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‫ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﰲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻮﺝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﳍﺎ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﻣﻬﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﰲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﻴﻬﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﳌﺪﻯ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺲ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺠﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﻋﻲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺑـﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺒﻘﺘﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻀﻤﺎﺭ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ …ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻓﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﻨﺎ ‪ --‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻇﺮﻭﻓﻨﺎ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻌﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻄﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ … ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻭﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﲔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺷﻬﺪﺍ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻫﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺸﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑﺓ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﻬﺪﺍ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫‪٥‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺭﺯﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﲜﺪﺍﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﳘﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺧﺼﺼﺖ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻸﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ … ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻭﺛﻖ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ …ﺧﺼﺼﺖ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ )ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪(١٩٩٥‬‬
‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ )‪ (١٩٩٧‬ﻭ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻻ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ‪ Entry‬ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻪ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ" ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺮﻗﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻬﲏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﻇﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩٦‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻲ ‪ Textbook‬ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ )ﺃﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﺘﻮﺍﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ( ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻮﻟﻠﻴﺲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪R. K. Bullis, Spirituality in Social Work Practice, (Washington: Taylor &Francis).‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﻇﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩٨‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺳﻮﺯﺍﻥ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﻨـﺰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪Robbins, et al. , Contemporary Human Behavior Theory: A Critical Perspective for Social‬‬
‫‪Work (Boston: Allyn & Bacon).‬‬

‫)‪ (٤‬ﺗﻀﻤﻦ "ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ﻃﺒﻌﺔ ‪١٩٩٥‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ CSWE‬ﻭﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﺬ‬

‫‪٦‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺋﻪ ﻧﺼﺎ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (٥‬ﻇﻬﺮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ" ﻋﺎﻡ ‪، ١٩٩٨‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺼﺺ ﺑﻜﻠﻴﺘﻪ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪:‬‬
‫‪Edward Canda, ed., Spirituality in Social Work: New Directions (New York : Haworth).‬‬

‫‪Society for Spirituality and‬‬‫)‪ (٦‬ﻗﻴﺎﻡ "ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ"‬
‫‪ Social Work‬ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺆﲤﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻡ ‪،١٩٩٥‬‬
‫‪ ١٩٩٧ ،١٩٩٦‬ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺃﻭﳍﺎ "ﻋﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ "ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﻬﺎ "ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪:‬‬
‫;"‪1- "Retrieving the Soul of Social Work‬‬
‫;"‪2- "Expressing the Soul of Social Work‬‬
‫‪3- "Nurturing the Soul of Social Work".‬‬

‫‪٧‬‬
@ @

@ @@ïãbrÛa@Ý–ÐÛa
@ @
@ @@òÓýÈÜÛ@òbnÛa@ÝyaŠ½a
@ @òîÇbànuüa@ò߆¨aë@åí†Ûa@´i
@ @
@ @òÓýÈÛa@‰ìĐm@Z@üëc
@ @ò’ÓbäàÜÛ@ï¹…b×þaë@ïbîŽÛaO@¿bÔrÛa@‰b⁄a@Zbîãbq
@ @bèÈÏaë…ë@òîšÔÛa@Þìy@pbibnØÛa@‰ìĐm@ZbrÛbq

٨
‫‪@ @ïãbrÛa@Ý–ÐÛa‬‬
‫‪@ @òîÇbànuüa@ò߆¨aë@åí†Ûa@´i@òÓýÈÜÛ@òbnÛa@ÝyaŠ½a‬‬
‫@ @‬
‫‪@ @òÓýÈÛa@‰ìĐm@Z@üëc‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﲢﻮﻟﺖ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻼﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ‪،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻣﺮﺕ ﺑﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻧﺸﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ )‪:( Canda, 1997: 300-301‬‬

‫‪ZSectarian Origins @òîÐöbĐÛa@òîäí†Ûa@Þì•þa@òÜyŠß@Z@µëþa@òÜyŠ½a‬‬


‫ﻭﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺟﺘﺬﺍﺏ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﻨﻘﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻮ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ‪. proselytizing‬‬

‫@‪@ @Professionalization and Secularization @òäàÜÈÛaë@òîäè½a@òÜyŠß@Z@òîãbrÛa@òÜyŠ½a‬‬


‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺎﻇﻢ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ … ﻭﻫﻲ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﲡﻪ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺳﻌﻴﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺇﱃ ﺗﺒﲏ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺒﻪ‪-‬‬

‫‪٩‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪) quasi-scientific‬ﺑﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ( ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ …‬
‫ﺸﺮ‪‬ﺕ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺭﻭﺣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﳑﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ، CSWE‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺇﱃ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻟﻐﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @†í†u@åß@@òîyëŠÛa@ïyaìäÛbi@âbànçüa@ñ…ìÇ@òÜyŠß@Z@òrÛbrÛa@òÜyŠ½a‬‬
‫‪@ @ Resurgence of interest in spirituality‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﻛﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺒﺖ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﻳﻄﺎﻟﺒﻮﻥ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺩ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﱪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺰﺍﻟﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺎ‪‬ﻢ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻼﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﱪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻴﺰﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻫﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻧﺸﺌﺖ "ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، ١٩٩٠‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺆﲤﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ ١٩٩٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﻠﻔﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @ò’ÓbäàÜÛ@ï¹…b×þaë@ïbîŽÛaO@¿bÔrÛa@‰b⁄a@Zbîãbq‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﲑ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪/‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺋﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺎﺋﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺘﲔ ﳘﺎ ‪ (١) :‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ )‪ (٢‬ﺿﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻣﺒﲑﻳﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ‪.‬‬

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‫‪@ @ZïØíŠßþa@Éàna@¿@jØÛa@í†Ûa@ŠíbÌnÛaë@ÊìänÛa@ÉÓaë@HQI‬‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻤـﺎﺀﺍ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﻀﻬﻢ ﻷﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺩﻳﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ‪ -‬ﻭﻟﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪ -‬ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻓﻜـﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳـﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺿﻤﻨﺖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺜﲑ ﺛﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺬﻝ ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﺟﻬﺪﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﲔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ "ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻟﻦ ﲡﺪ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺭﻭﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻭﲡـﺪﻩ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﳑﺜﻼ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ " )‪.(Canda, 1997 : 305‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ "ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ" ﻭﺣﺪﻫﻢ ‪ --‬ﻧﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ‪ --‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ "ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ"‬
‫ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ … ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺭﺍﺡ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﲡﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄﻧـﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻼﺀﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﻭﻛﺄﻧـﻬﺎ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺎﺗـﻬﻢ …ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ … ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ … ﺑﻞ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ … ﺣﱴ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻇﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻭﻟﻸﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ‪ -‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻨﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @Z´îäè½aë@´rybjÛa@óÜÇ@áí†ÔÛa@ïÔíjß⁄aOïÈ™ìÛa@k爽a@ÂìÌ™@HRI‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺟﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ )ﺗﻮﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ( ﻛﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﺴﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ "ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻣﺒﲑﻳﻘﻴﺔ" ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫)ﳑﺜﻼ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﻴﺴﺔ( ﻻﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﲏ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻈﻼﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻘﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﲤﺖ ﺗﻨﺸﺌﺘﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﰎ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻣﺒﲑﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﳚﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻻ ﻧﻨﺴﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻭﳛﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﺣﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﳛﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﲔ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻳﺘﺠﻬﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻠﺘﺰﻣﺔ ﺑﺄﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻏﻴﺒﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﺠﻨﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻜﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻣﺒﲑﻳﻘﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @bèÈÏaë…ë@òîšÔÛa@Þìy@pbibnØÛa@‰ìĐm@ZbrÛbq‬‬

‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻬﲏ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻺﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺛﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﳝﻴﺔ ﳌﺪﻯ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﻟﻌﻤﻼﺋﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﳝﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﳐﻴﺒﺔ ﻟﻶﻣﺎﻝ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻟﻘﺖ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻭﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ )‪ ، (Fischer, 1973, 1981; Reid & Hanrahan, 1982; Gordon, 1983‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﱪ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺸﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ‬
‫"ﺃﺯﻣﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺤﻴﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﲝﺜﺎ ﻋﻦ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬
‫)‪ ، (Fischer, 1981: 200‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ "ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬

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‫‪New Paradigm‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ … ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺖ ﺑﺘﺒﲏ "ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ" ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻣﺒﲑﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻻ ﲣﺘﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ )‪. (Ragab, 1993‬‬

‫ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺬﻟﺖ ﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻻ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻗﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺧﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳒﻤﺖ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﻋﻮﺍﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ﻫﻴﺲ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﲰﺎﻩ " ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﳍﻮﻳﺔ " ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺎﱏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﰲ‬
‫ﺇﳘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ‪ -‬ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺎ "ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ" ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻗﺪ " ﺃﳘﻠﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺇﳘﺎﻻ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺎ ﺇﺫ ﺍﺧﺘﺰﻟﺖ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻗﻮﻯ ﻏﺮﻳﺰﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﺣﺎﻛﻤﺔ‬
‫( ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ" ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﻔﻜﺘﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ‬
‫"ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ "ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲡﺎﻫﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﺎ"‬
‫)‪.(Hess, 1980: 59-66‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺎﺭﺗﲔ ﻣﺎﺭﰐ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ " ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻛﺎﻓﺮﺓ" ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺇﳘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺆﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ "ﻓﺠﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﳍﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﲢﺮﻛﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻣﻌﲎ ﳊﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﻻ ﲡﺪ‬
‫ﺁﺫﺍﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﻏﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﰲ ﻟﻐﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ" ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﻣﺎﺭﰐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹾﻤﺎﱐ‬
‫‪) Secularization‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ -‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﲎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳـﺲ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ‪ ، This-worldly‬ﻣﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪﺓ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﺍﳋﺪﻣـﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻮﻃﺎ ﻃﻮﻳﻼ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ‬

