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Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

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Lore http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore: T'ai Chi

Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore:

T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Qigong, Yoga, Meditation, Fitness

Indexed and Compiled by

Michael P. Garofalo

Links

Bibliography

Quotations

Exercises

September 27, 2006

Discussion

Quotations

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

Yoga, Qigong, T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Meditation, Lore

Air, Prana, Penuma, Chi, T'u Na, Vital Energy, Qi, Pranayama, Breath

"In the case of a living being, this 'breath' (pneuma) was that particular combination of air and fire that was called psyche (life-soul), and by penetrating all the tissues it made them live tissues. Similarly, in the macrocosm, God was conceived as a breath penetrating and controlling and unifying the whole of the world. This unifying breath was the worlds' psyche: the world was a living being, as indeed it had been for Plato in the Timaeus, and it was animated by a perfect intelligence. This conclusion is best seen as an act of faith, inspiring and comforting." - F. H. Sandback, The Stoics, p. 75

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

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"The respiratory center of the brain, which receives chemical, reflex, somatic and cerebral inputs, is a good computer in automatically regulating the rate, depth and pattern of respiration under various situations. Artificial regulation during physical exercise is not the best for health."

- Journal of the American Medical Association 246:1967, 1981.

"The form of energy composing the chakras and currents in the subtle body is unknown to

science. The Hindus call it prana, which means literally "life" - that is "life-force." The Chinese call it chi, the Polynesians mana, the Amerindians orenda, and the ancient Germans od. It is an all-pervasive "organic" energy. In modern times, the pyschiatrist Wilhelm Reich attempted to resuscitate this notion in his concept of the orgone, but he met with hostility from the scientific establishment. More recently, Russian parapsychologists have introduced the notion of bioplasma, which is explained as a radiant energy field interpenetrating physical organisms."

- Georg Feuerstein, "Yoga: The Technology of Ecstasy," 1989, p.258.

"The Chinese character for qi is usually translated into English as "vital energy" or "life force," although its literal meaning is "breath." No modern Western idea corresponds exactly to the range of meanings of qi. It is the central explanatory concept in the Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor's Inner Book), the most comprehensive early medical document in China (c 50 B.C.). In an analysis of qi within the Chen tradition, nineteenth-generation Inheritor Chen Zhenglei suggests that:

It does not refer to the oxygen breathed into the chest and the different kinds of strength (Li) in the human body, but refers to - from Traditional Chinese Medicine - Correct Qi (Zhen Qi), Original Qi (Yuan Qi), Meridian Qi (Jingluo Zi Qi), Refined Qi (Zhen Qi), and from the study of martial arts and qigong, Internal Jing ((Neijing) and Internal Work (Neigong).

Qi exists in the human body without form, color or substance. The ancient Chinese likened it to fire, and early Chinese pictographic characters depicted it as "sun" and "fire." Within Daoist literature qi was seen as a form of vital heat akin to sunlight, without which life could not exist. Today, the most widely used character for qi depicts steam rising from cooking rice."

- Davidine Sim and David Gaffney, Chen Style Taijiquan, 2002, p. 44-45.

"The air they breathe, being a living element with both physical and psychical properties, carries a subtle vital energy. This in India is named by the Sanskrit word prana; in Tibet it is called sugs, in Aikido, Japan, ki, and in China, chi. By controlling its circulation throughout the body, man is able to

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

attain spiritual enlightenment or illumination."

- Frank Waters, Mountain Dialogues, p. 70

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

"One of the most important terms in Taoist lore is Ch'i. The word has been variously translated as:

passion nature, material principle, constitutive ethers, force, energy, breath, power, great breath, etc."

- R. G. H. Siu, Ch'i, p 256

"The men of old breathed clear down to their heels."

- Chuang Tzu

When I feel blue I start to breathe.

"In 1973, a silk book, Fasting and Taking Qi (Que Gu Shi Qi Pian) and a silk painting Daoyin Chart (Dao Yin Tu) of the Western Han dynasty (206 B.C. - A.D. 24) were unearthed from the Han Dynasty Tomb Mawangdui No. 3 in Changsha, Hunan Province. The book records the Daoyin method for guiding Qi and the chart covers 44 colored paintings presenting human

figures imitating the movements of a wolf, monkey, ape, bear, crane, hawk, and vulture. Thus, they reveal that the Chinese began to teach Qigong pictorially as early as the beginning of the Western Han dynasty."

