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th e H E A R T of the M A T T E R

A Wo m e n of Vis i o n S tudy

Communities
Transformed with
CHANGE that LASTS
Communities Transformed | Page A
AC KNOWLEDGEMENTS
World Vision Resources produced this educational resource in partnership with Women of
Vision. Copyright © 2009 by World Vision Resources, Mail Stop 321, P.O. Box 9716, Federal
Way, WA 98063-9716, wvresources@worldvision.org. All rights reserved.

Editorial Director: Milana McLead


Editor-in-Chief: Jane Sutton-Redner
Project Editor: Laurie Delgatto
Author: Beth Dotson Brown
Contributing Authors: Laurie Delgatto, Reneé Stearns, Cynthia Breilh
Project Consultants: Judy Bergman, Cynthia Breilh, Marilee Pierce Dunker, Karen Marion,
Reneé Stearns
Copyeditor: Jo Marie Dooley
Design: Journey Group
Sales and Distribution Manager: Jojo Palmer

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN 978-09819235-3-6

The quotation found on page 11 (lesson 1) is from Bryant Myers, Working with the Poor,
(Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1999, pages 20-21. Copyright © Bryant Myers.
All rights reserved.

The Scripture in this resource is from the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL
VERSION®. NIV®. Copyright ©1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used
by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved.

During the preparation of this resource, all citations, facts, figures, names, addresses,
telephone numbers, Internet URLs, and other cited information were verified for
accuracy. World Vision Resources has made every attempt to reference current and valid
sources, but we cannot guarantee the content of any source, and we are not responsible
for any changes that may have occurred since our verification. If you find an error in, or
have a question or concern about, any of the information or sources listed within, please
contact World Vision Resources.

Cover photo by Jon Warren/World Vision

COVER PHOTO BY JON WARREN/WORLD VISION 2009


TA BLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... page 4

Lesson One: Build Up Without Tearing Down …………………...…………………...…………………...……. page 7

Lesson One Handout ……………………………………………………………………...…………………...………………… page 17

Lesson Two: The Bread of Life—More Than Spiritual Food ……..…………………...……………… page 21

Lesson Two Handout ……………………………………………………………………...…………………...……………… page 28

Lesson Three: The Sick and Tired Fall Harder …………………….…………………...…………………...… page 29

Lesson Three Handout ……………………………………………….…………………...…………………...……………….page 37

Lesson Four: Literacy Means Life …………………………………...…………………...…………………...……… page 38

Lesson Five: Economic Development—One Loan at a Time ……..…………………...……………… page 48

Lesson Six: Changed Lives Change Lives …………………………..…………………...…………………...……. page 56

Ways to Get Involved ……………………………………………………………………...…………………...……………… page 66

Page 1
S E R I ES OVERVIEW

The Heart of the Matter is a biblically based, interactive study series that focuses
on three areas: how Christians are called to respond to the needs of the poor (Hope
in a World of Hurt); the root causes of poverty and how transformational develop-
ment brings hope and lasting change to communities and individuals (Communities
Transformed with Change that Lasts); and the ways in which extreme poverty and
injustice uniquely impact the lives of women and children (Touching the Lives of
Women in Poverty).

The study offers opportunities to:


» explore Scripture.
» personally reflect, share, and pray about injustices in the world.
» develop a greater understanding about poverty and oppression.
» participate in interactive learning experiences.
» learn about the transformational work of World Vision.

The combination of video, printed material, discussion and reflection questions,


simulations, quizzes, and other learning activities contribute to a multifaceted,
creative learning experience that is easy to lead and engaging for all participants.

ST U DY OVERVIEW

Communities Transformed with Change That Lasts includes six sessions:

1. Build Up Without Tearing Down


Jesus demonstrated His love and compassion by providing care to those in need. He
also recognized the gifts people shared with Him and their communities. In doing so,
Jesus demonstrated the role each of us can play in creating a better life for all people.

2. The Bread of Life—More Than Spiritual Food


Jesus often referred to the “living water” and “bread of life” as He spread the good
news. For people who have difficulty finding water and food to sustain them, it can be
challenging to understand Jesus’ words.

3. The Sick and Tired Fall Harder


Throughout His lifetime, Jesus repeatedly healed the sick. Today we have knowled-
ge and medicines that can cure a lot of illnesses, but many people who are ill do not
have the access, the knowledge, and the resources required to stay healthy.

4. Literacy Means Life


When community members, especially women, learn to read, the entire community be-
nefits. The resulting positive actions can help communities draw closer to the fullness
of life God wants for all of His children.

Page 2
5. Economic Development—One Loan at a Time
Jesus called people to live, learn, and work together in community. His example
illustrates how, in collaboration, people can have a far-reaching impact on their
community. By combining talents and resources to boost individual opportunities for
starting businesses, community members help everyone reach more fullness of life.

6. Changed Lives Change Lives


World Vision engages local people at the grassroots level, helping them decide
how to improve their own lives, what talents they can contribute to the effort, and
what assistance they need to reach their goals. This integrated development model
demonstrates the love and respect Jesus asks us to replicate while helping people find
a secure path to living a fuller life.

U S ING THIS STUDY

This study is ideal for a group setting, although individuals can easily adapt it for
their use. Each lesson is designed for a 60 to 90 minute timeframe. Some lessons
might take a bit longer, so choose the sections and activities that work best for you or
your group.

L E ADING GROUP LESS ONS

If you are leading a group, please review the Leaders Notes that accompany each
lesson. Leaders Notes, handouts, and other resources are available at
www.womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm. These notes will help you facilitate a
smooth-flowing exchange among group members to build community, deepen faith,
and increase knowledge.

Read each lesson before you facilitate it; then use it creatively to meet the needs
of your group members. Knowing your audience will help you determine which
strategies will work best. Some activities require preparation. Expect to spend
20 to 30 minutes preparing for each lesson—praying, reading, working through
transitions, and contextualizing material. Also review the list of required materials,
which often include downloadable resources from the Web site noted above.

I N DIVIDUAL STUDY

If you prefer to work through this study on your own, you can do so with some
minor adaptations. In addition to the lessons here, the Web site noted above provides
resources and a discussion board where you can build community with others who
are also participating individually.

Page 3
H A NDOUTS, VIDEOS, AND ADDITIONAL
R E S OURCES

Each lesson includes a list of required supplies and materials. All handouts,
videos, and resources needed for each session can be downloaded from
womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm.

Page 4
20 09
VI SI O N
/W O RL D
N AB IRYE
DAVI N AH
LESSON ONE

BUILD UP Without TEARING DOWN


OV ERVIEW
Jesus demonstrated His love and compassion by providing care to those in need. He
also recognized the gifts people shared with Him and their communities. In doing so,
Jesus demonstrated the role each of us can play in creating a better life for all people.

K EY S CRIP TURE
Romans 12:4-16

E S SENTIAL QUESTION
How do we recognize and affirm the gifts each person can contribute to successful
community development?

L E SS ON GOALS
» Develop a greater understanding of holistic thinking, sustainable development,
and the World Vision development model.
» Study the use of asset-based community development.
» Reflect on the skills needed to develop and extend friendship and assistance to
those who are poor and marginalized.

M ATERIALS
Pen, Bible, computer with Internet access, and video player

O N LINE RES OURCES from womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm


» “Transforming Lives” video
» “About the Global Food Crisis” handout

AG ENDA
» Introductions, opening prayer
» View “Transforming Lives” video » Choose a personal response
» Reflect on Scripture » Close in prayer
» Consider how World Vision uses » Review homework and further
asset-based community development study suggestions

Page 5
I N T R O DUCTION AND OPENING PRAYER

1. Share or journal your responses to the questions below:

» When have you helped a person, family, or community in need?

» Have you have been on the receiving end? What was that experience like?

2. Offer a prayer. Pray for understanding to explore what it means to do


development work that has a truly transformational result. Spend a few minutes in
REENA SAMUEL/WORLD VISION 2007

silent meditation, concentrating on opening your heart and mind to where this study
might lead you.

VIDEO

1. View the video “Transforming Lives.” This provides an introduction to


World Vision’s practice of involving people in need in their own transformation.
Before viewing the video about the Samuye (pronounced “sam-oo-way”) region of
Tanzania, consider the following background:

» Tanzania is a beautiful country that includes both the highest and lowest points in
all of Africa (Mount Kilimanjaro and Lake Tanganyika). The majority of Tanzania’s
population lives in rural areas. Many Tanzanians are small-scale farmers who grow
only enough food to feed their own families.
» Unemployment is approximately 16 percent, and more than half of all households
live in poverty. People living in poverty spend three-quarters of their income on
food, but their diets are of low nutritional value.
» Women head one-fourth of all households, but they lack formal education. Most
girls of primary-school age do not attend school, contributing to high illiteracy
rates among Tanzanian women.
» Ongoing and deep poverty has created a situation where more than 30 percent of
Tanzanian children under the age of 5 are malnourished. A severe economic crisis
in the 1980s negatively affected many sectors of the Tanzanian economy, including
education. School enrollment declined and curriculum and teaching materials
became outdated. The loss of student potential continues to affect the country today.

Page 6
» World Vision’s office in Tanzania was established in 1981. Today World Vision has
89 active projects in Tanzania, reaching approximately 3 million people. In the
early 1990s, village leaders invited World Vision into Samuye, a rural area with
14 villages.
» Samuye is located near the town of Shinyanga in north-central Tanzania, one of the
poorest regions of the country.
» Most people in Samuye survive through subsistence farming—growing only
enough food for their own needs. Dry spells and food shortages are common. World Samuye is located
Vision’s baseline surveys, undertaken as the work began, revealed that in some near the town of
villages, 50 percent of the children suffered moderate to severe malnutrition. Shinyanga in north-
» The baseline surveys also revealed that close to half of Samuye’s children were central Tanzania, one
not immunized. There were few healthcare facilities in the region, and existing
facilities were poorly equipped. When the work started in 1992, child-death rates
of the poorest regions
in the region were high—for every 1,000 children born, 92 would not reach their of the country.
fifth birthday.
» In addition, the poor state of children’s education was of great concern to
community members. Run-down schools, inadequate housing for teachers, and
general poverty made it difficult to attract and keep teachers. This unproductive
learning environment kept many children from attending school, compounding
the negative trends in the national education system.
» Today the story of the Samuye community is very different. The video shows how
the people of Samuye, together with World Vision in Tanzania and the government
of Tanzania, are working to transform their own lives.

JON WAR REN/WORLD VISION 2007


2. Share or journal about your impressions, thoughts, and feelings.

» Was there anything in the Samuye story that surprised you?

» What new understanding about community development did you gain?

» What do you think are the most important aspects to keep in mind when doing
development work? Why do you think they are important?

Page 7
» The video also shows examples of what is involved in development work today.
What concrete examples of development did you observe in the video?

S C R I P T URE REFLECTION

1. Read Romans 12:4-16.


Paul’s letter to the Romans makes it clear that the Holy Spirit imbues human beings
with a variety of gifts. There doesn’t appear to be one gift that stands out as more
important than others. Recognizing the gifts God has bestowed upon us is important.
So is acknowledging the gifts of others and inviting them to bring those gifts to the
table as God’s people make plans for transforming a community to be more life-
giving for its members.

2. Share or journal your responses to the questions below:

» What gift do you think the Holy Spirit offers especially to you?
JON WARREN/WORLD VISION 2008

» How have you used that gift in the past?

» How might you use that gift in the future?

» Share a time when someone surprised you with a gift or talent you didn’t know he
or she had.

Page 8
E X P LO R I NG WO R L D VISION’S ASSET-BASED
C O M M U N I T Y D EV ELOPMENT

1. Consider the following:


While we want to put the talents God gives us to good use, we must remember
that those who live in poverty also have gifts to contribute to the process of
transformation. Utilizing all of these gifts to make lasting changes isn’t simple.

Collecting food or money for food, preparing the food, then delivering it to the
hungry is relatively straightforward. But how do we approach the task to fully
include the hungry in that process? And how do we know what, besides a meal,
will help the hungry avoid hunger tomorrow and the next day? It takes multiple
gifts and efforts to help create long-term and sustainable change in communities
experiencing chronic poverty.

