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MATTER OF RECORD

116

MAXIM

MATTER or RECORD. Those facts which may be proved by the production of a record. It differs from matter in deed, which oonsists of facts which may be proved by specialty.

MATl1RITT. The time .when a bill or note becomes due. In order to bind the indorsers, such note or bill must be protested, when not paid, on the last day of grace. See DAYS OF GRACE.

MAXIM. An established principle or proposition. A principle of law universally admitted, as being just and consonant with reason.

2. Maxims in law are somewhat like axioms in geometry. 1 Blackstone, Comm. 68. They are principles and authorities, and part of the general customs or common law of the land, and are of the same strength as acts of parliament, when the judges have determined what is a maxim; which belongs to the judges and not the jury. Tennes de la Ley; Doct. & Stud. Dial. 1, 0.8. Maxims of the law are holden for law, and all other cases that may be applied to them shall be taken for granted. Coke, Litt. 11, 67 i 4 €oke. See Plowd. 27 b.

3. The application of the maxim to the case before the court is generally the only difficulty. The true method of making the application is to ascertain how the maxim arose, and to consider whether the case to which it is applied is of the same character, or whether it is an exception to an apparently geneml rule.

4. The alterations of any of the maxims of the common law are dangerons. Coke, 2d Inst.210.

The following are some of the more important maxims:

A com"",ni ob.~",anl'"/Z non e.' recedend .. ",. There should be no departure from common obeervlUlce (or usage). Coke, Litt.186 i Wingate, Max. 2031 2 Coke, 74.

A dioniori .fI.ri del,et d",ominalio ., re.olulio.

The denomination and clI:planation of a p~l'IIon or tbing ought to be derived from the more worthy. Wingate, Max. 2611; Fleta, lib. 4, c. 10, f ]2.

A l'ifllpo"ibl. nlll n'lIl lin,.. No one il bound to do what is impollible.

A lion p06'. ad nOli ." •• equill"· argu",",lu", tI..... arii tI"oalid "'cel no .. ajJi","ali.~. From impOllibility to non-existence the inference follows necelBarily in the negative, though Dot in the alIIrmIItive. Hob. 3SG b.

A pirati. "", IlIlroniblll capti liberi perman ... t, ThOle captured by pirates or robbers remain free. Dig. 49. 16. 19.21 Grotiu., d. Jure Belli, lib. 3, c. 3, s. 1.

A pira"·. d latrolliblll <"Opta dOflI, .. i .. ", .. on ","," .. t, Things captured by pirates and robbers do not obange ownership. 1 Kent, Comm. 108, 1841 .2 WooddeBon, Lect. 258, 269.

A relcripl,·. "al., argu"''''''''''. An argument from reICriptl (i ••• original writs in the regilter) i. valid.

A "'''''''0 r dio ad i,!("'·ure", IIcli,;" .... tlon

Allb.fur r.gre ".'1". au",i/ium. From the highelt

remedy to an infenor action there is no return or alliBtance. Fleta, lib. 6, c. II Bracton, 104 a, t12 b; 3 Sharswood, Blacklt. Comm. 193,194.

A _bi, I.gi. "ott .., Needend"m. From tlte

words or the law there Ihould be no departure.. Broom, Mu. 3d Land. ed. 6661 Wingate, Max. 25; 6 Coke, 119.

AI> allueli. tlO!,jIl , .. juria. No injuJ7 ie done b,. thlngllong acquieICeclin. Jenk. Cent. Cu. Introd. .iii.

Abbrmatio .... m ,II ... ,,"'..,., eI '!!II_ aecipit!fltltl. ell, ul COtIC •• HO tlon HI "''''Ii.. Such a namber ancl lense is to be given to abbreviationl that the gl'lUlt may not fail. 9 Coke, 48.

Ab .... ,em ac.iper. d.b.",," eIIm qui nOtt •• , eo loci i .. quo p.,ilur. We must call him absent who Ia not in tbat place in "hlch he ia .ought. Dig. 60. ]6. 199.

Ab'!!IIlia 9IUqui reip"bli .. eaUla aben, IIoque .. tleq ... alii datlillo.a .". d.bel. The ab8enC8 of him wlio is employed in the lervice of the Btato, ought not to be prejudicial to him nor to others, Dig. 50. 1'1. 140.

Ab.olula .... ,eJltta e:rporilore Jlon mdig.'. An absolute, unqualified sentence (or propolition) neecia no Upolitor. Coke, 2d Inlt. 633.

Abu"da ... cavle/a IIOtt no •• t, Abundant cautloa does no harm. 11 Coke, 6; Fleta, lib. 1, c. 28, • 1.

Acc ... ori .. ", tlOtl dudt .ed •• quil .. r .ullm p ... ·Jlcipale. The principal draws after It the acceaaory, not the accessory the principal. Coke, Litt. 152 ... 389 a; 6 Ell . .t B. 772; Broom, Mu. 3d Land. eel. 433. Literally, The acceuory doel not cUaw, but follows, its principal.

Acct"oriu. '~quilu .. "atvrcz", eui prillcipali.. An acceBsory follows the nature of his principal. Coke, 3d Inst. 139; 4 Shanwood, Blackst. Comm. 38 ; Broom, Mu. 3d Land. ed. 440.

A ee II.ar ... emo debel Ie, "iIi cora'" Deo, Noon. il obliged to aecuee himaelf, unless before God. Hardr.139.

Acc".alor 1"''' raliotlabil. l .... pUl 110ft ... , awdinldll', tlin •• ben. d. o",i .. iOtl. nctuawnt. Au IICCUler is not to be heard after a realonable time. unlell he excule himlelf latilCactorily for the omiasion. F. Moore, 81'1.

ArIa erteriora ,·"dicanl ,,,'mora .~","ela. Outward &atl indicate the inward intent. Broom, Mu::. 3d Land. ed, 270 i 1 Smith, Lead. Cas.. 4th Am. ed. 1161 8 Coke, 21111 13 Johns. N. Y. '141 15 icl. 401.

A.'io nOtl dalvr tlon damnljleo. An action i. not given to oue who is not injured. Jenk. ConL C&8.69.

Aclio per.o"aU. ",oritvr cv .. ".,..",,4. A perIanal Dation dies with the person, Noy, Max. 14. See this phrue &8 a title, ACTIO PERSONAL'S.

Ac":o q" .. Ub., it eu4 ";4. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 'It.

Every action proceeds in ita own coune.

Aclion", ... genera "'an"' .... tlI .. "an~a. . LotI\, 460. The kind. of actions are especially to be

preaerved.· •

. Actor qui co"lra regula", qui~ addv"';!, "" .. N' IIvdi~Idv.. A pleader ought not to be heard 11 ho advancol a propollUon oontrary to the rules of law.

Aclor eequitvr /on.", rei, The plainti1l" mUllt follow the rorum of tho tbing in dispute. HolDe, Law Tr. 2321 Story, Confl. Laws, f 32~, k; 2 Kent, Comm.462.

Aclore nOtl proba .. " reUl abool"""... If the plain tiff doel not prove hie 011841, the defendant ill absolved. Hob. 103.

Actori in ... mbil OIlU' probandi. The burden of proof lies on the plaintiff. Bob. ]03.

Act. ,·ndient.,A. i,,'enliOtt. 8 Coke, 291; Broom,

Max. 3d Lond. ed. 270 I 13 John •• N. Y. 414. .

Actvl curi.. .. .... i_ ONeabil. An act of the court shall preJudioe no man. J enk. Cent. Cu. 1] 81 Broom, Mu. 3d Land. ed. 1151 1 Strange, 128; 1 Smith, Lead. C&8. 24t.-255I 12 C. B. 415

Actll. D.i ".",i,,_ /ncil 'Jljll.ia",. The act Of God do .. wrong to no 011.: that ill, no olla Ia no

MAXIM

117

MAXIM

lJIOalible in dllolllagel for iDevita.ble acoilieDt.. 2 Blaokstone, Comm. 122; 1 Coke, 117 b; bid. 87; Coke, Litt. 208 a.; 4. Taunt. 3011; 1 Term, 33. Bee ACT or GOD.

Ae' .. ineep"" r:tJ';'" per/delio 1"",rJ..1 "'" ."lu,I'at. 1'Clm ... , r_ri po'O"; .i autem pe .. rJ..1 ell: "olun"'" urn. p ..... OtI., ".1 ..., _dingo",i, r..."cco'; .. Oft poI.". An act already begun, who .. oompletion depend. npon the will oC the partiel, may be reealled; but if it depend on tl:le OOD .. n t oC a third penon, or on a cODtingenoy, it OaDDOt be recalled. BlOOn, Malt. Reg. 20. Bee Story, Ag. i 424.

A.,., j ... Uoiari ... oorom .non judiee ;rrm.. Aab.lUrj rio .iHi.tWiRli a.lllem a qrlOCUt,q .... Pl'OHJ,;1 ra' .. m ""'- A judicial act beCore one Dot a judge ilvoid; .. to a ministerial act, Crom whomsoever it proceedJ, let it be valid. Lolft, 468.

A.,.. Ngi8 n~; .. i .. , da.8I1I0IU.. An act of the law Ihall prejudice no maD. CDke, 2d In.t. 287 ; Broom, .Max. 3d Lond. ed. 1111; 11 Johnl. N. Y. aso; 8 Coke, 88; 8 irl.. 290; Coke, Litt. 264. b; Ii rerm, 381, aM; 1 Ld. Baym. 616; Hob. 218; 2 H. BJackst. 324-, 334.; b Eut, 14. 7; 1 Pre.ton, A bl. oC TiL 34.6; 8 B_n, Abr. 6611.

A,,". legi •.. _ini/a.eil injNf'ialA. The act of the II .. doe. no one wrong. 5 Coke, 116; 2 Sharlwood, Black.t. Comm. 123.

Ad .. l.gil;"'; !IOta reeipirrnt mod"lIl. Aota req1lired by law admit of no qualilieation. Hob. 163; Branch, PrlDoip.