- History of Qigong

"The pneuma which is mixed with the two inert elements in any physical thing is at once moving outwards

towards the surface and inwards towards the center. The outward movement gives the object size, shape, and other qualities, the inward integrates it, causes it to be one thing, a single substance."

- F. H. Sandback, The Stoics, p. 77

"Breathing Out - Touching the Root of Heaven,

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

One's heart opens; The Dragon slips into the water Breathing In - Standing on the Root of Earth, One's heart is still and deep; The Tiger's claw cannot be moved.

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As you go on breathing in this frame of mind, with these associations, alternating between movement and stillness, it is important that the focus of your mind does not shift. Let the true breath come and go, a subtle continuum on the brink of existence. Tune the breathing until you get breath without breathing; become one with it, and then the spirit can be solidified and the elixir can be made."

- Chang San-Feng, Commentary on Ancestor Lu's Hundred-Character Tablet Translated by Thomas Cleary, Vitality, Energy, Spirit: A Taoist Sourcebook, 1991, p. 187. Poetic interpretation by Mike Garofalo of expository text of Chang San-Feng.

"If I had to limit my advice on healthier living to just one tip, it would be simply to learn how to breathe correctly."

- Andrew Weil, M.D., 1999

"Viruses and microbes live best in low oxygen environments. They are anaerobic. That means, raise the oxygen enviornment around them and they die."

- Edward Mccabe

"Only those who know how to breathe will survive."

- Pundit Acharya

"While doing postures [yoga asanas], as a general rule keep the airway wide open, breathe only through the nose, and breathe smoothly, evenly and quietly."

- H. David Coulter, Anatomy of Hatha Yoga, p. 18.

" Energy is the essential stuff for structural integrity and mechanical and chemical processes, while ch'i is the essential stuff for pattern perpetuity and thinking and feeling. While energy metabolism accounts for the vigor of health in the physical sense, ch'i-metabolism accounts for the well being of the person in the psychic sense."

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

- R. G. H. Siu, Ch'i, p 263

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"Breathing control gives man strength, vitality, inspiration, and magic powers."

- Chuang Tzu

"Without full awareness of breathing, there can be no development of meditative stability and understanding."

- Thich Nhat Hanh

"For the living man, the psyche is a 'breath,' a compound of air and 'constructive' fire, that extends throughout his body, with which it is totally blended, giving life and warmth, growth and maintenance. But there is a part, call the hegemonikon or centre of command, lodging in the heart, which is the seat of sensation, assent, impulse, passion, thought and reason. From this there extend seven breaths to the eyes, ears, mouth, nose, and skin to convey the incoming stimuli which cause sensation."

- F. H. Sandback, The Stoics, p. 83

"Ancient daoyin methods began to mature during the Warring States (770-221BC) period.

The inscription on a jade article of this period, now preserved at the Museum of Tianjin, is the earliest extant writing about ancient daoyin practice. Carved on a small jade ornament with 12 surfaces, it is an ancient-style prose composed of 45 Chinese characters, which was translated by the late poet and historian Guo Moruo into the vernacular as follows:

''Draw a deep breath, direct it downward and let it stay there. Then exhale and direct the breath upward like a growing sprout, in a direction just opposite to the inhaling route and up to its dead end. The heavenly essence thus goes up and the earthly essence comes down. One who follows this law will live, otherwise one will die." This is a description of the whole process of breathing in daoyin practice."

- Ancient Daoyin: Mother of Modern Qigong

"And now I see with eye serene,

The very pulse of the machine. A being breathing thoughtful breaths, A traveler between life and death."

- William Wordsworth

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

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"Of greater interest are differences in the actual practice of T'ai Chi Ch'uan. Acknowledged Masters give conflicting instructions for breathing. Books by Cheng Man-ch'ing do not specify when to breathe in or out. In Body Mechanics of T'ai Chi Ch'uan, William Chen instructs you to breathe in when you push. In Imagination Becomes Reality, T.T. Liang instructs you to breath out when you push. In Yang Style T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Dr. Yang Jwing-Ming teaches you to breathe out when pushing, but using "reverse-brathing" in which the abdomen is pulled in while breathing in and pushed out while breathing out. Perhaps there is more than one correct way to practice. The instructions of any one skilled teacher or author should not be taken as gospel."

- Dan Mozell, "Objectivity in the Internal Arts" Internal Arts, Vol. 3, #4, July 1988, p. 14

"Deep flowing breath is essentially arousing and exciting."