Christian organizations throughout the United States and the world have sought

JON WARREN/WORLD VISION 2008


to imitate Christ by feeding those in need. For example, consider the World Vision
Mission Statement:

World Vision is an international partnership of Christians whose mission is to


follow our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ in working with the poor and oppressed
to promote human transformation, seek justice, and bear witness to the good
news of the Kingdom of God.

That is quite an ambitious goal—and one the organization has been working toward
since 1950. Note that the statement says World Vision works with the poor and
oppressed rather than for. With is a powerful word because it connotes walking It takes multiple gifts
alongside someone. That is what Jesus did repeatedly throughout His life on earth.
and efforts to help
In order for us to work with another person or group, we have to understand many create long-term and
aspects about their lives. One way to do that is to hear their story. sustainable change
in communities
In Walking with the Poor, author Bryant Myers recognizes the role stories play for experiencing
those in development work. Consider what he writes:
chronic poverty.
Every community needs a big story, a story that frames our lives and our
understanding of the world. Everyone must have some kind of transcendent
narrative that gives answers to questions of meaning and provides moral
direction and social purpose. We need to know who we are (identity and
purpose), where we are (location in the world and the universe), what went
wrong (making sense of the poverty, pain, and injustice we see), what we must
do (what must change and how it can be changed), and what time it is (how our
past, present, and future fit into this picture).

Development practitioners need a big story, too. At its heart, transformational


development is about seeking a better human future.

Page 9
World Vision encourages people to share their stories and begin to play a role in the
transformation of their community in a bottom-up approach. This method of doing
development is very different from the approach of traditional charitable giving in
which one group has a need and the other fills it. Appreciative Inquiry* is the process
used to help groups plan actions and goals based on the strengths and needs in a
community.

*See “For Further Study” section for Web resources on these processes.

2. To better understand this process, let’s look at where it falls in the history of
development work.

Trends in Development
1950s–1970s: Development To the People
Local people were seen as separate from the development process. There was heavy
emphasis on capital and technical investment by outside agencies. Local people
were considered passive recipients rather than active participants in development
processes.

1970s–1980s: Development Through the People


People were seen as important for achieving development. However, decisions for
ANDREW GOODWIN/WORLD VISION 2008

development were still made outside the community.

1980s–1990s: Development With the People


People’s participation was seen as a necessary part of development processes.
Communities were defined as partners in development.

1990s–Today: Empowering People for Development


The focus now is on developing local capacity for self-development. People are seen
as the primary focus and owners of their own development processes.

When empowering people, those involved need to identify the ability they have
to work for change. Identifying that capacity will help them see what they have to
contribute (what gifts they can offer) to transform their situation. This also brings
personal dignity to the work of development.

Sometimes it seems like global problems are so big that we cannot help change the
lives of the world’s poorest people. Just giving more money or resources isn’t the
answer. Neither is just lobbying for political change. However, a combination of
these strategies together with “community development” can make a real difference
in the lives of people in poor communities.

Community development is about change and partnership. It is work or projects


undertaken jointly between people in poor communities, local authorities,
governments, and outside organizations such as aid agencies to bring about long-
term improvements. It is about communities moving step-by-step and others

Page 10
working with them side-by-side to improve living conditions and create lasting
change. The existing knowledge and skills of the people are affirmed, and they are
seen as active participants in the process of change.

The way that community development works for one community will be different
to that in another community. For example, in one community, unclean drinking
water may be contributing to poor health—which may cause children to miss school
and adults to miss out on work and a reliable income—which may lead to hunger—
which again affects health, education, and income. In this example, a multifaceted
solution might be necessary, involving the improvement of water quality, healthcare,
education, and income opportunities.

In the past, development has been seen only as the provision of tangible things
like water tanks, roads, or school buildings. This model can see poor communities
as passive recipients. Community development, however, is also about assisting
community members to work through their problems and the causes, effects, and
solutions themselves. They learn to understand the issues that are contributing to
their poverty, and the methods and resources that will help them to be self-reliant.
The skills that remain will help communities build a better future for their children.

The types of change that might need to occur are:


» Behavioral change—washing hands before eating or encouraging health workers to
wear disposable gloves to prevent HIV and AIDS transmission.
» Participation changes—including women in decision-making roles.
Ultimately, community
» Skills improvement—techniques for irrigating crops or training to run a small
business; training classroom teachers. development is about
» Structural changes—local leadership may need to become more accountable with the capacity of the
all the groups they represent. community to respond
» Increasing access—bridges are built over gorges so families have access to to change themselves
healthcare or clean water.
and to develop their
It takes time to bring about lasting change. The time it takes in one community community in a way that
may be different from the time it takes in another. World Vision might work on is sustainable.
one project for three years or stay with a community for up to 10-15 years, until the
community has the skills, abilities, and resources to manage independently.

Ultimately, community development is about the capacity of the community to


respond to change themselves and to develop their community in a way that is
sustainable. At the end of the process, communities can manage their future without
relying on external support.
KEV IN COOK/WORLD VIS ION 2008

Page 11
3. One of the first steps in the community development model is to recognize
the assets a community brings to the process. Using the following process as your
guide, conduct a capacity inventory of what individuals bring to the task of better
understanding and supporting development work with people in need. Consider the
gifts you have that can be used to help your own community:
Gifts of the head: things I know about and would enjoy talking about with
others, like art, history, finances, nutrition, etc.

Gifts of the hands: things or skills I know how to do and would like to share with
others, like carpentry, sewing, gardening, etc.

Gifts of the heart: things I care deeply about, like protection of the environment,
civic life, children, etc.
ANDREA DEARBORN/WORLD VISION 2007

4. Now that you know what gifts you can call upon, consider how you could use
those gifts in a given situation in your community. Choose one of the scenarios listed
below, and then list the gift you would use and the action you might take in response
to the situation.

Scenario 1
There is a hunger crisis in your community. Children receive at least two meals
a day (Monday through Friday) because they can eat breakfast and lunch at
school. Weekends, however, are another situation. There is often little or no
food in the house. Children arrive at school on Monday feeling lethargic and
hungry. The guidance counselor suggests sending home backpacks filled with
food for the weekend. What role could you play?

Gifts I could use: ________________________________________________________

Actions I could take: _____________________________________________________

Scenario 2
The local preschool is having a problem—when it’s time for the children to play
outside, they have a tendency to wander off the property. Although the school
is staffed as the law requires, the teachers can’t see every child at once, and the

Page 12
PAUL B ETTING S/WO RL D VISIO N 2007
play area is not fenced in. What role could you play in alleviating the problem?

Gifts I could use: ________________________________________________________

Actions I could take: _____________________________________________________

Scenario 3
When teens in foster care turn 18, they sometimes find themselves homeless.
They move from one friend’s house to another hoping to be able to keep things
together so they can graduate from high school. However, it is hard to keep up
with schoolwork when moving around or not having a place to sleep at all. The
school counselor searches for places for students to stay, but she is running out
of options. What role could you play?

Gifts I could use: ________________________________________________________

Actions I could take: _____________________________________________________ In order for us to work


with another person
Scenario 4 or group, we have
Your community offers a free class for people who have lost their jobs and
to understand
need to learn new skills to be more marketable in today’s economy. However,
some of the unemployed are in such dire financial straits that they do not have many aspects about
transportation to the classes. What role could you play? their lives. One way
to do that is to hear
Gifts I could use: ________________________________________________________ their story.
Actions I could take: _____________________________________________________

C H O O S E A P E R S O NAL RESP ONSE

Share or journal about the following questions:


» How did you feel about the inventory activity and what it says about your ability to
contribute to a development process?

» Do you think a person in a village in Africa, Central America, or Asia would react
similarly or differently? How?

» How does this relate to your earlier reflection on Romans 12:4-16?

Page 13
C LO S I NG PRAYER

1. Offer a prayer for individuals and organizations conducting development work,


that they will approach their task from a loving, holistic perspective.

H O M EWORK FOR NEXT SESSION

All resources are available at womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm.

1. Read the handout “About the Global Food Crisis.”

2. Keep a log of every time you use water and food in one day, where it came
from, and how you used it. Bring this log to the next session.

3. Carry a pail of water one to three miles. Consider the life of a woman or child
who must carry water great distances each day in order to have access to water.
Many women and children walk six miles or more daily just to provide water for the
family. Or, create a plan to feed your family on $1 per day for five days—join 1 billion
people on earth (one-sixth of our population) who have no other option. They live on
the equivalent of what a U.S. dollar could buy in the United States.

+ FO R F U RTHER STUDY

» Recall your favorite parable and reflect on the lesson Jesus told and the gifts people
brought to that story.
» Go to www.worldvision.org to read World Vision’s mission statement and details
about the various aspects of transforming communities (located in the ”Our Work”
section).
» Go to www.synergos.org/knowledge/02/abcdoverview.htm for more information
about Asset-Based Community Development.
» Go to http://www.thinbook.com/docs/doc-whatisai.pdf for more information
about Appreciative Inquiry.
» Read Walking with the Poor by Bryant Myers, available at
www.worldvisionresources.com.
» Read John 21:15-17 and reflect on the following questions: How do you “feed” the
people in your life? How do they “feed” you? How do you “care for” the people in
your life? How do they “care for” you?
SUZY SAINOVS KI/WOR LD VISION 2006

Page 14
Lesson One Handout

ABOUT the GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS

THE ISSUE

Global food insecurity has been making news headlines. However, worldwide
hunger and malnutrition are nothing new. Long before this crisis, more than 850
million people worldwide were already undernourished, meaning their food intake
did not include sufficient calories to meet the minimum needs of an active life. In
addition, hunger and malnutrition cause 3.5 million child deaths every year.

What is new is the rapid and sustained deterioration in people’s access to food.
Record-high fuel and food prices might push another 100 million people further into
poverty and hunger, raising their numbers to almost 1 billion. The causes of rising
food costs and diminishing food supplies are complex, but the reality for families
affected by shortages of staple foods is simple and harsh. As food
prices increase, standards of living decrease. Malnourishment
and starvation become real possibilities, and families are forced to
make difficult choices. With less access to food, already vulnerable
children are in even more danger because they may be pulled out
of school and sent to scavenge or work for food, subjecting them to
lost education, early forced marriage, damaged health, sexual and
labor abuse, and loss of basic rights.

THE FACTS

Although the media uses the term “crisis,” it is important to


understand that global food insecurity has existed for a long time.
Only now has a perfect storm of factors increased the scope and
intensity of the issue as well as public awareness of it. The rise in
food and fuel prices on the global market threatens devastation for
PHILIP MAHER/WOR LD V ISION 2008

millions of people around the world. An estimated 100 million people, 35 million of
them children, have been pushed into poverty and hunger over the past two years.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),
world food prices have been rising steadily since 2002, with a dramatic upturn in
2007. Food prices have risen 83 percent since 2005—jumping 47 percent between
January 2007 and January 2008 alone. Sharp increases in the prices of cereals,
dairy, rice, soybeans, vegetable oils, and, to a lesser extent, meat and sugar have
had a direct impact on the prices of food products on grocery shelves and in small
marketplaces around the world.

Page 15
Lesson One Handout continued

The current food crisis is different from food emergencies in the past in a number
of ways. In the past, food crises have largely been weather- or environment-related.
Drought, storms, floods, or insects destroyed crops and resulted in regional famines.
The impact of these emergencies was felt by rural food producers first, and while
devastating for affected populations, tended to subside when environmental
conditions improved enough for harvests to return to normal yields. However,
experts predict that the effects of the current crisis will be felt for many years to come.
Rising fuel prices and long-term climate change, two main factors now causing food
insecurity, are not likely to see significant improvements in the near future.