.Ad .. m. UI";'O /ac"'" 11011 .., .. _ aclU.. An lOt done by me against my will ia Dot my act. Bruton, 101 11.

A.,... no .. rlulll/aci' nui m"'" rea. The act does Dot make a 'penon guilty unless the intentioD be pilty aile. Tbia maxim applies only in criminal __ ; in oivil mattere it is otherwise. Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 270, 27 b, 3211; 7 Tenn, 614; 3 Bingh. II. c. 34, 468; 6 MaDn. " G. 639; 3 C. B. 2211; 6 id, aso; II Clark .t F. 631; , N. Y. 1611, 163, 1116; 2 BouYier, Inlt. n. 2211.

Ad .. repug"_ noll po'UI , ... _. produci. .A repugnaDt act oannot be brought Into being, i.e, canDot be made ell"eotual. Plo .... d. 366.,

Ad eo q ... /roqlle"n ... accidvtlf Jura adapla .. ltlr.

The laws are adapled to thOle cale8 which occur more lrequentl)'. Coke, 2d Inlt. 131; Wingate, 11&:1.216; Dig. 1. 3. 3; 111 Howell, Bt. Tr. 1061; a Barnew. AI C. 178, 1S.'; 2 Crompt. .t J. Exoh .. 108: 7 Meal." W. Exoh. b1l9. 600; Vaugh. 373; 6 Coke, 38, 128; 8 irl.. 77; 11 Exch. 4.78; 12 How. Sl2; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 4.l.

.Ad ofoi_jUltieiariortlm "Peela', .... i""iqrll COTa ...

N placil4rl" julli"a", ft.1:lriHT.. It ia the duty oC jlllticel to adminllter jUltlO8 to every one pleading before them. Coile, 2d ID.t. 4.61.

ArJ. pr=iIA ... a.'eee.u... flat r.lalio, "i.i impediaIJJr '.te,,'ia. .A relative II to be referred to the next aDtecedent, unl ••• the llen.e would be thereby impaired. Noy, MD. 11th ed. 4; 2 Exoh. 4.711; 17 Q. B. 833; 2 Hnrl.t. " N. 826; 3 Bingh. II. c. 217; , Coke, 13; 13 How. 142.

Ad t-li- ¥ j .. di_, ., _ juratare, reIJ'OfIthlf'- Judges, aDd not juron, respoad to quelliDO' at law. 7 M .... 2711.

Ad quuti_ facti .. on rupOtldent judic.,; ad ,lIUtioftu kgi. !lOtI r."POfId~JlI Jurator". The judgea do Dot an ..... er to que.tionl of fact; the jury do not IIII .. ar to question. of law. Coke, Litt. 295; 8 Coke, 308; Vangh. 1411; Broom, Mas. 3d Lond. od. 911.

Ad .... ~r_ "dad ca .... /orlt,ita. "Oft t .... tur fai" .ili ftI(J ... lpo i .. ,.,.., ... ,riI. Noone is held to lII,wer for the etreotl oC a .uperior force, or of an _ident, unlea hi. OWD fault hal oODtributed.

lleta, lib. 2, c. 72, ~ 16. .

Atlditio FoNt .. ".",.;'111.... AD addition provel iaferiority. Coke, 4th In.t. 80; Wingato, Mn. 211, au. 60; Littleton, i 2113; Coke, Litt. 1811 a.

..tEdificare ,'n Il1o r.rDprio 1010 .. Oftticd quod allen noeeat, It is not. awful to build upon one's own land what may be injurious to another. Coke, 3d !nst. 201; Broom, .Mu. 3d Land. ed. 331.

..tEdijlealUm .o/~, '0/0 .edil. That whioh Is built. upon the laDd goes with the land. .coke, Lltt. 4 a,. Broom, Mu. 3d LODd. ed. 349, 365; In.t. 2. 1. 211; Dig. 4.7. 8. 1.

..tEd''jIeia .010 ced .. ",. Buildingl p ... by a grant of the Iud. Fleta, lib. 3, o. 2, f 12.

..tEqllilAl agil i .. per.onam. Equity acta upon the penon. 4 Bouvier, lnst. n. 3783.

..tEquita •• equilur lellml. Equity Collow. the law. 1 Story, Eq. Jur. f 64.; 3 Wooddeaon, Lect. "79, "82; Branoh, Max. 8; 2 Bhar ..... ood, Blacklt. Comm • 830; GUb. 136; 2 Ed. 318; 10 Mod. 3; 16 How. !99.

..tEquior uC d;'pooilio l~ 'l"am Ir_i .. i.. The dilpOlition of the law i. more unpartial thaD tbM oC man. 8 Coke, 1Ii2; Bracton, 3 a..

~£quum II bonum, ul La: leg...... What il In.t and right il the law of lawi. Hob. 224..

.4J.timatio pr.tt:rili d.liel; n pootr.mo /aelo .. u,,quam eruci'. The eltlmation of a orime oommitted never inoreues from a lubsequent Cact. Bacon, Mas. Beg. 8; Dig. 60. 17. 1311; Broom, Ma:x. 3d Lond. ed. 17.

Affecl,'o 'ua. nom .... '''po .. i, opt:ri 1110. Your motive give. a name to ),our act. Bracton,2 b, 101 b.

Affect .. plfnitur licel nOft "9'litur effeclU.. The intention II punished although the consequence do not follow. II Coke, 66.

AJIi"i. ",Ii affi .. i. non ul .iAi aJlitti,. A cona.eo~ tion (i.I. by marriage) of my conneotion is not a oonneotion of mine. Bheltord, Marr. " D. 1'14.

Ajftrmanli, "a" n'gall,i, ;"cumbil prabatio. The proof liel upon him who amrms, not on him .... ho deniel. See Phillipps, Ev. 4113.

AJliTfllanti. ,., probalio. He who affirm. mUlt prove. 9 CUBh. Mus. 53b.

Alienalia licd l'ralribealur, "'''Hn.u tllmen ollt.. illm, in quorum f<lDOr_ prohibila ",, pale.' ./IeI·i, et quilibd pot.t renunciare /.uri [TO Ie ifltl"oclNC'O. Although olienation be prohlbite ,yet, by the con.ent of all in whale favor it la prohibited, it may take place, for it is in the power oC any man to renounoe a right introduoed for hil own beneSt. Coke, Lilt. 118; 9 N. Y. 29l.

Aliellatio r.i pr,/erlur juri a""" ... endi. Alienation is favored by the law rather than aooumulation. Coke, Litt. 186 n, 381 II, note; Broom, Mas. 3d Lond. ed. 393, 409; Wright, Tenurel, 154 d "q. j 1 Cruise, Dig. 4th ed. 77, 78.

Alilllalion ptlllding a. ."il i. "airl.. 2 P. Will. 482; 2 Atk. Ch. 174.; 3 ld, 392; 11 Vel. Ch. 1114.; 1 Jobn •• Ch. N. Y. 686, b80.

Aliquid eonc.ditur fl. iJliuria. TeIIIatl,nl impanila, q"od alia. lion eonc.deretur. Something il oonceded 1eat a wrong should remain unpunished which otherwiae would not be oonceded. Coke, Litt. 1117,

Aliquu no .. clelldl , ... judell: in prop,;4 cav.4, quia. flail po"" .... j.uJ..z " par.. A person ought not to be jDdge in hil own oaUle, beeaule he Cannot act both &8 judge aDd party. Coke, Lltt. 14.1 a I Broom. Mu.3d Lond. ed. 112; Littleton, f 212; 13

Q. B. 327; 17 ttl. 1; 15 C. B. 7119; 1 C. B. 1'-8. 3211.

.Aliud eel e.lar., aliud taeer«; To coneeal is one thing. to be lilent another. 3 Burr: 1910. See 2 Wheat. 1711; 9 id, 631; 3 Blngh. 77; 4. Taunt. 861; 2 Carr • .t P. an; Broom, .Ma:x. 3d Land. ed. 701.

A/iur/.. .. , di.titlclio, aliud 'sparano. Distinction

i. one tblng, leparation another. Baoon's argo Cue of Postoati of BootiaDd, Works, iv. 3bl.

A livd 0" pOl.idere, aUud e ... i .. po .... ,ion.. It

i. one thing to po.sell. it I. another to be in POIseasiOD. Hob. 163; Bracton, 2011.

A U"d ", .. ""cler., alivd " ... don'; cOfl .... tir'. To lell i. one thing, to give consent to him who I8Ila another. Dig. 60. 1'1. 180.

MAXIM

118

MAXIM

Alloga ... co"'ra"a tiM .. , a"d, ... d,... One makIDg oontradictory allegation. i. not to be heard. Jeak. Cent. Cu. 18 ; Brocm, Max. 3d Lond. ecL160, 268; 4. Term, 211; 3 Bxch. 446, 627, 678; 4. ,d, 187; 11 ,d. 4.93; 3 BlI ... B. 883; 6 ,d. 602; 6 C. B. 196, 888; 10 MaiL 163; Coke, 4.th lalt. 279.

AlleglJ... ._ tv"",gdill.1II lion .. , a .. d""d ....

Oae alleging hi. own iafamy i. not to be heard. Coke, 4th la,t. 299; 2 Johnl. Ch. N. Y. 839, 360.

All.y"" "0" tkb"it quod prob .. , .. ", 11011 .... lov .. t.

Thllt ought not to be alleged which, it proved, would not be releYant. 1 Chaac. Cu. 4.6.

Ale,"... ";rOU .. H""O .. li. 11011 pr.b.. ao"oll." ..

Dig. 60. 17. 4.9. A deception practised upoa one peraon do •• not riTe a oau.e of aotion to another.

Allerna"IIa peti.io 110ft .. , .... d""da. An alterna&ive petition ill not to be hoard. 6 Coke, 4.0.

A"'blg .... rupOllriO oan"'" proferen- • .e a.";ptcllda. An ambigaoul anlw"r ill to be taken against the party who olren it. 10 Coke, 58.

A",bigui a e GI'b .... Imper p,·"'tlmiINr pro reg.. In doubtl'ul 0IIII. the pruumption ill a1waYI in Cavor or the king. Loin, 24.8.

