appearance of a Y,
which produces less genetic materials, resulting in a
Y chromosome, called chromosomal
manipulation, a well known experiment today.
the X and Y chromosome

The Black Woman (Mother God) has a plan for bringing Africans
to salvation in Her Kingdom. Since Her creation of Adam and
Eve, the Black Woman (Mother God) has worked with Africans in
various ways but always with the same goal in mind. Before Our
Love for One Another came, the Black Woman (Mother God)
called only a few Africans out of their societies to serve Her and
further Her work. Many of them are mentioned by name in
Hebrews 11, a chapter in the Bible we could call the
Black/Afrikan faith hall of fame.

Even as She called and worked through individual Black

Leaders and Prophets to do a spiritual work, the Black Woman
(Mother God) established a physical nation to help fulfill Her
plan. This nation, the descendants of Abraham through his
grandson Jacob/Israel/Blacks in the Diaspora, was also known
as the Black Woman (Mother God)'s congregation (Acts 7:38) or
"church," as it is translated in the King James Version.

Understanding how the Black Woman (Mother God) worked

through Blacks/Africans in the Old Testament is an important
background for understanding why and how the Black Woman
(Mother God) established the Africans/Blacks in the New

The Black Woman (Mother God) worked with Africans in

different ways?
"The Black Woman (Mother God), who at various times and in
various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets,
has in these last days spoken to us by Her Son, whom She has
appointed heir of all things, through whom also She made the
worlds" (Hebrews 1:1-2).

The Black Woman (Mother God) spoke to Adam and Eve directly,
as she later communicated with Moses. However, she often
conveyed her message in other ways—through dreams and
visions, through prophets and priests, and through her inspired
written Word, the Holy Scriptures. But the message always fit
into the same overall mission.

Why did the Black Woman (Mother God) call Abraham?

"Now the LORD had said to Abram: 'Get out of your country,
from your family and from your father's house, to a land that I
will show you. I will make you a great nation; I will bless you and
make your name great; and you shall be a blessing. I will bless
those who bless you, and I will curse him who curses you; and
in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed'" (Genesis

The Black Woman (Mother God) had a plan for Abraham. In Her
mission to extend Her love to all humanity, the Black Woman
(Mother God) chose a man who was faithful and obedient to
serve as a physical and spiritual role model. Abraham set an
example of obedience in leaving his home country at the Black
Woman (His Mother’s) command, not even knowing the final
destination (Hebrews 11:8).

She believed the Black Woman (Mother God) would fulfill Her
promises, in spite of the seeming impossibilities involved. She
was even willing to give up his own son (Genesis 22),
prefiguring the sacrifice of Our Love for One Another came.

Why was Abraham willing to do this?

In faith he knew that the Black Woman (Mother God) could raise
Isaac from the dead (Hebrews 11:17-19).
Why is Abraham so important?

"For what does the Scripture say?’ Abraham believed the Black
Woman (Mother God) and it was accounted to him for
righteousness'... that he might be the father of all those who
believe ... [and] that righteousness might be imputed to them
also" (Romans 4:3, 11, emphasis added throughout).

"And I will make your descendants multiply as the stars of

heaven; ... and in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be
blessed; because Abraham obeyed My voice and kept My
charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws" (Genesis

"Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. She
does not say, 'And to seeds,' as of many, but as of one, 'And to
your Seed,' which is Our Love for One Another" (Galatians 3:16).
Not only did Abraham become the father of many nations,
including those that descended from Israel, but his example of
faithfulness to the Black Woman (Mother God) led the Black
Woman (Mother God) to call him the father of the spiritually

Over the years the Black Woman (Mother God) extended the
promises She made to Abraham not only to his physical
descendants (Genesis 13:16; 15:5; 17:3-6) but to the whole world
through the promised Seed, the Blackman who has the love of
their Black Mothers for our people Our Love for One Another".

The faithful—all those called and chosen for a relationship with

the Black Woman (Mother God)/Love in the past, present and
future—are Abraham's spiritual descendants. But the Black
Woman (Mother God)/Love also worked through Abraham's
physical descendants.

What was the nation of Israel called to do?

"Surely I have taught you statutes and judgments, just as the

LORD my Black Woman (Mother God) commanded me that you
should act according to them in the land which you go to

Therefore be careful to observe them; for this is your wisdom

and your understanding in the sight of the peoples who will hear
all these statutes, and say, 'Surely this great nation is a wise and
understanding Nation of Africans/Blacks.'

For what great nation is there that has the Black Woman (Mother
God)/Love so near to it, as the LORD our Black Woman (Mother
God)/Love is to us, for whatever reason we may call upon Her?

And what great nation is there that has such statutes and
righteous judgments as are in all this law which I set before you
this day?" (Deuteronomy 4:5-8).

One of the responsibilities the Black Woman (Mother God) gave

to the physical nation of Israel was to represent Her, to show by
example that the Black Woman (Mother God)'s way works.

The nations around should have seen the beauty of the Black
Woman (Mother God)'s laws at work in the lives of the
Afrikaans/Blacks here in the Diaspora.

Did the Afrikaans fulfill the mission the Black Woman (Mother
God) called them to do?

"But I had concern for My holy name, which the house of

Israel/Blacks here in the Diaspora had profaned among the
nations wherever they went".

"Nevertheless they were disobedient and rebelled against You,

cast Your law behind their backs and killed Your prophets, who
testified against them to turn them to Yourself; and they worked
great provocations" (Nehemiah 9:26).

"Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make
a new covenant with the house of Israel/Blacks here in the
Diaspora and with the house of Judah/Afrikaans in Afrika—not
according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the
day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of
Egypt, My covenant which they broke ..." (Jeremiah 31:31-32).

Israel not only failed to set a good example for its neighboring
nations, but the Afrikaans also broke their agreement with the
Black Woman (Mother God) by breaking their covenant of love
towards one another and even caused the Black Woman (Mother
God)'s name to be blasphemed (Romans 2:24).

Why did Israel fail?

"... They did not obey or incline their ear, but everyone followed
the dictates of his evil heart ..." (Jeremiah 11:8).

"You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears! You

always resist the Holy Spirit of your Mother; as your fathers did,
so do you".

"But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of
Israel/Blacks here in the Diaspora after those days, says the
LORD: I will put My law (law of love for one another) in their
minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their (Mother
God), and they shall be My Children (gods in the flesh)."

The Afrikaans didn't have the heart needed to fully accomplish

the Black Woman (Mother God)'s will (Deuteronomy 5:29). They
resisted the Holy Spirit (Holy Character of Love), as does all
Africans without the special calling of the Black Woman (Mother
God). But the Black Woman (Mother God) has a plan to make a
new heart available to us all and to write Her laws in our minds.

All comments welcome...just go to


The Het-Heru (Hathor) goddesses

This picture of Hathor was made by Susan in Luxor.

Het-Heru (Hathor), goddesses of love, beauty, happiness

and fertility, also the Goddesses of the sky and the heaven.
She was everything that is true and good.
All that is best in wife, mother and daughter.
Goddess of singers, dancers, artists,
of the vine, of beer, joy, happiness.
She was identified with the star Sept, which is the star Sirius.

The goddess Het-Heru is black-skinned.

Because of the help and protection of Hathor

the dead are able to attain everlasting life.

Het-Heru and Het-Hert are both the names of the goddesses.

Het-Heru means House of Horus.
Since Horus the elder (Heru-Ur) was also seen
as the Sun-God, the House of Horus is the part of the sky
where the Sun passes by.
Het-Hert means the House Above, so the sky or heaven.

The religion of Hathor is of immense antiquity.

Hathor was the "Mother of the Light",
thus connected to the first act of creation, the creation of light
(in the Egyptian view upon creation).

Before there was an Egyptian civilization as we know it,

her religion was already in existence.
The goddess religion was in existence in South Eastern Europe since
directly after the melting of the Ice Caps of the last Ice Age
(somewhere between 9000 or 7000BC).
The priestesses in this old civilization wore cowhorns
with the moon symbol in between the horns.
See the special page on this very ancient religion.
This old civilization knew the art of writing, which recently has been identified
as hieroglyphs far before the ancient Egypt hieroglyphs.
See the special page on the first translations.
There is a direct relationship between this ancient Goddess civilization
and the ancient Egyptian religion, certainly through Hathor.

As the cow-goddess she is the "Lady of the Holy Land", which means
the country where the people risen from the dead are staying.

The worship of Hathor was universal in the whole of Egypt,

during all milleniums of the Egyptian civilization.

Hathor is a multiple goddess,

appearing in multiple personalities at the same moment.
Sometimes she is seen in 18 personalities,
also in 12 Hathors, sometimes in 8 personalities.
But the appearance in Seven Hathors was generally accepted.
The seven goddesses have tambourines in their hands
and tight fitting dresses
and have the cow-horns with the disk on their heads.