At the most basic level, the recent food crisis has been caused by rising food prices
around the globe. Listed here are a number of the underlying factors that have led to
the soaring food prices of corn, soybeans, wheat, rice, and other crops throughout
the past year:

At the most Rising price of oil: A large amount of oil is needed to produce fertilizers, to run
basic level, industrial farm machinery, and to transport food. Oil prices have risen six-fold
since 2002, directly affecting the cost of food production and transportation.
the recent
food crisis has Demand for biofuels: High demand for alternative energy sources has meant
that growing crops for fuel is often more profitable than growing crops for
been caused food. An estimated 30 percent of U.S. corn production in 2008 was used to
by rising food produce ethanol.

prices around Drought and climate change: Adverse weather conditions have reduced
the globe. harvests in major grain producing countries. For example, Australian wheat
production in 2007-2008 was down 52 percent from production in 2006-2007.

Declining agricultural productivity: In many rural areas, where 70 percent


of the world’s poorest 1.2 billion people live and work, agricultural productivity
is sharply declining. Much of this is a result of land degradation, which affects
up to two-thirds of the world’s agricultural land. Water supply constraints,
higher oil prices, and reduced government investment in agriculture also have
had an impact.

Low grain reserves: Government and private wheat reserves are at an all-
time low. The world has consumed more grain than it has produced for the
past eight years and is only one to two months short of the next harvest from
running out of food.

Page 16
Lesson One Handout continued

Market speculation: In 2007, market speculators began investing more


heavily in food and industrial commodities markets to take advantage of
rising prices. The full impact of these investments is not clear, but they may
contribute to short-run price fluctuations and immediate price inflations.

Changes in incomes: Rapid economic growth in China, India, and other


developing countries means that greater numbers of the world’s population
can now afford to eat more of what they traditionally eat, as well as more meat.
Increased demand for meat in particular puts pressure on resources such as
water supplies and grain needed to feed livestock.

Population growth: The global population has been growing steadily for the
past 50 years to a current estimated size of 6.7 billion people. At the current rate
of growth, there will be billions more mouths to feed in the year 2050, putting
additional pressures on long-term food supplies.
Because of the
global nature Urbanization: Estimates are that, for the first time in history, more than half
of the world’s population, about 3.4 billion, now live in urban areas. This long-
of markets and term trend has placed more demand on farmers to produce enough food to feed
trade in food city dwellers.

commodities, Export restrictions: In an attempt to mitigate the effects of the food crisis on
as many as 37 their own populations, some countries have partially or completely restricted
the exports of various foodstuffs. These bans have resulted in an even more
countries are precarious situation for countries that are net food importers.
in desperate Liberalization of markets: In the second half of the 20th century, developing
need around countries were strongly encouraged to open their markets to free trade. Loans
the world. from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank tended to be
conditional on Structural Adjustment Programs, or SAPs. The SAPs introduced
policies requiring a reduction in price security for farmers, little or no
government subsidies for farmers, and a reduction of tariffs on imported goods.
The legacy of this market liberalization in the food system is that the urban and
rural poor became more vulnerable to the shocks of global market forces.

Another unique feature of the current food crisis is its scope. Because of the global
nature of markets and trade in food commodities, as many as 37 countries are in
desperate need around the world: 21 in Africa, 10 in Asia, five in Latin America,

Page 17
Lesson One Handout continued

and one (Moldova) in Europe. In addition, it is the urban poor, generally nonfood
producers, who often suffer most from the first wave of impact in such a crisis.

Food insecurity is having dire effects on nations, families, and children. Food riots and
other forms of social unrest have erupted in Haiti, Mexico, Bangladesh, and even in
developed countries, such as Italy. Families have limited their consumption of staple
foods, such as rice, and eliminated more expensive foods, such as meat, from their
diets. In some cases, they have reduced the number of meals eaten in a day. Children
suffer most from diminished access to food: immediate effects on their health due to
under-nutrition and malnutrition; loss of education, if they are pulled out of school to
work; and the many protection issues that arise when they are not in school.

In the United States, the effects of rising food prices, while far less critical, are also
being felt. Some companies have announced an increase in the price of bread to
compensate for rising wheat prices. Higher fuel prices are expected to push up the
Food prices of fruits and vegetables that are transported long distances to markets. Food
insecurity banks across the country are receiving fewer donations of certain surplus food items
from grocery chains, such as cheese, yogurt, eggs, and meat. At the same time, they
is having anticipate an increase in demand as low-income Americans struggle to pay higher
dire effects grocery bills.

on nations, The global food crisis has no easy solutions. In the short term, food aid is needed
families, and for the millions of people who have been thrust into poverty and hunger. In the long
term, investments in agriculture and measures to improve food security are needed
children. to ensure that every family and every child has access to the food they need to
survive and thrive.

(Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), The State of Food Insecurity
in the World, 2006; World Bank, Rising Food and Fuel Prices, 2008; World Bank, Rising food prices,
policy options, and World Bank response, 2008; FAO, Soaring food prices, 2008; FAO, Crop Prospects
and Food Situation, April 2008; International Food Policy Research Institute, Rising Food Prices: What
Should Be Done?, April 2008; United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service
(USDA FAS), October 2008 report; United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002.)

The above information was adapted from A Hungry World: Understanding the Global Food Crisis by
World Vision Canada Education and Public Engagement.

Page 18
20 09
ON
RL D VI SI
O N /W O
CE N SI
AM IO AS
LESSON TWO

The BREAD of LIFE—


More than SPIRITUAL FOOD
OV ERVIEW
Jesus often referred to the “living water” and “bread of life” as He spread the good
news. For people who have difficulty finding water and food to sustain them, it can be
challenging to understand Jesus’ words.

K EY S CRIP TURE
John 6:48-51

E S SENTIAL QUESTION
How do people get the food and water they need to survive?

L E SS ON GOALS
» Develop a greater understanding of the essential roles water and food play in
community development.
» Reflect on how water and food projects can lead to transformational development.

M ATERIALS
Pen, Bible, computer with Internet access, and video player

O N LINE RES OURCES from womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm


» “Water for All” video
» “Lonica’s Story” handout

AG ENDA
» Introduction and opening prayer
» View “Water for All” video
» Reflect on Scripture
» Consider our world today
» Choose a personal response
» Close in prayer
» Review homework and further study suggestions

Page 19
I N T R O DUCTION AND OPENING PRAYER

1. Review the food and water logs you created last week. Consider the following:

» Did you use food or water excessively?

» Were you ever in need of food or water but didn’t have it?

» What role did that food and water play in your day? What purpose did it serve?

» How would your days have been different without easy access to these resources?
GARY DOWD, DAVID DUCHEMIN/WORLD VISION 2007

2. Offer a prayer. Pray for those who are hungry and thirsty today. Spend a few
moments in silence praying for those you know and those you do not know who are
in this situation.

VIDEO

View the video “Water for All” to gain a greater understanding of the role water
plays around the world.

Which of these responses best describes your reaction and why?

» I was surprised to learn how unavailable water is to some people.

» I don’t know what I would do if my water looked like that.

» My feelings evolved from fear and anger about the situation to hope and joy.

» I want to know more about how to assist villages that need clean water.

» Other: (explain)

Page 20
S C R I P T U R E R E F L ECTION

1. Food and water have been a driving force for action throughout history.
Read the following Scripture passages and consider the role nourishment plays
in each.

» Genesis 26:1
» Exodus 3:8
» Luke 9:12-16
» John 21:1-14

2. Consider the following questions in relation to the Scripture passages. Then


share or journal your responses:

» What does food cause people to do in each passage?

» How does each of these actions demonstrate providing the “bread of life”?

» What relevance do you think these passages have to people today who lack food
and water?

JUST IN DOUGLASS/WORLD VIS ION 2009

3. Read John 6:48-51.


Consider how the Scripture passage might help you in your efforts to help
communities gain access to the food and water they need to nourish body and soul.

Could you understand what these passages truly mean if your hunger and thirst here
on earth were never filled? Jot down your thoughts.

Page 21
C O N S I D ER OUR WORLD TODAY

1. Read this information about the availability of water and food in our
world today:

Water
Throughout the developing world, women spend hours each day walking to
a stream or lake to retrieve water for their family’s needs. Yet even after their
arduous work, this water is polluted by:

» People bathing in it.


As many as half of the » Parasites, bugs, and germs that live in the water.
world’s hospital beds are » People washing their clothes in it.
» Animals wading in and drinking the water.
occupied by people with a
» Contaminated jugs used to carry the water.
water-related illness. » Lack of proper sanitation that causes streams to become “toilets.”

The problem of water safety is so widespread that The Washington Post


reported 1.2 billion people use a water source that is filled with deadly
bacteria, parasites, and waterborne diseases. As many as half of the world’s
hospital beds are occupied by people with a water-related illness.

Many people who rely on polluted water do not understand the risks it carries
or how to purify the water. They also do not have access to wells and other
sources of water closer to home that might eliminate the need for using the
polluted sources.

Food
Hunger is not a new problem. It has traditionally risen in countries that
experience war (farmers are not able to tend to their crops as needed) and
weather problems such as drought and flooding.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


(FAO), world food prices have been rising steadily since 2002, with a
dramatic upturn in 2007. Food prices have risen 83 percent since 2005—
jumping 47 percent between January 2007 and January 2008 alone. Sharp
DAVID DUCHEMIN /WOR LD VISION 2007

increases in the prices of cereals, dairy, rice, soybeans, vegetable oils, and,
to a lesser extent, meat and sugar have directly impacted the prices of food
products on grocery shelves and in small marketplaces around the world.
Imagine what that means for someone who was already struggling to feed his
or her family. Today there are as many as 37 countries around the world that
are in desperate need of food.

The causes of rising food costs and diminishing food supplies are complex,
but the reality for families affected by shortages of staple foods is simple and
harsh. As food prices increase, standards of living decrease. Malnourishment

Page 22
and starvation become real possibilities, and families are forced to make
difficult choices. The United Nations reported that one out of four children
in developing countries is underweight, and some 350 million to 400
million children are hungry. The World Food Program reports hunger and
malnutrition as the number one risk to health globally, greater than AIDS,
malaria, and tuberculosis combined.

For vulnerable children, lack of food can lead to:


» Riots and social unrest.
» Children leaving school to scavenge for food or to seek work.
» Early forced marriage.
» Permanent damaged health.
» Sexual and labor abuse.
» Loss of basic rights.

In the United States, the effects of rising food prices, while far less critical,
are also being felt. Some companies have announced an increase in the
price of bread to compensate for rising wheat prices. Higher fuel prices are
expected to push up the prices of fruits and vegetables that are transported
long distances to markets. Food banks across the country are receiving fewer
donations of certain surplus food items from grocery chains, such as cheese,
yogurt, eggs, and meat. At the same time, they anticipate an increase in
demand as low-income Americans struggle to pay higher grocery bills.
Access to water may
One issue that affects the hungry everywhere in the world is climate
be the biggest issue of
change. Increasingly damaging storms cycle with droughts and erratic
rainfall, wreaking havoc for farmers around the world. In addition, forests the 21st century.
are disappearing at unprecedented rates, displacing indigenous peoples.
Fisheries have collapsed in coastal communities, leaving people hungry and
unemployed. Access to water may be the biggest issue of the 21st century.

The increasing awareness about environmental problems on our planet


has created a high demand for alternative energy sources. One of those
sources is biofuels, which are made from farm products like corn. It can
be more profitable for farmers to grow crops for biofuels than for human
consumption. In 2008, an estimated 30 percent of U.S. corn production
was used to make ethanol. While an alternative to gasoline, an unintended
consequence is increased demand for corn and, therefore, higher prices
for those who subsist on corn. Once again, the most vulnerable are
disproportionately affected.

As the search for solutions to climate change continues, we are called to


consider the wide-reaching effects of the issue on the most vulnerable.
JUS TIN DOUGLAS S/WORLD VIS ION 2009

Page 23
2. Consider the problems and consequences related to water and food. Share or
journal how you have seen these issues play out in your community or in places you
have visited.

Nearly two out of every


10 fellow human beings
have little choice but Water and food are not abundantly available in many communities around the
world like they are in U.S. communities. Most of us can turn on a tap and get clean
to resort to using
water. We can go to the grocery store and choose whatever food we want. For most
potentially harmful Americans, finding the nourishment our bodies need isn’t difficult.
sources of water.
Yet water is essential for life. Anyone who farms or grows a garden can share the
impact rain or lack thereof has on crops. Water is crucial for sustainable development,
including the preservation of our natural resources and the alleviation of poverty and
hunger. The United Nations says nearly two out of every 10 fellow human beings have
little choice but to resort to using potentially harmful sources of water.