Amin'guilGl Hr60",,,, la,.,.. eerijlo .. ,iolll ~leItar; IIGm quod "'" f .. cto o",ur ambig ...... flerijio .. - "._ facR Ioll"ur. A latent ambiguity may be lupplied by evidence; Cor an ambiguity which aril" out of a fact may be removed by proof oC the fact. Baeon, Mu. Reg. 23; 8 Bingh. 24.7. See 1 Powell, Dev. 4.77; 2 Kent, Comm. 657; Broom, Mall. 3d Lond. ed. 541; 13 Pet. 97; 8 Jobnl. N. Y. 90; 3 Hallt. N. J. 71.

Ambiguilal fI.rbo",m 1' .. ,.... IIulill IIerljlcalione _olud'tvr. A )latent ambiguity ill never bolpen by averment. Lotn, 249; Bacon, MIIJ:. 25; 00 .... 11, J., 21 Wend. N. Y. 61)~, 659; 23 ,d. 71, 78; S'ory, J., 1 MIlL C. C. 11; L.~o ... b, J., 1 Tex. 377, 383.

Ambiguu ... plaNt ..... int.."mari deb •• contr .. proferenllm. An ambiguoul plea ougbt to be interpreted against tbe party pleading it. Coke, Litt. 803 b; Broom, Mu. 8d Lond. ed. 635; Stephen, Plead. 6th ed, 4.11); Bacon, Mu. Reg. 3; 2 H. Blackat. 531; 2 Mael ... W. Exoh. ""'

Ambulalori .... , flol",,'a. d.funmi ... qtM .. d flit. naprelll .. 111 ""'t .. lII. Tbe will of a deceuad penun II ambulatory until the lut moment of lite. Dig. 34.. 4.. 4.; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. «6; 2 B1ackltone, Comm. 602; Coke, Litt. 322 b; 1 Viot. e. lUI, L 24.; 3 Ell. & B. 572; 1 J armaa, °Will., 2d ed, 1l; 1 Mylne & K. os, 486; 2 id. 73.

Angli. iur .. 'n 0"'". CGlIl lib.rtali da., fGflorrlll.

The lawl of Bnglaad are favorable in every 0&10 to liberty. Halken, Mu. 12.

A.imu. ad I. 0111""/* d .. .,;" It iB to the iDten&ion that all law appheL

Ani!,,'" lIolllini .... a"ima 'C"ptt. The Intention of the party II tbe loul oC tbe instrument. 3

Bnlltr. 67; Pitman, Prino Sur. 26.

°AnllicHluo 'reelllleftlllO ag .. iml"'/ ... "'o d •• dioi

tvr, 'JI",'pi'nlel'a~ AM "",uolo dir, qui.. ann,," ci.ili'er 110ft a _enta ' .... porum ,od .. d d ... nu_"a",u.. We call a obild a year old on the three bundred and lidy-lIftb day, wben the day il C&irly begun but not ended, beoau .. we caloulate tbe eivil year not by momenta, but by days. Dig. 60. 18. 13'; id. 132; CalvinuI, Lex.

A""ua noo d.6itu7l&i"d ... 110ft '.para' 'pH. Even the judge dividel not annultlel or debt. 8 Coke, U. See Story, Eq. Jur. If 4.80, 617; 1 Balk. 36,

66. •

Anna .. , fIIora fIIolG. quo "'''fllplanol .. p_lfl .. ' • i,..,MlullI. A year il the duration of tbe motion by "hioh a planot revolves through ita orbit. Dig.4.0.

f. 4.. I); CalvinuI, Lex •. ; Bracton, 369 b.

AI'''''' juri. 110" .uno' iura. Legal aioetlea are not lawl. Coke, Litt. 304.; 3 Soott, 773; 10 Coke, 126; Broom, Max. 142. Boe APBX JURIS.

Applicatio ,,' ",'ta regula. Applioation ill the liCe oC a rule. 2 Bulltr. 79.

AquG o.di, 1010. Tbe water yieldl or aooompUliel the BOil. The grant of the loil or land oarri. ~ water. Hale, de Jur. Mar. pt. 1~ a. 1.

Aqua cum, ., d.b., cu"er. '" .... "IN 10""'" Water ruas IIDd ought to run u it hu uecl to run. 8 Rawle, Penn. 84., 88; 26 Penn. St. 4.13; a Ken&, Comm. 4.89; Anpll, Wat. OOIl1'. 4.13; Gale .. W. Eaaem. 182.

ArbitrilllllltN7I& .up.I .... t"b"" ..... 9". _. A jl1ft arbitration rendera to every one hla own. Boy, Mu.24.8.

Arb'tri .. "' 'i..ai ... uM. An award iB ajudgmezaL

Jenk. Cent. C 137; 8 ~ulltr. M.

Arbor d ..... ere.";,; liu"um G .... or_ •.... oil.

A tree while it II growing; wood when it caDnot grow. Croke Jac.166; 12 Johns. N. Y. 239, 24.1.

Arg" .... t"tI •.. dieifton. .., fom ... ", .. ", i. J""'_ An argament ariaing from a division ill mOlt powerfal in law. 6 Coke, 60; Ceke, Litt. 213 6.

Argum .. tufll a mt90ri ad ... in ... n.,atiH .OR .a"'; • .. 1., • conoer.o. An argument from the gr.ater to tbe leiS ill of no Corce negatively; oonvenel,. it iI. Jenk. Cent. Cal. 281.

Argll",en'"m a Iiml'li "alel in l.g.. An argamezat drawn from a limilar oue, or anaiog)'. avaiiB iD law. Coke, Litt. 1111.

Argulll.,.'u. ab a".'o"t .. , •• ., fom.n.u .. i. UgL An argament drawn from anthorit1 ill the Itrongu& ID law. Ooke, Litt. 264..

Argum ... t"", ab impollibili pilar/llltl'" calel in I., ...

An argumeDt deduoed from impouibilUy gre&t.l;y avail I in law. Coke, Litt. 92.

Argum.ntu .. ab inco"".,.i ... 1i ell flalidum in ,.,. J qlli .. """ nOft ".,...11.. aliquod ,tI"""!'fti.... AD argament drawn from what ill inoonvenient I. good in law, becaDee tbe law will not permit any InOODvenienee. Coke, Litt. 66 a, 268; 7 Taunt. 627; I Barnew ... C. 181; 8 Clark" P. 671.

A ..... or .. '" appellation., n".. 101uII& .eula d gkl.llai .t gale., .. d .t f ... ' ••• ' lapid •• cOllt''' ... t..... Uad ... the name of arms are included not only .hieldl and swOrdl and helmet., but alao olDba IID4 ItoD8L Coke, Litt. 162.

A .. iu"atur """,,. Ju,. ... "ctO"'. AD .... Igu.r U olotb.d with the rigota of hil principal. Halkera, Max. 14.; Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ad. 4.16, 4.16, 4.23, 4.26; Wingate, Mu. p. 68; 1 Bxoh. 82; 18 Q. B. 878; Perkina, f 100.

, AuclOf'ita, •• pMlo.opll"r_, tIIedico",,,,, ., po ...... "'''', ..... 'N ... un. allegalld. ., , ..... d.. The opinions of pbilosopherl, pbYlioiaal, and poetl &1"8 to be alleged and received In oau_. Coke, Lilt. 2"-

A_pi .. .,...OOrKm ","'jud.ce indign... CatohlD. at WOrdl II nnworthy of a judp. Hob. 348.

Au,lIorie,. 10 __ ... d .. d ..... t b. gi'HII bJ tlaed.

Comyn, Dig. AIIOt'IIey (C 6); 4. Term, 313; f Ul. 207; 1 Holt, 14.1; 9 Wend. N. Y. 68, 76; 6 Jbu. 11; ~ Binn. Pelln. 818.

B .. ,...,ri"", COIIO",/tli' qui fI"01'Nr PI""" .... Jut'tia", b .. raola'. He is guilty of baratry who CDI' .money leill jUftioe. Bell, Diot. Barratry at OOIDmon law hu a dilrerent ligni1loatloD. See B~IU.TRT.

B.ll" 1'''"'' oed .... ' reip .. blic.. Thing. aoq1lilecl in war go to the Itate. Cited 2 Ru ..... M. 58; 1 Kent, Comm. 101; 6 C. Rob. Adm. 166, 183, 1 Gail. C. C. 115W.

Btm..dicla .. , e:rporilio quando ,. .. rediMmar a de.'"'01...... Bl .... d il the exposition wbeJl the thIDa ill laved Crom destruction. 4. Coke, 28 .

Ben'·flnlfact •• a. ",n' ill'ft7lf'etali_ ,,"a" .. .-. u' ,.... magi .... 1 ... , quam pereat; It qll.,ibel _ ....... 0 forlU.;",. _'ra don .. tor.". inl.."rrlalldCl .. ,. Liberal interpret.tioa. are to be made of deedl, .0 tbat more may Btand than Can; and every grant ill to be taken mOlt Itrongly against the grantor. 4. MUI. 134.; 1 SaDdC. Ch. N. Y.268, 268; eompare 27&. 277.

MAXIM

lUI

MAXIM

B_igM laeiwruu, .. '" l"""Prclali_ proplw n.plieila'_ laico ..... , '" r.. ..a9i. "al.al qaa .. pneal; el ",,6a i.,eftCioRe, .OII •• o,,'ra, dd.,., ill--.... Comtraotionl Ihould be liberal, on acconnt or Uae iguol'Ulce of the laity, or non-prof.llional JlellOns,1O that the lubJect-metter may avail rather tllan periah; and wordl mUlt be subJeot to the intention, not the intention to the words. Coke, Lilt. 16 a; Broom, MaL 3d Lond. ed. 481, 604; 11 Q. B. 852, 858, 868, 870; 4 Hou. L. Cu. 666; 2 Black.t. Co_. 211t cd. 379; 1 Bulltr. 176; Hob. 304.