‫‪١٣‬‬
‫‪(Martin Marty,‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺩﻋﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫)‪.1980 : 463-465‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺳﻮ ﺳﺒﻨﺴﺮ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺴﺎﺀﻟﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺰﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﻔﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﻟﻴﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺘﻬﺎ ‪. (Sue Spencer, 1957: 527) "..‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻓﻨﺴﻨﺘﻴﺎ ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ " ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﱂ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﺇﻻ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ]ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ[ ‪ ..‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﲟﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ "‬
‫)‪ ،(Joseph, 1988: 443‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻛﺪ ﻣﺎﻛﺲ ﺳﻴﺒﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻭﺭ )‪ (Canda, 1988: 238‬ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫"ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ...‬ﻓﻼﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﰲ ﲝﻮﺙ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ " ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ )‪ (Canda, 1988 :246‬ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ " ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﳏﻮﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺯ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ "ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ "ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ" ‪Moral and Spiritual‬‬
‫‪ ، development‬ﰒ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺭﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻴﻊ ﰲ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪.‬‬
‫‪١٤‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﻯ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﲟﻌﲎ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻬﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ " ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ )ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ( ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﺬﻝ‬
‫ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻻ ﲣﺘﺰﻝ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ " )‪. (P.246‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪‬ﱃ ﻭﻫ‪‬ﻠﻔﺠﻮﺕ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺎﻗﺸﻮﺍ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﺿﺤﻮﺍ ﺃﻭﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ "‬
‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺭﻭﺡ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺎﻳﻔﻴﻠﺪ ﻭﻛﺎﺳﻮﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ "ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﲎ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ"‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﲡﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﴰﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫)ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ( ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ "ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺎﺭﺱ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺎ‪(Dudley & Helfgott, 1990 :277-‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﺩﻋﻤﺎ‬
‫)‪.278‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻳﻦ ‪Religiosity‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ "ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ" )‪ ، (Canda, 1997:305‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﻄﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻋﻢ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ" )‪ . (p. 303‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ‬
‫‪١٥‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﴰﻮﻻ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﻞ ﳝﺘﺪ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻹﺿﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻟﻠﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻟﻼﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﺼﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ﰲ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﻛﺎ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪spirituality, religion‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺷﺎﺭ )‪ (Canda, 1997: 302‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻛﺎﳌﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﻭﺍ ﻳﻮﺳﻌﻮﻥ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﲏ ﻟﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻮﺫﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳍﻨﺪﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﻭﻝ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺘﻪ ﺷﺎﺭﻟﻮﺕ ﺗﺎﻭﻝ‬
‫‪ Towle‬ﰲ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ ﻋﻦ "ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻇﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩١٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ )ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ( ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﺧﺬﻫﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﻓﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻬﺎ" ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ )‪. (Spencer, 1956‬‬

‫‪Spiritual‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻭﺭ ‪ Brower‬ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺃﲰﺎﻩ "ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ"‬
‫‪ Dimension‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﻛﻞ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ "ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﺮﻭﺡ ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻖ"‬
‫ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎﻛﺲ ﺳﻴﺒﻮﺭﻳﻦ ‪ Siporin‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٨٥‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﻭﺣﻲ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺑﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﻔﻮ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻴﻌﺔ‬
‫‪١٦‬‬
‫‪ ، transcendental‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ‪،Ultimate Reality‬‬
‫ﻭﳓﻮ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻐﲑﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ، supernatural‬ﻣﺸﲑﺍ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻗﺼﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﺴﺤﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﴰﻮﻝ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﳊﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻨﺴﻨﺘﻴﺎ ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٨٧‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ "ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺘﺪ ﻟﻴﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﱄ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺎ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻩ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﺷﺎﻣﻼ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺇﻧﲏ ﺃﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳉﺸﻄﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺰﺍﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ‬
‫‘ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﱐ‘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﺸـﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ"‪.‬‬
‫"ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﳋﱪﺗﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﳋﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ‪‘ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‘ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﲝﺚ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﴰﻮﻻ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺑﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻧﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ … ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﳊﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﲨﻴﻌﺎ" )‪ .(p. 302‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺬﻛﹼﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻮﺳﻌﻮﻥ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﲝﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲟﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺷﺮﻧﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٧‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‪-‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪-‬ﺭﻭﺣﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ Spiritually Sensitive Practice‬ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺸﺮ ﰲ "ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" )ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، (١٩٩٧‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ )‪: (p. 299‬‬
‫‪@õýàÈÛa@Éß@‰aìy@¿@݁†í@ð@ ˆÛa@L@ïÇbànuüa@ïöb–ÿÛ@è½a@ìàäÛaë@ï–‚’Ûa@ìàäÛa@bèîÏ@ÁjmŠí@ñ†ÇbŽß@òÓýÇ@ïç@òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛbi@òîÇaìÛa@ò‰bà½aB‬‬
‫‪@òîyëŠÛa@ïyaìäÛa@åÇ@bèi@æëÈí@Ûa@pajÈnÛa@ÑÜn«@òîàçcë@òàîÓ@ïÇbànuüa@ïöb–þa@Ú‰†í@sîyë@L@bèãìäjní@Ûa@òíìäȽaë@òîÓýþa@Šþa@Þìy‬‬
‫–@‪@ÕÏë@òiìÜĐ½a@òÇìän½a@òîyëŠÛa@…‰aì½bi@Þb–müa@Éß@L@ @áèèuaìm@Ûa@òîmbî§a@pbß‹ÿÛ@òÓý@ÞìÜy@µg@Ý•ìnÛa@ádží@b¶@L@òîäí†Ûa@Ëë@bèäß@òîäí†Ûa‬‬
‫‪NBõýàÈÛa@òuby‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﺎﺹ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺄﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻸﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻋﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ … ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﻬﲏ ﻟﻸﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻟﻸﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻹﺩﺭﺍﻛﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ ﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﳍﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ‬
‫ﳓﻮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻷﻋﻤﻖ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ )ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ( ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﺍ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺗﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺗﺎﺡ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ … ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻻ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻷﻳﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﺮﻡ ﺣﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺎﺡ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺿﻤﲑﻩ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺗﻪ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻏﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٨‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﳛﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳒﺎﺣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻮﻥ ﺃﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺹ ﳒﺎﺣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺘﺸﻔﻮﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺗﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺿﻌﻔﺖ ﻗﻮﺍﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﳛﺎﻟﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﻼ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ ‪،‬‬
‫ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺎ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬

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@ @sÛbrÛa@Ý–ÐÛa
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@ @òîäí†Ûaë@òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛa
@ @@ò‰bà½a@òíŠÄã@åà™@bèÜßbØmë@
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@ @@òîäí†Ûa@ÝßaìÈÛaë@òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛa@òÈîj@Züëc
@ @xýÈÛa@¿@òîyëŠÛaë@òîäí†Ûa@ÝßaìÈÛa@òîàçc@Zbîãbq

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‫‪@ @sÛbrÛa@Ý–ÐÛa‬‬
‫‪@ @@ò‰bà½a@òíŠÄã@åà™@bèÜßbØmë@òîäí†Ûaë@òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛa‬‬
‫@@ @‬
‫ﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ )ﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺸﺔ( ﺃﻥ ﻧﻼﺣـﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﻗﺪ ﺍﲣﺬﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣـﺪ ﻛـﺒﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺖ –ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‪ -‬ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺟـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺘﲔ … ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﺟﻬـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺸﻄﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻨﺬ ﳓﻮ ﻋﻘـﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻛﺰﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻗـﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺸﻄﺖ ﻣﻨﺬ ﳓﻮ ﻋﻘﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺖ ﳓـﻮ ﻣﺮﺣﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺪﻓﻨﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴـﺔ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻮﻗﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ "ﺑﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ" ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ "ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ" ‪) Transpersonal Theory‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ( …‬
‫ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻟﻺﺳﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ‪-‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ -‬ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ "ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ" ‪Dynamic Systems‬‬

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‫‪ Theory‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺼﺎﺋﺮ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻜـﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ‪.‬‬