The Environmental News Service reported that as many as 5 million people die
every year of water-related illnesses. For children, that risk is especially high. Water
Partners International says a child dies every 15 seconds of a waterborne disease.

The World Food Program reports that almost one in seven people (854
million) worldwide do not have enough food to sustain them. This chronic
undernourishment feeds a never-ending cycle of disease, stunted growth, delayed
development, and poverty.

About 25,000 people die each day of hunger or related causes—this is 9 million
ANDREW GOODWIN/ WORLD VISION 2009

people per year. Yet the world produces enough food for everyone to have 2,500
calories a day.

C H O O S E A PERS ONAL RESP ONSE

1. Read John 6:48-51 again. Considering what you have learned about the food and
water challenges of people around the world, what do you think their reaction might
be to the passage?

Page 24
C LO S I NG P R AY E R

1. Offer a prayer for all those who are in a position to provide food and clean water
to those in need. Challenge yourself to eat one simple meal this week in solidarity
with your brothers and sisters who are hungry.

H O M EWO R K FO R NEXT SESSION

All resources are available at womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm.



1. Read the handout “Lonica’s Story.”

2. Visit www.endmalaria.org and learn about malaria. Consider donating an


insecticide-treated bed net to prevent a child’s death.

3. Journal about experiences you’ve had with people who are HIV-positive or
have AIDS. If you have not encountered someone in this condition, have you ever
encountered someone with an illness or disability that might put him or her at the
same disadvantage as a person with HIV or AIDS?

+ FO R F U RT H E R ST UDY

» Read John 4:1-27 and reflect on the cultural issues and access issues in the story
that are similar today.
» Read Hot, Flat, and Crowded by Thomas Friedman.

PAU L BETTIN GS /WORLD V ISION 2009

Page 25
Lesson Two Handout

LONICA’S STORY
By Claudina Lembe, World Vision communicator

In Mozambique, endemic malaria is responsible for 30 percent of hospital deaths,


60 percent of hospitalized children, and 40 percent of outpatient consultations. Poor
communities are now fighting back with support from World Vision in the form of
life-saving mosquito nets.

Eleven-year-old Lonica has been closer to death than many girls her age in Lifidzi
village, in the central province of Tete. On two consecutive occasions she had to be
hospitalized for urgent treatment due to malaria—one of Mozambique’s main killer
diseases. That was, however, before she received a mosquito net.

Lonica’s father, Jamiti Came, is a visibly relieved man. When asked about malaria,
he said: “I received two mosquito nets in September 2008. From then, none of my
children had gone to hospital because of malaria, and it was so frequent to take
them there.”
JON WARREN/WORLD VISION 2008

Lonica tells her story: “I started going to school very late because I usually got sick
and my parents did not know what it was. They took me to [the] hospital and there
the nurse told us that it was malaria.” Lonica looks around and then longingly looks
at her mum. “I was in-patient, twice at the post health. My mother was crying,
BELOW: Lokol, a boy
in Kenya, sleeps under because if were not me at the hospital were my brothers who were in the hospital. . . .
a mosquito net. Life was very difficult for my mother.”

So what has changed since then? “Dad sets up for us


the mosquito net every night and all of us, my two
brothers and two sisters, sleep under it very peace-
fully! No more mosquito bites. Good
riddance, malaria!”

Then, like any other 11-year-old girl, she does what


she likes doing best when not in school. She goes
and plays with her friends, grateful for the life-
saving mosquito net she has at home.

Page 26
20 07
VI SI O N
/W O RL D
ID
JO N SH AD
LESSON THREE

the SICK and TIRED FALL HARDER


OV ERVIEW
Throughout His lifetime, Jesus repeatedly healed the sick. Today we have knowledge
and medicines that can cure a lot of illnesses, but many people who are ill do not have
the access, the knowledge, and the resources required to stay healthy.

K EY S CRIP TURE
Matthew 9:35-36

E S SENTIAL QUESTION
What is our role in helping meet the health needs of our brothers and sisters?

L E SS ON GOALS
» Develop a greater understanding of health problems around the world.
» Reflect on how God calls us to respond justly to global health issues and those who
are sick.

M ATERIALS
Pen, Bible, computer with Internet access, and a video player

D OWNLOADABLE RES OURCES from


womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm
» “The Hidden Faces of AIDS” video
» “Recovering Reader” handout

AG ENDA
» Introduction and opening prayer
» Take a quiz
» Reflect on Scripture
» Consider our world today
» Choose a personal response
» Close in prayer
» Review homework and further study suggestions

Page 27
I N T R O DUCTION AND OPENING PRAYER

1. Share or journal about your observations of the handout you read for homework.

» Do you think there is a point where responding to large global health issues
becomes a justice issue for those of us in the developed world? Why or why not?
JON WA RREN/WORL D VISION 2009

2. Offer a prayer. Pray for those who are ill and for those who care for the ill around
the world. Spend a few minutes in silent meditation recalling anyone you know who
is in pain today and needs prayer.

TA K E A QUIZ

1. Modern societies have made large leaps in the area of health care. Our
technology provides diagnostic testing like no other time in history. We better
understand how certain illnesses operate, and we can address them with drugs that
have high success rates. Less invasive surgery techniques have reduced recovery
times. A greater understanding of the connections among nutrition, exercise,
relaxation, and spirituality has helped individuals take a strong role in guiding their
own health.

Yet in some parts of the world, mothers bury their infants who died of diarrheal
diseases. Neighborhoods experience malaria infections that can result in death.
Families go without food and other necessities when the family’s primary income
earner is too sick to work. Children must learn to care for themselves when their
parents die of AIDS.

A greater Around the world, people are too sick, too tired to tend to their basic needs. They do
understanding of not have the same resources as those of us who live in more developed countries.
Because of this, they face health obstacles radically different from what most of us
the connections
have ever experienced.
among nutrition,
exercise, relaxation,
and spirituality has
helped individuals
take a strong role in
guiding their
own health.

Page 28
To become more familiar with health challenges throughout the developing world,
take the following quiz. Mark each question “true” or “false.”

A. Thirty percent of people living in rural areas of the


developing world have only polluted and unsafe water to drink. T R U E FA L S E

B. Many children in poor countries aren’t immunized solely


because parents don’t understand the need for immunizations. T R U E FA L S E

C. Malaria could be significantly reduced in poor communities


if windows and doors were kept closed. T R U E FA L S E

D. A child’s health is likely to improve if his or her mother


learns to read. T R U E FA L S E The more we
understand the
E. Parents in developing countries often discourage their
suffering of our
children from washing their hands to save precious water. T R U E FA L S E
brothers and sisters
F. Diarrhea is a life-threatening disease among young around the world, the
children in many poor communities. T R U E FA L S E more we should be
driven to want to do
the same.
2. When the quiz is complete, turn to page 36 to determine the highest number of
correct answers. Discuss or journal about the questions most commonly missed.

S C R I P T U R E R E F L ECTION

Throughout Scripture, we read stories of how God provided for the needs of His
people. Whether dropping manna from heaven, parting the Red Sea, or sending other
signs and wonders, God extends His love and care. The more we understand the
suffering of our brothers and sisters around the world, the more we should be driven to
want to do the same.
ANDREA PEER /WORLD VISION 2009

Read Matthew 9:35-36, Luke 8:40-55, and Luke 13:10-17. Then share or journal your
responses to the following questions:
» How did Jesus defy convention when healing people?

» Why do you think Jesus combined healing with sharing the good news?

Page 29
» When have you been in a position to help someone heal?

C O N S I DER OUR WORLD TODAY

1. If we are to help lead others to perfection in Christ, we must pay attention to


what is preventing them from being fully healthy and happy while they are on earth.
So let’s explore some health problems that challenge people around the world.

2. In the developing world, there is often a lack of education and resources to learn
about health and hygiene. Read the following story of the mothers’ club that World
ANDREA DEARBORN/WORL D VISION 2007

Vision health worker Eduléne Pierre started in Haiti to see how women are building
on their understanding of raising healthy children.

In addition to practical aid, seeing children become strong again requires


debunking lingering myths. So, at her regular mothers’ club meetings,
Eduléne makes every word count. During a typical session, held inside a
small wooden shelter, women gather to sit in a semi-circle holding babies in
their arms. It’s almost lunchtime. Hungry children moan weakly, but nobody
cries. It’s too hot. A few babies drift off to sleep. Sweat runs down their faces.
Tenderly, mothers wipe the moisture away, lift up their shirts, and the babies
turn to nurse.

“Is it true,” Eduléne asks, after opening the meeting with prayer, “that it is not
good to feed children at night?”

“No,” declare several women in unison. This is progress. Formerly, many of


these mothers adhered to local customs where dinner is not given to children.
Eduléne goes on to challenge another myth, explaining that if a child refuses
If we are to help lead to eat, the mother should not simply give the food to another eager mouth.
others to perfection in Many mothers don’t always realize that loss of appetite is often a sign of
malnutrition.
Christ, we must pay
attention to what is Later, using a large poster board with illustrations, Eduléne teaches women
preventing them from how to feed children from birth to 2 years old. She highlights the main stages
being fully healthy and of development and offers practical advice about frequency and quality
of feeding. She uses song, drama, and hands-on recipe demonstrations to
happy while they
enliven the presentation and make sure the mostly uneducated mothers
are on earth. remember.

“If I go to the hospital, they can tell me things, but it does not grab me as much
as going to the mothers’ club,” says attendee Jonise Siméuse, 20, who admits
she can be a slow learner.

Page 30
Jonise grew up in the same rural community in which she now lives with
her husband and children. Most likely, Jonise’s own mother struggled to feed
her properly, resulting in a damaged mental capacity. “It was hard for me to
learn,” says Jonise. “I wish for my children to grow and go to school so they
are not like me.”

Despite her good intentions, only a few months ago Jonise’s children were
struggling. She does not know why her 9-month-old son Claudeson died. “He
just started crying, and we didn’t have time to take him to the doctor. He died
right away.” He left behind an older sister and his emaciated twin brother,
Peterson.

“I thought that I could lose him, too,” says Jonise. “Peterson was worse than
this little stick,” she says, picking up a scrawny twig from the dirt.

Things changed when Jonise took her son to a World Vision health post
where he was diagnosed with severe malnutrition. Jonise was given a
monthly food ration and home-based lessons on how to improve Peterson’s
diet, and she was encouraged to attend the mothers’ club. The support proved
a lifesaver.

—By Andrea Dearborn Peer, reprinted from the Spring 2008 issue of World
Vision magazine

ANDREW GOODWIN/WORLD VISION 2008


3. After reading this piece, think about the mother support groups that exist
within your community. Also consider friends who are parents to whom you have
given or from whom you have received support. What are the similarities and
differences between a support group in the U.S. and one for women in Haiti?

Share or journal your responses below:

Page 31
4. Consider the following:
Another common health problem faced by those who live in impoverished countries
is malaria. Forty percent of the world’s population is at risk of malaria, a disease that
is transmitted by mosquitoes. Each year, malaria kills more than 1 million people,
approximately 80 percent of whom are children. It is the fourth-leading cause of
child mortality around the world.

Malaria is also a danger to pregnant mothers. There are as many as 10,000 maternal
deaths a year from malaria. Malaria can cause maternal anemia, spontaneous
abortions, neonatal deaths, and low birth-weight babies.

Yet malaria can be prevented using an inexpensive bed net and by spraying
insecticide inside homes. There are also anti-malarial drugs that dramatically
reduce the impact of malaria, but people who live on less than $2 per day cannot
attain these resources.

People who live on so little money also do not have the financial resources to
address HIV and AIDS. In our world today, AIDS is killing more people than any
DAVID DUCHEMIN/WORLD VISION 2007

war or famine in history. It destabilizes families and entire societies, leaving behind
widows, orphans, and communities that are vulnerable to famine, repression, and
war.