&aig."'r _teNtia, ill urbU g ..... ralibtu .... dubU., .., pre/tlrQnda. The more faTorable oonltruotion II to be plaoed on general or dou bdul expr81sionL 4 Coke, 16; Dig. 60. 11. 192. 1; 2 Kent, Comm.661.

BaigHi ... Iegu iflterpr.'a"dal ... n' q"o ""lUll'''' ...... .,."...,... ... r, Lawl are to be more faTorably iDterpreted, that their intent may be preHned. Dig. 1. 3. 16.

BU idaa e:t:igi bema ftdea nOlI paei' .. r, ., i" ...... - ItM:IiDRi6tU, "OIl pe,...iUilKr a"'P'i;&. fori ",a •• """,1 I""_"'_ Good faith does not lutrer the lame thing to be exacted twice; and iu making lati8faotIlIII, Ii II not permitted that more Ihould be done liter a&tWaction II onoe made. 9 Coke, 63; Dig. 60.11.61.

B_ fola m91·1.., quod eOll"",i' jlGt. Good f'altb __ da that what II agreed upon Ihall be done. Dig. 19. 20. 21; itl. 111. 1. 60; itl. 60. 8.2. 13.

B_jld_ .011 paliIM" lIt hi. td .... engatur. Good faith doea not allow UI to demand twioe the payment of the lame thing. Dig. 60. 11. 61.

B_ jldei pouo .... r ill iii 'a"',,. quod ad '.r"'" _rit _r. A bOIl. JIM poueuor il bonn ror tb& only whiob h&l oome to him. Coke, 2d In8t. 286; Grotius, tN Jur. B.ll. lib. 2, o. 10, f 3 el .eq.

Boai jadieW .. , aMpliaN juri.dielio..... (juati,.,_..... 1 Burr. 304). It IJI the part of a good judge to eularge hla jurildiotlon; that II, hil remedial authority. Chano. Preo. 329; 1 WilL 284; 9 JI_. & W. 818; 1 C. B. N. I. 256; 4 Blngh ••. o.

233; • Saot&, 2211; 17 Mau. 310.

BorrijRllic ' ca,_lili" .. dirt_ It II the

duty of a good jadge to remove oau .. 1 of litigation. Coke, 2d IDiL 308.

Boai jRIlioi • ." juaiftam ai". dilati_ ma"da,..

CNeIIti'oni. It ia tLe duty of a good Jndge to oau .. u_tlon to iasue on .. judgment without dela.y. Coke, Litt. 289.

BOlli jMdifri. HI Ii' .. dirt_.., tie lM .., iiI. oritur, " i./er'" reipubliUl '" .... t fl"" lili"lR. It II the iuty of a good Judge to prevent litigations, that IIdt .ay not grow out of luit, and it oonoeml the welf'are of a .tate that an end be put to lIt.igation. 'Coke,U; 6 itl. 31 a.

B __ tNl.-..n. a illt.".. eaua., _al_ ...

9WOlibd tNl_ The good of a detendant ariael from a perfect 0 .... hll harm from lOme defeat. 11 Cote. 68.

B __ 1I_ .... ri". _ra t_i_ tI ....... 'ali. tlOII .., ._... A thing good from neo .. aity II not good 1Ieyoad the limite of the a_ity. Hob. 1"-

s-... jlt.tkz __ ndll. 1IqII_ d 6 ... _ judieal, .,

","'a_ midi> jMri prIIlert. A good judge deold. _reIing to Jaltlce and right, and preferl equity to Itriet law. Coke, LitL 2.; 4 Term, 344.; 2 Q. B. 837; Broom, Jlax. 3d Lond. eli. 11.

B,_ j_aimau tNbet .equi .. _ origi"al., ., ae-'_ '11'" pri"eipal.. A judlolal writ ought to folla. Itl original, and an _ellOry ita prinolpal.

I_It. Cent. Cu. 292. .

Br_ jMdieitJu _ oadil pro tNl"'" flra& A JUieialwrit fan. not through defeat of form. Jenk.

Cat. CM. 43. .

C_ad "-i" •• _di.d ... , "OR ad p,,,,i,,,aol, _ri tlo6et. A prilon ought to be given to the CUItady, act the punlahment, of penonL Coke, Litt. ZI8. See Dig. 48. 111. 8. II,

Oa_ lortuitu. "OIl .. , .peralld ... , " "_0 teII_ di";tlQI". A fortuitoul event il not to be fore_n, and no penon II held bound to divme it. 4 Coke, 66.

Oa_/ortuitue nOlI e.' ,uppoReRdua. A fortnitoDi ovent il not to be pre8umed. Hardr. 82, argo

0_ om .... ". at "bli"iorri da"," di-p'0eiliolli eo_ m""i • .fuN relitlq"itur. A c&le omItted and forgotten 18 len to the dilposal of the oommon law. 6 Coke, 31; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 46; 1 Bxob. 416.

Oalalla .i-"~ po.H_ a .. itli _ poe"''''' Chattela jaltly pOlleued CaDDot be lOlL J ellk. Cent. C&I.28.

Oalalla "7."IaIlIRr i,,'er. milli .. a in leg'. Chattell are oonlldered in law among the minor thing8 • Jenk. Cent. C&I.62.

Oa".a eaUlI! ,., ea"'a Mu.a'" The caule or a oaaae il the caale of the etreat. Freem. 329; 13 Mod. 639.

Oauaa ""eleail! f!ublieW"'1"iparalu,.; et "",,_a en ,·at'" qUI! pro religiOlle laoil. Tho caUIe of the ohurch i. equal to publio caaae; and paramouut II the reuon whioh maku for religion. Coke, Litt. 341.

Oa_ ., orIgc .. , _ateria ..,otli. Can.e and origin 18 the material of bUlinel.. 1 Coke, 911; Wingate, Hax. 41, Mu. 21.

Oauaa prOllei",a, "on ,..".ota apee,atur. The immediate and not the remote 0&1188 il to be oonlldered. Bacon, Hax. Reg. 1; Story, Bailm. 616; 3 Kent, Comm. 8th .d. 314; 2 Bait, 348. See CJ-VIA PROXIKA.

Oauaa eaga d i,,"""" _ en Gel,,'" raeiQRQbili ..

A vagne and unoert&in oanle II not a _nable oauee. 6 Coke, 67.

0.. .... dOli., "illl, liherlatil,jIfti "',,' i"ter/a_abilia in '.". Cau ... of dower, life, liberty, rev .. nue, are among the thingl favored in la.w. Coke, Litt.3'1.

Oa"eal ."."tor. Let the pnrch.ler beware. See CJ-"BJ-" EKPTOR.

O .... eal eJIIPtor; qui ipara,. IIOR tNbllil quod jue alieR". _,'1. Let a purch&ler beware; who oaght Dot to be ignorant that he il purchallag tbe righte of another. Hob. 99; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 690; Coke, 'Lltt. 102 a; 3 Taunt. 439; 1 Bouvier, Inlt. 383; Sagden, Vend ... P. 13th ed. 272 " .eq.; 1 Story, Bq. Jur. 11th ed. oh. 6.

0 ....... ' " ... ditor. Let tbe leller beware. LolL 328; 18 Wend. N. Y. 449,4063; 23id.363j ~Barb.

N. Y. 323; 6 N. Y. 18, 82.

O ...... d" ..•• , a /rap ... tiI. Beware of' f'ragmentL Bacon, Aph, 211.

Oerta d.6el .... ,'11"""", ., lIarraeio d .,.,.,_ /VadaM..,""', el certa re. 'l"1! detlu.itvr ill judi!,illm. The intention, ooant, f'oundation, and thing, brought to judgment, ought to be oertaln. Coke, Lltt. 303 ".

a.".. •.. , ",od cerl,," redlli po".,. That II Rufll. oiently oertain which oan be made oertain. Noy, Max. 4-81; Coke, Lilt .• 6 b, 911 a, 142 tJ; 2 Sharlwood, Blaoklt. Comm. 143; 2 'Maale .t S. 60; Broom, Jlu. 8d Lond. ed. 666-568; 8 Term, '63; 4 Crui.e, Dig. 4th ed. 289; 8 Jly1ne .t K. Ch. 363; 11 Culh. M&I •. 380.

O ..... nl. eauaa, .... al elfectvl. The eaU8e 08&1- iag, the dect mUlt oe&le. 1 Exoh. 430; Broom, Jlax. 3d Lond. ed. 161.

Ce.,a.'. rat,·OII. I..,.. _.M, ., ~paa Ice. Reuon II the loal of the law, and "'hen the re&lon of any Partioul~law ceu., 10 doea the law ltaelf. 4 Coke, 38; 7 • 110; Coke, Lilt. 70 b, 123 a; Broom, JlaL 3d ond. ed. 151, 162; 4 Bep.381 13 B&lt,

348; • B h ••• C. 388. .

O."a.' •• tal" pri.ilifJO, _, deri"ati..... The primary .tate coaling, the derivati1'e cea.el. 8 Rep. 3.; Broom, Maz. 3d Lond. ed. p. 438; , Kent, Comm. 32.

C'.d le cri ... flli lail Ia ioIIte, ., 110" pAl rid ..

MA.XIM

120

MA.XIM

latul. It il the crimewhioh cau_ the Ihame, and Dot the Bodold.

a"tu.V q"e doit '"heriter al I'~re doit inlleriler 01 .fil.. He who would hue been heir to the Cather oC the deoeaaed Ihll.ll allo be heir of the Ion. Fitzherbert, Abr. De.e.IlI, 2; 2 Shar.wood, Blacklt. Comm. 239, 260.

Cllae.a .. , ad eornmu,,_ legem. A ohace il b,. eommon law. Reg. Brev. 806.

Charta de non .",. flOIi l'alet. A charter or deed of a thing not in being is Dot valid. Coke, Litt. 36.

Cllarttlrum ouper fid.m, morlu;. ,."libue, ad patriam de ... e. .. itudi"e, recllrr .... i.u" •.. t. The witnes.eB being dead, the truth oC oharterl mUIt, of necelsity, be referred to the countr,.. Coke, Litt. 16.