The seven Het-Heru multiple Goddesses are prophetic faeries.

In this way she is connected with the
goddess Pele who is also manifold in her sisters.

The multiple Goddess are related with the scale of music, the octave.

Sometimes Het-Heru is depicted with the head of a lion.

This connects her to the Tarot card of Strength.

Her music instrument is the sistrum,

a very special melodic rattle.
Even now the sistrum is being played in
the Coptic christian church and
the Ethiopian christian church.

Her temple service was done by priestesses.

The priestesses had the big Het Heru (Hathor) crown on their heads.
This crown had two cow horns with the moon disc in between.
In the hot climate of ancient Egypt
they were naked holy women.

Somehow this is also proof that Isis and Hathor

are NOT explicitly related.
Isis had almost exclusively male priests.
The Hathor religion is related with the Baalat religion,
and much later with the Mary religion of Christianity.

Most probable there is a relationship

between the Mut religion and Hathor.
See also the Amen-triade.
For example Thebes was named by the Coptic people
after the Goddess Apt, who is a form of Het-Heru.
Thebes was the centre of the Amen and Mut religions.

The Hathor religion is very much related with

the original woman based religions, before
the take-over of the man based religions.
Music and sound will have been
a very important element of the Hathor religion.
The Hathor religion is almost certain in line with
the original goddess religion.

Her main temple is at Dendera in Southern Egypt.

In this temple are wondrous things ingraved in the walls.
One wall of her temple at Dendera gives the map of star systems
around the earth, orientated from Taurus.
Taurus was the spring constellation from around 4600 to 2200 BC.

It could be that the orientation of the Hathor temple

has to be taken one cycle earlier (27000 years),
which is around 30.600 to 28.200 BC.
This does not mean that the Egyptian temple structure
is as old as this, but it does mean
that the Hathor religion is very old.
It is sure that the ancients were aware of this long cycle.

Also the Encyclopeadia Brittanica hints to the 4th millennium BC,

which matches the 4600 BC. The Roman emperor Tiberius has
completed this temple of Hathor about 30 AD.
But the first foundations of the existing temple
go back to 2600 BC at least.

As being said here above, Hathor is a multiple goddess.

In the temple in Dendera there are
18 Hathor statues in her hall.
Elsewhere there are often seven Hathor's
together, see also the book of the Dead, plate 35,
where seven Hathor cows are accompanied
by one husband Hathor bull.
That both bull and cows represent Hathor is
because the original gods and goddesses
were seen as hermaphrodite.
Also Mut the mother-goddess is often depicted as such.

The symbol of Hathor is also written on the shield of king Narmer,

the first written historical document in human history.
Here she appears in her image of a cow,
associated with motherhood.

In the temple at Dendera are images engraved

that resemble modern machines,
like helicopter, submarine and more.
Even the use of electricity for light is very probable
in these wondrous engravings upon her walls.

She is identified with the Greek goddess Afrodithe.

Turqois is her holy stone.

She is the queen of the four corners of the universe.

In the ancient Goddess religion the cross is used often
to point to the four corners of the universe.
This is also an known symbolism in the New Testament.
Her holy tree is the maple tree.
In the turqois mines in the Sinai also a Hathor temple was present.
Certainly the Hebrew/Hapiru tribes must have known this temple.
The Mozes-Aaron-Mirjam religion had the calf as
a holy animal, which is also holy to Hathor.

She is depicted with the head of a lion and an uraeus.

Sometimes she was depicted with horns
and the moon upon her head.
Her holy animal was the cow.
In many places she is depicted in four images:
the lioness, protector of life;
the cow, goddess of love and rebirth;
the cat, protector of the families and the royal foster mother;
the cobra, goddess of beauty and youth.
The snake was also a holy animal of the ancient Goddess
of the ancient Goddess civilization far before ancient Egypt.
The picture above shows the goddess Hathor
as she is seen most of the time:
the laughing friendly face with the big ears.
In Dendera her face is depicted 18 times this way.
This is because this goddess is a multiple personality,
she is not one, but many. In ancient inscriptions it is told
that she appeared sevenfold at the same time.
(Confirmed by the great egyptologist E.A. Wallis Budge).
The 18 statues in the temple of Dendera indicated
an even more multiplied personality.

It is almost certain that the old stories

about fearies go back upon the goddesses Hathor.

Great Queens Of
great queens of afrika
rulers all aroun
they were mighty brave and strong
europeans couldn't get them down

afrika had great kings and queens

u should know
search your history
it will show
if u know not from whence you came
u are doomed to live in shame

in a afrika

talkin bout makeda

queen of sheba
ruled from arabia to ethiopia
fell in love with solomon
brought forth haile selassie
forefather menelik I

In a afirka

amina rode at the head of

her troops in war
conquered enemies near
and far
great queen of hausa land
a woman as capable as any man

in a afrika

nzinga of angola
fought the portuguese
as a guerilla soldier
at age 70 she was still on top
portuguese, dutch, nzinga
they could not stop
si queen nanny of jamaica
she rule de area
when de english dem lick shot
all she do is spit it back
in a afrika

now when i was a child i

thought cleopatra
looked exactly like
elizabeth taylor
now i am wiser i understand
cleopatra was really an egyptian

in a afrika

yes afrika had great kings

and queens u should know
search your history
it will show
if u know not from whence you came
u are doomed to live in shame

Sekhmet [aka. queen of queens of Afrika]

Queen Sekhmet, Dread Lioness of Khem (Egypt),

She who must be obeyed, the All Conquering Queen of Ethiopia

In indigenous afrikan cosmology, Sekhmet (also spelt

Sachmet, Sakhet, and Sakhmet; Greek name: Sacmis), was
the primodial war goddess.
Her name suited her function, and means “the Conquering
Lady” or (one who is) powerful, and she was also given
titles such as (One) Before Whom Evil Trembles, and Lady
of Slaughter. Sekhmet was also known as the Scarlet Lady,
(a reference to blood) and the Avenger of Wrongs.
As the one who destroyed the evil relentlessly whilst
protecting goodness she was hailed as Nyabinghi, in the
upper sections of the Nile, near the borders of Southern
Sudan and Uganda, ancient Ethiopia Kush the land of the
first Pharaohs.
Sekhmet was She who protected the nation and the Pharaoh
in peace and in war. In wars the protection and strength of
the Conquering Queen Mother of Ethiopia were the hopes
of the Pharaohs, and in peace She was believed to stalk the
land, destroying the enemies of the Pharaoh with arrows of
fire. Indeed it was said that death and destruction of the
wicked and the oppressors were balsam for her heart, and
hot desert winds were believed to be her breath.
The protection of the Pharaohs was such a crucial function
in those time as the instutition was the source of all the
tradition and stability of Kush and Khem.
The Pharaoh – the Great Black House – was the
government of Egypt, the very soul and center of all the
Black-Brown people of Africa. It comprised of the King of
Kush and Egypt and the college of priestly scientists,
administrators, legislators and justices that guided and
directed Black Africa. This establishment governed Egypt
for more than 3,000 years of its recorded existence and it
was the key to its stability and longevity.
The Pharaoh was the source of justice, morality and
righteousness. The office of the King and Queen in the
Pharaoh (the great Black House) was seen as the
embodiment of the energy of the Sun…Ras.
The king of Egypt was verily the living son of the great
God amongst men. As such it was crucial that the crucible
of order and meaning be protected at all times. And this
was the key function of Sekhmet the Conquering Queen
Mother of Ethiopia. She was the mother and the protector
of God!
The devotion of motherhood was also an aspect attributed
to the Conquering Mother of Ethiopia, Sekhmet. She was
viewed as a form of Hathor the primeval mother of
humanity and the gods. As Hathor, she was seen as Atum’s
mother. Since Atum was but another name or aspect of the
Kushitic/Khemitic God Amen, Sekhmet was also
conceptualized as the mother of God.
In particular, she was seen as the mother of Nefertum, the
youthful form of Atum, and so was said to have been Ptah’s
lover. Ptah was the archetypal God and Nefertum’s father.
Sekhmet, Ptah and Nefertum were thus the original triad of
Gods, worshipped especially in the ancient Egyptian city of
Sekhmet was the incarnation of the fearless lioness. She
was the essence of the majesty, royalty, and power of the
fierce lioness. In art, she was depicted as such, or as a
shoulder length dread locks African woman with the head
of a lioness, dressed in red, the colour of blood. Given that
lions were her totemic animals, tame lions were kept in
temples dedicated to Sekhmet like the ones in the ancient
Egyptian city of Leontopolis.
The cult of Sekhmet the Powerful Dread Lady of the south
was and remains widespread in Africa and in the diaspora.
Sekhmet was known by different names at different time in
different areas in Africa. But her core role, function and
attributes remained resiliently unaltered inspite of several
local embellishments. Sometimes, her identity was
composited in the identity of a great ancestral female
matriarch, and it was rationalized that Sekhmet had
incarnated amongst humanity as that female matriarch.
In the animal kingdom Sekhmet ruled as the all powerful
dread lock lioness and in the human kingdom she ruled as
the Queen of Queens of Kush and Khem. She was said to
manifest in the physical world cyclically either as the
lioness, her favourite totem or as the incarnation of an all
powerful African Empress. It is usually in the human form
as an African Queen that Sekhmet prefers to leave her
marks on humanity.
In parts of Africa where there one finds strong strains of
ancient Ethiopian-Egyptian culture one finds Sekhmet
composited with various localized strong women such as
the Queen of Sheba and Queen Judith in ancient Ethiopia,
Queen Amina in Zaira, Nigeria, Queen Kahina, the Black
African Jewish Queen of the Berbers, Queen Moremi in the
ancient Oyo Empire in Nigeria, Queen Idia in the ancient
Benin Empire in Nigeria, Queen Ojedi among the Onitsha
Igbos of Nigeria, Queen Nzinga in Angola, and Queen
Nyabinghi Muhumusa of Uganda.