VIDEO

1. View the video “The Hidden Faces of AIDS.”

2. Share or journal your responses to the following questions:

» What has been your experience with AIDS?

» How would your community react if every week there were four funerals of people
who had AIDS?

» How have children you’ve met been affected by illness in their families?

Page 32
C H O O S E A P E R S O NAL RESP ONSE

WORL D VISION STA F F 2007


1. Considering what you have learned about health issues around the world,
reflect on which challenge (malnutrition, malaria, or AIDS) made the strongest
impact on you. Share or journal about this below.

2. Not having access to food is caused by multiple factors and results in multiple
problems. The same is true of any health issues impoverished communities
encounter. Spend some time thinking about factors that could be addressed to help
impoverished communities lessen the health problems listed above. Share or Challenge yourself to think
journal about this below. of one thing you can do
this week to be a conduit of
Christ’s compassion.

C LO S I NG P R AY E R

1. Read: Matthew 9:35-36. Then offer a prayer for all those who are suffering from
illness and for the family members who are also affected by that suffering. Challenge
yourself to think of one thing you can do this week to be a conduit of Christ’s
compassion.

H O M EWO R K FO R NEXT SESSION

All resources are available at womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm.

1. Read the handout “Recovering Reader.”


2. Keep a reading log this week of every time you read or write for direction,
communication, education, or pleasure.

Page 33
+ FO R F U RTHER STUDY

• Read biblical parables about healing and health. What does it say to you about
healing in our world today? Reflect on some of the similarities of life and
culture in Jesus’ time and in some parts of the world today. Where is Jesus?
• Read Mountains Beyond Mountains by Tracy Kidder. The book tells of the
quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, a man “who would cure the world.” It takes readers
from Harvard to Haiti, Peru, Cuba, and Russia.
A NDREW G OODW IN/WORL D VISION 2008

Q U I Z A NSWERS

The answers from the quiz on page 31 are as follows:

A. False: Seventy-five percent of the 1.3 billion people living in abject poverty live in
rural areas. More than half of these lack access to safe drinking water. Waterborne
diseases include malaria, cholera, and trachoma.

B. False: While many parents don’t understand the importance of immunization,


many poor children also aren’t immunized because their communities have no
access to immunizations.

C. False: Malaria breeds in wet areas, so controlling wetlands and even the water
that collects around houses during rainy times are the best way to control malaria.
The use of treated bed nets also reduces malaria.

D. True: Studies indicate that as mothers learn to read, they are better equipped and
more confident to care for their children’s health. They are also able to read medical
instructions and prescription labels.

E. False: Lack of clean water is a major contributor to lack of hygiene. However, it


is more likely that parents simply do not understand the correlation between hand
washing and health.
While many parents
don’t understand F. True: About 4 billion cases of diarrhea per year cause 2.2 million deaths among
the importance of children under age 5.
immunization, many
poor children also aren’t (Sources: UNICEF Fact Sheet; The World Bank, World Development Report, 2008)
immunized because
their communities
have no access to
immunizations.

Page 34
Lesson Three Handout

RECOVERING READER
By Claudina Lembe, World Vision communicator

A few years ago, if someone dared ask Rosa Cintron, 12, to read a book as simple as
one by Dr. Seuss, there would be mayhem. In the midst of screaming and pounding
fists, Rosa was known to overturn her desk and send books flying across the room.
“I would think, ‘Are they slow? Why don’t they understand? I don’t read,’” she says.
Teachers gave up on her, opting to manage her
tantrums rather than provide instruction.

Things changed when Rosa began attending an


after-school program run by Children of the City,
a World Vision partner in Brooklyn, New York. In
addition to learning to read, she found the nurture
and structure she needed to thrive.

“It’s like I was put in a jacket, a warm jacket that


heats you up. It lets you go outside. It surrounds
you,” she says.

Through Children of the City, Rosa began doing


her schoolwork, going to church, and getting coun-
seling. “God was preparing me for a higher calling,”
says Rosa. “The calling God wanted for me wasn’t
possible unless I got an education.”

Now Rosa is in sixth grade and doing well. She recently read C.S. Lewis’s The Screw-
AN DREA PEER/WORLD VIS ION 2007

tape Letters and loved it.

—By Andrea Dearborn Peer reprinted from the Autumn 2007 issue of World Vision
magazine.

Page 35
VISIO N 2009
MARY KATE MACIS AAC/W ORLD
LESSON FOUR

LITERACY means LIFE


OV E RVIEW
When community members, especially women, learn to read, the entire community
benefits. The resulting positive actions can help communities draw closer to the
fullness of life God wants for all of His children.

K EY S CRIP TURE
Psalm 119:105

E S S ENTIAL QUESTION
How does literacy contribute to living a full life (John 10:10)?

L E S S ON GOALS
» Develop a greater understanding of the role literacy plays in daily life.
» Consider how a woman’s ability to read can impact her family and community.
» Reflect on God’s desire for those who lack literacy.

M AT ERIALS
Pen, Bible

AG E NDA
» Introduction and opening prayer
» Experience the challenge of illiteracy
» Reflect on Scripture
» Consider our world today
» Choose a personal response
» Close in prayer
» Review homework and further study suggestions

Page 36
I N T R O D UCT I O N A ND OPENING PRAYER

1. Share or journal about your reading and writing logs using the following
questions:
» How are reading and writing integral parts of your daily activities?

» Look at one time when you used reading or writing; what would you have done
without that skill?

According to the United


Nations Human
» How might parents socialize children toward literacy if they themselves have not
had the opportunity or if they struggle to read and write? Development Report, only
one country in the world
reports a 100 percent
literacy rate—Georgia.
2. Offer a prayer. Pray for those who are unable to attend school today and for those
who are trying to study on their own.

EXPERIENCE THE CHALLENGE OF ILLITERACY

1. According to the United Nations Human Development Report,


only one country in the world reports a 100 percent literacy rate—Georgia. At the
bottom of the list is Mali, with a literacy rate of 22.9 percent. Overall, more than 880
million adults in the world are illiterate. Two-thirds of them are women.

There is an old Ghanaian saying: “If you educate a man you simply educate an
individual, but if you educate a woman, you educate a nation.”

An inability to read is something difficult to comprehend for anyone who has been
reading since childhood. Take a few minutes to step into the shoes of someone who
lacks the ability to read. Review one or more of the following scenarios and work
through the instructions noted with it.

Scenario 1
Your child has been sick with a fever for days. You’re finally able to travel to a clinic
20 miles away where the doctor examines your child and gives you medicine for
your child. The nurse reviews the instructions for administering the medicine, but
after the long journey home, you have forgotten the proper dosage. These are the
instructions you should follow for giving your child the medicine.

Page 37
What do you do?

Scenario 2
A water pump has been installed in your community to provide a nearby source of
water. You’ve been warned that one part of the mechanism sometimes breaks and
needs to be replaced. The organization supplying the pump has also left extra parts
WORLD VISION STAFF/WORL D VISION 2006

with instructions. The pump breaks and you cannot remember how to take it apart.
These are the instructions that were left with the pump.

What do you do?

Scenario 3
A missionary comes to your village with stories about this wonderful, loving person
named Jesus Christ who has promised everlasting life for everyone. You are warmed
by this idea and want to know more. Before the missionary leaves your village, she
hands you a Bible so you can learn more about Jesus. When you want to know more
of the story, this is what you see in the book.

Porque Deus amou o mundo que deu o seu Filho unigênito.

What do you do?

Scenario 4
A wealthy investor is coming to your village to find small businesses worthy of
her support. She will talk with all interested entrepreneurs in the community and
listen to them talk about their businesses and how they operate. In addition, she

Page 38
wants a written report to take home that includes a full financial accounting of
each business. Here are the instructions she has sent ahead of time for preparing
the report.

What do you do?

Scenario 5
Your 6-year-old daughter comes home from school with a book she is learning to
read. She loves this new skill. She has been studying and is excited to share it with
you, but her skills are still rudimentary. She wants you to help her with a page that is
too hard for her. This is what you are supposed to read to her.

What do you do?

2. Share or journal your responses to the following questions:


» What was your reaction when you discovered you couldn’t read the information
you needed?

» If you had to deal with that obstacle daily, how would it make you feel about
caring for your family, accessing resources and services, or contributing to your
community?
MARGO SABELLA/WORLD VIS ION 2008

S C R I P T U R E R E F L ECTION

1. Scripture is filled with examples of times when God wanted to teach His

Page 39
people. There were laws and decrees passed on, as documented in the Old Testament
MA RY KATE MACISA AC/WORL D VISIO N 2009
books of Deuteronomy, Numbers, and Leviticus.

Teachers primarily relied on the spoken word to pass on rules and stories. Lessons
took place in synagogues, in the desert, and in homes. Children would gather to hear
stories of the mighty God who had created them and promised future rewards.

Teaching and learning also happened in daily life through example. The hungry
received food. The one who disobeyed met a terrible fate. Armies couldn’t reach the
innocents.

Read the following Scriptures and consider how teaching is happening in each:

» Deuteronomy 4:13-14

» 1 Samuel 3:1-10

» Ezra 7:10

All of the gospels are also about education. This education comes at the feet of a
charismatic leader, Jesus Christ. His teachings were radically different from other
All of the gospels are teachings of His time.
also about education. 2. Read about the teaching of Jesus in these passages:
This education » John 8:4-11
comes at the feet of a » Luke 21:1-4
charismatic leader, » Mark 4:3-9
Jesus Christ.
3. Share or journal about how teaching is happening in each of the passages and if
it is different from or similar to the teachings previously read.

C O N S I D ER OUR WORLD TODAY

1. Share or journal your responses to the following questions:


» In villages where the literacy rate is low, how has knowledge been shared?

» Are you familiar with communities in your area that use some of these ways of
passing on knowledge?

Page 40
2. Consider the following: As we think of how to best be of assistance to our brothers
and sisters who desire more education, we can look to the example of Jesus. The
teaching of Jesus takes a different approach from other teaching of His day because
it exhibits:

EL L EN HA RA SIMOW ICZ 2009


» A movement from a subject focus to a person focus.
» A movement from listener to participator.
» A movement from memorizing to changing behavior.
» A movement from insistence to choice.
» A movement from individual to community.

Throughout the world, people face obstacles daily to receive an education,


especially girls and women who often do not have the same opportunity to attend
school as the male members of their family. When there are so many chores to tend
to at home, it is most often the girls who stay and help with siblings, tending the
land, or collecting water.

In many countries, girls who are allowed to attend school do not always graduate.
They might be married off before graduation. Some are also encouraged to perform
sexual favors for men in exchange for money for the family, which can lead to
pregnancy and another reason that education ends.

Even if a family wants to send their children to school, the cost is often prohibitive. If
they have to pay for tuition, books, and uniforms, this is a huge barrier. When cost is
an issue, most families will send the sons rather than the daughters.
Throughout the world,
While this lack of education limits the long-term possibilities for girls, it also has people face obstacles
practical implications on a daily basis. Many people who want to learn to read cannot
attend school because of economic or physical barriers. Even if someone is able
daily to receive an
to graduate from grade school, secondary schools are typically farther away. This education, especially
requires long-distance travel that can be dangerous for children, especially girls. girls and women.

Consider this information from the World Bank:


» Women with formal education are much more likely to use reliable family
planning methods and delay marriage and childbearing. They have fewer and
healthier babies than women with no formal education. One year of female
schooling reduces childbearing by approximately 10 percent.

» Education has been proven to increase income for wage earners and increase
productivity for employers, yielding benefits for the community and society.

3. A mother’s education significantly affects children’s educational attainment and


opportunities. A mother with a few years of formal education is considerably more
likely to send her children to school. In many countries each additional year of
formal education completed by a mother translates into her children remaining in
school for an additional one-third to one-half year.

Page 41
» Now take some time to explore what children in some parts of the world must do
to receive an education. In some countries, not only is it a family custom to keep
girls at home and out of school to help with chores, but it might also be against
the prevailing laws of society for girls to attend school, as in many villages in
Afghanistan.