Clairograpln.m apud d.bitor_ reperlllrn preft,mit"r .ol"'t,,... An evidenoe of debt found in P0118llion of the debtor il prelumed to be paid. Halk. Max. 30. See 14 Mees • .t W. 8711.

{}ire .. ilt .... , 'Dila"du.. Circuity II to be avoided.

Coke, Litt. 384 .. J Smith, Lead. C ... 4th Am. ed. 20; Wingate, Max. 179; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 8011; Ii Coke, 34, 16 Meee • .t W. 208; 61!lxch. 829 •

. C;tal;o erl .u Juri lIat .. rali. A lummons i8 by Datural right. Cuel iM Banco R.g;. Will. III. "8.

{}itali_ nOlI e_d .... tur priu.qu .. m nprima-

tur .vper qua r. fieri d.b., cilalio. Citationllhould not be granted before it il atated about what matter the citation il to be made. (A mu.im of ecolell&ltioallaw.) 12 Coke, «.

Cla_la 9."er .. li. d. ra'duo nOli ... cornpkotit"r tN" 11011 eju.d.". .ill' 9.n.ri. eum ii. qu .. qJ.cialim dicl .. " .. rallt. A general elause of remainder does not embrace those thingl which are not of the lame kind with these which had been Ipeoiall,. melltioned. Lom, 419.

Cia ..... l". generali. non re/erlur ad ''''pr.Ma. A

feneral olaule doel not refer to things oxpresled. Coke, 154-

Cla ... ula qu .. abl'Oga"'o,,_ neludil ab initio flOII tI .. let. A elsuee in a law which preoludeCI it. abre(ation is invalid from the beginning. Bacon, Max. Hep:. 19, p. 89; 2 Dwar-II, Stat. 673; Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 27.

Olau.ula tiel tliqJo.ilio inufilie pff' p""""mpliOtlremolam ",.1 ~au."m, 'Ie po.'laclo "011 lulcilnr. A Ulele .. 0lau8e or dl8posltlon, i. e. one whloh the law would have implied, II not 8upported by a remote prelumpUon, or by a caule Bri81ng afterward •. Bacon, Mu. Reg. 21; Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 61111.

Cia"",1II! ino_f. ""'per tndueunl ~icion"".

Unuaual clausel alway8 exoite a IUlplclon. 3 Coke, 81; Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 264.

Cngitatio .. i. pG!nam ...... 0 pali'",.. Noone 18 pnniIIhed Cor hill thought.. Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 2711.

CoA ..... d •• nlla PII'lOIIa o""",'n", propler ...,ilal_ J"ri. quod IIabent. Coheirs are deemed aa one perIon, on _ount oC the unity of right whioh they pOIHBI. Coke, Litt. 163.

Comrnerci"", jure genli"m commult ..... debet, d lion ill monopoUtlm el pri""',,m pallcorum 'l" ... hlm oon"erlond"D'. Commerce, by the law of natlonl, onght to be oommon, and not to be converted into a 1D0nopoly &Dd the' private gain oC a Cew. Coke, 3d h.t.. 181, in margo

Cornmodll'" e:c iff/uriS .114 91011 1Iab_ d~b.t. No man onght to derive any benefit of his own wrong. Jenk. Cent. C&I. 161; Fincb, Law, b. I, 0.3, n. 62.

Oommon opini",. ie good. allthority ill laVl. Coke, Lltt. 186 a; 3 Barb. Ch. N. Y. 628, 577.

Commllni •• rror lacif /.ue. A oommon error makes iaw. What W&l at flnt .llegal, being repeated many tiDel, Is prelnmed to have acqnired the foroe of au.p; and then it would be wrong to depart from

it.. Billiard, Real Prop. 268; 1 Ld. Raym. 42; II Clark .t F. 172: 3 Maule .t S. 3U6; 4 N. B. 468; 2 M&lI. 357. The convene of this muim iI co_ ... uni. error ROn laeil jn., A common error does not make law. Coke,4th Inst. 242; 3 Term, 725; II ilL 664.

Compendia OURI diependi... Abridgment. are hindrance.. Coke, Litt. 305.

Cumprolll;lIarii '''flt Judiea. A.rbitraton are JudgeB. Jenk. Cent. CaB. 128.

Compromillum .. d .i ... ;Jitudin .... judiei"",,,, retliqil.r. A compromile i. brought into dinity with Judgment.. 9 CUlh. M .... 671.

Co" .... io p.r ,.egom fi.ri debet d. e.rtihldill.. A grant by the king ought to be a grantor a certainty. II Cob, 48.

COfIea.io ......... eOIlC.denf_ 10 lam i,lIerpr.tation .... bb,r. d.bet. A grant cught to have .. liberal interpretation againlt the granLcr. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 279.

00flcordi4 pa", .. re' cracunl ., cpul ... tiS li,...

Small meanl inoreaBe by conoord, and litigaUonl by cpulence. Coke, 4th Inlt. 74-

Oonditio b.nefi.ialie, qll ..• Ialte .. COII.truil, bfftigM, •• cund_ ,,, ... bo",,,, inl ... tion... al int.rprelanda; odio.a aul_, qll ... tatum d •• tn.it, 'Iric'~, ,.elmd ... verb" ....... proprietal ... , aectpi ... d«. A benelcial condition, whioh oreates an eltate, ought to be COD.trued fa~orabl,., according to the intention of the worda; but an odioul condition, which dNtro,.1 an eltate, ought to be oon.trued .trictly, acoording to the letter of the wordL 8 Coke, 110; Sheppard, Touohst. 134-

OOfld,'tio dicilter, e .... quid ill e '" ineerl1l .. pi

pole.1 I ... der« nd en. nut 11011 , oon/erl.,.. It ..

called a condition when lomething ill given on lID unoertain event, which ma,. or m.,. Do& 80me into exilltenoe. Coke, Litt. 201.

COfIdilio illicit .. koblhlr pro non adft.t... An IIJI· lawful oondition il deemed as not annexl!d.

Conditio pr .... den. odimpleri deb., priwq.a • .. quattlr eff.clt". A oondition precededt mnlt b. f\dftl1ed beCore the ell'ect o&n follow. Coke, Litt. 201.

Condilion •• qu .. lib.f odiOlItJ rnarimi aul_ cOfIfftt ", .. trimoniu", ., commerctam. Any conditionl are odious, but espeoially thOle againlt matrimon7 alii oommerce. Loftt, 644.

Con/ ... iQ lacla in jlldit1'o o",ni proboliOfl' rnai_ eef. A confe .. ion made In conrt II of greater efteot than any proof. Jenk. Cent. Caa.102.

ConI""" in judicio pro jadiaato /tabet.r It ",0- dam",od" ..,4 .... , ... ti4 damllatur. A perlOn who h&l ocnfeBled in court il deemed as hulng had judgment paned upon him, and, in a manner, it condemned by hie own sentence. 11 Coke, 30. See Dig. 42. 2. 1.

Confirmore e,' id quod pri .. , iflflrm •• luit ,;"'''' firm are. To confirm i. to make firm wbat waa before infirm. Coke, Litt. 2116.

Confirm.al'tJ " .... 0 pot .. , pri"'q""m jll." au;der(c.

Noone oan 80nflrm before the right _ruel to hllD. 10 Coke, 48.

Confirmalio •• , nulia, ubi donu ... pr .... deft. erl ...... ,·aUd,,,,.. A confirmation is null where the proeeding gift i. Invalid. Coke, Litt. 296; F. Moore, 764.

Ca'IjI"""lio omne. "'ppl" d.l.ctu., liee! id. ,uod actum .,, ab illitio lion val"it. Contlrmation supplies all defectB, though that which hOB been done 11'118 not valid at tho beginning. Coke, Litt. 2116 b.

C';"firmol " .... " ,II; toUil abu.um. He oonftrms a u.o who removes an abuM. F. Moore, 764. (]",u"nctio marilt' el I-i" .. er' d, jure flotur ...

The union of a man and a woman ill oC the law or nature.

aOll ..... "./oeil kgtlfll. Consent makel the law.

A oontrnct il law between the parties having received their con.ent. Bronoh. Prlno.

C""'..., ... non Goneubilullactl matri.ani_ Con-

HUlK

121

MAXIM

IIDt, Dot aoition, oon.titutel marriage. Coke, Litt. 33 OJ Dig. 50. 17. 30. See 10 Clark" F.534; 1 Bouvier, hit. 103; Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed.1211.

00 ... _", Iollil trrOfflll. Couleut removes or obvialel a mistake. Coke, Litt. 128; Coke, 2d lnst. 123; Broom, Max. 3d Loud. ed. 129; 1 B1ugh. If.

c. 68; 8 BIL .t B. 338; 7 JOhul. N. Y. 611.

C_ .... l .. nta. ,nllllM'IUI' all quo, r .. portin", ri."lj.""to. Conseut is the united will of BOverd interested iD one subjeot-mu.tter. Dav. 48; Brauoh, PrinG.

Coueatiale. eI II{/ent.. p<&ri patRa pleetefll .. r, ThOlle eon8auting and thoao perpetratiug shall reeeive the same punishmeut.. 6 Coke, 80.

Oo.-nre .. a";",oll;o no" po • .unl infra ann"" .. bilM. Penou. OlUlnot GOUlent to marriage before marriageable year&. 5 Coke, 80; 8 id. 22.

C" ... q_ti. n,," cd e"""9"",,'ia. A oonsequence ough& not to be drawn from another oonlequenoe.

Baeou, Aph. 16. .

Couilirs ", .. 110 .... ", I"etf"i,.,.nl" r in ",ogn.... 'l'he adviae of many perlona J.I requiaite iD great affain. Coke, 'th lasL 1.

Co ... ".""..... .... eam dom .... u"i""i9". "0"""'" ",kre ailliman, ubi q""'q'&o •• Il,. ., 'a bIOI", "'kre" ,w""""'l'" r ...... oon"ilutio" .... /"' .. .,. It II .. Uled that th8t is to be ooulidered the home of eaoh oue of us where he may have his habitatlou aad aeeoUDt-bookl, aud where he may hu.ve made III 8.Itabliehmeut of hie bUliDen. Dig. 60. 18. 203.