‫ﰒ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﺳﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ ﺍﳌـﺸﺘﻐﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺎﺕ ﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻘﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﲔ "ﺑﺘﻘـﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗـﻒ"‬
‫‪ Assessment‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ "ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ" ﻭﻣﺎ ﺷﺎ‪‬ﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ "ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﲏ" ‪ Intervention‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗـﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﺜـﻞ "ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻃـﺎﺭ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﻈـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ‪.‬‬
‫@ @‬
‫‪@ @òîäí†Ûa@ÝßaìÈÛaë@òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛa@òÈîj@Züëc‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ )‪ (Carroll, 1998: 2‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻣﲔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ "ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ "ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺳﻌﻲ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ" ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ "ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨـﻮﺍﺣﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻓﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ ﺗﺘـﺼﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ "ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ" ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ "ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻜـﺜﲑﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎ ﻻ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﺎﻡ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣـﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻏﲑﻫـﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﲤﻴﺰ ﻣﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﺑﲔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻲ "ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ" ‪ ، Spirituality-as-essence‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴـﺔ ﻓﺘﻨﻈـﺮ‬
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‫‪Spirituality-as-a part‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ "ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ" ‪، as a dimension‬‬
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‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ essence‬ﻓﻴﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻮﺭﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ human spirit‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﱯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫـﻮ ﻣـﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻠﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﺑﻜﻴﺎﻥ ‪ Sermabeikian‬ﺇﺷﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺬﳍﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺟﻮﺳـﺘﺎﻑ ﻳـﻮﻧﺞ ‪ Carl Gustav Jung‬ﻹﺛﺒـﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻬﻮﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻃﲑ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﺖ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ "ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟـﺘﻐﲑ" ﻭ ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﳕﻮ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺳـﻠﻴﻢ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻘـﺐ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ ﻣﺒﻨﻴـﺔ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺧـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ )ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺔ( ‪ ، built-in‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌـﺔ ﳓـﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﲟﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ‪. self-transformation, self-development‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﺑﻌـﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ as-a-part‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﺨـﱪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﻯ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻓﻄﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭﺟﻬﻬـﺎ ‪ aspect‬ﻫـﻮ "ﺍﳊﻴـﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺃﺻﻴﻞ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺰﺍﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ … ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ "ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻝ … ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ‪-‬‬
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‫ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺎ‪-‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‪-‬ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺎ‪-‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ‪-‬ﺭﻭﺣﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻳﻀﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣـﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻭﻟﻔﻬـﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ )ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺰﺍﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ( ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬـﺔ ﺍﳌـﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻳﺪﺯ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻘﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﺩ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺷﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﳝـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺐ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠـﻪ‬
‫… ﻭﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺸﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺰﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺘﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪-‬ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﳏﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻄﻴـﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ … ﰲ ﺣـﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺮ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ‪-‬ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﺸﲑ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑـﺎﷲ ]ﻋـﺰ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻞ[ ﺃﻭ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﳋـﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﺘـﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﺜـﻞ ﺟـﻮﻫﺮ‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪-‬ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ‪-‬ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪-‬ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺿﻤﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﴰﻮﻻ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ "ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑـﺎﷲ‬
‫ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ …ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﷲ …‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻳـﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﳏﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﺣـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮﺓ "ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﷲ ] ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ [ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﺎ ﹴﻝ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ "ﻳﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬
‫‪٢٤‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪ interconnectedness‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻛﺠﻮﻫﺮ‪-‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪-‬ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ" )‪ ، (Carroll, 1998:5‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺗﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘـﺔ ﺗﻮﺻـﻞ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺜﺎﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻞ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩ ﺃﻡ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻻﺣﻘﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺣﻴـﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺃﺑﻌـﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺎﳌﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻌﺎﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻉ … ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍ ﹴ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺎ ﳏﺪﺩﺍ ﺃﻡ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﻣﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳌﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ ﻣﻮﺟـﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻄﺮﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳕﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻛﺠﻮﻫﺮ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﳕﻮ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ… ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـﺸﺨﺺ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﻉ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ "ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺅﻳـﺔ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ‪ greater connectedness‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ" )‪ ، (Carroll, 1998: 6-7‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺧ ﹼﻄﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻩ ﻭﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﻣﻮﺣ‪‬ﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﻲ ﺑﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑـﺎﷲ‬
‫ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﻋﺰ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟـﻮﺩ‬
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‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟـﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣـﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫@ @‬
‫‪@ @xýÈÛa@¿@òîyëŠÛaë@òîäí†Ûa@ÝßaìÈÛa@òîàçc@Zbîãbq‬‬
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‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻧﻘﻠﺖ ﻫﻴﻜﺴﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻓﻴﻠﺒﺲ ) ‪ (Hickson & Phelps, 1997: 44-45‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﺝ ‪ --‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ )ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ( ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﺎﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﺣﱴ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﺴﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑـﻞ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﱪﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﺸﲑﺍﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﳛﺜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠـﻖ ‪‬ـﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻛﻤﻌﺎﳉﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻼﺋﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺎﻓﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺎﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﱪﺭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺛﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﳍﺎ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺸﺎﺑﻜﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﰒ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺘﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ ، Transpersonal Psychology‬ﻭ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺗﻜﺎﻣـﻞ ﺍﻟﻨـﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻠﺘﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ Bergin‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻃﺮﻕ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺎ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﴰﻮﱄ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻛﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﺮ ﻭﺗﻜﻨﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟـﺪﻋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺩﻳﺮﻳﺰﻭﺗﺲ )‪ (Derezotes, 1995: 2‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ "ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ‪ multidisciplinary‬ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗـﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨـﻮﺍﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭﰲ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺮ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠـﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻼﺀ ﲟﻮﺍﻗـﻒ‬
‫ﻭﲢﺪﻳ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺬﻟﻮﺍ ﺟﻬﺪﻫﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ macro‬ﺗﺸﲑ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺩﻳﺮﻳﺰﻭﺗﺲ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻳﻔﺎﻧﺰ )‪ (Derezotes & Evans, 1995: 42‬ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﻥ "ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻐﲑﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﻲ ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳـﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻀﻢ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ" ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻫﻴﻜﺴﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻓﻠﺒﺲ ﻓﺘﻠﺨﺼﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻜـﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﻓﺾ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺄﺧـﺬ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ" ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﻀﻴﻔﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑـﺄﻥ "ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﲔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ ﻓﻼﺑﺪ ﳍﻢ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻔﻬﻤـﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ( ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
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‫ﳛﻘﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻌﻮﻕ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ" )‪ ، (Hickson & Phelps: 45‬ﻭﺗﺸﲑﺍﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻭ ﲦﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﺝ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎ ﻭﳏﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﻮﻥ ﺑﺈﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻘـﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺘﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﺁﺧـﺮﻳﻦ ﳑـﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺭﻭﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ "ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻳﻮﺷﻚ ‪-‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻃﺒـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﺴﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻹﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ" )‪.(p.p. 45-46‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﳛﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﲣﻮﻓﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﻟﺌـﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻭﺟﻬـﺎﺕ ﻧﻈـﺮ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ]ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﲤﺮﺳﺎ[‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﳚﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻﻣﻨﺎﺹ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ –ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﻮﺭﻧﻴﺖ‪ -‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺩﺍﺧـﻞ ﻧﻔـﻮﺱ ﺃﻭﻟﺌـﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ]ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﱪﺭ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ[ )ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‪.(Cornett, 1992 :‬‬

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@ @ÉiaŠÛa@Ý–ÐÛa

@ò‰b¾@¿@bèmbÔîjĐmë@òîÇbànuüa@âìÜÈÛa@¿@òr톧a@@pbíŠÄäÛa
@ @òîÇbànuüa@ò߆¨a

@ @paˆÛa@M‹ëb£@òíŠÄã@Z@üëc
Transpersonal Psychology
òîßbäí†Ûa@ÖbŽãþa@òíŠÄã@@Zbîãbq
Dynamic Systems Theory

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‫‪@ @ÉiaŠÛa@Ý–ÐÛa‬‬
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‫‪Transpersonal Psychology paˆÛa@‹ëb£@òíŠÄã@Z@üëc‬‬

‫ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﺳﻮﺯﺍﻥ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﻨـﺰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫـﺎ )‪ (Robbins, et al., 1998‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫـﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﺳـﻠﻮ‬


‫‪ Abraham Maslow‬ﻗﺪ ﻧﺎﺩﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٦٩‬ﺑﺒﺪﺀ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﳏﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺃﲰﺎﻩ "ﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺪ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒـﺸﺮﻳﺔ" ‪، The Farther Reaches of Human Nature‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﲤﻴـﺰﺍ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠـﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻣﻲ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﻰ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ "ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ"‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ، Transpersonal Theory‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺨﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻬﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻳﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ( …ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻤﻤﺖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺯﺍﺋـﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﲣﺬﺕ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻳﻘـﻮﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﳏﺘﻮﻡ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻻ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻏﺮﻳﺰﻳﺔ ﺃﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺓ ﻭﺗﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺗﻨﺎ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺗﻴﻜﻨﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﲢﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮﺕ ﺃﻱ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴـﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻭﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺃﻗـﺼﻰ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺿﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﺼﻮﺭﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧـﲑﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺣﻘﻘﻮﺍ‪-‬ﺫﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ Self-Actualized‬ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻭﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳝـﺮﻭﻥ‬
‫ﲞﱪﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺓ‪-‬ﻟﺬﻭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻋﺠﺐ ﺧﱪﺍﺕ‬

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‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻻﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ )!( ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﻴﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺘﺠـﺎﻭﺯﺓ‪-‬ﻟﻠـﺬﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ Transpersonal‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟـﺸﺨﺺ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨـﺼﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻨـﺎﻉ ‪… persona‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻹ‪‬ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺎ ‪، ego‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻛﺰﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪Transpersonal‬‬
‫‪ Theories‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻧـﺐ ﺍﳋـﱪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ )‪. (p. 360‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻜـﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒـﺪﻥ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ )ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌـﱪ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ( ﳝﺮ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ‪-‬ﻗﺒﻞ‪-‬ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻊ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ‪-‬ﻗﺒﻞ‪-‬ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ‪ pre-egoic phase‬ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻮﻟـﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﻫﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄـﺔ ﺑـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ ﻻ ﺗﻜـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﻳﺔ ‪ egoic phase‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻛﻜﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻋﻤـﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻣـﻮﻥ ﺑﺮﻋﺎﻳﺘـﻪ‬
‫ﻛﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻫﻘﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳـﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺍﻟـﺸﻌﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﻧﺎﺿﺞ ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻨﺎﺱ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ… ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ "ﺍﻷﻧﺎ" ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻟﻜـﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﳝﺮ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﺠـﺎﻭﺯﺓ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﻳﺔ‪-‬ﻟﻸﻧﺎ ‪ ،Trans-egoic‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﳛﻘﻘﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ‪-‬ﺑﻌﺪ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺬﺍﺗـﻪ ﻓﻘـﻂ‬
‫ﻛﻜﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ )ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ( ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟـﺸﻌﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ )‪. (p. 361‬‬
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‫‪@ @ZpaˆÛa@‹ëb£ë@paˆÛa@ÕîÔ¤@áîçbÐßë@ì܍bß‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺕ ﻣﻨـﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪-‬ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ، Self-Actualization‬ﻭﺃﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﱄ‪-‬ﻋﻠﻰ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ، Self-Transcendence‬ﻓﺄﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺘﻌـﺒﲑ ﻋـﻦ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧـﺎ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺐ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻛﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑـﺰﻭﻍ ﻃﺒﻴﻌـﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺴﺎﻣﻰ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻟﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﺪﺍﻫﺎ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻣـﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺸﻐﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﱰﻋﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﺟﺴﻴﺔ … ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻹﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﻛﺰﺓ‪-‬ﺣﻮﻝ‪-‬ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻫﻮ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﱄ‪-‬ﻋﻠﻰ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ… ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﱄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﻻﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﳘﺎﻻ ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﺎ ‪‬ﺭﻙ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ "ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ" ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ "ﺍﷲ" )‪.(Robbins: 362‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺐ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫـﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺄﻭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻣـﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺜـﺮﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﻧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻻ ﻳـﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺃﺑـﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺗـﺆﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻧـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭ ‪‬ﻢ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻻﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ … ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﻫـﺆﻻﺀ ﺑـﺄ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻬﻢ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻧﻔﻮﺳﻬﻢ ﻫﻮﺓ ﻻ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻓﺠﻮﺓ ﻻ ﻗﺎﻉ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻬﻢ ﻓﻼ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺒﻊ ‪‬ﻤﻬﻢ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺴﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳉﺸﻊ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺪﻣﺮﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻮﻟـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻭﺑﲔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﻭﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻬﻢ ﳓﻮ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟـﺸﻌﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻱ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺮﺍﻣﺘﻪ ﻭﺣﺒﻪ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺣﺒﻪ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ ﳍـﻢ ﺃﻧﻔـﺴﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼ ‪‬ﻮﺭ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻫﺮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﺄﺧـﺬ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﰲ ﺿـﻮﺀ‬
‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﺭﻗﻰ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﺘﻌﺪ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌـﺼﺎﱀ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ … ﺑﻞ ﻭﻣﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻺﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻬﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﻭﺟـﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﲝﻮﺛﻪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﻮﻥ ﻟﺬﻭﺍ‪‬ﻢ )ﻭﻓﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝـﺔ(‬
‫ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ ﲟﺎ ﺃﲰﺎﻩ ﲞﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ ‪ Peak Experiences‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻭﺑﺎﻥ … ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺪﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻸﺳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﻨﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﺃﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻣﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @ZpaˆÛa@‹ëb£@òíŠÄãë@ì܍bß‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﻭﱄ )‪ (Cowley, 1993‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﺑﺈﺳﻬﺎﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻨﺎ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻺﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﲔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﲔ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺁﺭﺍﺀﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘـﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻤﺘﻪ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٦٨‬ﻗﺪ ﺃﺿﺎﻑ – ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ‪ -‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
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‫ﺍﳍﺮﻡ ﻭﺃﲰﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﲨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪:‬‬
‫‪@ @bšíc@bçë‹ëb£ë@áèma‡@aìÔÔy@åß@MS@@@@@@@@@áèma‡@aë‹ëb£@åß@M@@R@@@@@@@@@@@áèma‡@aìÔÔy@åß@MQ‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫـﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺷـﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﻢ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺧﱪﺍ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻷﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺫﻭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺻﻠﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ ﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺠـﺎﻭﺯﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻧﺎﺿﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﻣـﻦ ﺣﻘﻘـﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺫﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﲡﺎﻭﺯﻭﻫﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﻻ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﺍ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺑﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﲟﺎ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺱ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﻳﺮﻳﻚ ﻓﺮﻭﻡ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺷﻮﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ـﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﳓﻮ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ، loneliness‬ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒـﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﳜـﺒ ُ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﻥ … ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻗﺪ ﺍﲡﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﻓﻜـﺮﺓ‬
‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ )ﻭﺇﻥ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ( ﰒ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﱐ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ –ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ– ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺇﻻ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﺪ ﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﺭﻗﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ‪-‬‬
‫ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﳏﻮﺭﻩ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ …ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻳﺴﲑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺮﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﳎﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﱪ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ "ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ" ‪ Maslow’s Metaphor‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ "ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﳓﻦ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟـﺴﻮﻱ" … ﻓﻮﻓﻘـﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻲ ﺗﺘﻄﻠـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﳉﺴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ ﻗﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬

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‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻭ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﻛﺎﻭﱄ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗـﻰ‬


‫ﻟﻠﻮﻋﻲ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻞ ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗـﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺳـﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘـﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬
‫‪ ، misdiagnosis‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﲟﺪﻯ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻭﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﺎﺫﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﻭ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻔﺘﺮﺿﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﻠﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻻ ﲣـﻀﻊ ﻷﻱ‬
‫ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺤﻴﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺒﻮﺀﺓ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺧﱪﺍﺗﻨﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﲑ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻪ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﺒﺌﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳـﻨﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺒﺤﺜﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺠﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻧﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺒﻮﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺠﻌﻞ ﳕﺎﺫﺟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻃﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﲑﺍ ﻟﻠﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺓ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮ ‪‬ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪-‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺰﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻳﺪﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺮﺩ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻷﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺓ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺪ ﻟﻺﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻓـﺮﺍﺩ ﻟـﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﺍ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﺭﻗﻰ ﻭﺃﲰﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ… ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎﺋـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﲢﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﳍﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬـﺔ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱ ﺑﻨﻤﺎﺫﺟﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﻭﱄ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻮﻝ‬

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‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﲟﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘـﱪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻮﺍ ًﺀ‪.‬‬

‫×‪@ @paˆÛaM‹ëb£@òíŠÄãë@wãìí@Þ‰b‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﺑﺎﺗﺮﻳﺸﻴﺎ ﺳﺮﻣﺒﺎﻛﻴﺎﻥ )‪ (Sermabeikian, 1994: 178‬ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﺷـﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺟﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ‪ Carl Gustav Jung‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻸﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﻮﻧﺞ ﻭﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻳـﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﻻﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﲟﺎ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬـﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺑـﺎﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺣـﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻓﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﻳﻄﺒـﻖ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻴﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ...‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻳـﻀﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻛﺠﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣـﻞ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺧـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ" )‪ .(p. 179‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ‪ spirit‬ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﳌﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜـﻮﻳﻦ ﻗﺒـﻞ‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻲ ‪ Pre-conscious‬ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ) ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ( ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ "ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻳﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻔﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﷲ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻓﺾ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺭﻭﺣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺰﻱ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌـﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﳉـﻮﻉ )‪(p. 180‬‬

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‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﺭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻃـﺎﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺩﻳﻨﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻳﻼ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻴﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺐ" )‪.(p. 181‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗـﻊ ‪ Transcendental‬ﺃﻭ‬


‫"ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺓ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻗﻊ" ﰲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺪﻫﺸﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺫﺍ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫‪ ، metamorphosis‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺳﺮﻣﺒﺎﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ‪ Jacobi‬ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻳﺒﺬﻝ ﺟﻬﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﶈﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠـﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨـﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺣﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﻠﻬﺎ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺕ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ( ﺃﻭ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳑﻜﻨﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫"ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ" ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺁﻓﺎﻕ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﻞ ﺗﻔﻘﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ … ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﲢﻞ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻘﻞ ﺃﳘﻴﺘـﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺒﻬﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺣﻲ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻗﻮﺓ … ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻜﺒﺖ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺟـﺰﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﺗﺘﺒﺪﻯ ﲢﺖ ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺻﺮﺍﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﻜﻼ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻹﲤﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻟﻴﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻜـﺎﺋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺰﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺍﻟـﺮﻭﺡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﻳـﻮﻧﺞ ﺃﻥ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﳌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ … ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﳌﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻀﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺟـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﻔﻘﺪ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲣﻒ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
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‫‪@ @@òîÇbànuüa@ò߆¨a@Áîª@¿@@bèÔîjĐmë@òíŠÄäÛa@µg@òub§a‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﺰﺍﺑﻴﺚ ﲰﻴﺚ )‪ (Smith, 1995: 402-403‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﲡـﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ Transpersonal Perspective‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻸﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﺷﺒﻮﺭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﴰﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﲑ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ‪ ...‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﻮﺍﺯﻉ ﻟﻠﺴﻌﻲ ﳓـﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺯﻉ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻮﺍﺯﻉ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻛـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻋﻲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﻉ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﳝﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﲰﻴﺚ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺯﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ "ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻼ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻗﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺧـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺩﻓﻌﺎ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏـﻢ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠـﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻬـﲏ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺗﻮﺣﺪ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ "ﺍﻷﻧﺎ" ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻧـﺎ ﻫـﻮ ﳏـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻜﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻪ ﺗﺪﺧﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻬﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻔﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬

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‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺓ ﻟﻸﻧﺎ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳋﻄﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳـﺴﺘﻨﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﲟﺮﺿﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺷﺮﺍﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌـﻮﺕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺎﻭﻑ ﻭﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﳓﻮ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﳌﺜﻞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﲢﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﲰﻴﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺟﺰﺀ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺰﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺎ ﳏﺼﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﱰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ )‪ (Robbins, et al. :361‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﲢـﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻴﺘﻪ… ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻭﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺣﻪ… ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺑﺎﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻌﻤﻼﺋﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻭﱄ ﻭ ﺩﻳﺮﻳﺰﻭﺗﺲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ‪ ، spiritual malaise‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘـﻪ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ … ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻳﻘـﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻓﺎﺋﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﻨﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺎﺗﻨﺎ ]ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ[ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﺘـﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻼﺱ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻗﻮﳍﻤﺎ ‪ spiritually bankrupt society‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺎ ﻃﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﰊ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬
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‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣـﺮ ﻳﺘﻄﻠـﺐ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﺎﻻ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﲢﻮﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ‪ ، paradigm shift‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ ﻗﻔﺰﺓ ﻛﱪﻯ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻬﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻠـﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻮﺑﺮﻧﻴﻜﻮﺱ ﻭﻧﻴﻮﺗﻦ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻷﻳﻨﺸﺘﲔ ﻭﺇﱃ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻘﻦ ﳍﺎﻳﺰﻧﺒﲑﺝ ﻭﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﳘﻠﺖ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺪﺕ ‪-‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﲡﻨﺒـﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻧﺒﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﺍ "ﻣﻔﻘﻮﺩﺍ" ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ؟‬
‫ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﳒﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ Transpersonal Theory‬ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﺮﰲ ﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻫـﻮ "ﻣﺎﻳﺘﺠـﺎﻭﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻉ" ‪ ، Beyond the Mask‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ …ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻉ…ﻭﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺣـﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﻴﺔ ﺗـﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ )‪ ، (Cowley & Derezotes, 1994‬ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻀ ‪‬ﻤﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻧﺎ ﻭﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﱰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ )‪ (Robbins, et al. : 383‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ‬


‫ﺗﺘﺤﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘـﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗـﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺰﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﺘـﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺧﻄﻲ ﻋﻘﻼﱐ ‪،‬‬
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‫ﻭﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﳎﺮﺩ ‪ ، Linear, Rational, Abstract‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻳﺴﹼﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ "ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺼﻞ" ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻤﺔ ﳕﻮ ﺍﳍﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳـﺴﹼﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪/‬ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ‪/‬ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜـﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﻳﻌﻤـﻞ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻴﻮﻥ‬


‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﳕﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻓﺮﺻﺎ ﺳﺎﳓﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺯﻣـﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﺑـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﺭﻗﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟـﻮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺄﻟﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺗﻌﻄﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻭﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﲑ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﺭﻗﻰ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﻷﺯﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @Zpì½a@óÜÇ@´ÏŠ’½a@½a@Éß@ÝàÈÛaë@bãÿÛ@‹ëbvn½a@x‡ìàäÛa‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﺰﺍﺑﻴﺚ ﲰﻴﺚ )‪ (Smith, 1995‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺧﻄﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻓﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠـﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻼ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺕ ﲰﻴﺚ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻮﺫﺝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻸﻧﺎ ‪ Transegoic‬ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟـﻨﻔﺲ ﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﺿﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻳـﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬
‫ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻮﺍﺯ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ‪ Spiritual Awareness‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺕ ‪ Personal Death Perspective‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻳﻔﺘـﺮﺽ ﺃﻳـﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺕ( ﳍﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨـﺪﻣﺎ‬
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‫ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺻـﺪﻗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻣﺒﲑﻳﻘﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻟﻸﻧﺎ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩﺍ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ ﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟـﺔ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴـﻒ ﺍﻟـﺸﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺓ ﻟﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ )‪…(p. 403‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻠﻲ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪﻳﻦ‪:‬‬
‫‪@ @ZpìàÜÛ@òî–‚’Ûa@ñŠÄäÛa@ZÞëþa@†ÈjÛa‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﲑ ﲰﻴﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻈﺮﺗﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺕ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻧﻈـﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔـﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﻨـﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻻ ﻣﻌﲎ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﺪﻭ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻨﻪ … ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗـﺮﻯ ﺍﳌـﻮﺕ‬
‫ﻛﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ ﺗﻔـﺴﲑﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ … ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻐﻠﻖ ﺗـﺪﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻮﻝ ﻗﻠﻖ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ ، Death Anxiety‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﲡـﺎﻩ ﺗﻠـﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﳓﻮ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﻈـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﻔﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺒﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺃﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﱯ ﺗﻠﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪@ @ïyëŠÛa@ïÇìÛa@ZïãbrÛa@†ÈjÛa‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﲑ ﲰﻴﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﺰﻋﺘﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ ﺗﱰﻉ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ "ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜـﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ "ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗـﺸﲑ ﲰﻴـﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺎ ﻣﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﱰﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ …ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱰﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ، Self‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ‪. Transcendence of Self‬‬

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‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻹﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ( ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺋﻢ ﻟـﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﱰﻋﺘﲔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﻣﻼ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﺎ ﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻳﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪، Spiritual Well-Being‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺼﺎﺏ ﲝﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺰﻣﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒـﺆﺱ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣـﻲ‬
‫‪ ، Spiritual Distress‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑـﲔ ﻣﻔـﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﱄ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ ‪ Human Transcendence‬ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﲰﻴﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺴﻤﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣـﻲ ‪(p.‬‬
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‫‪@ @òîßbäí†Ûa@ÖbŽãþa@òíŠÄã@@Zbîãbq‬‬
‫‪Dynamic Systems Theory‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺖ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﱰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ )‪ (Robbins, et al. :25-60‬ﰲ ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺣـﻮﻝ‬


‫"ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ" ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑـﺪﺀﺍ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴـﺔ ‪Structural‬‬
‫‪ ،Functionalism‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪، Ecological Perspective, Deep Ecology‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ، Dynamic Systems Theory‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻋـﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑـﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ "ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﻕ" ‪ General Systems Theory‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ‪ ،Systems Theory‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻂ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻬـﻢ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻆ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﺭﺳﻮﻧﺰ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗـﺬﻫﺐ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﻖ‬
‫‪ ، creative system transformation‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧـﺴﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻀﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﺘﺠـﺎﻭﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﱪﺗﺎﻻﻧﻔﻲ ‪ Bertalanffy‬ﺭﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﳛﺎﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﻛـﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ "ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ creativity‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﱪﻧﻄﻴﻘﺎ ‪ ،Cybernetics‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳـﺔ ﻏـﲑ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧـﺔ ‪ ،Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺛـﺔ ‪Catastrophe Theory‬‬

‫ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺿﻰ ‪ Chaos Theory‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﺮﺗﺎﻻﻧﻔﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺻﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﻧﻄـﺎﻕ‬
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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺰﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ )‪.(p. 36‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺴﻖ ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ‪ autonomy‬ﻭﺃﻧـﻪ‬


‫ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻘﻴﺔ ‪ ، boundary‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻤـﺪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻛـﻞ ﻧـﺴﻖ ﺗـﺘﻢ ﺗﻌـﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬
‫‪ transactions‬ﺑﲔ ﺃﻧﺴﺎﻗﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻛﻜـﻞ ﻭﺑـﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ‪ Supra systems‬ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﺒـﺎﺩﻝ‬
‫‪ Interdependence‬ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﳍﻮﻟﻮﻥ ‪ ، Holon‬ﻓﻜـﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺴﻖ ﻫﻮ "ﻫﻮﻟﻮﻥ" ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺴﻖ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﻟـﻪ ﲰﺎﺗـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰﺓ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺃﻛﱪ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻭﻳﺎ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺃ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﲤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳍﻮﻟﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﳍﻮﻟﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﳍﻮﻟﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﴰﻮﳍﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﻮﻻﺭﻛﻲ ‪ Holarchy‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺗﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﻫﺮﻣﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﳍﺮﻣﻲ ﻟﻸﻧـﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻗﺪﻣـﻪ‬
‫‪ Boulding‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﳍﺮﻣﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻫﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻧـﺴﻖ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻧﺴﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻳﻀﻢ – ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬
‫– ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻴﻨﻴﺚ ﺑﻮﻟﺪﻳﻨﺞ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ‪ Closed Systems‬ﻭﺗﻘﻊ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫‪٤٥‬‬
‫ﲣﺘﺺ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫‪ Open Systems‬ﻭﺗﻘﻊ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﺘﺺ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑـﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ( ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣـﲔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻴﺘﺎﻓﻴﺰﻳﻘﻲ )ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ( ﻭﻣﺘﻌـﺎﻝ ‪Transcendent,‬‬

‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ‬


‫‪ ، Metaphysical‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻨﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺗﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧـﺴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﳏـﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻮﻟﺪﻳﻨﺞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲣﺘﺺ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻴﺘﺎﻓﻴﺰﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗـﺴﺪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﺎﳌﺎ ﻧﺎﺩﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮﻛـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴـﻪ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻠـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷـﺎﺭﺕ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﻨــﺰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫـﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻴﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻬﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﻣﻦ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﳘﻴـﺔ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻧﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘـﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤٦‬‬
@ @wäí†Ûìi@sîäî×@†äÇ@ÖbŽãÿÛ@ïߊa@ݎ܎nÛa@HQI@áÓ‰@Þë†u
Kenneth Boulding’s Hierarchy of Systems

@ò–n‚½a@âìÜÈÛa @ @ՎäÛa@òÐîÃë @ @ՎäÜÛ@òÜrßc @ôìnŽß @ @ՎäÛa@Êìã


@ @éna‰†i @ @ՎäÛa
@âìÜÈÛa@ @òԎn½a@òîäjÛa@åíìØm @ @ïàÄÇ@@ÝØîç @ @‰bgOÝØîç @òÔÜÌß@ÖbŽãcMQ
@ @òîÈîjĐÛa @ @òîãì؍
@âìÜÈÛa@ @òàÄnäß@ò׊y@õbĐÇg @ @òÇb @ @áÄnäß@Վã @òÔÜÌß@ÖbŽãc@MR
@ @òîÈîjĐÛa @ @òîßbäí…
@âìÜÈÛa @òàÄnäß@ò׊y@õbĐÇg @ @pbnìßÛa @ @pbnìߊm @@@òîßbäí…@òÔÜÌß@ÖbŽãc@MS
@ @òîÈîjĐÛa @ @bîma‡@bèŽÐã@Ájšm@bèäØÛë @ @bîma‡@bèŽÐã@ÑîØm

@âìÜÈÛa@ @ÁjšÛa@Éß@paˆÛa@†èÈm @ @òî܁ @ @òîܨa @òyìnÐß@ÖbŽãc@MT


@ @òîuìÛìîjÛa @ @bèŽÐäÛ@@@ñ†èÈnß
@âìÜÈÛa @ÁjšÛa@Éß@paˆÛa@†èÈm @ @ñŠv‘ @ @pbmbjäÛa @@@ñ†èÈnß@òyìnÐß@ÖbŽãc@MU
@ @ñŠqbØnßë@bèŽÐäÛ
@ @òîuìÛìîjÛa @ @ŠqbØnÛaë
@âìÜÈÛa @ @@êýÇc@ÑöbÃìÛa@Ý× @ @æaìîy @ @pbãaìî§a @ñ†èÈnß@òyìnÐß@ÖbŽãcMV
@òîÇaëë@@ñŠqbØnßë@bèmaˆÛ
@ @òîuìÛìîjÛa @ @paˆÛbi@ïÇìÛa@K
@ @bèmaˆi
@ @òî×ì܎Ûa@âìÜÈÛa @ @@êýÇc@ÑöbÃìÛa@Ý× @ @@æbŽãg @ @@æbŽã⁄a @ @K@òÔibŽÛa@pbàŽÛa@Ý×@MW
@ @‹ìߊÛa@âa†‚na@@@@@@@@@
@ @Þb–müaK
@âìÜÈÛa @ @@êýÇc@ÑöbÃìÛa@Ý× @pbÇbà¦a @pbÇbà¦a @ @@K@òÔibŽÛa@pbàŽÛa@Ý×@MX
@ @òÏbÔrÛa@âa†‚na@@@@@@
@ @@òîÇbànuüa @ @áîÔÛa@åß@òØj‘@K @ñÌ–ÛaI@ò튒jÛa @ @ò튒jÛa
@ @HñjØÛa@ëc
@âìÜÈÛa @òßìÜÈß@Ë@ÑöbÃìÛa @ @æìØÛa @ @@ÞbÈnß @âìÜÈß@Ë@Վã@MY
@ @òîÔíŒîÏbnî½a @ @æŁa@µg @ @ÊìäÛa

‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔـﺴﻪ ﻛـ ﱞﻞ‬
:‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ‬، ‫ﻳﻀﻢ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
.‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬-١
.‫ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬-٢
‫ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﴰﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﻘﻲ‬: ‫ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﴰﻞ‬-٣
‫ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‬، ‫ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻪ‬، ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‬
.environment ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬Supra system ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻷﴰﻞ‬