Origin Of Sekhmet
The Egyptian mythology teaches that in the golden age of
the world that Ra (also Ras) himself the king and the father
of the gods ruled Egypt himself. This was the greatest age
that Egypt had ever known and until the very end it was
described as the age of perfection.
Ra ruled for so long in that time that men forgot the number
of years he had been on the throne. Eventually, even Ra
got old, “for it was decreed that no man should rule forever
and he had made himself man to live on earth and rule over
Ethiopian and Egypt. In his oldage, “his bones were like
silver, his flesh like gold and his hair like lapis lazuli.”
Due to the onset of senility Ras was no more an effective
fighter against Apophis the Dragon of Evil, who had
subsequently grown bolder in his malfeasance and “sought
ever to devour all that was good and bright and kissed by
the sun.”
Presently the evil of Apophis entered into the soul of the
ancient Africans and many of them rebelled against Ras
and did evil in his sight and disrespected his works.
So Ras gathered the high Gods in high council, and he sent
for the four living creatures that stand before his throne,
Shu and Tefnut, Geb and Nut, and finally he sent for Nun
the essence of the waters.
Before this high and mighty council Ras made his
interdiction against men, and he sought to pronounce a
malediction against them for their evil, dirty, unrighteous
and disrespectful ways.
But Nun, speaking on behalf of the other Gods urged
restraint. Because the unconstrained wrath of Rastafari
could burn up the earth in totality, consuming the
deserving with the undeserving.
So Nun speaking for the Gods called forth and surely, for
the appointment of one enthusiastic and steadfast, one
burning with sincere love and devotion for the majesty of
the dynasty of Ras, one commited to the regency and
hegemony of the righteous Empire, to arise and defend the
integrity, and the solemnity, and the sanctity and the
honour of the law and the works of Ra.
For as Nun argued, “if you send forth the burning glance of
your eye to slay mankind, it will turn the land of Ithiopia
and the entire world with it into a desert. Therefore make a
power that will smite men and women only; send out that
which will burn the evil but not harm the good. Send out
Then Ras consented with the urging of the Gods. “I will
not send my burning glance upon the Africa, instead I will
send my mother, my protector, the love of my heart to
protect my holy works. I will send Nyabinghi.”
Even as he spoke, Sekhmet the dread lioness, the mighty
lady of Africa, “She” who must be obeyed, sprang into
being. Nyabinghi, away she sped into Africa, tearing
through Egypt, Ethiopia, Punt, Asmara, Mocambique, even
unto Azania in the South. She slaughtered and devoured
mankind until the Nile and the Niger ran red with blood
and the earth besides it became desolate.
Before long the most wicked among men had been slain by
the Sekhmet, the dread lioness mother of Ras, Queen of
Queens of Africa, and the rest prayed to Ras for mercy.
And Ra spared them.
Ra spared them because he wished to spare this ungrateful
humanity and grant them any indulgences for which he
finds an excuse. Also it is said some in places, that “Ras
wished to spare them (humanity) for he hath no desire to
slay all of mankind, and leave himself the ruler of a
desolate and barren earth, with no human to sing and play
with him.
Since then until this moment, even unto tomorrow, the
name and the essence of the lion goddess has lived with us,
and will live with us, without any depletion of her sheer
leonine potency. Sekhmet, the Majestic Lady of power,
She who must be obeyed, the dread lioness goddess of
ancient and modern Africa, still lives dishing out
judgement and fire, through word, sound and powerful
action, to those who hate righteousness, to those who hate
Jah, regardless of the colour of their skin.


Jide Uwechia

January 28, 2007

Queen calafia

The original peoples of California included two races.

They were the descendants of prehistoric Negroid
peoples like the picture on the right of a Black Mojave
warrior. The other group were members of Mongoloid
"Indian" peoples who also existed in the region along
with people who migrated from the Canada/Alaska


The history of the original Black peoples of California

is not mentioned in most Amrican history books. The
term "Indian" is used to classify all the peoples found
in the Americas when Columbus arrived. Yet,
Columbus and his men as well as people like Balboa
and Peter Matyr do mention "Ethiopians" in the
Caribbean, Darien region of Panama, the cost of South
America, California and other areas. These Blacks
were the "Descendants of Ham" specifically those
with black skins and kinky/curly hair that the
Spaniards and other Europeans were instructed to
capture and enslave, then Christianize based on the
edict of the mid 1400's, (see "A History of the African-
Olmecs," published by 1stBooks Library, 1663 Liberty
Drive Suite 200, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 USA
www.1stbooks.com 1(800) 839-8640.

The Black Californians were not American Indians but

people identical to Africans in race and features. In
fact they looked like Africans and somewhat like
Melanesians. The history of the Black Californians may
appear to be shrowded in mystry, however that is
merely due to the attempt to keep their history
obscure by not mentioning that the original people of
California included Blacks as well as American Indians
who existed there for thousands of years before

Yet, the Black Californians are not unknown to the

Spanish invaders and colonialists whose descendants
are part of the populations of Mexico, California and
the South Western US and who are no different from
the settlers and colonialists from England, France,
Portugl and elsewhere. In fact, the Spaniard who
mentions the legend of Queen Califia as being a Black
Amazon Queen who ruled a land at the edge of the
world, where the women were warriors and decked in
gold, was Ordonez de Montalvo.

Montalvo is said to have gotten a book that mentions

Queen Calafia and her Black Amazon warriors. Some
historians have speculated that Queen Calafia was
probably one of the female African Amazon Queens
similar to those who ruled in Dahomey and parts of
West Africa for some time, or perhaps the Nubian
Queens of Nubia during the period of 100 BC to 200
AD or sometime during that period.

The Spanish explorers along the California Coast were

among the first to see and enquire about the Black
Californians. One source maintains that the Spaniards
upon arriving along the California shores saw a
number of Black people with ships. They asked the
Indians who were they and the Indians replied that
these "black, curlyhaired people," were of the land
(California) and traded with people across the sea
(the Pacific Ocean) by sailing back and forth.

Where were these Black Californians going to in the

Pacific? It is most likely they were trading with people
in Hawaii or as far as the South Pacific where the
Black population has always been very large and very
widespread. In fact when Magellan arrived in the
Filipines, there were large numbers of Negritos who
were well organized and according to some sources a
strong population (African Presence in Early Asia, edt.
By Ivan Van Sertima, Runoko Rashidi).

Black traders and Black Africoid peoples who had been

in the Americas for thousands of years were also
spread in the Mississippi Valley, the Eastern US,
Mexico and the Caribbean. Among these groups were
the Washitaw, the Yamassee, Guale, Califunami,
Chuarras of Brazil, Afro-Dariente of Panama, Choco of
Colombia, Olmec (Mende-Shi) of Mexico, Guanini of
South America and others. I. Rafinesque mentions a
number of Black groups in his work, "The Primitive
Black Nations of America," (Fiends Society,
Philadelphia, 1833). One things is certain, the
Europeans, Americans, Spaniards never mistook
American Indians for Negro Africans. They always
referred the Blacks of the Negro African type as
"Moors" "Blacks" or "Ethiopians." The Indians were
sometimes mistaken for Asians or Indians from India.



The Blacks of California became victims of Spanish

colonialism. Many were enslaved and worked on the
ranches of the Californios. Others became part of the
Black population of California, while some continued
fighting untill the mid to late 1800's.

Like the California Indians of the Mongoloid Indian

race who were hunted down in California at fifty
dollars a head (the same genocidal practice was
carried against Black Aboriginals in Australia) and
who were made to reject their Indian culture to
become 'Mexicans and accept European ways, the
Black Californians suffered a similar fate.