Oo .. """,io legi. """ /ocil inj" r ia... The eonllruction of law does not work an injury. Coke, Litt. 183; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 637.

Oo ... ueItido eo""'a .. alio".", inl,od".Ia, polt'li, _rpalio qua'" cOMuel"do app.llari deb.t. A CUItom introdnced against reaaou ought rather to be ealled an usurpation than a oUltom. Coke, Litt. 113.

C_lucio dtb., e .. e c.rla. A. oustom ought to lie certain. Dav. 33.

Oo ..... ,ud<> .eI al, ... " I.. COItom i8 another Ia... • Coke, 21.

Cou ... t"do al opti ...... in'etpre. legum. CUltom 11th. but expouuder of the law. Coke, 2d lnlt. 18; Dig. 1.3.37; Jenk. Cent. CIY. 273.

Co.,ueludo eI eotIIlIt""i. a_et"do "i .. ci, legem "on •• ripta..... .; ';1 9'eiali'l ., i"'."P .. "aCUr l.gem oeripta., .; z.z .;, gGeraU,. CUltom and oommon auce overeome the unwritten law, if it bo Ipooial j Ind interpret the written law, if the law be general. leaL Cent. C .... 273.

Co 1IIdo lIZ cm4 cau4 ral,onabili .... 'ala

p,;"", "" 1IfIBfII legem. CUltom oble"ed by rea-

1011 oC a oemiD and reuonable oauso Iuperledes the common lawi. Littleton, I 169; Coke, Lilt. sa b. See Judgt. 6 Bingh. 2113; Broom, Max. 3d Land. ed. p, 825.

Oo •• ..atldo, li.,., oil1llop. a"elorilol"', """qllalll Ca.... prl1jlOdieal .. ani/e_l. "erilnt'. A oUltom, though it be of groat authority, should never, howner, be prejudicial to manif .. t truth. 'Coke, 18.

eo......,uda loei ob.ertlanda e.t. The oUltom of the place is to be oble"ed. 'Coke, 28 bl 8 ,d. 67; 10 u: 1311; , C. B. ss,

eo..-cio •• ~. iniuri4 orili, "'9"" tolli p",",I.

A eustom OIUI neIther arlie, nor be abolished, by a wrong. Loin, 340.

Coot_do """ Aa6iN .. i. _"9"""cia",. CUltom II uot to be drawn into a precedent. 3 Kebl. '"9.

C",,_,t<do p .... eripla II legilima OIindl I.gem.

A prelOriptive &Dd lell:itimate cultom overoomes

tit. law. Coke, LitL 113. ..

C" .... .,udo ... gni .Angli. ..'la: Angli.. T.he _tom of the kingdom of England is the law of Bngland. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 11 9.

OoUlldJuIo • ..,,1 rt:p""bata "on polel' omplt'iU u.a..ci. CUltom once disallowed aaunot again be produeed. Dav. 33; Grounds'" Bud. of Law, 63. c....-1IIlo .iRri, _,.""_leg.,,.. ClUtom oYer-

rulea oommon law. 1 Roper, Husb." Wife, U1; Coke, Lltt. 83 b.

Oou,,,.'udo "ol ... ,.. dlleit, l.z "ol""'.... l ... li1..

Custom leads the willing, law oompell or draWl the nuwilliDg. Jeok. Coot. C&& 274.

Oonln!pM'anea _pooilio ", oplima .I/twli.,,·_ itt I.ge. A ecntemporaaeoue u.poBitiou is the belt and mOlt powerful iD the law. Coke, 2d InlL 11; 3 Coke, 7; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 608.

Cont •• lal;o liei, egel I .... "i"o •• onlrodict"r"o" An iuue requires terma of aoutradia~lou; tha.t iI, there can be no illue without an all!nnative on one lide and a negative on the other. Jeuk. Cent. Cu. 117.

00111 .. 11 legem /aeil 9"': id /ae;, qtlod lez prohibel; itl/ra"dem ".".0 qui, ,,,lv.·, ...,rbi, l'gi" .... ' .. &I;om .ju • .. 'cu''' ..... il. He does oontrary to the law who doel what the law prohibita; he aats in fraud of the law who, the letter of the law being inviolate, UH. the law ooutrary to ite iotentiou. Dig. 1. 3. 29.

001,'rd "'gonln! pri"cipia "on .. , dioputa"du ...

There ie no dilpuling again It ooe who deniel prlnoiples_ Coke, Litt. '3; Grounda .t Rud. of Law, 67.

Oo."rd non ""llflt_ ag_""lla ""m' pr .. eriplio_ No preioription runs aga.iu8t a person unable to act. Broom, Mu. 3d Loud. ed. 810 I Evana, Pothier, '61.

Oo .. lrd ".rilalem lez "unq"am ali9",'d p"rlflitlil.

The law never luWers any thiug ooutrary to truth. Coke. 2d lUlL 252. But lometimes it allOWI aoonolnlin presumption iD opposition to truth. Bee a Bouvier, lnlt. n. 8061.

Oonlrac'", eo: ""7'i ea ... 4, "el C01,I r t} bonoo mo,... ."Ilu •.... ,. A contraat founded on a bue and unlawful ooulideration, or against good morals, is null. Hob. 187; Dig. 2. U. 27. ,.

Contraclu, log .. " .0: eon"","on. occipillnt. The ag1'l'8ment of the partiel makel the law of the oontract. Dig. 16. 3. 1. 6.

Oo"'I'O .. ;on,,,, eonlraria .. , ralio. The reuon of oontrary things il oontrary. Hob. 8«.

Oo,,'reclalio rei ali.". animo furandi, uI/ur"'1II_ The touohing or removing of anotber's property, with an iDtention of _tealiDg, il theft. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 132.

Co""enl,'o pn"otoru", """ pot .. t publico juri d_ gore. An agreement of private porsous cauno' derogate from publio right. Wing. 746, Mu. 201; Coke, Litt. 168 a; Dig. 60. 17. '6. 1.

Oon'(Jenlio "i"cil legem. The agreemeut of th. parties overcomes or prevaill against the law. Story, Ag. f 368; 6 Taunt. 430. Bee Dig. 18. a. 1.6.

Oop"lalio " ... bon,,,, indical nceeptalion.", in ... d_ ''''''". Coupling words together ahows that they ought to be understood In the lame nnle. Buon, Max. Beg. 8; Broom. Max. 3d Loud. ed. 623.

00"PM'ali. injuria non reeipi' "'i,,,a"o,,_ de /ut .. ro; A personal injury doel not reoelve _atllfaotion from a future ooune of proceeding. Baaou, Max. Beg. 6; 3 How. St. Tr. 71 i Broom, Mu. ad Lond. eel. 26 ..

Oorp,,' ""","n_ tlO" recipil _imal,·onem. A human body il not lusceptlble of appraisement. Hob. 69.

Cnditon,,,, app.llatione non hi la,,"'. aeeipiunlur qui "ecun,"m eredillerunl, •• d om".. q";b,,, .z qtwUb.1 ea",4 d.b.cur. Under the hea.d of oredit. orl are inoluded not aloue thOle who have lent money, but all to whom from lUIy caule a debt it owing. Dig. 60. 16. n.

Or ••• eral. maliti4 "'elee .. e debet ." pomtl. Viae inore8lllng. punishment ought allO to iDoreaae. Coke, 2d IUIt. '79.

Ori",era /al.i dicilur, cum qt,i. imei"' .. , cui "on /lIeril ad YO do' .. alOeforil"', d •• igillo .. egi. rap,. '(J.l in~ento br .... ia, earla.... couigna"eril. The en''''tn /al.i (arime of falsifying) i. when any on. illioitly, to whom power hu not been given (or

MAtIM

122

HAXIM

.aeh parpOMI, hal .igned wrlta or charten with the klng'l eeal, whloh he haa either ltolen or foand, Fleta, I. 1, e, 23.

Cri_ ,_" maje.'ati. _hia alia cri.ina ue,dil q"oad pamam. The crime of treaaon uceedl all other crimea &I far &I ita panbhment II ooncerned. Coke, 3d Inlt. 210.

Cri ....... om .. ia ,;x: s •.. ata oitw. Crime vitiatel every thing whioh Ipring. from It. 6 Hill, N. Y. 623,631.

Cri_ "..allil per.oham. The crime OW8I ~he penon; .... the oommillion of a crime giV81 the COlirts of the plaee where it II oommitted jurildietion over the person of the ol'ender. 1 Den. N. Y. 1110,210.

Crimi .. a m",,', .'illguu,,""" Crim81 are 0:-

Uagaished by death.

Cu. juri.dictio data ,II, ,a f/Uoq,", __ ...• H ",tknlllr tine qui6", juried,ctio ezplieari 110 .. polue. To whom Jurlldiction II given, to him tho .. thingl allO are held to be grauted without whioh the Jumdiotion oa.anot be uel'lliHd. Dig. 2. 1. 2; 1 Wooddelon, Leat. Introd .. lxxi.; 1 Kent, Comm. 339.

C"i jUl eel donahdi, .. clem II flendendi II eoncedeftdi ju eel. He who haa a right to give h .... alao a right to sell and to grauL Dig. 60. 17. 183.

Cu. lie.1 IJllod maju. non debet quod ",in", ,.t non licer.. He who haa anthority to do the more important act shall not be debarred from doing that of I ... importance. 4 Rep. 23; Coke, Litt. 166 6; 2lnlt. 307; Nay, MG. 28; Finoh, Law, 22; 3 Mod. 382, 392; Broom, Max. 3d Lend, ed. 166; Dig. 60. 70. 21.

Cui pallr al populu. non habet ;lle pa""" He to whom the people il father hal not a father. Coke, Litt. 123.