- Michael Sky

"Regulate the breathing, and thereby control the mind."

- B.K.S. Iyengar

"There is one way of breathing that is shameful and constricted. Then there's another way; a breath of love that takes you all the way to infinity."

- Rumi

"Breathe the old out and the new in."

- Adage of Taoist Breathing Practices (Tu Na)

"Today, I want you to notice how you're breathing throughout the day. This simple activity can tell you the state of your nervous system -- and by learning to control your breathing, you can influence the regulation of your heart rate, blood pressure, circulation, and digestion. Since you have more control over exhalations, focusing on this part of your breathing is one good way of learning how to breathe deeper. Use the muscles between your ribs to squeeze air out of your lungs -- when you move more air out, you will automatically take more air in.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

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As you breathe in and out, think of the cycle as having no beginning or end. Practice this exercise as often as you like, but I recommend doing it at least once each day."

- Andrew Weil, M.D., Good Morning From Dr. Weil, On-line Newsletter, 6/9/2003

"Your breathing determines whether you are at your best or whether you are at a disadvantage."

- Carola H. Speads

"For breath is life, and if you breathe well you will live long on earth."

- Sanskrit Proverb

"Nearly every physical problems is accompanied by a disturbance of breathing. But which comes first?"

- Hans Weller, M.D.

"According to a long-held tradition, Huang Ti, the so-called Yellow Emperor, who began

his rule around 2700 B. C., practiced a form of exercise called Tao Yin with the aim of increasing his life span. The word Tao means "guide," and Yin means "leading." These terms give a hint of how the exercise works: the movements of the limbs guide the circulation of the blood so that the tissues throughout the body can be repaired and cleansed more efficiently. The movements also lead the breath in and out of the lungs, so that more oxygen can be inhaled to nourish and energize the body and the poisons

can be exhaled more

which the movements of the limbs were combined with the breathing. It is actually this combination that make the exercise so beneficial for health. Huang Ti's exercises

were also know as T'u Na. The word T'u means "exhale," and Na means "inhale."

- Dau Liu, T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Meditation, 1986, p. 3.

Essential to the practice of Tao Yin was the way in

"Improper breathing is a common cause of ill health."

- Andrew Weil, M.D.

"Emotional and physical states can be altered by changing the breathing pattern."

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

- Wilhelm Reich

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"Pranayama is the regulation of the incoming and outgoing flow of breath with retention. It is to be practiced only after perfection in asana (physical posture/form) is attained. Pranayama has three movements; prolonged and fine inhalation, exhalation and retention; all regulated with precision according to duration and place. The fourth type of pranayama transcends the external and internal pranayamas, and appears effortless and non-deliberate. Pranayama enables the mind to become fit for concentration, and removes the veil covering the light of knowledge and heralds the dawn of wisdom." - The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, 11:49-53, c 500-200 BC Translated by B. K. S. Iyengar

"Breathing is the first place, not the last, one should look when fatique, disease, or other evidence of disordered energy presents itself."

- Sheldon Saul Hendler, M.D.

Essential to the practice of qigong and taijiquan is the control of breathing, the coordination of breathing with specific movements, the requirement to do deep adominal breathing, relaxing and opening the upper torso to allow for deeper breathing, and the release of breath when power is given out.

"Fear is excitement without the breath."

- Fritz Perls, M.D.

"One of yoga's great gifts to manking is the discovery of the link that exists between energy, breath, and mind. As you change one, you also change the other two. If you excite one, the other two become excited and, conversely, if you calm one, the other two respond by becoming calm also."

- John Novak, Lessons in Meditation, p. 27

"The first task of breath control is to regulate, or harmonize, the various life currents

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

in the body. The second task is to guide the life force (prana) along the central axis, the sushumna-nadi ("most gracious conduit"), which extends from the lowest energy center or cakra at the base of the spine to the energy center at the crown of the head. This is the acknowledged method for achieving both health and ecstasy (samadhi) through the awakening the serpent power, the "support of all Yoga practice,"

as the Hatha-Yoga-Pradipika (III.1) puts it. Through breath control the yogin energizes and harmonizes the body and thus creates a solid foundation for mental concentration and the induction of higher states of consciousness, as well as the complete transcendence of the body-mind in the moment of enlightenment."