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‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﲤﻴﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻪ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ‪ permeability‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔـﺎﺫ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﱪ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺡ ‪ ، Open Systems‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺣﻴﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﻤﻴﺎ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺎ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤـﻮﻝ ﺗـﺴﻤﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻭﰊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﱯ ‪ ، Negative Entropy‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗـﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﲤﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻭﰊ ‪ ، Entropy‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ self-maintaining‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ‪self-transforming‬‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﻖ ‪-‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻘﺎﺋﻪ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﳛﻤﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻻﺕ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﺳـﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠـﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ… ﻭﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻣﻮﺭﻓﻮﺳﺘﺎﺯﻳﺲ ‪ morphostasis‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬
‫ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﻮﻣﻴﻮﺳﺘﺎﺯﻳﺲ ‪ homeostasis‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ‪-‬ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﰐ ﻓﺈ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻣﻮﺭﻓﻮﺟﻴﻨﻴﺴﺲ ‪ morphogenesis‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﳌﻔﻬـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻟﻜﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺎﺗﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺗﻜﻤﻞ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻜﻲ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺎﺗﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺎ ﲢﻔﻈﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘـﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻮﻣﻴﻮﻛﻴﻨﺎﺯﺱ ‪ ، homeokinasis‬ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪﺙ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺿﻰ ﻭﺇﻣـﺎ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﳕﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ‬
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‫ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟـﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳـﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻴﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻮﻝ ﻛﱪﻯ ﻭﲢﺴﻦ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﳑﻜﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ "ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ" )ﻭﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻵﱄ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﻲ( ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺏ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺑﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧـﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺑﺘﻌـﺪﻳﻞ ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ ﺍﳊـﺮﺍﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨـﻪ –‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕ – ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﲑ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﺎ ﲤﻠﻜﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻋﻲ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋﻜـﺲ ﺍﻷﻧـﺴﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ "ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﻬﺎ"‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ )ﻫﻮﻣﻴﻮﻛﻴﻨﺎﺯﺱ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ‪ … goal direction, input, throughput, output‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺳﺎﻋﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣـﺎ ﻧـﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ، energy‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻠﺔ ﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬

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‫‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﻱ ﻧﺴﻖ ﻗـﺪ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﻷﻱ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﻣﺘﺼﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻜﻲ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺪﺓ ‪ ،Feedback‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ information‬ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﻖ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﲟﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﻖ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﻖ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪ ﻗﺪ ﳒﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﻖ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻪ ﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺣﺎﲰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔـﺎﻅ‬
‫ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ‪ ، steady state‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺒـﺪﺃ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫"ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ" ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗـﺪﺓ ﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺧﻄﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧـﺴﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻐﲑ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺷﺪﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﺸﻐﻠﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫"ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ" ‪ :‬ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒـﺪﺩ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ ‪self-‬‬
‫ـﺴﺎﻕ‬ ‫‪ ، preservation, self-adaptation, self-transcendence, self-dissolution‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧـ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﳛﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﺎﻡ ﳛﻔﺰﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﴰﻮﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻴﺎ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،Self-aware‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺛﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺒـﺎﺩﻝ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻋﻲ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺑﺒﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ "ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ" ﺑﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﶈﺪﺛﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ)‪. (Robbins, et al. : 40-44‬‬

‫‪@ @òîÇbànuüa@ò߆¨a@¿@òîßbäí†Ûa@ÖbŽãþa@òíŠÄã@pbÔîjĐm‬‬
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‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤـﻦ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﲨﻊ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺳﺮﺓ ﻛﻨﺴﻖ ﳚﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﻦ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﲔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﲟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ… ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘـﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗـﻒ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻸﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺘـﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ‪ Goodness of Fit‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜـﻚ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ‪ . Sociocultural Dislocation‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﲝﻴـﺚ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔــﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ )‪.(p. 49‬‬

‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺰﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻧﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺛـﻪ ﰲ ﺇﻃـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺃﻳـﻀﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺳﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﺣـﺪﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺳﻴﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻲ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬
‫ﲝﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻜﺴﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ‪. (p.52) Win-Win‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻓﻠﻌﻞ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺔ )ﺍﻷﻧﻄﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ( ﰲ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺟـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺍﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﺘﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺘﺴﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻻﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺣﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺎﻗﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﲰﻮﻡ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺧﺘﺰﻟـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ )ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ( ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑـﻨﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫‪ (p.‬ﺇﱃ ﺗـﺒﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﱰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ‬
‫)‪390‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ "ﻛﺮﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﻼﲡﺎﻫـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺿـﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺇﻧـﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪dehumanizing and‬‬
‫‪ pathologizing‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺗﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ )ﺍﻹﺑﺴﺘﻤﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻔـﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﺏ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺮﺍﻋﻴﻪ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﻭﺍﻉ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺭﻙ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺭﻙ ﻟﻶﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱰﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪ /‬ﺍﳊﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﺘﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﳌﺴﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﺻﺔ ﻭﻣﺒﺘـﻮﺭﺓ ﻻ ﺗـﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺘﻖ ﺭﻗﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺳﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻳﺪﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺒﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺣﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺙ ﻛﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺷﺮﻧﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺭﻭﺣﻲ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻮ ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‪/‬ﻧﻔﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‪-‬ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻬﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱰﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬‬

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‫‪@ @òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛa@âa†‚nbi@ÑÓì½a@Ší†Ôm‬‬

‫‪@ @Zòîäí†Ûaë@òîyëŠÛa@ïyaìäÛa@åß@ÑÓì½a@Ší†Ôm@…bÈiþ@bèöýß‹ë@Bæa‰bÏB@x‡ì¸@Züëc‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﻓﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ )‪ (Farran, et al., 1989: 189-191‬ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﺒﻠﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺑـﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺘـﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟـﺸﻤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ )ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﱪﻭﺯ( ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ‪ ، comprehensive, salient, efficient‬ﻭ ﻫـﻢ ﻳﻘـﺼﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻋﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻹﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺻـﻮﺭﺓ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ )ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴـﻞ( ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣـﺎ ﺻـﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﱪﻭﺯ ﻓﻴﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻋﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺜﺎﺭ ﰲ‬
‫ﺫﻫﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﲟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺎﳌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺑـﺸﻜﻞ ﺳـﺮﻳﻊ ﻧـﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﻭﻗﺘﺎ ﻃﻮﻳﻼ ﻻ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺸﺎﻏﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺪﺩﺕ ﻓﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ spiritual assessment and intervention‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫)‪:(Farran : 189-191‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳍﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻓﻘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٥‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺅﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٦‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٧‬‬
‫@‪@ @ZïãbȽaë@pa†ÔnȽa@HQI‬‬
‫ﳏﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻨﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ )ﻏﲑ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﲟﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳـﻦ ﻣﻌـﲔ(؟‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﺍ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺨـﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ‬
‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺣﺪ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ؟ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻬﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﳓﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻀﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻌﲎ؟ ﻫﻞ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ؟ ﻫﻞ ﻳﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻨﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭﻩ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪﺭ؟ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﳍـﺬﻩ ﺍﳌـﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺮ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﺗﻪ ﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ؟‬
‫‪@ @ZéîuìnÛaë@òäàîa@HRI‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻳﻬﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﻌﺘﻘـﺪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻴﻤﻨﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﻌﺰﻭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳـﺔ ؟ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﳛﻮﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺫﻭﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳛﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﺳﺮﺗﻪ؟ ﺃﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳـﺴﺘﻤﺪ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﳍﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻪ ؟ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻛـﻞ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ؟‬
‫‪@ @Zæa†uìÛa@ëc@òÐbÈÛaë@ñ¨a@HSI‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲝﺚ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﲞﱪﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﺎ ﺃﻡ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻓﺠﺄﺓ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﲢﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺊ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻃـﻒ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻪ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫـﻞ ﻫـﻲ ﻣـﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺑﺎﻟـﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻤﺄﻧﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﺃﻡ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺸﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﺭ؟ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬

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‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮﻩ ﻭﺧﱪﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﺘﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺮ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪@ @ZñŠ’ÈÛaë@òjz–Ûa@HTI‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔـﺲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴـﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺎ ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄـﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﻪ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﺰﻭﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ ﻳﻌﱪﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣـﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﲝﺎﻟﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺡ ﻟﻜـﺸﻒ ﺣﺎﻟﺘـﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣـﺸﻜﻠﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻸﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺒﲔ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻠﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﶈﻴﻄﲔ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﺎ‪.‬‬
‫@‪@ @Zpa…bjÈÛaë@ŠöbÈ’Ûa@ò‰b¾@HUI‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺗـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺧﱪﺍﺗﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﻭﺭ ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻀﻄﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺣـﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐـﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪@ @ZìàäÛaë@Ýßþaë@ÞúbÐnÛa@HVI‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﺅﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻧﺪﺭﺱ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗـﺪﺭﳚﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺊ )ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﲢﻮﻝ(‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺪﺭﺱ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﲟﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻋﺼﻴﺒﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭﻩ ﲟﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪@ @ZāŠ½a@óÜÇ@òjm½a@wöbnäÛbië@òÛbŠÛbi@‰ìÈ’Ûa@HWI‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﰲ‬
‫‪٥٦‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻛﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﺌﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﻌﺎ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻣـﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻡ ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺳﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﻓﺎﺭﺍﻥ )‪ (Farran: 192‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺃﻥ ﳛـﺎﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻔﻬﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻤـﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴ‪‬ﻴﺮ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﻋﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪﻩ‬
‫‪ ،Locus of Authority‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﲤﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ ﰲ ﻇـﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴـﻞ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺃ( ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺏ( ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﲑ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺝ( ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺳـﻴﻊ ﻧﻄـﺎﻕ ﺃﺩﺍﺋـﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻔﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﻓﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻓـﺈﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﺛـﺮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @Zòîäí†Ûaë@òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛbi@ÕÜÈní@bàîÏ@ÑÓì½a@Ší†ÔnÛ@@îÜÛìi@x‡ì¸@Zbîãbq‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺭﻭﻧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻮﻟﻠﻴﺲ )‪ (Bullis, 1996 :11‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺗﻘـﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗـﻒ ‪ Assessment‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟـﻀﻐﻮﻁ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ‪ steady state‬ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳـﺪ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻐـﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‪/‬ﻧﻔﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ، biopsychosocial‬ﻭﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴـﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻴـﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳـﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻮﺫﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ …spiritual biopsychosocial‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ؟ )‪ .(p. 46‬ﺇﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗـﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨـﻮﺍﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﳕﺎ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈـﻮﺭ ﺭﻭﺣـﻲ‬
‫‪ ، Gauge the client’s health from a spiritual perspective‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ spiritual centers‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺑﻮﻟﻠﻴﺲ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﳏﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ‪ spiritual history‬ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﺳـﻢ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪. spiritual map‬‬