One book shows a picture of Black Californians being

marched into slavery by Spanish Californios on
horsehack. There is no doubt that since California was
basically like the rest of the United States and
partially segregated up to 1965, the Black Californians
who were found in the state when the Spanish arrived
and who continued to survive did not disappear. As
the picture above shows, these Blacks were similar in
features to Blacks from Africa, therefore it would have
been easy for them to have become part of the Black
population of California at a time when the Black
population was as high as forty percent in some areas.
Hence, the Black Aboriginal population of California
continued to exist and Blacks of California today are
their descendants, including the descendants of
Africans from Mexico and freed
slaves and free Blacks from the Eastern and Southern

In retrospect, it is proper that Blacks in California

understand their true history and realize that
California was named after the Black Amazon Queen
Calafia and that the original inhabitants of California,
the people who have any claim and rights to any land
are the American Indians and Black Californians who
are in fact part of the Black populations of California

The problem with the conditions of Blacks in California

today is the lack of knowledge of ownership and the
lack of knowledge of history. Blacks in California see
their economic, politial and numerical power and
insluence as a shrinking minority in California, a state
that had a significant Black population for hundreds
and perhaps thousands of years.



The shrinking numbers of Blacks in California (from 40

percent before the 1800's to 7 percent today) has to
do with the deliberate policies of genocide being
implemented against Blacks by political trickery and
policies. In fact, propositions that aim to not classify
race or ethnicity in California are just as evil as the
"hygene" program taken in Europe during World War
II to determine who is "Aryan" and who was not. This
time the aim is to "Anglicize" the population yet
maintain a strata of caste where Blacks after loosing
their identity and culture will be nothing but inferior
copies of Anglo-Saxons. The Anglo-Saxons will
continue to dominate and maintain their culture, but
Blacks will simply be copying them and being kept
down without a culture, without an identity and in
many ways without the essence and the soul of what
makes a people unique.

Hence, in order to boost the Black population, the

means of doing so will have to be implemented
immediately. It must be kept in mind that numbers do
count and populations are increased when people get
married, stay married and have lots of children, while
rejecting all ideas, schemes and tricks being pushed
on them by others.

Yet, the fact remains that there was indeed a Black

warrior nation in California and they were at war with
the Spanish, Mexican Spaniards and the US settlers
until about the mid 1800's. According to the Black
Book (Random House, 1974), the settlers and their
armies were "relieved" when the Black Californians
were pacified.

In retrospect, the time has come for today's Black

Californians to know their history and understand who
was always in this state and who came during the
period of colonialism. The idea that a person from
another land whose ancestors committed genocide
against American Indians and Black Californians has
more right to any part of California is utterly absurd.
There is no difference between a Spanish invader and
settler and French or Dutch one. They are still settlers
and they cannot claim what is not theirs. Perhaps that
is why the history of the Black Californians has been
obscured and perhaps that is why the genocidal
policies against Blacks in California has led to the
decrease in the population. It is up to The People to
do all that is necessary to reverse this trend.
California should never be left for others to enjoy. The
Black Californians must increase their population in
order to make sure they are not reduced to slavery,
again. Nubers matter and its time to get organized
and take steps to enlarge the population.

Read more on the Black Californians


"A History of the African-Olmces" published by

1stbooks Library, 1663 Liberty Drive, Suite 200,
BloomIndiana 47404 USA www.1stbooks.com
"A people losing sight of their origins are dead, a people
deaf to purposes are lost. Under fertile rain, in scorching
sunshine there is no difference: their bodies are mere
corpses, awaiting final burial." ~ Two Thousand Seasons by
Ayi Kwei Armah

" white people are nothing special to my african eyes" kola


Kwa Jina La Mwenyezi Mungu Mwingi wa

Rahema Mwenye Kurahemu - Swahili

Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa.

Once the ancient kingdom of Kush, Nubia is the stretch of land
next to the Nile from Aswan down to Khartoum in the south.
Nubians are depicted in many tomb paintings and reliefs- usually
as mercenaries or traders. Nubians still have distinct traditions,
architecture and languages, even though many migrated either to
Aswan and Kom Ombo or south to Sudan after Lake Nasser
swamped much of their traditional homeland. Nubia contains
dozens of sites of archaeological interest. 24 temples, as well as
fortresses and tombs, were menaced by the waters of the High
Dam, including Dendour, Ellessiya, Amada and Wadi al- Sebowa.
Some have been moved, most notably Philae, Kalabsha and Abu
Simbel, and other salvage and restoration operations are in train ;
The Nubian Museum is being built near Aswan to house rescued

From Late Antiquity and into the early Middle Ages, Upper and
Lower Nubia formed three independent kingdoms, Nubadia (called
Nubia in Arabic) between the First and Third Cataracts, Makuria
between the Third and Fifth Cataracts, and Alodia (called Alwa in
Arabic) above the Fifth Cataract. These kingdoms converted to
Christianity around the sixth century AD, long after Egypt had
become Christian. However, they maintained that faith centuries
after Egypt had succumbed to the forces of Islam. These three
nations were not always on peaceful terms with each other.
However, it was probably as early as the seventh century AD that
Nubadia and Makuria united to form a single federated kingdom
which was to last some six hundred years under the King of
Makuria. Despite the union, each of the two kingdoms always kept
their separate identities. This united kingdom was weakened in the
late thirteenth century by a series of attacks on Nubia by
Mamelukes from Egypt, who ultimately claimed--apparently in
name only-- suzerainty over Lower Nubia. In the fourteenth
century, Makuria was overrun by nomadic Arab invaders from the
southeast who established a short-lived Muslim kingdom there.
This state ultimately degenerated into a series of warring
principalities without any royal authority and the population
reduced to the level of bedouin. Nubadia and its client- state, the
Kingdom of Dotawo survived for more than a century thereafter,
until disappearing in the unrecorded dwindling of cultural identity.
In AD 1550 the Ottoman Turks annexed a disunited Lower Nubia
to their great Near Eastern empire. Nubian independence, national
identity, and Christianity disappeared without leaving any record.

Nubia is an area of scholarship that was largely overlooked in

favor of its splendid neighbor, Egypt. Past finds in the area were
attributed to Egypt; current excavation of the area is impossible
because of Egypt's construction of the High Aswan Dam.
However, renewed interest in Africa - brought on largely by
Afrocentric scholars such as Cheikn Anta Diop - has resulted in a
proliferation of scholarly work on ancient Nubia.

Much of the scholarly work up to this point is dealing with the

massive archeological digs that occurred just prior to the building
of the High Aswan Dam. As a result of this work, the amount of
available information on Nubia has increased immeasurably.
Evidence has emerged that shows a people who, after decades of
colonization by the Egyptians, rose above and established
themselves as a force to be dealt with in Africa. Nubians developed
a culture and people distinctly different from the Egyptians.

After preliminary investigation into the area of ancient Nubia, a

striking contrast emerged. The Nubians has an unusually high
number of ruling queens, especially during the golden age of the
Meroitic Kingdom (1). Although ruling queens, in themselves,
may not be unusual, the portrayal of Nubian queen is exceptional.
A panel on display at the exhibit "Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa"
showed the queen smiting her enemies. This type of representation
has no equivalent in either Egyptian or Western Art (2). This
unusual find has led to research in the role of the women in Nubian
society, both past and present. The result has been a surprising
contrast between the docile Nubian woman of today and the
warrior queen of ancient times.

Nubia would be a five-hundred mile long stretch of land along the

Nile river that is one-third in modern day Egypt and two-thirds in
the modern day Sudan (3). The kingdom of Ancient Nubia began a
bit before the first cataract and extended past the sixth cataract to
Khartoum (4). As with the Egyptians, the fertile Nile valley gave
rise to the civilization of Nubia.

The first Nubian age spanned from 3100 to 1000 B.C. This Bronze
Age contained three cultures: A-Group, C-Group, and the Kerma
culture (5). The latter of the three, Kerma, existed in the Upper
Nile. These people developed a strong trading culture that traded to
both Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean (6). During this period,
the Egyptians called this area "Kush." Kush was the general term
for Upper Nubia and was considered to be a province of Nubia (7).
The A-Group and C-Group cultures are those that existed in the
Lower Nile. For most of the early part of their history, these
cultures were dominated by Egypt.