- The Shambhala Guide to Yoga, Georg Feuerstein, p. 77

"Breathing in, I calm body and mind, Breathing out, I smile. Dwelling in the present moment, I know this is the only moment."

- Thich Nhat Hanh

Opening Hands, Closing Hands

By Michael P. Garofalo

"Standing at the Mysterious Pass Centered in the Eternal Now, Balanced in Body and Open in Mind, Rooted into the Sacred Space, Motionless as the Golden Mountain, Fingers around the Primeval Sphere.

Dragons and Tigers are still dreaming - Ready for Rebirth.

I breathe in, the World Breathes Out. The Gate of Space opens; Heaven moves and Yang is born. The hands move out, embracing the One. The mind settles and is clear. The Dragon Howls, Ravens fill the Vast Cauldron, Mind forms melt like mercury, Spirit rises in the Clouds of Eternity. Yin appears like the moon at dusk.

I breathe out, the World Breathes In. The Doors of Emptiness close; Earth quiets and Yin is born.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

The hands move in, entering the One. The body settles and becomes whole. The Tiger Roars, The Great Ox is nourished by the Valley Spirit, Substances spark from flaming furnaces, Essence roots in the Watery Flesh. Yang appears like the sun at dawn.

Dragons and Tigers Transformed within the Mysterious Pass - Chanting and Purring. Awakened, Peaceful, Free."

- Michael P. Garofalo, Opening at the Mysterious Pass Opening Hands and Closing Hands in Sun Taijiquan

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

"Ninety percent of metabolic oxygen comes from breathing. Ten percent comes from food." - Gabriel Cousens, M.D.

Bibliography and Links

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

Yoga, Qigong, T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Meditation, Lore

Air, Prana, Penuma, Chi, T'u Na, Vital Energy, Qi, Pranayama, Breath

Alphabetical Index to the Cloud Hands website.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

Alternate Nostril Breathing (Nadi Sodhana)

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

Anatomy of Hatha Yoga: A Manual for Students, Teachers and Practitioners. By H. David Coulter. Foreward by Timothy McCall. Honesdale, Pennsylvania, Body and Breath, 2001. Index, bibliography, appendices, 623 pages. ISBN: 0970700601. MGC. 2002 winner of the Benjamin Franklin Award for Health, Wellness and Nutrition.

Anatomy of Movement.

Eastland Press, 1985, 1993. Translated from the French by Nicole Commarmond.

Index, 289 pages. ISBN: 0939616173. MGC.

By Blandine Calais-Germain.

Seattle, Washington,

"The Anti-Drug for Anxiety." By Stacie Stukin. Yoga Journal, April, 2003, pp. 108-113. A brief discucssion of pranayama techniques used to reduce anxiety.

Articles on Breathing, Health, Qigong, Taoism.

Authentic Breathing Resources.

The Art of Breathing: Six Simple Lessons to Improve Performance, Health, and Well-Being.

By Nancy Zi.

Frog Ltd., 2000. 4th Edition. 240 pages. ISBN: 1583940340.

Ashtanga Yoga " Practice Manual" An Illustrated Guide to Personal Practice. The Primary and Intermediate Series plus Three Short forms. By David Swenson. Foreward by K. Pattabhi Jois. Ashtanga Yoga Productions, 1999. 263 pages. MGC. ISBN: 1891252089.

Ashtanga Yoga: The Definitive Step-by-Step Guide to Dynamic Yoga. By John Scott. Foreward by Shri K. Pattabhi Jois. New York, Three Rivers Press, 2000. Index, bibliography, 143 pages. MGC. ISBN: 0609807862.

Authentic Breathing Lewis.

Articles, links, exercises, resources, products.

Articles by Dennis

Awareness Through Movement; Health Exercises for Personal Growth. Easy to Do Health Exercises to Improve Your Posture, Vision, Imagination and Personal Awareness. By Moshe Feldenkrais. San Francisco, Harper Collins, 1972, 1977. 173 pages. ISBN: 0062503227. MGC.

Basic Yoga Breathing Control

25Kb.

Beginner's Guide to Healthy Breathing.

Belly Breathing.

By Dennis Lewis.

By Kenneth Cohen. 73 minute CD.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

Books about Breathing

Annotated links.

Breath, Breathing and Pranayama

Numerous articles.

Breathe Better, Feel Better.

H. Kent.

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

Breathe Deep - The Qigong Newsletter

Breathe Well, Be Well.