If you are completing this study on your own, review the photographs found below
and journal your response to each question. If you are completing the study with a
group, follow the instructions given by the group leader.

Ways of Dress

MARY KATE MACISAAC/ WORLD VISION 2006

How do you think you would feel about the world with this point of view all day?

Classrooms
VISIO N 2006 (2)
MARY KATE MACIS AAC/W ORLD

How does this classroom compare to where you went to school?

Page 42
Resources

How would you complete your homework every night if you had to share this
schoolbook with two sisters?

After School
VISIO N 2006
MARY KATE MACIS AAC/W ORLD

Although you have homework to do, you also have chores to complete for the
financial well-being of your family. One of your chores is to crack open pistachio
shells and retrieve the nuts. How many nuts can you crack and extract in 60
seconds? How might this chore affect your schooling?

Page 43
4. After completing the activity, share or journal about the follow questions:
» What obstacles to education do girls in Afghanistan face?

» Would you continue to pursue your education under these circumstances?

» What if you knew that other schools in your country had been burned to the
ground?

C H O O S E A PERS ONAL RESP ONSE

1. Reflect on your own educational experience, either through meditation or


writing in your journal. Consider the obstacles you faced, the rewards you received,
and classmates who might have had a more difficult time than you.

Illiteracy doesn’t only


affect people overseas; A community education director in the United States was working with a group
it exists today in the of academically challenged students from her school system on a service project.
United States. The group was sorting food donations into backpacks to send home with children
who needed food for the weekend. When she asked one of the boys to count the food
items, his response was, “I can’t count.”

Illiteracy doesn’t only affect people overseas; it exists today in the United States.
Have you ever encountered someone who couldn’t read or count? What obstacles
did he or she face? How might you be able to assist him or her?

2. Share or journal your responses to the following questions:


» Share any experience you’ve had with someone who couldn’t read or count.

Page 44
» If someone is not able to read or count, what obstacles might he or she face?

» How might you be able to assist him or her?

C LO S I NG P R AY E R

Offer a prayer for people who have education resources to share, whether that
might be books, school supplies, enthusiasm for teaching, etc.

H O M EWO R K FO R NEXT SESSION

View the video “Microenterprise Loans,” available at http://www.worldvision.org/


content.nsf/give/microenterprise-development-program.

+ FO R F U RT H E R ST UDY

AMIO AS CENSION/WO RLD VISION 2009


» View the video “Girl Effect,” available at www.girleffect.org.
» Learn more about World Vision’s KidReach and Schooltools programs at
www.worldvision.org. Click on “Way to get involved.”
» Read Three Cups of Tea by Greg Mortenson.
» Read about Wycliffe Bible Translators at www.wycliffe.org.

Page 45
VISIO N 2008
PATRI CIA MOUA MAR/W ORLD
LESSON FIVE

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
ONE LOAN at a Time
OV E RVIEW
Jesus called people to live, learn, and work together in community. His example
illustrates how, in collaboration, people can have a far-reaching impact on their
community. By combining talents and resources to boost individual opportunities for
starting businesses, community members help everyone reach more fullness of life.

K EY S CRIP TURE
Matthew 25:14-30

E S S ENTIAL QUESTION
What makes microenterprise and microfinance an exciting tool in efforts to change
the lives of individuals and families living in poverty?

L E S S ON GOALS
» Build a greater understanding of economic development in the developing world.
» Examine how one family’s small business can touch an entire community.
» Reflect on God’s personal call to each of us and our response.

M AT ERIALS
Pen, Bible

AG E NDA
» Introduction and opening prayer
» Learn about the potential of microenterprise development
» Consider the situation in our world today
» Reflect on Scripture
» Choose a personal response
» Close in prayer
» Review homework and further study suggestions

Page 46
I N T R O D UCT I O N A ND OPENING PRAYER

1. In this study so far, we have looked at four of the five key components of holistic
community development.

» Food
» Water
» Health
» Education

Today we will explore the fifth component, economic development.

Recall the video homework assignment from last week. Then share or journal about
the following questions:

» What did you learn about microenterprise development and microfinance?

» How do they bring hope to families?

JUS TIN DOUGLAS S/WORLD VIS ION 2008


2. Offer a prayer. Pray for people around the world who have dreams of
transforming their lives.

L E A R N A B O U T M I CROENTERPRISE
D EV E LO P M E N T

1. Remember the first time you took out a loan? It might have been for a car,
your college education, or even a house. You were likely required to produce proof
of income to show that you could afford your loan payments. The lender likely
examined your credit history. You might have needed the signature of a parent or
spouse to assure the lender of your ability to repay.

Now try to imagine what it would be like to ask for a loan if you are a widow living in

Page 47
JON WA RREN/WORL D VISIO N 2008
a small home you don’t own, without electricity or running water, with little means
of earning income, and with hungry children to feed and educate. Who would risk
loaning you money to buy materials for a small business?

Consider the following situations and determine what each person needs to improve
his or her chance of earning income.

Struggling in Myanmar
Ohn Myaing used to spend several days a week making a popular snack in her
community in Myanmar. She sits outside her bamboo and grass hut selling the
snacks made from palm sugar pieces and sticky-rice balls. Although she has a
heart ailment and sitting for long hours in the sun weakens her, she continues
for the sake of feeding her children—two daughters, ages 4 and 9, and a 14-year-
old son.

Ohn Myaing’s husband, Aung Win, has been unable to find even odd jobs to
support the family. So Ohn Myaing cut her hip-length hair (although long hair
is a treasured part of her culture) to sell to a local wig maker. As it became
increasingly difficult to feed her family, she then pawned the family’s cooking
utensils, plates, cups, glasses, and even clothes. She can no longer afford the raw
materials to prepare her snacks, so the family is living on a diet of plain rice.

Barely Living Off the Land


Juliet Hakiri is a 38-year-old widow living with her five children in Nyakambu
village, 365 kilometers southwest of Uganda’s capital city of Kampala. With her
children (boys between the ages of 8 and 19) dependent on her for school fees,
supplies, and food, Juliet works to sell bananas, beans, or groundnuts. She earns
the equivalent of about $2 a week. But when these foods are out of season, Juliet
has nothing to sell. Her family is left hungry and without household necessities
like plates, cups, saucepans, bedding, and clothing.

Juliet’s situation is not unique in Uganda. Most people depend on agriculture


for an income. They use hand-held hoes to tend small plots of land, but they
have limited access to tools and farming skills. The average income in the
country is approximately $220 per year.

Farming Among Thorns


Somadasa, 41, has worked as a farmer in Sri Lanka’s Lunugamvehera region
since childhood, just as generations before him. Though he toils in the
scorching sun to raise enough crops to earn a small income for his wife and five
children, he has never been able to provide for all of their needs.

Although people in the region rely on agriculture for their income, it is one of
the driest regions of the country, strewn with thorny bushes and dependent on

Page 48
rain to cultivate the crops. Some farmers have outdated irrigation tanks, but
they go dry during the arid season. In addition, the region experiences severe
drought every two or three years.

As a result, Somadasa and his family never have the resources they need
to thrive. Their lack of material resources is sometimes intensified by the
emotional anxiety that accompanies trying to survive in such circumstances.

REENA SA MUEL /WORL D VISION 2007


2. Share or journal your responses to the following questions as they relate to
the stories above:
» What is the business he or she can build on?

» What kind of training or education might this person need to make the business a
success?

» What kind of financial or material input might this person need to make the
business a success?

» Is there any chance that this business could expand to employ other family or
community members?

S C R I P T U R E R E F L ECTION

1. Read the following passages.

» Matthew 25:14-30
» Proverbs 31:10-31

2. Share or journal your responses to the following questions:


» What does the Matthew passage say about how Jesus might view economic
activity?

Page 49
» What kind of “transformation” takes place in this story?

» How do you think this applies to entrepreneurs in developing countries today?

» What does it say to us about how we use our resources?

While many of the » We often think of this Proverbs passage in regard to character, but what does it say
working poor have the about this woman’s ability to be enterprising?
ideas and ability to
create a small business,
few can access the
capital they need » How many different business enterprises is she engaged in?
to begin.
MARY KATE MACIS AAC /WORLD VISION 2009

C O N S I D ER OUR WORLD TODAY

1. Consider how microenterprise works:

Struggling entrepreneur applies for a microloan


While many of the working poor have the ideas and ability to create a small
business, few can access the capital they need to begin. Because they are asset
poor (without the physical assets like a car, home, etc., that can be used as
collateral) and are in need of only small loans, banks will not lend to them. With
little savings, they are trapped in poverty.

The only credit available to them is often from local moneylenders who charge
exorbitant interest rates (sometimes 200 to 400 percent). The alternative is to
apply for a small loan, or microloan, through a microfinance institution (MFI).
World Vision provides such loans. To successfully apply for a microloan, the
entrepreneur must demonstrate trustworthiness, a good work ethic, and a sound
business idea.

Page 50
This is typically not an individual effort meant to benefit one entrepreneur.
Rather, an MFI will help a community form a community bank, which is formed
by a group of chronically poor entrepreneurs who mutually guarantee each
other’s loans. The bank will charge a reasonable interest rate to cover the cost of
running the loaning program to help people becoming financially independent
and competitive under normal market conditions and to avoid destabilizing the
local economy. This approach has led to an amazing loan repayment rate of 98.7
percent.

Business training
The MFI gives four to six months of training in saving, handling credit, and
basic business. Sometimes this training includes reading and counting.
Business coaching provides eager entrepreneurs with assistance in accounting,
marketing, and management, and in the case of World Vision, it is based on
biblical and ethical business principles. The training helps the client prepare a
sound business case, which is required to receive a loan.

Microloan is given
A loan can be as little as $50. With this money a client can buy seed, goods,
fertilizer to increase crop yields, or basic equipment to operate a small
enterprise (e.g., a sewing machine).

Business is created or expands


Profits made from the sale of crops or merchandise can then be used to buy more
seed or goods, or it can be used to start a new business such as tailoring.

Coaching
Clients continue to receive coaching in business as well as agricultural or
trading practices as part of the development program.

Business thrives
DANA PALADE/WORLD VIS ION 2008
With a loan, entrepreneurs can improve farming, open a hairdressing salon, sell
handmade clothing and handicrafts, or run a small convenience stall, to name
a few. These businesses create jobs and generate additional goods and services,
and the whole community benefits.

Families gain self-sufficiency


Families are now able to support themselves and provide food for themselves
all year round. The burdensome cycle of borrowing money from local
moneylenders at high rates of interest is broken.

Children impacted
Parents are able to give their children more nutritious food and the family health
improves. Parents have enough money to send their children to school.

Page 51
Loan repaid and money recycled
Once the client has repaid the loan, he or she can take out a bigger loan to
continue to expand the business. Repaid loans are recycled to help other
poor entrepreneurs to grow their businesses. MFIs build a bridge between
commercial loan capital and the credit-worthy poor so they can lift themselves
out of poverty.

There are several types of loan institutions:

Community banks
These loan circles create an opportunity for the poorest entrepreneurs to obtain
credit. Self-selected groups of 20 to 30 borrowers agree to cross-guarantee each
Lack of access to credit
other’s loans. The group screens potential borrowers and tracks each repayment,
is a particular problem building their leadership and sense of pride along the way. Weekly meetings
for impoverished offer accountability and support and build business skills. Loans typically range
women whose from $50 to $500.
economic status is
Solidarity groups
even more insecure
Designed for more experienced entrepreneurs with larger enterprises, solidarity
than that of men. groups have fewer members than community banks, with an average of three to six
people who guarantee each other’s loans. Members who make repayments on time
become eligible for larger individual loans. Loan sizes range from $300 to $800.

Individual loans
Clients who have either grown their businesses successfully through a solidarity
group or have medium-sized businesses qualify for individual loans ranging
from $500 to $5,000. Loans typically require either two guarantors or collateral.
Borrowers often create a multi-year business plan in consultation with their
loan officer. These larger loans help clients to grow their businesses and employ
others in the community.