Cuic,,"9u, aliquuf/U;deohe,dit conceder. flide'u,.., ill, .in. qlW ree ip.a e ••• non poluil. Whoever graDta a thiog il supposed alia taciti), to grant that without whioh the grant ltaelf would be of no elrect. 11 Coke, 62; Broom, MG. 3d Lond. ed. 426; Hob. 2U; Vallgh. 1011; 11 Exoh. 776; Sheppard, Toaohat. 811; Coke, Litt. 66 a,

Cullibel i .. arle .ull perito e.' er,dcndum. Credenoe Ihould be given to one Ikilled in hil peculiar art. Coke, Litt.126; ISharlwood,Blaoklt. Comm. 76; Phillips, Ev. Cowen'" H. notel, pt. I, p, 769; 11 Clark" F. 86. See EXPERT; OPUIIOIf.

Clliqu, in ... 4 arl. er.d,ndu", .,. Every one II to be believed in hil own art. 9 MaaL 227.

CuJ ... at t'O",,,,odu,,, .j ... dobet .... , .. com ... d ....

H. who receives the benefit Ihoald alIa bear the disadvantage. 1 Kaim8l, Eq. 2811; Broom, Max. Id Lond. ed. 837.

Cuj... .., dare eJ ... al dirpo'lMf'l. He who hal a rlabt to give haa the right to dispol. of th. gift. Wingate, MG. 68; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. eeL "0; 2 Coke, n.

OrdN ... , rliflUio 0110"; ...•• , .leclio. Whiohever of two partiel haa the divilion, the other bu the ehoic.. Coke, Litt. 166.

Orljue .. , in.,illl.ro ejt" 0.' abrogarl. WhOM It i. to inetitute, his it il allo to abrogate. By~ney, Gov. 16; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 786.

• CMjNI .. , .olu", ej'" al "''1"' ad _lu",. Be who ownl the IOU O"nl it ap to the sk),. Broom, Malt. ad Lond. ed. 309; Sheppard, Toaohlt. 90; 2 BoaTler, lnlt. nn.16, 70; 2 Sharnrood, Blackst. Comm. lS; II Coke, 64; 4 Campb. 2111; 11 Euh. 822; 6 BIl. '" B. 76.

Cuj... Jllri. (.... j"riedictioni.) ", principllle, ej",tk"'ju";. erit acee .. o"; .. ",. He who hu jurildiction of the ,prinoipal has alao of the ac08l10ry. Coke, 2d IDSt. 493; Bracton,481.

, Cujll' per <"Or .... dal' rep,'itio w, .; ... eOll ... llo clata, donalio .,. That whioh, when given through miltake, oan be roo overed back, when given with knowledge of the facts, is a gift. Dig. 60. 17. 6ll.

Cuj ... '1'"' rei poliNi.a pare pn .. cipi .. "'.e. The

prinolpal part of every thing II the be.inning. DI,.

1. 2. 1; 10 Coke, 49.

Culpll carel, qui eoil, .. d proliber.llon poINe. ne il olear of blame who bow. bat O&IlDot prev8llt. Dig .. 60. 17. 60.

Crdpo ., i ..... a.-. H rei ael " 11011 perei_I" It iI a fault to meddle with what does not belon, to or d081 not aoncern )'ou. Dig. 60.17.36; Coke, 2d Inlt. 208.

ClIlpo Iota dolo aqll'paro",r. Grou neglect II equivalent to fraud. Dig. 11. 6. 1.

Culpa tenel,""" allclora. A fault bindl it. own authon. Enkine, Inlt. b. 4, tit. I, f 141 6 Bell, App. C .... 639.

Culplll p<!IfI4 por .. to. Let the puniahm8llt be proporUoned to the erime. Brauch, Princ.

Chlm actio IlWI'il mera criminali., 'n.,,, .. i poteril .. 6 illilio crimina liter 1111 cioiliter. When an action il merel)' orlminal, it OaD be Inltituted from the heginning either criminally or civilly. Brsctoa, 102.

Cu", odllllll u.timonia r ....... , f/Uid op ... eet fI ... "i,' When the proofl of facta are prelent, what need II there of word. 7 2 Balltr. 63.

Cu.. oonjll_ 'Ponl. ",iliUll •• , agendN'" One making a voluntary oonfeslion il to be dealt with more meroifnlly. Coke, 4th Inst. 66; Br&IIch, PriDo.

Cum de I ....... dllo"... f/U .... ,ur _Ii"" •• , co_ 1"",,·d ... ,... When the qa8ltion of gain li.. between two, the oaDie of the pOIMAor is the better. Dig. 60. 17. 126.

Cum dllo ,nler .. pugnanlio "'Perillntv,. i .. t_menlo, IIlli",... ,.atum •• ,. When t"o thill,. repugnant to each other are foand in a will, the laa i. to be oonflrmed. Coke, Litt.. 112; Sheppard, TOIIOhlt. 4n; Broom, MG. 3d Lond. ed. 618; 1 Jarman, WillII, 2d ed. 394; 16 Johnl. N. Y. 1"6; 1 Phill.636.

C,,'" i .. t.llo",,,,to ambig~ 0111 elia", ".",.,,0. ","~III, .. t belliglM inlerpr.'a";, II .ecu .. d ... iil'1"oel creilibil. ., cogilalNm cr.d.ndll.. ae. WheD aD ambiguoal or eYen an erroneOll1 e:Epre'Bion ocaun in a will, it should be oonltrued liLerall)" and in &coordance "ith the teltatOr'1 probable meaning. Dig. 34. 6. 24; Broom, Max. 3d Lond, ed. 606; 3 Pothier, ad Pand. ed. 1819, 46.

Cum l.giti",. flup';. lael. .unl, patreM Ii" ....

HlJulI,,'ur. Children born under a legitimate marriage follow the oondition of the father.

Cu", par deliclII'" .. t du m, .... par on ..... ,.,.

p.tIlor, eI m.lior Aobellir poN' ,.;. co...... Where

t"o parties are eqaally in fault, the olaimant &111'ay. II at a dlBadvantage, and the part)' ia pOlMulon hal the better caale. Dig. 60. 17. 164; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 444.

Curi .. porlio"'lfIl •• uil prop";i. legib ... ",wh·e.

The oonrt of parliament il governed by it. own peculiar la1l'l. Coke, 4th Inat. 60; Broom, MG. 3d Lond. ed. 82; 12 C. B. "la, 414.

0.";_., captioea inlerprelalioi"ltge reprobo",,..

A curious and captioa. interpretation in the law i.a to be reproved. 1 Bnlltr. 6.

Currit l.mpII. contra de.,·d ... t "" j ..... OMII_p- 1_. Time mnl againBt the .lothful and thOle who neglect their rightl. Dl'llllton, 100 b; Fleta, lib. 4. e, 6, f 12.

C"r .... curia ", I.z ell";.. The practice of the coart i. the law of the court. 3 Bulltr. 63; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 126; 12 C. B. 414; 17 Q. B. 86; 8 Elloh. 11111; 2 Manle '" B. 26; 15 Ealt, 226; 11 Meel. '" W. '1; 4 Mylne .. C. 635; .. &lott, •• L 699.

Cuet_ i. the be.' 'nl.rpreter 01 tM I .. .,. Coke, 4th InBt. 75; 2 Ed. Ch. 74; 6 Crauch, 32; 1 t'ler,. .. R. Penn. 106; 2 Barb. Ch. N. Y. 232,2611; S id. 628, 677.

C,lllom. IIrra p ..... ,,";el.. Cu.tom mult be tak8llltriotly. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 83.

MAXIM

123

MAXIM

C."OI .tlltllm lI,.,..di, in e1I.todi4 ,.r;.t"".u ..... - Ii.,....". .. .". fkt.riurem, la.or. fote.t. A guardian Ct.II make the estate of an ,heU' liviDg ander his CuardiaDlhip better, not wone. '1 Coke, '1.

Da "' .. 4_ "' .. ","t, !"H' morlem "'no tu .. " .... "",I. Give the thlnga whioh are ),olln whilst the)' .... youn; after daath then the)' are not )'oun. 3 Bulltr.18.

Dal.r diglliori. It is giTen to the more "orth)'. 2 V entr. 268.

De /Ilk ., 0Jllfto jrulim" nOlI rocipitur qv_lio, .ed d •• ei •• ,ia lifHI .i' error jllri. Ii"" , .. cti. The bona fid .. and honelty of purpose of a judge oanDot be qaestioned, but his decisloD may be Impugned for error eltber of law or of fact. BacoD, Ma~. Beg. 17j 6 JohDs. N. Y. 291 j 9 u. 8116; 1 N. Y. 46; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. eeL 82.

D.j.rejudic •• , d./a.tojllrator"''''opondenl. The judges answer cODoerning th.law, the jury eoneemiag the facta. See Coke, Litt. 2116; Broom, Mu. 3d LODd. ed. 99.

D#.ajori et """0ri "0" lI .. n· .. ,,' jll..... ConcernIDg major &Ad minor law8 do not vary. 2 Vern. Ch.5b2.

De .. illi .. u ROIl ."r .. ' 1e:JJ. The la" do .. not noli .. (or care for) trifting mattcrl. Broom. Mu. 3d Load. ed. 134; Hob. 88; 5 Hill, N. Y. 170.

D. 1I0letodin" d. ""110 erecto ""n jacn prolibitio.

A. prohibition Ues not against a new-erected mill. Croke Jac. 4211.

D •• ort. lI:o",,'nu ,,"11a ... ellllclatio Zotog... When the death or a human being may be ooncerned, DO delay II long. Coke, Lltt. 134. WheD the qDeS- 11011 iJ conoeming the lire or death or a man, no dillY I. too long to Ildmlt of Inquiring Into facts.

De lI_i .. proprio """ •• , ""rand .. ", ""'" in IIIb""",;4 .011 """"'r; q"ia 110111' ....... "tabiU .. ",nt, r .. ...,... i_obil... AI to the proper name, It II not 10 be regarded when one orrl not in substanoe; be..... names are chaugaable, but thinga are immutahle. e Coke, 66.