ISBN: 0471324361. Subtitle: A Program to Relieve Stress, Anxiety, Asthma, Hypertension, Migraine, and Other Disorders for Better Health.

By Robert Fried. John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

224 pages.

Breathe! You Are Alive: Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing. By Thich Nhat Hanh. Brekeley, Parallax Press, 1960.

"Breathing and Higher Accomplishments." By Wu Ta-yeh. Internal Arts, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 1989, pp. 36 - 38. An excellent article that critically examines the issue of using breath control during the practice of Taijiquan. Wu recommends "that beginners completely forget their breathing in learning the solo forms exercise of Taijiquan," and that intermediate and advanced students interested in self-defense make limited use of specialized breathing techniques in selected postures. He defends the position that the manipulation of breath in the solo form or in gigong can be injurious to one's well being.

Breathing and Taijichuan.

Breathing and Yoga: Lowering Stress

10Kb.

Breathing as a Metaphor for Living: Teachings and Exercises on Complete and Natural Breathing. By Dennis Lewis. A two-cassette audio-tape program. Boulder, Colorado, Sounds True, 1998.

The Breathing Book: Good Health and Vitality Throught Essential Breath Work. By Donna Farhi. Henry Holt, 1996. 238 pages. ISBN: 0805042970.

Breathing Exercises (Qigong) and Articles

Breathing Exercises - Yoga

15Kb.

Breathing Free: The Revolutionary 5-Day Program to Heal Asthma, Emphysema,

Bronchitis and Other Respiratory Ailments. By Therese Hale. Foreword by Leo

Galland, M.D

Three Rivers Press, 2000. 304 pages. ISBN: 0609806343.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

Breathing in the Practice of Tai Chi Chuan

By Greg Brodsky.

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

Breathing Lessons.

By Anne Tyler. Berkley Publishing Group, Reissue Edition,

1994. 352 pages. ISBN: 042511774X.

Breathing Practices and Pranayama. By Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati. 89KB.

Breathing Techniques - Kundalini Yoga

34Kb

Breathing: The Master Key to Self Healing. By Andrew Weil. A audio product read by Andrew Weil. Sounds True, 1999. 110 pages. ISBN: 156455726X.

Breathing Work with Dennis Lewis

Chen Style of Taijiquan

Chi

Commentary, quotations, links, bibliography.

Ch'i. By R. G. H. Siu.

Chi Kung Breathing Practice techniques.

10Kb. Outlines tummy, complete, and circular breathing

C'hi: The Power Within.

for Health, Relaxation and Energy. Boston, Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1993. Index, 272 pages. ISBN: 0804830991. MGC.

By Geoff Pike and Phyllis Pike. Chi Kung Breathing Exercises

Cloud Hands: Tai Chi Chuan and Qi Gong

Conscious Breathing: Breathwork for Health, Stress Release, and Person Mastery. By Gay Hendricks. Bantam Books, 1995. 189 pages. ISBN: 0553374435. According to the author "Conscious Breathing: releases stress and tension, builds energy and endurance, contributes to emotional mastery, prevents and heals physical problems, contributes to graceful aging, manages pain, enhances mental concentration and physical performance, and facilitates psychospiritual transformation," pp. 5-31.

Cultivating the Chi: The Secrets of Energy and Vitality.

Stuart Alve Olson. Revised and expanded third edition. Chen Kung Series, Volume One.

St. Paul, Minnesota, Dragon Door Publications, 1993. Index, 166 pages. ISBN: 0938045113. MGC.

Compiled and translated by

Dao House: Of Discourses and Dreams

"A compendium of links to

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

great online Daoist (Taoist) resources." An excellent selection of fine links with informative and fair annotations; all presented in an attractive and easy to read format. The in-depth and creative collection of links are arranged by 18 topics. The attention to detail and research involved

to create this guide are worthy of high praise. This website is outstanding!

A must visit for students and enthusiasts of Taoism.

Deep Breathing in Savasana (Corpse Pose)

Deergha Swasam - Three- Part Breathing Technique

Dr. Breath: the Story of Breathing Coordination. By Carl Stough and Reece Stough. New York, NY, Stough Institute, 1982.

The Eight Section Brocade Qi Gong

notes and quotations.

240Kb+

By Michael P. Garofalo.