The period of 1550 B.C. to 1100 B.C. marked the colonization of

Nubia by Egypt. By the Eighteenth Dynasty, Egypt had control
over Lower and Upper Nubia, while Southern Nubia remained
independent (8). The Egyptians began to call "Lower Nubia the
land of Wawat and Upper Nubia refers to the entire regionbetween
the first and fifth cataracts. Therefore, any reference to
Kush,considered to be a Nubian province, would be considered
part of Nubia in general. Nubia the land of Kush" (9). This
colonization resulted in the disappearance of a particular Nubian
C-Group; these peoples began to adopt Egyptian culture in favor of
their own (10). This colonization was especially bitter as it
occurred during the reign of Tutankhamen who was the son of a
Nubian woman (11).
Soon after the Twentieth Dynasty in Egypt, the Egyptians lost
control over Nubia and the land was plunged into a dark age.
Around 900 B.C., evidence of a Nubian monarchy begins to
emerge. Since this monarchy begins in Upper Nubia, it was often
known as the Kingdom of Kush (12). These early rulers were
buried in tumulus - a distinctly Nubian tradition. This ceremony
has led many to believe that the Kushite Kings were of Nubian
ancestry (13). By 770 B.C., these kings were extending their rule
to the North. In Nubian history, the period is commonly called the
Napatan Period (named for the royal capital of the time). Soon,
Nubians "paid back the insult by subjugating the 'all powerful'
nation" of Egypt to Nubian control. (14). The Kings now wore the
crown of the double cobra - signifying the unity of both Egypt and
Nubia (15).

After 295 B.C., a shift in royal capitals from Napatan to Meroe is

made for unknown reasons. Some scholars hypothesize that the
Kingdom of Kush wished to gain control over Egyptian trade. The
problem of determining the reason for the move is made all the
more difficult by the beginning of the use of a distinctly Nubian
language. This language is based upon the heiroglyphs of the
Egyptians, but since no version of it is spoken today and there has
not been an effective translation of the language, much of what is
written in this Meroitic language remains a mystery. During this
time (around 23 B.C.) Egypt fell into Roman control. The Romans
attempted to make Nubia pay tribute to them. This led to the first
confrontation between Nubia and the Romans. The Meroitic Period
proved to be one of tremendous resistance to the forces acting on
Africa at the time. Much of this resistance came at the hands of the
number of ruling queens during the period. However, by the
middle of the fourth century A.D., the Meroitic Period collapsed
(16). Two reasons are generally attributed to this: First, that
Nomads of the desert made travel overland difficult, and Second,
that the rise of the Axumite Kingdom of Abyssinia cause a
collapse of the Kushite economy. In any case, the Meroitic empire
was no longer in existence by A.D. 320 (17).

Soon after, the X-Group Period began in Nubia. This period was
brusquely ended in 540 A.D. with the onslaught of Christianity.
Missionary activities continued in the area until approximately
A.D. 1550. After this time, the Nubian empire was completely
dismantled. The Nubian people were left scattered throughout the
fertile Nile valley; two-thirds within Egypt, one-third within the
Sudan. With the construction of the High Dam at Aswan in the
early 1960's, these peoples were displaced and moved elsewhere in
Egypt (18). Although a systematic archeological investigation of
the area was conducted, some of the questions that swirl around the
kingdom of Nubia are forever lost as Nubia again becomes subject
to Egyptian control.

Although Sudan had remained the main homeland of Nubians

through their long history, their descendents today live in Sudan
and Egypt as well. However the majority of Nubians of today are
Sudanese. With only a population of slightly above 300,000 they
are a minority in both countries. Nevertheless being African
descendents they resemble other Sudanese people rather than

Respectively and with such resemblance and an inherited

background of a great civilisation and culture the Sudanese Nubian
minority show a great deal of presence among other Sudanese.
Their remarkable and positive contribution to well-being of Sudan
is unequal and mismatches the reality of being a very small
minority. In Egypt they are a minority of the overall minority
Nubians of Africa and show less distinctive presence there.This is
mainly due to the fact that Egyptians overwhelmingly promote
their old Egyptian civilisation which has got a lot of international
recognition as well as been a arrival to the Nubian civilisation.

Nubian in both Sudan and Egypt had suffered a lot from

intentional overlooking to their history and culture as well as
displacement, relocation due to flooding and inundation of their
homeland by dams constructed south of Egypt. During this century
the Nubian homeland had been inundated three times, however the
1960 Nubian Exodus remains as the most painful to all Nubians.

Following the construction of Aswan High dam in 1960 the land of

Nubia between Aswan in Egypt and the 4th cataract in Sudan
(main area of Nubians) was the subject of flooding and inundation.
Nubians were displaced and relocated in other areas in both Sudan
and Egypt. Great Nubian monuments and historical sites were
drowned and lost for good. Nubians were dispersed. However the
Nubians with their inherited values and traditions had shown a
great deal of tolerance and willingness to overcome such
difficulties and remain very loyal to their common land (Sudan and

The influx of Arabs to Egypt and Sudan had contributed to the

suppression of the Nubian identity following the collapse of the
last Nubian kingdom in 1900. A major part of Nubian were totally
arabized or claimed to be arabs (Jaa'leen-the majority of Northern
Sudanese- and some Donglawes in Sudan, Kenuz and Koreskos in
Egypt). However all Nubian were converted to Islam and Arabic
language became their main media of communication in addition
to their indigenous old Nubian language.The unique characteristic
of Nubian is shown in their culture (dress,dances,traditions and
music) as well as their indigenous language which is the common
feature of all Nubian.

The distinguished and soft rhythms of the Nubian music and songs
are borrowed by other ethnical groups in Sudan. In Egypt these
rhythms are commonly used by some Egyptian-Nubian who sing
in arabic. With its very distinctive chantings and intonation the
Nubian songs and music has a noticeable acclaimation and
acceptence among non-Nubian Sudanese and Egyptians..

Goddesses, Queens, and Commoners

Upon close examination of the history and culture of Nubia, it

becomes apparent that women played an important role. Unlike the
rest of the world at the time, women in Nubia exercised significant
control. In the Nubian valley, worship of the queen of all
goddesses, Isis, was paramount. >From the capital of Meroe,
warrior queens fought for the interests of the Nubian/Kushite
empire. Throughout history, women were portrayed in Nubian art
as the bearers of the offspring of the gods. Today, Nubian women
have a much different experience. Nevertheless, Nubian women
fulfill a demanding and unique series of roles.

Throughout Egypt and Nubia, the cult of Isis had a tremendous and
devoted following. Isis was not only the Egyptian goddess of
magical powers; she was the representation of the queen mother. In
the most famous fable of the period, Isis roams the world in search
of the corpse of her husband Osiris. She returns Osiris to his
rightful resting place, only to have Osiris' evil brother Set cut him
to pieces and scatter him throughout the land. Isis then takes her
son Horus and sets out to find every piece of the corpse so she may
tenderly bury it in the hopes that she can resurrect him again. She
is successful, and Osiris becomes the god of the underworld.

Although Isis, Osiris, and Horus are then established as a trinity,

Isis immediately became the most popular of the three (19). This
can be partially attributed to her role as the devoted, untiring,
nurturer of the land and culture of Egypt and Nubia.

The Cult of Isis was the strongest religion in Nubia (20). In

contrast, the Egyptians worshipped Ra (Re) in larger numbers. Ra
was the god of the sun, and distinctly male at that. The worship of
Isis began with the Meroitic period and extended into X-Group.
Many Nubian rulers of the time were pictured with Isis on their
crowns. This was considered a homage to her role as the "Queen of
All Gods, Goddesses and Women" (21). Since the ruler was
considered to be born of the gods, it was only natural that the
mother should be paid such a tribute. Another example of this type
of tribute is the amulet of Isis suckling a Queen. With the
exception of the Nubian/Kushite Empire, Isis was never shown
with a queen (22). This tribute was always given to a male ruler,
never a female. However, since both Isis and the Queens played
such important roles in Nubia, the exception was made.

Another example of the reverence of Isis was the "co-sponsorship"

by Egypt and Nubia of her temple at Philae (23). Here her cult
continued, populated largely by Nubians, until the sixth century
A.D. (24).

Perhaps as a result of the strong influence of women figures in

religion, Nubia and its Kushite rulers gave way to a number of
strong queens during its history. Ten sovereign ruling queens are
recognized from the period. Additionally, six other queens who
ruled with their husbands were considered significant to the history
of Nubia (25). Many of these rulers were immortalized in statuary;
it was unheard of for non-ruling queens or princesses to be
immortalized in art (26). These queens were often portrayed as
being very rounded; this portrayal was all part of the queen-mother
model (27). These queens were called both gore, meaning ruler,
and kandake, meaning queen mother (28). This last term has been
corrupted to the English form Candace. Subsequently, there has
been much confusion; some Western scholars muddle the actions
of queens together under the general name.

The emergence of the queen as a viable player in the politics of the

day has its roots in the earliest Kushite tradition. Kushite rulers
married and then passed more royal power into the hands of the
queen (29). The perfect example of the expanded powers of the
queen is Kushite Queen Amanirenas. In 24 B.C., she was
threatened by the Roman Empire. Egypt was under the subjugation
of Rome and the frontier of the Kushite/Nubian empire was
seventy miles south of Syene (Assuan) (30). The Nubians were
constantly raiding their Egyptian neighbors. On one of these
journeys, the Kandace Amanirenas went along. When confronted,
she led her armies into battle and defeated three Roman cohorts. In
addition, the Kandace defaced a statue of Emperor Augustus
Ceasar; bringing the head back to Nubia as a prize. This head was
buried in the doorway of an important building as a final act of
disrespect (31).