This approach is working throughout the world to help communities transform


themselves from a group of people heavily burdened by debt and worry to people
who can celebrate their hard work and watch their children thrive.
JON WAR REN/WOR LD V ISION 2008

Lack of access to credit is a particular problem for impoverished women whose


economic status is even more insecure than that of men. Yet World Vision
reports that on average, women entrepreneurs use 92 cents of each dollar of
extra income to improve their children’s health and education.

» More than 3,300 microfinance institutions reached 133 million clients with a
microloan in 2006.
» 93 million of the clients were among the poorest when they took their first loan.
» 85 percent of these clients were women.

(Source: www.visionfundinternational.org)

Page 52
2. Share or journal about any entrepreneurs you’ve encountered or
entrepreneurial experiences you’ve had. Why do think women are the most
successful microentrepreneurs, have the best repayment rates, and receive the
most loans?

C H O O S E A P E R S O NAL RESP ONSE

Read Luke 12:48b. Then journal or reflect on the following:


» Consider the words of Jesus. How might He be calling you to respond?

COLLINS KAUMB A/WORLD VISION 2009


C LO S I NG P R AY E R

Offer a prayer of thanksgiving for people who have resources to share with those
who are trying to transform their lives. Pray for families seeking opportunities to
work and improve their lives. Pray for the continuing effectiveness of World Vision
and other organizations engaged in economic development work.

H O M EWO R K
1. Find a newspaper or online article related to one of the topics you have been
studying—food, water, health, education, and income generation. Bring your article
next week and be prepared to provide a general summary of it.

2. Read about child sponsorship at www.worldvision.org and learn how


sponsorship is connected to holistic community development and can be a bridge-
builder between cultures.

+ FO R F U RT H E R ST UDY

• Learn more about World Vision’s approach to microenterprise development at


www.worldvisionmicro.org.
• Learn about a world leader in microenterprise development at
www.grameen-info.org.
• Read Banker to the Poor, the autobiography of Mohammed Yunnis.

Page 53
20 07
D VI SI O N
YU /W O RL
AL BE RT
LESSON SIX

Changed LIVES Change LIVES


OV E RVIEW
World Vision engages local people in deciding how to improve their own lives, which
talents they can contribute to the effort, and what assistance they need to reach their
goals. This integrated development model demonstrates the love and respect Jesus
asks us to replicate while helping people find a secure path to a fuller life.

K EY S CRIP TURES
» Matthew 11:28-30
» Isaiah 61:1-3
» Luke 4:16-21

E S S ENTIAL QUESTIONS
» How does World Vision’s approach to community development support lasting
and sustainable change?
» How has this study changed me, and how is God calling me to engage in His work?

L E S S ON GOALS
» Reflect on Christian commitment in the World Vision development model.
» Study the workings of the World Vision area development program.
» Learn about World Vision child sponsorship and its long-term benefits.
» Identify and reflect on how you have been changed through this study.

M AT ERIALS
Pen, Bible, computer with Internet access, and a video player

O N L INE RES OURCES from womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm


» “Journey of Transformation” video

AG E NDA
» Welcome and opening prayer
» How Christian commitment is vital to development work
» Experience an area development program
» Learn about child sponsorship
» Choose a personal response
» Review further study suggestions
» Close in prayer

Page 54
W E LC O M E A N D O P ENING PRAYER

1. Begin by summarizing the article you found for homework. Then share or
journal your responses to the following questions:

» How are the issues you’ve raised with your homework related to one another?

» Do you think the solutions to these problems can be related to one another?

2. Offer a prayer. Ask for an open heart to respond as God calls.

VIDEO

DAVID DUCHEMIN/WORLD VISION 2007


1. In the past several lessons, we have been studying some of the specific
challenges World Vision faces around the world. Watch “Journey of
Transformation” to step deeper into the development process that brings many
aspects of life together.

2. After the video, consider:

Which of these responses best describes your reaction and why?


❑ I was surprised to see how intertwined so many components of life can be.
❑ My feelings evolved from fear and sadness to joy as I watched the story.
❑ I want to know more about how to transform a place that is in such a situation.
❑ I don’t understand how the transformation occurred.
❑ Other: (explain)

Share or journal your thoughts about your answer.

Page 55
S C R I P T URE REFLECTION

1. Read Matthew 11:28-30.

2. So often throughout His ministry on earth, Jesus used comforting words and
images to draw in His followers and offer His peaceful presence. He also repeatedly
asked for humility from those who chose to follow Him.

Considering this command, imagine that you are about to embark on a journey to
visit a World Vision site. You will be attending a village meeting where World Vision
workers are taking the first step of implementing a long-term project by gathering
villagers to get to know them and hear their concerns.

Share or journal your response to the following question:

» What characteristics mentioned in the Scripture passage will you rely on during
this session?

C O N S I D ER OUR WORLD TODAY


JON WARREN/WORLD VISION 2007

1. Consider the following:

World Vision’s definition of engaging in transformational development begins with


a call for humility. The organization recognizes that when we humbly listen to our
brothers and sisters in need, we are better able to determine what they need and how
change can happen.

World Vision also recognizes that transformational development takes time. Most
problems don’t occur overnight; neither do solutions. Creating a holistic approach
to development allows long-lasting change to grow from people experiencing the
freedom to discover how God is working among them for themselves.

World Vision integrates its focus into three areas:

First, World Vision is Christian. Motivated by our faith in Jesus Christ, World
Vision serves alongside the poor and oppressed as a demonstration of God’s
unconditional love for all people. World Vision serves all people regardless of
religion, race, ethnicity, or gender.

Second, World Vision’s child focus prioritizes children, especially the poorest
and most vulnerable, and empowers them together with their families and
communities to improve their well-being.

Page 56
Third, World Vision’s work is community-based. The primary role in
communities is to “walk alongside” communities, organizations, agencies, and
the church, which are rooted in the situation, with children as the primary focus.

The model World Vision uses to bring these three pieces to life is called the
area development program (ADP). The overarching objective of every
area development program is that the community will bring about its own The World Vision model
transformation. is built on trust, empo-
werment, community
To make this happen, World Vision employs material interventions related to the ownership, and sustai-
many issues we’ve studied in this module—food, water, healthcare, education, and
nability—wrapped in our
microfinance loans. It also employs spiritual interventions through the witness of its
work. To fully engage the community, it follows these steps for social interventions: commitment to follow in
the footsteps of Jesus.
» Build trust in the community through nurturing relationships.
» Mobilize community leaders and members to participate.
» Empower the community members to make the decisions about the activities.
» Involve the community in designing its own development interventions.
» Make the work sustainable; then the community owns it and becomes fully
responsible for it.

The World Vision model is built on trust, empowerment, community ownership, and

ELIMASIA MNGUMI/WORLD VISION 2007


sustainability—wrapped in our commitment to follow in the footsteps of Jesus.

E X P E R I E NC E A N A REA DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAM

1. In order to better understand a small part of this process, imagine a meeting


where each attendee has a specific role to play in a village where World Vision has
already worked through the first three steps of the process and is now ready to
design the interventions.

2. To begin, consider the following information about the village:

Your village is in a rural area with minimal services. The majority of the
population earns less than $2 per day per family and represents people of three
different belief systems and two ethnic groups. Some people are subsistence
farmers while others earn wages or own small businesses. There is a weekly
market. The village has one nondenominational Christian church. Your village
has a school, but not all families can afford the fees, books, and uniforms.
Consequently, many children do not attend school or are not able to stay in
school due to family needs.

Although most people don’t recognize or know much about HIV and AIDS,

Page 57
there is a suspicion that some of the adults are infected with HIV. Malaria is
common. Children often suffer from upper-respiratory infections and diarrhea.
Your community has a rainy season and a growing season that quickly becomes
dry. The region also is subject to severe seasonal storms. Some people are
hungry at various times during the year.

One of the needs the villagers have identified is education and literacy. So
for the purpose of this activity, we are going to focus on the school and what
can be done there as a place to start. World Vision will help with training and
contribute funds, school kits, and supplies.

3. Choose a few of the 16 roles noted below. Then reflect on these questions:
» What resources might you bring to improve the school?
» Do you have any particular skills you can share?
» Can you contribute funds?

You are a father whose income is so low that you cannot afford school fees
or books for your children. You and your wife are literate. Your subsistence
farming provides little cash to the family.

You are a pastor who would like to offer Vacation Bible School to village
children. Your church has a building and grounds with volunteers willing to
assist. There is no budget for materials and supplies. The children are from
Christian, Muslim, and animistic families.

You are a school principal whose school needs desks, chalkboards, and
supplies for classrooms. Two carpenters have children in the school and have
offered to build desks if materials are provided. There are sufficient numbers
of teachers in the village. The national government’s ministry of education
has provided no funding since the school was built. School fees barely cover
operational costs.
JON WAR REN/WORLD VISION 2008

You are a woman with a bakery business in your home. You cannot expand
because you don’t have the cash to buy staples in quantity. You have business
skills, established clients, property, and equipment. Women have not often
spoken at community meetings. Credit is not available from suppliers, and
banks do not make small loans to those who are poor.

You are a farmer who wants to know how to safely store food so your family
will not have hungry times during the non-growing season. You have land with
good soil and access to water. Food supplies run out quickly, off-season prices
are very high, rodents and insects destroy a high percentage of stored food, and
food staples mildew and mold in the rainy season.

You are a woman who would like to learn to read and write, and you have
friends who would also like to learn. An adult curriculum is available from the

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national government’s Ministry of Education. Women do not generally go out of
their homes after dark, which arrives early. They are also tired from long days of
work. Women have not generally spoken at community meetings.

You are a midwife who would like a motorbike to be able to get to births
quickly and in a broader geographic area. You have birthing supplies, are
trained in broader health applications, and know the area well. Women like to
have a birth attendant. Many women were victims of female genital mutilation
and suffer complications during delivery. There is a shortage of midwives in the
area, and there are dangers from wild animals at night. Women have not often
spoken at community meetings.

You are a nurse who would like to open a small clinic. A property owner has
offered a building at low rent. You already have a license from the Ministry
of Health. There are no medical supplies available in the community. Most
children haven’t been immunized, so they are subject to common childhood
diseases. There’s a high incidence of upper-respiratory infections, especially
during rains. There are no start-up funds. Women have not traditionally spoken
at community meetings.

You are a neighborhood leader who wants a well so women don’t have to
go to the river to gather water. Volunteers are willing to provide labor. The
river is three kilometers from the village and cattle drink from it. There are
also frequent attacks by crocodiles and a high incidence of diarrheal disease,
especially among children. There are political implications for where the well
will be located.

You are a community elder who wants help advocating to the government
for a bridge over the river for easier access to a city hospital and to markets.
Volunteers are willing to contribute labor. There is a consensus in the
community about the need. The river is impassable during most of the rainy
season, and there is no access road to the proposed bridge site on either side.
There is a market demand for fresh produce in towns across the river.

You are a child who wants a safe place for your friends to play and some
balls and other toys. Available land is adjacent to the school. Parents are
supportive and willing to do volunteer work. The land is covered with a thicket
and poisonous snakes are common. A fence is needed to keep out cattle. Balls
and toys are only available in large towns and are expensive. Girls do not
JUS TIN DOUGLAS S/WORLD VIS ION 2008

traditionally play outside except at school recess.

You are a schoolteacher who wants a safe place for villagers during
hurricanes and other storms. Land is available and bricklayers have
volunteered their labor. Severe storms may damage or destroy homes. Flooding
occurs near the river in heavy rain, and children can sometimes not get home
from school when a storm hits.

Page 59
You are a woman who wonders if your husband might be infected with
HIV. You would like to learn what HIV is and how it might impact you and your
family. There is a nurse and a midwife in the village. You can read. Women do
not typically speak at community meetings. No one will publicly talk about
the disease, and everyone seems to be ignoring it. People with the illness are
shunned. You have observed that those who seem to be sick are the same ones
who have left the village for seasonal work.

You are a young mother who needs someone to care for your children so
you can take a paying job. There are employment possibilities within walking
distance. You have the skills required for an available job. Some other women
in the community are in similar circumstances. Women have not often spoken
at community meetings. You do not have extended family nearby.