Five Animal Frolics

Fitness and Well Being

Description, links, bibliography,

Free Your Breath, Free Your Life. How Conscious Breathing Can Relieve Stress, Increase Vitality, and Help You Live More Fully. By Dennis Lewis. Boston, Shambhala Press, 2004. Index, recommended reading, 193 pages. ISBN: 1590301331. Reviews. MGC.

Hatha Yoga Breathing.

By Rich Szabo. 18Kb.

The Healing Path of Yoga. Time-Honored Wisdom and Scinetifically Proven Methods that

Alleviate Stress, Open Your Heart, and Enrich Your Life.

York, Three Rivers Press, 2000. Index, 238 pages. ISBN: 0609805029. MGC.

By Nischala Joy Devi. New

The Healing Promise of Qi: Creating Extraordinary Wellness Through Qigong and Tai Chi.

Index, notes, extensive

By Roger Jahnke, O.M.D

recommended reading list, 316 pages. ISBN: 0809295288.

Chicago, Contemporary Books, 2002.

How to Calm Down: Three Deep Breaths to Peace of Mind. By Fred L. Miller and Mark Bryan. Warner Books, 2003. 128 pages. ISBN: 0446679712.

Healing with Ki-Kou: The Secrets of Ancient Chinese Breathing Techniques. By

Li Xiu-ling. Agora Health Books, 2nd Edition, 2003. 156 pages.

ISBN: 1891434179.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

Indoor Cycling: Links, Bibliography, Resources, Notes

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

Jumpstart Your Metabolism: How to Lose Weight By Changing the Way You Breathe. By Pam Grout. Fireside, 1998. 192 pages. ISBN: 0684843463.

Light on Pranayama: The Yogic Art of Breathing. By B.K.S. Iyengar.

Crossroad, Herder & Herder, 1981, 1995. 320 pages. ISBN: 0824506863.

New York,

Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: Patanjala Yoga Pradipika. Hammersmith, London, Thorsons, Harper-Collins, 1966, 1996. 337 pages. ISBN: 1855382253.

The Little Book of Yoga Breathing; Pranayama Made Easy. Red Wheel, Weiser, 2004. 96 pages. ISBN: 157863301X.

Meditation

By Scott Shaw.

Muscle/Tendon Changing and Marrow/Bone Washing Chi Kung. The Secret of Youth.

By Yang, Jwing Ming. Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, Yang's Martial Arts Association,

1989. Glossary, 286 pages. ISBN: 0940871068.

Musician: Physician for Times to Come. By Don Campbell, Editor. Wheaton, Illinois, Quest Books, 2000.

Nadi Sodhana - Alternate Nostril Breathing

Nine Segment Buddhist Breathing Qigong. Master Shou-Yu Liang and Wen-Ching Wu. Rhode Island, Way of the Dragon Pub., 1997. Instructional videotape, 50 minutes.

Oxycise! Easy Does It. By Jill Johnson.

The Perceptible Breath: A Breathing Science. By Ilse Middendorf. Paderborn, Germany, Junfermann-Verlag, 1990.

Pilates: Links, Bibliography, Resources, Quotes, Notes

Prana, Pneuma, Air, Chi, Qi: Taijiquan and Breathing

"Prescriptions for Pranayama."

By Claudia Cummins. Yoga Journal, 2001.

The Primordial Breath: An Ancient Chinese Way of Prolonging Life Through Breath Control. Translated by Jan Huang. Translations from the Tao Tsang in the Taoist Canon.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

Volumes 1 and 2. Torrance, California, Original Books, 1987.

Qi Gong Bibliography and Links

Qigong Breathing

6Kb.

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

Qigong Breathing and Overcoming Depression

4Kb.

Qigong Meditation: Embroyonic Breathing.

Publications, 2003. 389 pages. ISBN: 1886969736.

By Yang, Jwing-Ming. YMAA

Qi Theory

14K

Qi Gong for Beginners: Eight Easy Movements for Vibrant Health.

Photographs by Barry Kaplan. Sterling Publications, 1997.

MGC.

By Stanley D. Wilson.

ISBN: 0915801752.

148 pages.

See pages 23 - 32.

Relaxing Into Your Being. The Water Method of Taoist Meditation Series, Volume 1. By Bruce Kumar Frantzis. Fairfax, California, Clarify Press, 1998. Reader's Edition. 208 pages. ISBN: No ISBN given.

Relaxation in Taijiquan and Qigong

Roar of Silence: Healing Powers of Breath, Tone and Music. Wheaton, Illinois, Theosophical Publishing House, 1994.