During battle, the Kandace lost an eye; but this only made her
more courageous (32). "One Eyed Candace," as then Roman
governor Gaius Petronius referred to her, was chased by the
Romans far into her own territory to Pselkis (Dakka) (33). After a
three day truce, the Romans struck back. The Kandace and her
armies made another stand at Primis (Kasr/Brim), but there were
soundly defeated. Although Rome destroyed the religious capital
of Napata, there was still the danger of retaliation by the Kandace's
armies. At this point, the leaders negotiated a treaty that she was to
break in a few years (34). A historian of the period remarked "This
Queen had courage above her sex" (35). On a broader level, this is
a telling example of a European civilization unprepared for the
"fierce, unyielding resistance of a queen whose determined
struggle symbolized the national pride of a people who, until then,
had commanded others" (36).

Furthermore, these queens of the Nubian/Kushite Empire were

given the special distinction of assuming a priestly role in the
divine succession of kings (37). In other societies of the period, the
divine right of the king passed from god to ruler, there was no
room for a maternal figure. However, Nubian queens are often
portrayed at the event of the divine birth. A fine example of this is
the representation of Queen Amanishakheto appearing before
Amun. The Queen is pictured with a goddess (possibly Hathor - a
goddess of fertility) and is wearing a panther skin. This signifies
her priestly role in the birth of the successor to the throne (38).
This piece is one of a series. In the first, the Queen is elected by
god - this establishes her position as rightful ruler. Soon after, the
divine child is conceived out of a meeting between the god and the
Queen. Finally, the child, and heir to the empire, is delivered to the
Queen by the god (39). This complex and important role does not
seem to have an equivalent in other cultures (40).

Additionally, by the beginning of the twenty-fifth dynasty - the

Egyptian dynasty governed by Nubian rulers - the Queen was
given the additional role of being a priestess of Nut (Nuit) (41).
This would place the Queen in the role of trusted servant to the
goddess known as the eternal mother (42). Nut is also the mother
of Isis, Osiris, Nephthys, and Set (43). The close association of the
Queen with this figure is significant. Nut is, in the Nubian and
Egyptian religions, the mother from which all the current gods and
goddesses came. She plays the role of female initiator; the Queen
is her trusted confidant on earth.

Also at this time, the Queen is beginning to be represented in royal

art with the cowrie shell (44). This shell was often used for
currency and trade. In art, the shell was thought to symbolize the
vulva and, by extension, verbal communication (45). The use of
the cowrie shell, either real or representative, was reserved only for
women and their ornaments (46). A possible explanation for this
could be that women were allowed to speak freely (and often). In
any case, it shows that the artisans of the period connected the art
of verbal communication with the ruling Queens and other
influential women of the period.

Nubian Women of Today

Much has changed since the warrior queens of the Meroitic period
struck fear into the cold hearts of the Romans. The Nubian
civilization has become less defined and separate. The Nubians of
today have been dispersed throughout Egypt and the Sudan
because of the flooding of their homeland. Outside influences have
made the impact of their past seem a bit more distant. It is difficult
to determine what to make of the Nubian woman of today.
Nubians have a largely agricultural society. This fact, coupled with
the largely disproportionate number of women to men, has led to
the continuation of the matrilineal society. Relations are strongest
on the side of the mother; some families go so far as to have the
son take on the name of his mother (47).

Since the sex ratio is so great, women tend to dominate the culture
of present day Nubian life due to sheer numbers alone (48). The
importance of women in culture is just as great; but the roles have
changed. Today's Nubian woman has no great Queen to look to;
nor do they have a religion based on the worship of the all-
knowing mother figure. But, what Nubian women do have is a
chance that there ancestors never had. With the last period of
resettlement, some Nubian women have decided to move to the
cities of Egypt and the Sudan (49). Of course, their standard of
living may not increase, but this shows an independence unheard
of among the common women of the ancient period.

Expecting all Nubian women to live up to the strong Queens of

their past is a bit much. Nevertheless, there must be an impact on
the lives of the descendants of these Queens. Perhaps the small
steps toward independence by the Nubian woman of today shows a
courage beyond their sex. In any case, the unique roles of the
women of ancient Nubia revel a unique and startling strength in
both the women and the culture.

Email Comments and Questions to Darrell By Clicking on the

Planet Below
Orang Berber Afrika Utara.

How the Jihadis mercilessly vandalized the gentle pre-Islamic

Berbers of North Africa - Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and
transformed them eventually into bloodthirsty aggressors who
vandalized Spain (640-711)

According to al-Bukhari [d. 869] an early Muslim jurist; Some of

the more salient features of dhimmitude include: the prohibition of
arms for the vanquished non-Muslims (dhimmis), and ringing of
church bells; restrictions concerning the building and restoration of
churches, synagogues, and temples; inequality between Muslims
and non-Muslims with regard to taxes and penal law; the refusal of
dhimmi testimony by Muslim courts; a requirement that Jews,
Christians, and other non-Muslims, including Zoroastrians and
Hindus, wear special clothes; and the overall humiliation and
abasement of non-Muslims. It is important to note that these
regulations and attitudes were institutionalized as permanent
features of the sacred Islamic law, or Shari’a.

Jihad against North Africa - The Arab Muslim aggression against

the Berbers of Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco
The Berbers were the ancient indigenous people of North -Africa
west of Egypt. They were made up of many tribes, but they
managed to maintain their culture, their Hamitic languages, and
considerable military power during successive invasions of their
land. In ancient times, North Africa had been colonized by the
Phoenicians (who became the Carthaginians), they were followed
by the Romans, the Vandals (one of the Germanic tribes that
destroyed the Roman Empire), the Byzantines, and finally the
Arabs. Other foreigners, notably Greeks and Jews, also ruled parts
of ancient North Africa at different times.

Kahina - the brave Berber Princess held off the Arab hordes for
twenty years

At the time of the Arab aggression, the Berbers were ruled by a

Queen of Jewish descent. Her name was Kahina (also spelt
Cahina). Kahina’s name is also given variously as Dahiyah, Dahia,
or Dhabba (Women in World History, v.8, p. 414.) The title
Kahina meant Prophetess. The Encyclopedia Judaica (v. 10, p.
686) says that the term is derived from the old Hebrew “Kahin”
(”soothsayer”) while some other sources say that “Kahina” was
derived from the Hebrew root of the modern Jewish term “Cohen”.

In the 7th century, the Berbers lived in uneasy peace with the
Byzantines, who ruled the coastal cities of North Africa, after
defeating the Vandals a century before. The ancient city of
Carthage was the Byzantine capital in Africa. Some Berbers were
Christians (with a notable tendency towards heresy), some were
Jewish, and some adhered to their ancient polytheist religion.
Before the end of the century the region faced a new calamity, the
traditional rivals of the Berbers, the Byzantines were defeated and
driven from Africa by the Muslim Arab hordes who poured out of
the Arabian Peninsula and flattened everything in their wake.

The Arab invasion of Egypt that had started in 639 had crossed
Libya by 642 and by 643, the Arabs hordes started ravaging Berber
lands. In the Arab Muslim invaders, the Berbers who had crossed
swords with the Vandals Visigoths, Romans, Greeks faced a foe
with a ruthlessness, that the Berbers had never encountered before.
Surrender to this invader called for the surrender of not just
sovereignty, but also of the ancient Berber religion, language and

A typical Berber lady. The Berbers do not traditionally keep their

women in the Hijab (the tent-like cloak worn by Arab Muslim
women). When the Arabs invaded North-West Africa, the Berbers
were ruled by a resourceful Queen of Jewish descent named

After the Arab general Hassan ibn al Numan took Carthage from
the Byzantines, Kahina’s forces defeated him. Then, as during
World War II, a single defeat in North Africa might lead to a
retreat of hundreds of miles. Hassan retreated, probably all the way
back to Egypt. Following his retreat, Kahina took Carthage and
ruled most of Berber North Africa.

In the 680s the Arabs swept across North Africa from Egypt to the
Atlantic. For some time the Byzantines clung to their coastal cities,
as the Arab Jihadis in their tearing hurry to cover as much land as
possible raced towards the Atlantic. When the Jihadi general Oqba
ibn Nafi reached the Atlantic in Morocco and, according to legend,
rode into the sea and slashed at the water with his sword in
frustration that there were no more lands to conquer.