‫‪@ @ZÝîàÈÜÛ@ïyëŠÛa@ƒí‰bnÛa@óÜÇ@Þì–§a‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‬

‫‪@ @ZŠßþa@õbîÛëc@ëc@åí†ÛaìÛbi@Ý–ní@bß@Mc‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ؟‬ ‫‪-١‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﺍﻥ ﺣﺎﺯﻣﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺸﺪﺩﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻫﻠﲔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍ‪‬ﻤﺎ؟‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺰﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻫﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ؟ ﻭﺑﺄﻱ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ؟‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

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‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻈﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻚ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻗﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺻـﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ؟ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ؟‬
‫@ @‬
‫@‪@ @ZÝîàÈÛa@ñbîy@¿@å튁Ła@´àè½a@˜b‚‘þa@ëc@Ù튒ÜÛ@òjŽäÛbi@Ml‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫‪-١‬‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﲤﺖ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺩﻳﲏ ﻭﺭﻭﺣﻲ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻇﻼ ﻣﻠﺘﺰﻣﲔ‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬
‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ؟ ﻭﳌﺎﺫﺍ؟‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﺖ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺷـﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻜﻤﺎ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺣﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﰎ ﺍﳊـﻞ؟ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﳊﻞ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﻜﻤﺎ؟‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻜﻢ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﻬﻞ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻭﺯﻭﺟﺘﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻭﺟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻡ ﲣﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ؟ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻏﺒﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ؟‬
‫@ @‬
‫‪@ @ZéŽÐã@ÝîàÈÜÛ@òjŽäÛbi@–@x‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻧﺸﺄﺕ؟‬ ‫‪-١‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺸﺪﺩﺓ ﺃﻡ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻫﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺎ‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺘﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ؟ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ‪‬ﺎ؟ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ‪‬ﺎ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺃﻱ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﺸﺄﺗﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ؟ ﻭﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ؟ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺕ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ؟‬
‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻔﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗـﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ‬

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‫ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻛﺄﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺸﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴـﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻗـﻒ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺣـﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺳﺎﳓﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺂﻟﻔﻴﺔ ‪ rapport‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺭﻭﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻳﺸﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﻟﻜ‪‬ﺒﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻨﻈـﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺑـﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺗﺸﻮﻗﺎ ﻟﺘﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﻄﻴـﻪ ﺷـﻌﻮﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻭﲝﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﲟﻮﻗﻔﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻌﻤﻖ ﻭﻳﻮﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺑﺮﺣﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﰿ ﺗﻮﺣﻲ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﻟﻜﻲ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﻭﺍ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺛﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷـﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌـﻼﺝ‬
‫ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺳﺘﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟـﻲ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﻳـﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @@òîyëŠÛa@kŽäÛa@ñŠv‘ë@òîyëŠÛa@ÁöaŠ¨a@ፉ‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻮﻟﻠﻴﺲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ "ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺃﻧﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ" ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ "ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ" ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﻄﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻢ ﲣﻄﻴﻄﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺛﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﻟﻼﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﺿﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻬﻤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻫﻨـﺎ‬

‫‪٦٠‬‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻏﲑﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻟﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺷـﻜﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗـﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @Zí‰ìß@@ë@@‰b×@†äÇ@@ÑÓì½a@Ší†Ôm@ZbrÛbq‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻯ ﺇﻟﻴﺰﺍﺑﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻣﺎﺱ ﻣﻮﺭﻳﺲ )‪ (Carr &Morris, 1996 : 47‬ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗـﻒ‬
‫ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ؟‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ؟‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺗﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ؟‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺠﻪ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻳﺾ…ﻭﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﲏ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﻘـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻋﻲ ﻭﻓﻬﻢ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻨﻴﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴـﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺗﻪ )‪ ، (p. 75‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﺜﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻭﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺗـﻪ ﻫـﻮ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻸﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻬﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻐﻤﺴﲔ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺣـﻮﻝ ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﺜﻼ "ﻟﻘﺪ ﺩﻋﻮﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‬
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‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻴﻨﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﻨﺔ" ﳑﺎ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺗﻪ ﻭﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻭﻋﻴﻪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻴﺴﺮ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺑﺢ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺣﺠﺒﺔ ﻳﻌﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫‪@ @@Z@í†Ûa@wšäÛaë@åí†nÛa@òu‰…@÷bîÓ@Z@bÈia‰‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﳎﺮﺍﻩ ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ ﺍﻟـﺪﻳﲏ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻧﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺩﻭﻧﺎﻟﺪ ﻛﻴـﻨﺞ ‪(King,‬‬
‫)‪ 1990 : 101‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﻠﻮﻙ ‪ Glock‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺟﻠﻮﻙ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻃﺮﻕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻳﻦ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻴﺎﺩ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺇﻃـﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬
‫ﳕﻂ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳜﺘﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻮﻻﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻌﺘﻨﻘﺎ ﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻮﱐ )‪ (Maloney, 1985: 28-32‬ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺍ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨـﻀﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ "ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻨﻠﻨﺴﻮﻥ – ﻣﺎﻟﻮﱐ" ‪Nelson-Malony‬‬
‫‪ ، Religious Status Interview‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﲑ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﳛـﺎﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﻣﺎﻟﻮﱐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﻠﻮﺭﻭﺍ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺪﻳﺎﻧﺎ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻜـﺮﻱ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺎﻳـﺸﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ ﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﶈﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﳍﺎ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺧﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻬﻴﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﲟﺨﺎﻓـﺔ ﺍﷲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﲝﺪﻭﺩ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺄﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺑﻘﺪﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻳﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﷲ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤـﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﲟﺤﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﻋﻔﻮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺣﻴﺎﺗـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ ﻭﺷـﻜﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺛﻘﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﰲ ﺭﲪﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺿﺞ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨـﺼﻴﺔ ﺑـﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻷﺧﻄﺎﺋﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﻀﻮﻉ ﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﷲ ‪،‬‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪-٥‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺿﺠﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪-٦‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‬
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‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﺪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﻳﻨﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﺎﻣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﳐﻠﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺿﺠﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻌـﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫‪-٧‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻠﺘﺰﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﺆﺳﺴﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻘﻴﺪ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻷﺧﻼﻗﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺿﺞ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺎ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺗﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫‪-٨‬‬
‫ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻀﻲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺗﺎ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺒﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﳕﻮ ﻋﻘﻴﺪ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺴﺎﻣﺢ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻭﺟﻬـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻧﺰﻳﻬﺔ‪.‬‬

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@ @ßb¨a@Ý–ÐÛa
@ @
@ @âa†‚nbi@è½a@݁†nÛa
@ @òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛa@
@ @
@ @òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛa@âa†‚nbi@òîuýÈÛa@òîÜàÈÛa@òÈîj@Züëc
@ @òîuýÈÛa@paë…þa@Zbîãbq
@ @ÝîàÈÛa@Éß@òÓýÈÛaë@ïÇbànuüa@ïöb–þa@ZbrÛbq

٦٥
‫‪@ @ßb¨a@Ý–ÐÛa‬‬
‫‪@ @òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛa@âa†‚nbi@è½a@݁†nÛa‬‬

‫‪@ @òîyëŠÛa@ÝßaìÈÛa@âa†‚nbi@òîuýÈÛa@òîÜàÈÛa@òÈîj@Züëc‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻯ ﻣﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ )‪ (Carroll, 1998: 8‬ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫـﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﳓﻮ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗـﺼﻰ ﺣـﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﳑﻜﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﺛﻖ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺑﻐﲑﻫﻢ ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ]ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ[ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨـﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ )ﻛﺠﻮﻫﺮ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻪ( ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻼﺟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﺑﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻛﺠﻮﻫﺮ‪-‬ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪-‬ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺳﺎﳓﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺻﻠﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ "ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻪ ﺑﺎﷲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﺪﺍﺧﻠﻪ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻛﺠﻮﻫﺮ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﱐ‬
‫)ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺟﻬﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺒﺬﳍﺎ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟـﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟـﺬﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﺎﷲ ﺳﻴﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ‪ ، dysfunctional‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺺ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ ﻗـﺪ ﻳـﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﺳـﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺯﻣـﺎﺕ ‪crisis‬‬
‫‪. precipitation‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻫﺶ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠـﻚ ﺍﻷﺯﻣـﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ crises‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺧﻄﺮﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﺽ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ‪ opportunity‬ﺳﺎﳓﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﺯﻣـﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺒﺜﺎﻕ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺭﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬

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‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﺮﺃ )ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ )ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ( ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻔـﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻠـﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ‪ Human Potential‬ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌـﺒﲑ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ‪ process‬ﺃﴰﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﻭﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﺣـﺪﻭﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺍﺿﻬﺎ ﻛﺈﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻓﻊ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﳕﻮ ﺃﴰﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﺇﻋـﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ )‪.(p. 8‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺭﻭﺣﻴﺎ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﳋﺪﻣـﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬
‫‪ Spiritually-Sensitive Practice‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﻭﺇﱃ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻒ ‪ ، Blocked Growth‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺘﺠـﺖ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻋﺎﻗﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﺌﺘﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﳕﻮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺻـﻌﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺗـﻪ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﱐ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺠﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺗﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﻘﻪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺟﻬﻮﺩﻩ ﻭﺣﺸﺪ ﻗﻮﺍﻩ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺘﻪ ﳓﻮﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫‪٦٧‬‬
‫…ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗـﻀﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭﺗـﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻳـﻮﻧﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ spiritual values‬ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﲑﺓ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳉـﻮﻫﺮ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺍﺳـﺔ ﰲ‬


‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻫﻲ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻮﺩﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻤﻴﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻼ ﻭﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻄﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﳏﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻲ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺛﻖ ﺍﻟـﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻴﻂ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻛﺎﻓـﺔ ﻧـﻮﺍﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺧﱪﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻪ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻷﻱ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺰﺃ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻧﻌﻄﻴﻪ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻱ ﻭﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻣﺎﺱ )‪ (Carr & Thomas : 78-79‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨـﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺎﺏ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳋﻄﲑﺓ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ‪ existential‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺛﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻋﺼﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻜﻔﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺳـﻴﺌﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺃ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ؟ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺎ ﺟـﺪﺍ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻣـﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﱪﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻷﱂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﺍ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻼﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﳌﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﱐ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗـﺪ ﺗﻌـﺮﺽ ﺑﻨﻔـﺴﻪ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﻭﻣﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺧﱪﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳـﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬـﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻃﻤﺌﻨـﺎﻥ ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﱰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻴﺸﲑﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜـﱪﻯ‬
‫)‪ ، (Robbins: 385‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ‬
‫‪ Spiritual Health‬ﺑﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻛﺎﻭﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﺍ ﺷﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺷﻌﻮﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ‬
‫ﻭﺷﻌﻮﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪… .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ macro‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻔﻆ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ…ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﲑ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺃﻳـﻀﺎ)‪ (Robbins: 390‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻗـﺸﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ )‪ (Carroll, 1997: 29-30‬ﻓﺘﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻓﺈﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ ‪ micro‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴـﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻗﻮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺈﻋﻄﺎﺋﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻫـﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘـﺴﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺰﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻜﺸﻒ ﻗﻮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳍـﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻜـﺸﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺲ… ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ macro‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺭﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧـﺐ‬

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‫ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،human connectedness‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ‪ Carroll‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺇﺳﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻳﻮﻧﺞ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺣﻠﻮﻻ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻓـﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﺠﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗـﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﲢﻮﻻﺕ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪.‬‬
‫‪@ @òîuýÈÛa@paë…þaZbîãbq‬‬
‫@ @‬
‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ )‪ (Carroll, 1997: 30-31‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻛـﺒﲑﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻛﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻤﻮﺩ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌـﺸﻜﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴـﺔ ‪ Therapeutic Tools‬ﺍﻟـﱵ ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ Spiritual Development‬ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺿـﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟـﺼﻼﺓ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻼﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺣـﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟـﻮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﱰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺘـﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬـﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟـﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﻀﻐﻮﻁ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺿـﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻼﺕ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺴﲑ ﺑﻮﻟﻠﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺼﺤﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻤﻖ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻘـﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﻖ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴـﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻄﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺳـﻮﺍﺀ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬

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‫ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﳉﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻮﻟﻠﻴﺲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺋﻪ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺣﻖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﲑ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻪ… ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﻭﻧﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻛﺄﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻋﻼﺟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻮﻟﻠﻴﺲ ﺃﻥ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺮ ﲞﻤﺴﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ )ﻣﻊ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺑﻮﻟﻠﻴﺲ ﻳﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻭﻛﺎﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﺮﺳ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺤﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ ‪ : Relaxation‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭ ‪ : Visualization‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻘﺪﺱ‬
‫ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ‪ : Affirmation‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌـﺰﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﺄﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺑﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ‪ : Confirmation‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ‪ : Appreciation‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ‪ : Conclusion‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫‪@ @ÝîàÈÛa@Éß@òÓýÈÛaë@ïÇbànuüa@ïöb–þa@ZbrÛbq‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ ﺣـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺼﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻈـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺸﲑ ﺭﻭﺑﻴﱰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ )‪ (Robbins: 383‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﰿ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻳـﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻈـﻮﺭ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻨﻔﺘﺤﺎ ﻟﻠﺨﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺓ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﺭﻗﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﳌﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﱪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺭﻭﺣﻴﺎ … ﻭﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻛﻜﻞ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺰﺍﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻛﺮﺍﻣﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺒﻨﻴـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺇﺣـﺴﺎﺱ‬
‫"ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ" ‪ Spiritual Connectedness‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺑﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻒ ‪ ، Empathy‬ﻭﻳﺮﺗﻘﻲ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ )ﻏـﲑ ﻣـﺼﻄﻨﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﻌﻠﺔ( ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺍﺣﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﲑﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ )‪ (p. 385‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﳒـﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻘـﻞ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺑﻴﱰ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺅﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻭﺣﺎﻧﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻩ ﺑﻜﻠﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺗﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺻﻮﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﳌﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺪﺱ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﻓﺘﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻛـﻼ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ …ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻳﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ‪ empowerment‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻠﻜﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌـﺮﺣﻠﺘﲔ )ﻭﻋـﻲ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻲ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻭ ﻳﻌـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ( ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬

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‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ‪ space and structure‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳚﺪ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ )‪. (Carroll, 1998: 8-9‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﻴﻢ ﺛﲔ ‪ Tim Thayne‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺆﺻﻞ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ "ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ" ‪ Social Constructionism‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻌﺮﻓﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻨﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻨﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺇﳚﺎﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺛﻘـﺎﰲ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺎﺭﳜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻨﺎ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﺿﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﻌـﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺻﻮﺭﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺎﻃﺐ ‪ Discourse‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ Gergen‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻭﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺻﻨﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻲ" )‪.(Thayne,1997: 16-19‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴـﻞ ‪co-‬‬
‫‪ ،authors‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ﻫﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪-‬ﰲ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺗﺸﲑ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻟﺪﺓ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻘﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌـﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻒ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ "ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ" ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﻬﻢ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳒﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ )ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ( ﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲰﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻟﻸﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠـﺔ‬

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‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﻨﻈﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺒﲎ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴـﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ‪،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻋﻲ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻨﺎ ﻭ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻻﳓﻴﺎﺯﺍﺗﻨـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳓﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻌﻤﻼﺋﻪ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻧﺰﻋﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﻯ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ )ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ( ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻣـﺸﺎﻋﺮﻧﺎ ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﺠﺎﺑﺎﺗﻨﺎ ‪-‬‬
‫ﻛﺄﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ – ﰲ ﺳﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻟﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ …ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺔ ‪ togetherness‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺘﻮﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻧﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻡ ﻗﻴﻤـﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺪﺭﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﶈﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻒ ‪empathy‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﶈﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺎﻣـﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﻔﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﻳﻔﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻖ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺔ ‪ togetherness‬ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ "ﻧﻔﻌﻴﺔ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻄﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳜﻄﻮ ﻗﹸـ ‪‬ﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﻬﲏ )!( ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﺴﲑ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ –ﻛﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺛﲔ‪ -‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻬﻠﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻛﺮﻭﺑﺎﺗﻴﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﻙ ‪(Thayne:‬‬
‫)‪ ، 19‬ﺇﺫ ﻛﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻫﻢ "ﺍﳋـﱪﺍﺀ" ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺠﻤـﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺑﻔﺮﻭﺿﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺰﻋﻤﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬

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‫‪@ @ò·b‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻋﻄﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﴰﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪﺙ ﻋﻬﺪﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ )ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺎ( ﻭﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎ ﺃﴰـﻞ ﻳﺘﺠـﺎﻭﺯ ﺿـﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻀﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺩ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻛﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻴﻨﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜـﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻧـﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻗﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﲑﺟﲔ ‪Bergin, 1980: 102-‬‬
‫)‪ (103‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﲝﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴـﻪ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﲨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﻳﻨﲔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﶈﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺟـﺪﺍﱐ ﻟﺒﻌـﻀﻬﻢ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﻣﻌـﺪﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻠﺰﻣﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳـﺔ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺳﺘﻘﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﺴﻲ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ ﻳـﺘﻢ‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﳏﲔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﻐﲑﻫﻢ ﳑﻦ ﺃﺳـﺎﺀﻭﺍ ﺇﻟـﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺘﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺗـﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺿﺎﺭﺓ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﶈﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻵﺧـﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪-٥‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻠﻬﻢ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻔﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺮ ﻳـﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﲣﻔـﻴﺾ ﺍﻟـﺼﺮﺍﻉ‬ ‫‪-٦‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻱ ﻭ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳـﺮﺗﺒﻂ ‪‬ـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺄﺳﺮﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺳﺎﺀﺓ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ )ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ( ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﺳﺮﻳﺔ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠـﺴﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫‪-٧‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﲞﱪﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪-٨‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺣﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺷﻴﻮﻉ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺣﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳍـﺎ ﻧﺘـﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪-٩‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋـﺼﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺘﲔ )ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ( ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺭﻭﺣﻴﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﻀﻊ ﻗﻴﻮﺩﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﻌﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗـﻊ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺎ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‬
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‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﺫﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ ﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﺬﻟﻚ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧـﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻣﻀﻄﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ "ﳏﺘﻮﻯ" ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﻳﲏ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻲ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧـﺮﻯ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳍﺮﻭﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ "ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ" ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻄﺮﺓ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﻳﲏ ﺃﻭ ﻻﺩﻳﲏ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺛﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒـﻮﺍ ﺣـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﻮﻟﻠﻴﺲ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ﺣﺮﺟﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺟـﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻓـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﻃﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻴﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ )‪ (Bullis, 1996‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﺒـﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺑﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟـﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺘﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﲟﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﲰﺔ ﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺧﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻮﻳﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﺎﻧﺪﺍ – ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎ ﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻛﺎﺗﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﺭ ﰲ‬
‫ﻧﺪﻭﺓ ﻋﻘﺪﺕ ﰲ ﻭﺍﺷﻨﻄﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪) ١٩٩٢‬ﲝﻀﻮﺭ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻔﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﺎﻍ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ "ﻳﺒـﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ]ﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎ‪‬ـﺎ[‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺎ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺫﺍ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ … spiritually-sensitive‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻹﻃـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟـﺪﻳﲏ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺠﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ ﻣﺪﺧﻼ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺬﻫﱯ ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ‬
‫… ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ … ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺻﻠﺔ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺎ…" )‪ … (Canda, 1992: 23‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻨﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻻ ﻧﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻔـﺲ‬

‫‪٧٧‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ )ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴـﺔ‬
.‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ‬

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