The Root of Chinese Chi Kung: The Secrets of Chi Kung Training. By Yang Jwing-Ming.

YMAA Chi Kung Series #1.

Association, 1989. Glossary, 272 pages.

Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, Yang's Martial Arts

ISBN: 0940871076. MGC.

Savasana (Corpse Pose) Deep Breathing Techniques

Science of Breath. By Swami Rama, Rudolph Ballentine, M.D. and Alan Hymes,

M.D

Honesdale, Pennsylvania, Himalayan Institute, 1981.

Secrets of Optimal Natural Breathing. By Michael Grant White. Waynesville, North Carolina, Optimal Breathing Press, 2003.

Scientific Basis of Qigong

Seven Stars Qigong Breathing Exercises

60Kb. Instructions and line drawings.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

Spring Forest Qigong Detailed instructions for this form.

The Stoics.

By F. H. Sandback.

Sun Style of Taijiquan

Sung (Relaxation) and Taijiquan

T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Meditation.

By Da Liu.

New York, Schocken Books, 1986,

1991. Index, 173 pages. ISBN: 080520993X. Refer to pages: 49-59.

Taoism

"Taoist Breath Work in T'ai Chi."

By Charlie Fechter.

T'ai Chi: The International

Magazine of T'ai Chi Ch'uan: Vol. 27, No. 6, December, 2003, pp.44-47.

The Tao of Natural Breathing: For Health, Well Being, and Inner Growth.

Mountain Wind Pub., 1997. Index, 208 pages. ISBN: 0965161102. Foreward by Taoist Master Mantak Chia. Information. More information.

By Dennis Lewis.

Temple Qigong

Thirteen Treasures Walking Qigong.

35Kb.

Three- Part Breathing (Deergha Swasam)

Traditional Chinese Medicine - Qi Theory

40K. An in-depth essay.

Traditional Yoga Breathing Techniques 22Kb.

Transform Stress Into Vitality.

Tao Books, 1985. Includes the Taoist practices of the Inner Smile, Six Healing

Sounds, and Microcosmic Orbit.

By Mantak Chia. Huntington, New Jersey, Healing

Types of Paranayama

Valley Spirit Taijiquan Journal.

By Michael P. Garofalo.

Vitality, Energy, Spirit: A Taoist Sourcebook.

Boston, Shambhala, 1991. 281 pages. ISBN: 0877735190.

Translated and edited by Thomas Cleary.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

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Warriors of Stillness: Meditative Traditions in the Chinese Martial Arts. Volume 1. The Teachings of Grandmaster Cai Song Fang. Qigong Qi of the Center,

Essence of Taijiquan.

Center for Healing and the Arts. Glossary, 226 pages. ISBN: 0964997606. A study

of Wu Ji meditation, 13 postures, and push hands. MGC.

By Jan Diepersloot. Walnut Creek, California,

Ways to Better Breathing. By Carola Speads. Rochester, Vermont, Healing Arts, Press, 1992.

Yang Family T'ai Chi Ch'uan Traditional Long Form 108 Movements

Yoga: Bibliography, Links, Resources, Quotes, Notes

Yoga and Breathing

46Kb.

Yoga Breathing

Yoga Breathing: The Art of Pranayama.

Yoga Breathing - Google Links

Yoga Breathing Exercises

10Kb.

By Richard Freeman.

150 minutes, CD.

Yoga Breathing (Pranayama) - The Art of Yoga Breathing

Many articles on the subject.

Yogaflows: A Dynamic and Fluid System to Transform Your Yoga Practice. London, Firefly Books Ltd., 2003. Index, glossary of postures, 144 pages. ISBN: 1552976874. MGC.

The Yoga of Breath: A Step-by-Step Guide to Pranayama. By Richard Rosen. Foreward by Rodney Yee. Illustrations by Kim Fraley. Boston, Shambhala, 2002. Index, notes, 304 pages. ISBN: 1570628890. MGC.

Yogic Techniques for Stress Relief

67Kb. Includes breathing techiques.

Yoga: The Path to Holistic Health. By B.K.S. Iyengar. London, Dorling Kindersley,

2001. Glossary, index, 416 pages. ISBN: 0789471655. Lavishly illustrated compendium

of essential poses, routines, prop use, and yoga routines to help specific health problems. The renowned Yogacharya B. K. S. Iyengar was born in India in 1918. MGC.