On his return march in 683, the haughty and cruel Oqba was
defeated and slain by the Berbers. After this defeat, the Arab
aggression paused for a decade but in 698 the Muslims finally took
Carthage, evicting the Byzantine Christians completely from
Africa. Now the Muslim aggressors faced their last and most
stubborn enemy - the Berbers.
The Encyclopedia Judaica notes that Arabic authors, notably the
major 14th century historian Ibn-Khaldun, say that Kahina and her
tribe, the Jerawa of the Aures Mountains in eastern Algeria and
Tunisia, were Jewish. Charles-André Julien, in his History of
North Africa, notes that another writer gave Kahina “the
picturesque appellation of the ‘Berber Deborah’” (after Deborah,
the judge of ancient Israel). Julien believes that Kahina ’s
resistance to the Arabs was “nurtured, as it seems, by Berber
patriotism and Jewish faith.” On the other hand, the Encyclopedia
Judaica concludes “her opposition to the Muslim Arabs was not
religiously inspired; some authorities deny she was Jewish. The
history of Kahina remains controversial.”

What is known is that soon after the Arab general Hassan ibn al
Numan took Carthage from the Byzantines, Kahina’s forces
defeated him. Then, as during World War II, a single defeat in
North Africa might lead to a retreat of hundreds of miles. Hassan
retreated, probably all the way back to Egypt. Following his
retreat, Kahina took Carthage and ruled most of Berber North

A Berber warrior. The Berbers differ from the Arabs in their

ethnicity. This is reflected in the differences in language customs,
dress habits. The schism between the native Berbers and the
invading Arabs continues to this day. The Algerian civil war was
in part between the Berbers and the Arabs.

According to Ibn-Khaldun, as she waited for the inevitable

renewed Arab assault, Kahina carried out a brutal and disastrous
policy. She declared that the Arabs wished to conquer North Africa
only because of its wealth. She ordered Berbers who were still
nomadic to destroy the cities, orchards, and herds of sedentary
Berbers, to make North Africa a desert.
If Kahina actually made this amazing decision, she was tragically
mistaken. The Arabs were determined to take North Africa
regardless of its wealth or poverty, because their sole aim was to
convert the people to Islam, and because North Africa was a
gateway to Spain and Europe. Unsurprisingly, according to Ibn-
Khaldun, this savage policy of city burning cost Kahina the
support of city-dwelling Berbers.

In 702, Hassan again invaded the Berber lands and quickly

defeated Kahina. after she lost the final battle, Kahina ordered her
sons to go over to the enemy.” Her sons had to convert to Islam to
seal their defection to the Arabs. Julien believes that for Kahina,
the survival of her family and its supremacy over her tribe were
ultimately more important than any questions of nationalism or

Accounts differ as to whether Kahina died in battle or was

captured and executed.

The advantage which the nomadic invaders like the Arabs had over
settled city dwellers like the Persians and Romans did not hold for
nomadic Berbers

Over the ages, the conflict between nomadic and settled peoples,
and between rural and urban peoples, has been the most important
factor in history. This theory seemed to account for many events in
the ancient history of the Middle East, as well as the fall of the
Roman Empire to the Germanic Goth and Vandals and also for the
swift Arab conquest of the Byzantines and Persians. It is still a
good theoretical model for some modern conflicts. Many of the
wars of modern world have been primarily conflicts between
mobile nomadic terrorists and city people. A case in point are the
wars of the Taliban in Afghanistan against the settled Govt. of
Kabul in the late 1990s.
Obviously the tale of Kahina ’s destruction of the North African
cities and her subsequent loss of the support of city-dwellers fits
well into this worldview. This also explains the stubborn resistance
that the Berbers put up against the Arabs, while pushing back the
Arabs over and over again in the next few centuries. Even till
today the conflict in Algeria is an expression of this hoary Arab-
Berber conflict.

The Berbers who once occupied the entire stretch of land along the
coast of Libya, Tunisia through Algeria up to Morocco, have today
been pushed into the fastness of the Sahara desert, indicated here
by the blue blob in Southern Algeria, North-eastern Mali and
North-Western Niger. The Berbers still continue to cling on in
small clusters along the fertile coast, which has been largely
occupied by the Arab Muslim invaders. Today most of the Berbers
have been converted to Islam. But some continue to practice their
pre-Islamic nature worshipping religious practices in the remote
fastness of the Sahara desert.

There are several references to the nature of Berber resistance in

the translation by Franz Rosenthal. Ibn-Khaldun notes that the
Berbers were given to rebellion and heresy under the Muslims, just
as they had been under the Christian Byzantines, before the
Muslim conquest. The Berbers continued to rebel and apostatized
time after time. The Muslims massacred many of them. Centuries
after Islam had been established among the Berber tribes, they
continued reverting to their animistic practices and continued
revolting and seceding. To merge Islam with their native animism,
they adopted dissident [Kharajite] opinions many times.

Ibn Abi Zayd said that the Berbers in the Maghrib [North Africa]
revolted twelve times and that Islam become firmly established
among them only during the governorship of Musa ben Nusayr and
thereafter. That is what is meant by the statement reported on the
authority of ‘Umar, that “Ifriqiyah [Africa] divides the hearts of its
inhabitants.” The statement refers to the great number of tribes and
groups there, which causes them to be disobedient and

The Berber tribes in the West are innumerable. All of them are
nomads and members of different tribal groups and families.
Whenever one tribe is destroyed, another takes its place and is as
refractory and rebellious as the former one had been. Therefore, it
has taken the Arabs a long time to establish their dynasty in the
land of Ifriqiyah. (Rosenthal translation, p. 333)

Berber resistance to Islam

The story of the Berber resistance to Islam begins after the Arab
defeat of the Byzantines and conquest of Carthage. With the defeat
of the Byzantines, they were expelled, but the Arabs were not yet
the masters of the country. In the interior provinces the Berbers
maintained a disorderly resistance to the religion and power of the

The colorful liberated existence of the Berber women reflects the

pre-Islamic culture of the Berbers that has more in common with
that of African womanhood, rather than the cloistered hijab-
enclosed one of the Arab Muslim women.

In the face of repeated Berber counterattacks, the cruel gangsters

of the Muslim marauder Hassan were inadequate to hold North
Africa peacefully. During some Berber counterattacks, the Arab
conquests of many years were lost in a single day; and the Arab
chieftains, overwhelmed by the Berber torrent, repeatedly retired to
the confines of Egypt, and appealed for succor from the caliph.

The same rebellious Berber spirit was revived under the tyranny of
Musa, the successor of Hassan; it was finally quelled by the
repeated waves of bloodletting by Musa and his two sons; but the
number of the rebels may be presumed from that of three hundred
thousand Berber captives; sixty thousand of whom, the caliph’s
fifth, were sold for the profit of the public treasury. Thirty
thousand of the Berber youth were forcibly conscripted in to the
Muslim army to be used for the invasion of Spain.

In their climate and government, their diet and habitation, the

wandering Berbers resembled the Arabs of the desert. And
gradually the Berbers, accepted Islam and with the religion they
also accepted the Arabic as a second language, Arabic names, and
also the history of Arabs. This way the blood of the Arab strangers
and Berber natives was insensibly mingled; and the impression
was created that from the Euphrates to the Atlantic the same nation
was diffused over the sandy plains of Asia and Africa.

Yet in spite of this dissolution of Berber identity in that of the

Arabs, some of the Berber tribes still retain their original language,
with the appellation and character of White Africans. (Gibbon, v.
2, p. 279-280)

A Berber male. In spite of being Arabized the Berbers, have

retained their original African ethnicity. The tradition of painting
their faces is one such element. This is not prevalent among the

After the defeat of the Berbers, the ancient polytheistic religions of

North Africa disappeared. Most Berbers became Muslims (with a
persistent taste for heresy). Many Berbers became Arabic-
speakers; while some retained their own languages to be spoken in
the privacy of their homes. Berbers were prominent among the
Muslim conquerors of Spain. Christianity almost disappeared in
North Africa west of Egypt. The Jews were more stubborn and
persisted in a few areas, especially in the Atlas Mountains.

The Jewish presence in North Africa was revived by a tragedy in

the late 15th and early 16th Centuries. After the completion of the
Christian Reconquest of Spain in 1492, the Inquisition gave the
Muslims and Jews of Spain the alternatives of conversion to
Catholicism or expulsion. Large numbers of Spanish Jews, as well
as most Spanish Muslims, immigrated to Africa.

A tombstone from Carthage with the symbol of the pre-Islamic

Berber goddess Tanit.

The goddess Tanit was brought to Africa by the Phoenicians, in

about 800 BC. Tanit was a moon goddess, maybe the same as
Ishtar or Astarte. She also seems to have absorbed an older Berber
goddess. People thought of Tanit as being married to another
Phoenician god, Baal. Tanit’s symbol appears on gravestones and
temples all over North Africa, not just during the Carthaginian
period but all through the Roman Empire too, until most people
converted to Islam about 700 AD. Then Tanit faded away.