You are a farmer who wants to learn to grow crops that can be sold in local
markets. You have land with available water and experience in farming.
There is a demand for vegetables and fruit in the city. There is no agricultural
extension education in this area, and the schools haven’t taught vocational
skills. There is no bridge across the river separating the village from its nearest
city. Women have not often spoken at community meetings.

You are a farmer who could grow second crop each year with an irrigation
system. You have land adjacent to the river. The dry season is long and moisture
is gone quickly from the soil. Your crop is a staple in the community and often
in short supply. Women have not often spoken at community meetings.
ANDREW GOODWIN/WORLD VISION 2009

4. Share or journal about how you felt in your village roles.

» Why is it important for each member of the village to be involved in the decision-
making about the school?

» What other observations do you have about community-based development work?

» Does this same approach have value in serving our local community?

Page 60
C H O O S E A P E R S O NAL RESP ONSE

1. Consider the following:

One way you can become involved with the process outlined above is through child
sponsorship. World Vision’s child sponsorship program links children in need with
individuals who want to help. The sponsored child benefits through improved living World Vision’s child
conditions in the community. Sponsors receive regular reports and letters so they can
sponsorship program
see the difference they are making in the lives of children, families, and communities.
World Vision sponsors in the U.S. help provide care for more than 1 million children. links children in need
with individuals who
The HopeChild sponsorship program is specifically for orphaned children, want to help.
children made vulnerable by AIDS, or children at high risk of impact from the
AIDS pandemic. The sponsor’s monthly gift is combined with the gifts of others
who sponsor children in the same community. This allows World Vision to provide
long-term resources for lasting change such as clean water, school fees and supplies,
nutritious food, health care, spiritual nurture, etc.

2. Read Sam’s Story.

Sam is a teenager who has grown up in a poor village in Tanzania. He lives


with his mother in a house perched on a slope of red clay—the same kind of
earth his mother and older brother used to build their three-room, mud-brick
house after Sam’s father died.

For many years, Sam and all his neighbors had only unsafe water to drink.
The children and women of Sam’s village spent many hours carrying buckets
of this polluted water more than a quarter mile to their homes; then they
often became sick from it.

The only food the villagers had was what they could grow. The local river
dries up each fall, limiting the food they can grow to less than they need.

Sam attends a school, thanks to his mother’s sacrifices, but it is in a run-down


building. Sam dreams of becoming a doctor. As he sits in his tiny mud house
JUST IN DOUGLASS/WORLD VISION 2007

with no electricity, no running water, and sometimes no food, it’s hard to see
how this dream will ever become reality for Sam.

This was Sam’s life when World Vision came to the community. As World
Vision staff listened to community members, and heard how they wanted
their future to look, the organization was able to work with the people to find
solutions to foundational problems.

Today Sam has clean drinking water convenient to his home. His new
classrooms create a better environment for learning. And, because Sam
continued ...

Page 61
is a sponsored child, his sponsor helps with his education by providing a
school uniform, study books, and other essentials he needs to learn. Sam
also has a mosquito net to cover his bed at night, which will help prevent the
transmission of malaria by mosquitoes.

Sam’s family also has a better food supply since World Vision trained
Sam’s older brother and many others in his village in improved agricultural
techniques. Sam’s family is also receiving better seeds, tools, and access to a
pedal pump that allows them to pump water from nearby river springs even
during the dry season—so they can grow more food.

World Vision supports local churches by providing building materials. Six


ministers have received bicycles to assist them with house-to-house visits.
Sam is one of the believers who shares his talents of singing in his school and
church choirs.

Today, largely because of the partnership between World Vision and Sam’s
community members, Sam, his family, and many other families in his village
have a new hope for the future.

—Adapted from World Vision Ministry to Donors


JON WARREN/WORLD VISION 2007

3. Share or journal your responses to the following questions:

» What do you feel your Christian commitment calls you to do at this time in your life
for those in need around the world?

» What country, group of people, or issue do you feel most drawn to support or learn
more about?

Page 62
C LO S I NG P R AY E R

1. Read Isaiah 61:1-3 and Luke 4:16-20. Reflect for a few moments on these
passages.

2. As you come to the end of this study, it’s time to reflect on all that you have
learned and how it has touched your lives. Spend a few moments in silent prayer,
asking God to guide you as you consider the following:

» Bob Pierce, the founder of World Vision, has a famous prayer that is often repeated.
“Let my heart be broken with the things that break the heart of God.” Has your
heart been broken? If so, by what in particular?

» How is God calling you, at this time, to best love and serve your neighbors here and
around the world?
“Let my heart be broken
with the things that
break the heart of God.”
—Bob Pierce
» What one group of people or issue that you’ve learned about would you like to bring
to God in prayer today?

3. Close your prayer time by thanking God for the gift of learning, for His inspiring
Word, and for the opportunities you have been given to reach out to those in need.

+ FO R F U RT H E R ST UDY

» Read frequently asked questions about child sponsorship online at


www.worldvision.org/sponsorshipFAQs.
» See pages 66-67 to learn more about how you can support World Vision.
» Read Luke 4:14-28. Reflect on the fuller text of this passage and consider these
questions: Why do think God sent Elijah to the foreigners? Why were the people in
the synagogue so angry with Jesus? What application is there for us? As in the time
of Jesus, there is need everywhere.

Page 63
WAYS TO GET INVOLVED
Many who participate in these studies want to respond when they become
aware of the harsh realities that their fellow sisters and brothers around
the world are facing every day. Whether that response is prayer, financial
support, volunteering, or educating others about the needs, there are
opportunities for everyone to do something.

Educate yourself. Request information about another Heart of the Matter study.
Each study focuses on a different area of concern related to poverty and oppression,
including a biblical understanding of poverty and our role in serving those in need;
issues specific to women in poverty, advocacy, and social justice; and helping
children develop a heart to serve and give. To preview all three studies in the series,
go to www.womenofvision.org or www.worldvisionresources.com.

Sponsor a child. For about $1 a day, you can help a vulnerable boy or girl survive,
grow, and reach his or her God-given potential. Your gift will help demonstrate
God’s love by providing your sponsored child and his or her family and community
with access to life’s most basic necessities—things like clean water, better nutrition,
health care, education, economic opportunities, and most of all, hope for a better
future. Go to www.worldvision.org for more information.
JOHN SCHENK/WORLD VISION 2004

Give a gift. World Vision’s Gift Catalog allows you to give life-changing gifts to
children and families in need—things like goats, clean-water wells, or seeds—in
the name of someone special. The Giving Toolbox makes group fundraising easy.
Families, school groups, Sunday school classes, and others can work together to
make an impact for children around the world. www.worldvisiongifts.org.

Educate the next generation. Ending global poverty and injustice begins with
education: recognizing the extent and causes of poverty, comprehending its effect on
human dignity, and realizing our connection with those in need around the world.
World Vision Resources is the publishing ministry of World Vision, providing
learning materials to help prepare Christians to live in an increasingly globalized
world and become active citizens who can help shape a better future. Check out
World Vision Resources’ growing selection of global education resources at
www.worldvisionresources.com.

Become a Women of Vision partner. Receive the latest news and updates; join
monthly telephone briefings with subject experts from all over the world; receive
invitations to local, regional, and national conferences; and help support your local,
regional, or global Women of Vision projects. For partnership information go to
www.womenofvision.org.

Join the conversation. Subscribe to the latest news and information affecting the
poor around the world. Sign up at www.womenofvision.wordpress.com.

Page 64
Page 65
Join or start a Women of Vision chapter. Women of Vision is a volunteer
ministry of World Vision that unites Christian women called to invest their time,
intellect, compassion, creativity, and finances so that impoverished women and
children might find hope and experience a tangible expression of God’s love. We
are women of diverse ages, backgrounds, and circumstances—united in Christ to
serve and walk alongside those in need so that, together, we can experience life in all
its fullness. Recognizing the enormous needs in our world, we seek to educate and
motivate women in our communities to become women of action in helping create a
brighter and healthier future for suffering women and children.

C O N TACT US
Women of Vision
World Vision
P.O. Box 9716
Federal Way, WA 98063-9716
toll free: 1.877.WOV.4WOV (1.877.968.4968)
E-mail: womenofvision@worldvision.org

20 07
D VI SI O N
IN /W O RL
UC H EM
DAVI D D

Page 66
A B O U T WO R L D V I SION

World Vision is a Christian humanitarian organization dedicated to working with


children, families, and their communities worldwide to reach their full potential by
tackling the causes of poverty and injustice. Motivated by our faith in Jesus Christ,
World Vision serves alongside the poor and oppressed as a demonstration of God’s
unconditional love for all people. We see a world where each child experiences
“fullness of life” as described in John 10:10. And we know this can be achieved only
by addressing the problems of poverty and injustice in a holistic way. That’s how
World Vision is unique: We bring 60 years of experience in three key areas needed
to help children and families thrive: emergency relief, long-term development,
and advocacy. And we bring all of our skills across many areas of expertise to each
community we work in, enabling us to care for children’s physical, social, emotional,
and spiritual well-being.

Partnering with World Vision provides tangible ways to honor God and put faith into
action. By working together, we can make a lasting difference in the lives of children
and families who are struggling to overcome poverty. To find out more about how
you can help, visit www.worldvision.org.

A B O U T WO R L D V I SION RES OURCES

Ending global poverty and injustice begins with education: understanding the
magnitude and causes of poverty, its impact on human dignity, and our connection to
those in need around the world.

World Vision Resources is the publishing ministry of World Vision. World Vision

JUSTIN DOUGLAS S /WORLD VIS ION 2007


Resources educates Christians about global poverty, inspires them to respond, and
equips them with innovative resources to make a difference in the world.

For more information about our resources, contact:


World Vision Resources
Mail Stop 321
P.O. Box 9716
Federal Way, WA 98063-9716
Fax: 253-815-3340
E-mail: wvresources@worldvision.org
www.worldvisionresources.com

Page 67
the H E A R T of th e M A T T E R
is a biblically based, interactive study series that focuses on how
Christians are called to respond to the needs of the poor (Hope in a
World of Hurt); the root causes of poverty and how transformational
development brings hope and lasting change to communities and
individuals (Communities Transformed with Change that Lasts); how
extreme poverty and injustice uniquely impact the lives of women
and children (Touching the Lives of Women in Poverty).

The study offers opportunities to:


» Explore Scripture.
» Personally reflect, share, and pray about injustices in the world.
» Develop a greater understanding about poverty and oppression.
» Participate in interactive learning experiences.
» Learn about the transformational work of World Vision.

The combination of video, printed material, discussion and reflection


questions, simulations, quizzes, and other learning activities contrib-
ute to a multifaceted, creative learning experience that is easy to lead
and engaging for all participants.

Welcome to The Heart of the Matter.

To learn more about this series and


find copies of all three studies, go to
womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm.

7
N 200
V IS IO
ORLD
E M IN /W
DUCH
D AV ID
the H E A R T of th e M A T T E R
is a biblically based, interactive study series that focuses on how
Christians are called to respond to the needs of the poor (Hope in a
World of Hurt); the root causes of poverty and how transformational
development brings hope and lasting change to communities and
individuals (Communities Transformed with Change that Lasts); how
extreme poverty and injustice uniquely impact the lives of women
and children (Touching the Lives of Women in Poverty).

The study offers opportunities to:


» Explore Scripture.
» Personally reflect, share, and pray about injustices in the world.
» Develop a greater understanding about poverty and oppression.
» Participate in interactive learning experiences.
» Learn about the transformational work of World Vision.

The combination of video, printed material, discussion and reflection


questions, simulations, quizzes, and other learning activities contrib-
ute to a multifaceted, creative learning experience that is easy to lead
and engaging for all participants.

Welcome to The Heart of the Matter.

To learn more about this series and


find copies of all three studies, go to
womenofvision.wordpress.com/hotm.

7
N 200
V IS IO
ORLD
E M IN /W
DUCH
D AV ID
th e H E A R T of the M A T T E R
A Wo m e n of Vis i o n S tudy

Communities
Transformed with
CHANGE that LASTS
Communities Transformed | Page C