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

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Exercises

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

Yoga, Qigong, T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Meditation, Lore

Air, Prana, Penuma, Chi, T'u Na, Vital Energy, Qi, Pranayama, Breath

1. Exhaling Longer Than Inhaling

When you examine many controlled breathing techniques they often have the following simple characteristic: you will spend more time exhaling than you will inhaling. For example, you might inhale to a count of 4 seconds, hold the breath for 2 seconds, exhale slowly for 8 seconds, wait 3 seconds after the lungs are completely empty, and then repeat the process. Or, you might inhale for 3 seconds, and then chant a long soft OUM for 9 seconds. Or when falling asleep, your body will breathe more softly, more shallowly, less forcefully. In general, breathing becomes more shallow and less air is inhaled, and gasses are leaving the lungs more often than gasses are entering the lungs. The body is thus getting less oxygen and increasing its carbon dioxide levels.

Generally, this pattern of breathing results in your body lowering its blood pressure, lowering its heart beats per minute, relaxing, not moving, and feeling calm. The

parasympathetic nervous system becomes more dominant.

mild euthoria, peacefulness, disengagement, acceptance, sinking, and surrender are often reported when in this state.

Feelings of drowsiness,

2. Breathing Techniques (Pranayama) from Yoga

Alternate Nostril Breathing (Nadi Sodhana) Instructions On-line: One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight

Three- Part Breathing (Deergha Swasam) Instructions On-line: One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight

Corpse Pose Breathing (Deep Breathing in Savasana) Instructions On-line: One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

3. Squeeze Out the Air

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While seated or while walking at a slow and meditative pace do the following exercise:

Take a deep breath. Inhale. Relax the abdomen as you inhale. Slowly and deeply inhale. Fill the lungs with air. Inhale to a count of 5.

Slowly and completely exhale. As you exhale, tighten up the muscles in your abdomen.

Exhale all the air out of your lungs. Squeeze!

air, puff out the air. Squeeze your abdomen in and up. Squeeze! Exhale completely!

Exhale to a count of 5.

Squeeze out all the air. Blow out the

Inhale slowly. Relax. Relax your stomach. Let it expand and fall as you inhale in a slow and deep manner. Slowly and deeply inhale. Fill the lungs with air. Smile. Inhale to a count of 5. Take in all the air/oxygen/chi you can. Feel the power of the inhale.

Slowly and completely exhale. As you exhale, tighten up the muscles in your abdomen.

Exhale all the air out of your lungs. Squeeze!

air, puff out the air. Exhale to a count of 5. Squeeze your abdomen in and up. Squeeze! Exhale completely! Feel the power of the exhale. Feel the emptiness in your lungs. Reflect on the nature of breathlessness.

Squeeze out all the air. Blow out the

Repeat this breathing cycle for 3 to 6 times. Return to your normal breathing as you sit or walk. Relax your body.

Refer to my Thirteen Treasures Walking Qigong for additional walking exercises.

Discussion, Feedback, Comments

"Hello, I am not trying to be rude

BOHR effect before making claims about O2 and CO2. Carbon dioxide is vital to our body's ability to use oxygen and deep breathing is NOT good for you as breathing off too much C02 means a tightening of the haemoglobin and oxygen bond, making oxygenation of the tissues very difficult." - Marlene Jantzi-Bauman

however--- I suggest you study your physiology

namely

the

Marlene,

Thank you for the comments on the Bohr effect. I will do some studying on the matter.

What webpage of mine where you referring to?

I do recall recommending that people to breathe freely and deeply while exercising to avoid the Valsalva Maneuver.

I don't recall making claims about O2 and CO2; but,

The dozens of books and scores of articles I have read on breathing and exercise have never mentioned the Bohr effect in the context of Yoga, Tai Chi Chuan, Qigong, or other mind-body

Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore

http://www.egreenway.com/wellbeing/breathing.htm

practices. These practices do recommend deep and steady breathing, focused and active use of the diaphram, rectus abdominis, intercostals, and transverse abdominals while breathing, and the use of the breath as an anchor or focus point of concentration during meditation.

Again, I will research the matter. We do need to learn more each day. Thanks! - Mike Garofalo, 9/27/06

to learn more each day. Thanks! - Mike Garofalo, 9/27/06 Michael P. Garofalo's E-Mail Red Bluff,

Michael P. Garofalo's E-Mail

Red Bluff, Tehama County, North Sacramento Valley, California

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