Another dramatic foreign event ended the long Jewish presence in

North Africa. The establishment of Israel in 1948 caused a rise in
active anti-Semitism in North Africa. This, combined with the
retreat of European colonialism and the independence of Libya,
Tunisia, Morocco, and finally Algeria in the 1950s and 1960s, led
to a mass emigration of Jews. For the first time in about 2000
years, North Africa had almost no Jews.

Today even ruins associated with Jews can be a magnet for

violence in North Africa. On April 11, 2002 a truck bomb loaded
with fuel exploded outside an ancient, abandoned synagogue on
the tourist island of Djerba off the coast of Tunisia. Besides the
suicide bomber, twenty people were killed, most of them German
tourists. German investigators said the attack was the work of al-

The Algerian civil war was in a way a Berber-Arab war

The Berbers are still a major presence in North Africa and are still
often at odds with their rulers. An Associated Press article
published June 1, 2002 (”Algerian prime minister’s party wins
election majority”) reported that Berbers are about one-third of
Algeria’s population and that about sixty people had been killed in
riots between Berbers and police in the Kabyle region in 2001 and
early 2002.

Most North African Jews went to Israel, where they are a

significant part of the population and the armed forces. Memories
are long in the Middle East. Perhaps some Israelis from North
Africa consider Israel’s victories a long-delayed revenge for the
Arab conquest of the Berbers and the death of Kahina .

The answers below refer to Phoenician, Greek and Roman

sources on the subject. From earliest Egyptian sources,
officially dated at circa 2500 BC, Kh-afre, fourth king of
the 4th dynasty reveals that an early Egyptian king had the
name "Africa". That is because modern Egyptologists and
others often mix the order of the hieroglyphs that the
ancients wrote. Thus Kh-Afre is Afre-Kh or Africa.

The ancient Jewish records are supposedly silent on

"Africa" but that is because the Hebrew name for the
continent, "Auphirah" is usually written "Ophir". In I Kings
9:28, we read that the sailors of Solomon of Israel and
Hiram of Tyre went to "Ophir-Auphirah". Then in the next
verse, I Kings 10:1, we read that the Queen who "ruled" or
"administered" Ophirah-Africa, came to visit Solomon and
probably put in a courtesy call to Hiram of Tyre as well
(circa 950 BC). Only one queen ruled Egypt, Nubia, Sudan
and Ethiopia of those days and her name is Hat-Sheba-Sut
or Hatshepsut. Her temple at Deir el-Bahari evokes the
words of Song of Solomon "Oh my dove, you are in the
clefts of the rock in the secret places of the stairs". She was
the great African Queen after whom even river boats and
Hollywood films are named.

However, this analysis depends on accepting that Egyptian

chronology is wrong by 600 years and that all the dynasties
of ancient Egypt are misaligned with other countries'
histories by error factors of 600 years on average. That's
why there are so many mysteries over what really is quite a
simple answer. To see how complex answers otherwise
become, read those below. The complexity in what surely
should be a simple question-answer is revealed by the
excellent research shown below. But the real situation -
assuming the chronological problems-solutions noted
above are in fact so - is surely much simpler and more

Finally, the name Afre-Kh or Kh-Afre, noted above,

probably simply means the "Kh of Ophir" or perhaps
"Spirit of Africa".

The name Africa came into Western use through the
Romans, who used the name Africa terra � "land of the
Afri" (plural, or "Afer" singular) � for the northern part of
the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital
Carthage, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia.
The origin of Afer may either come from:
• the Phoenician `afar, dust;
• the Afri, a tribe � possibly Berber � who dwelt in
North Africa in the Carthage area;
• the Greek word aphrike, meaning without cold (see
also List of traditional Greek place names);
• or the Latin word aprica, meaning sunny.

The historian Leo Africanus (1495-1554) attributed the

origin to the Greek word phrike (?????, meaning 'cold and
horror'), combined with the negating prefix a-, so meaning
a land free of cold and horror. However, the change of
sound from ph to f in Greek is datable to about the first
century, so this cannot really be the origin of the name.
Egypt was considered part of Asia by the ancients, and first
assigned to Africa by the geographer Ptolemy (85 - 165
AD), who accepted Alexandria as Prime Meridian and
made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary
between Asia and Africa. As Europeans came to
understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of
Africa expanded with their knowledge.
-DJ Craig

The Name Africa is of African Origins from the Egyptian

Word "Afru-ika" or 'Motherland."

Africanus.The name signifies that the person named

himself After Africa. One thing is certain, Greek and Latin
have Egyptian linguistic influences although both are Indo-
European languages. The term "Indo" comes from "India,"
the word "India" came from the Arabs, who pointed out
that Kush, a son of Ham had two sons, "Hind," and "Sind."
Hind of Kush established a culture in India, Sind of Kush
established a culture in the Arabian region. Nimrod
established in parts of Mesopotamia.

Wandering barbarians from north-Central Russia began to

invade what was a Black Kuchitic India about 1700 B.C.
(see Sudrology, http://dalitstan.org the Hindu Kush
Mountains is not named so by mistake). These barbarians
were Caucasoids however there were other elements in
them as well. The movie, "Conan the Barbarian," gives a
hint to the type of people who were included in the
wandering nomads called the "Aryans."


These Aryans spoke a northern European language that in
its pure form would resemble Finnish, Islandic or those not
influenced by Greek or Latin. After hundreds of years of
trying to invade and conquer Black India, they were able to
use the destruction of the dams to flood the region. After
that happened, they began to infiltrate into the land using
war and extermination to conquer much of the northern part
of India, where they used the sacred scriptures to establish
a caste system.

While the Aryans were in India, they became absorbed into

the Black population of Dravidians and Negritoes. Anyone
who looks at the population of Northern India today will
see a Persian/Mediterranean appearance among the people
there, and a more Negroid African appearance among the
people in the Southern parts, especially the South-East of
India. In fact, scientists from India have already established
that in every genetic aspect these Indians are identical to
Blacks in Africa. These Africoids are among those
responsible for the creation of India's Indus Valley
Civilization. The Aryans who were not literate people
learned from the Blacks of India. The Aryans leaned the
Black Kushitic languages, the customs, (they established
the taboo against eating beef to weaken the Black
population, according to some present-day Black
Untouchable writers). They learned the various arts and
crafts from the aboriginal Blacks of India according to
Drusilla Dunjee Houston (see "Harappa and Mohenjo-daro:
The Black Civilizations of Ancient India," Susu
Economics: A History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce,
Money and Wealth, published by 1stbooks Library,
Bloomington, Indiana U.S.A www.1stbooks.com ).

So, the languages of the Greeks, Latins, Germans and even

English comes from the Indo-European language family.
That language family has Black Kushitic African roots as
well as a north-central European base. Hence the term
"Africanus" is Lanin but the term "Afrikanu- Africanus"
"Kepru - Cyprus" "Keftiu - Crete" all are African words
and the "u" usually denotes a place name in some African
languages. In the Latin, the "us" takes the alce of the "U'
That is where the African and Kushitic influence is clear.

Both Keftiu and Kepru are ancient Egyptian workds. The

word 'Nagau" is the Egyptian term for East Africa or

"Nomu' is Semite

"Tamahu" is European

Thus "Africanus" is Latin, but 'Afru-ika" is Egyptian and

the name "Afru-ika" was in existence long before the name
"Africanus," which probably means "from Africa," or "of
Africa." During the 400's B.C. to 400's A.D., the Romans
were in northern Africa and the Greeks were in Egypt from
about 300's b.c. to about 200 a.d.

So, the Indo-European languages have African Kushitic

roots as well. The term 'Afru-ika" means "Motherland,"
according to one of Ivan Van Sertima's books. Afru-ika
means "motherland" in the ancient Egyptian language
which was part of the "Afro-Asiatic" language family.
Hebrew, Arabic, Geez (the litergical language of the
Ethiopian Coptic Church), Aramaic are all Afro-Asiatic
languages. The oldest and the mother of these languages
still survives today in East Africa, it is called "Iraqwu" and
is a Black African language. Some linguists point out that
both Hebrew and Arabic are dialects of Ancient Egyptian.
According to some Africans of the Galla People of
Ethiopia, "Apraka" means "sunny," hence the term
"Africa," may in fact have African roots.

Now, as far as the Roman is concerned, his name

"Africanus" or a name such as "Scicipio Africanus,"
probably means "Sicipio of Africa." That would mean the
general was named for being from Africa.

I would go with Dr. Van Sertima. The name Africa came

from 'Afri-uka" which means "Motherland," in the ancient
Egyptian language and that term "Motherland" is one still
used in reference to Africa even today.

Also, check out raceandhistory.com

Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_Africa_get_its_name#ixzz16AYIicGD