D •..... a1'1'a,.,..,ibu .1 n .... cn.'efttib ... eadem .. , w.r. Thela" I. the lame respecting things whloh do Dot appear and thOle which do not e~ilt. 6 Ired. No.C.81j 12 Ho". 2113; 5 Coke, 6; 6 BiDgh. 11'.0. 4.\3; 7 Clark & F. Hou. L. 8'12; 6 C. B. 63; 8 itl. ue; I Term, 404; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 150.

De •• 10, quod .. , •• 4 lIatllr4 indi";';bil., " tl,.,;-

~ ..... p"ti'ur, l, .. m part .... labebi, ";d .. a, .ed

",,;ofaeia, Ii .. d "a/ ,illlll. A wido" shall have no

part froID thM whioh In its own nature il Indivisible, aDd is not luaoeptible or division; but let rthe heir] .. tIIf1 her with an equivalent. Coke, titt.

12. •

De .... ilib .. ad Ii",ilia ead_ Nti ..... prec.dm_.11. From limilara to .imUars we are to proeeed by the _me mle. Branch, Pri1Jc.

Dc ... ili6 ... itl.", en iNdi";"m. Conoemlng liml- 1m the judgment is tho .ame. '1 Coke, 18.

D.,. .... .JIIIU Ii" .. ",. Tbere ought to be an end or lawluita. Jenk. Cent. C .... 81.

D,,-, qu ... j .. ri ... 6jacWfl ubi d.Unqui,. EYery one O1Ilfht to be object to theta" or the place where he oft'eucU. Coke, 3d In.t. 34; Pinoh, La", 14" 36; Wiapte, lIIaz.113, 114; 8 Coke,231; 8 Boott, 11'. B. i17.

Dekt .. 11 Mqw d_ ... _ PIf'/J1.gilJ'lft ",ti.Ii ... "m.

Every lDaD'1 house should be a perfeotly.are refuge. 12 John •• N. Y. 31, 64.

D.Iri~ /ullda",enlVm, lalUl "1'.... Where there II a1l'eak foundation, the "ork faIll. 2 Bouvier, Inlt.

I. 20M; Broom, MaL 3d Lond. ed. 169, I'll. ihlrila "'l"MII"'r 1' ... _0'" d.""·to..... Debts rolla. the peTIOn of the debtor. Btory, CODti. Laws, pet; 2 Kent, Comm. 429; Halkers. Max. 13.

Debilor lIOII pr .... "'il .. r ao....... A debtor il not rrerumed to make a gift. 8ee 1 Kamel, Eq. 212; Die. 60.11.108; 1 P. Will. 239.

D.bito....". PllcliOfli6u., cr.ditorum politi" nec toU., ".e min .. i pot .. t, The right to lue oC oredit.on Dannot be taken away or leuened by the oontracts of their debton. Pothier, ObI. 8'1, 108; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 622.

D.b'tu", ., .,ont,'ar"" ,"nt .... IIiH. loci. Debt and oontract are oC no partioular place. 7 Coke, Ill; '1 Manu ... G. 10111, n.; 1 Smith, Lead. C .... 4th A.m. • ed. 528, a,

Debi".,.. i" pr •• enlt, IOlv,ndu", ill / .. turo. A present debt to b. diacharged In tho future. 2 Barb. N. Y. 46'1, 470; 16 id. I'll, 116; 111 ia. 442,4411.

De./ki.ll1e ""0 .allg"in. no" poI .. , .... II....... o.e blood being "anted, he oannot b. heir. I Coke, 411 Grounds" Bud. of Law, 7'1.

Delegal .. po'"'''' tlon ,,0"'" d.kga .. i, A del .. gated authorit)' cannot be again delegated. Coke, 2d Inat. 6117; 5 Blngh. 11'. o, 310; 2 Bouvier, Inat. n, 1300; Btory, Ag. f 13; 11 Ho".233.

D.lega'., d.6itor ", OGi" .... ill leg.. A delegated debtor I. hateCUlin law. 3 Bulltr. 148.

D"egatw .. on pot •• , d.kga.... A delegate or deputy cannot appoint another. 2 Bouvier, IDlt. n. 11186; Story, Ag.113; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed, 158-71>8; II Coke, 77; 2 Soott, 11'. R. flOII; 12 M86,. .. W. 712; 6 Exch. 168; 8 C. B. 62'1.

D.linqu .... p.r iram protlocahu p .. "iri tUb., "'i'i ....

A delinquent provoked by auger ought to be puni.hed more mildly. Coke, 3d !nat. 66.

Deri.oti ... pot •• ,.., lion pot", .... fIIajor primitiva. The po"er"hioh II derived oannot be greater than that from "hioh It is derived. Wingate, Mu. 36; Finch, Law, b. 1, e. 3, p. 11.

D.,.",alu .. legi, Iltlfll par. d,'raAi"' .. ; a1woga"'r l.gi, 0 .. ", prof·.il. loll't .. r, To derogate from & law Is to take a"ay part of it; to abrogate a law iI to abolish it entirely. Dig. 110. HI. 102. Bee 1 Bou-

vier, Inat. n. Ill. •

D.lipalio Ulliv. ell .. cluno oll.,-; ... ,.t~ .. /a";l ce.,ar. la";'ulJl. Tbe appoiDtment or designation of one il the uoluslon of another; and that expressed makes that "hioh il implied to 0_.

Coke, Litt. 210. ,

D ..... 01 ... 1I ..... dem /oc_ poI •• " .. 011 "omo. God alone, and not man, oan mako an heir. Coke. Litt. 7 bl cited 6 Barne" .... C. 440, 464; Broom, Max. 8d Lond. ed. 457.

Diu ao",i"icu. non ,,' }tIrid,·"..,. SUDday Ie not a day in law. Coke, Litt. 135 .. ; 2 Saund. 291; Broom, Ma~. 8d Lond. ed. 21; Finoh, La", 7; Noy, Max. 2; Plowd. 266; 3 Do"l ... L. 828; 18 lIIan. 82'1. Bee BUII'DAY. '

Di .. ,nctp"" pro compl.to lI:a6mw. A day begun is held al complete.

Dill inc'"'" pro cOIIditiOll. lab.,..,.. A. day uncertain il held as a oonditlon. Bel1, Diot. ao.n" .. 'a'i .... 01 1\", ..

, Dilalio .... i. l.g. 111,,1 odio... Del.,s In law are odioul. Branch, Prino.

DilCf'mo .11 di.c ......... plf' leg .... q .. id lit j"''''., Discretion I. to diseern through taw what II just. II Coke. 1111, 100 j 10 id. 140; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. p. 81; Coke, 4th Inlt. 41; 1 W. Black.t. 162; 1 Burr. 570; 3 Bulltr. 128; 6 Q. B. 700.

DiICrelio .. , lOire p ... legem quid Ii' jJl.'''''''. Die'cretion ocnlists In knowing "hat II jUlt In la". , JOhDI. Ch. N. Y. 362, 3li6.

J),'.,arat.. n.... deben' jUflgi. Dislimilar things ought not to be joined. Jenk. Cent. C .... U.

Di., ...... ,io .. , "Ill" .. , qvod .... 111 ..... ' jUl com ......

A dispensation II a wound, because it WOUllda a oommon right. Dar. 89; Branch, Princ.

Di .. li.i .... 1II .an. /a";t, qui .Ii non permitli' PfHI.... or .... , ".1 miUl" cOIJI",od" licel _,.illO 11011 r.rp.llal. He makes dislelain enough who doel not permit the, POIses80r to enjoy, or mak .. hi. enjoyment leu oommodloul, although he does nl>t expel altogether. Coke, Litt. 331; Bracton, lib. '" tr.2.

MAXIM·

MAXIM

DiuillliliUfA di .. illlil .. e.' ratio. Of di •• imilarl ,chastity, therefore let it be preBerved. Cllke, LitL

'he rule ia dillimilar. Coke, Litt. 191. 131; Brunoh, Princ.

DiBt'lRulation~ tollitur i"iuria. Wrong i.e wiped Droit n. don. pi" .. que eoil dema, ... de. The law

ont by reconoiliation. Erskine, bIt. h. " tit. 4, • ' givel no more than is deqt.anded. Coke, 2d Inst, 28ft. 108. . I Droil lie poet PIII_rilr. Right cannot die. Jenk.

Di.ti,."IIe"da ",", I."'pora. The time la to be Cent. Cas. 100.

oonsldered. 1 Coke, 16 a; 14 N. Y. a80, 393. Ducu """or •• endem tempore Aabere "0" polUI. It

Diftinuuenda'"lIllempora; aUud .'I/aeere, aliud il not lawful to ha.ve two wlv.s at one time. !nat. p"Jie.r.. Timel mUlt be distinguished; it il one 1. 10. 6; 1 Sharlwood, Blackst. Comlil. 436.

thing to do a thing, another to oomplel.e it. 3 Leon, Duo non po"unl in .olido "'0" r"" po •• id.rI.

243; Branoh, Prino. Two oannot poaaeal one thing eacb in entirety.

Di.ringll.nda .unl I.mpora; d .. ,inUU' I_porll, cI Ooke, Litt. 368; 1 Prestca, Abltr. 318; 2 ,·d. 86, eoneordabi. leu... Times are to be diltinguilbed; 326; 2 Duds, Adm. 157; 2 Carth. 76; Broom, dlsUnguish tiw .. , and you will attune law.. 1 Hax. 3d Lond. ed. 416.

Coke, 24. Duo .IInl i".'MIII'fflla ad omnu r •• aul conJirmaR'

Divinal lo non itll.rp,.etario I", qH. o",,,ino ,. ••• dit dar au' ''''puglla"da., ratio eI all.orila •• • There are a liura, It is a gues., not inl.erpretation, whioh two inltruments for confirming or impugning eV8J1 altogether depa.rta from the letter. BacQn, Hax. thing, reason and authority. 8 Coke, 16.

Reg. 3, p. '7. Duo,._ in .0Ud,,". domillillm ,,01 1'O .... ,io u ..

DoIOlu, "cr.amr in g .... ralib, ... A deceiver deals non pol •• t, Ownersbip orpos888lion in entirety canin general I. 2 Coke, 34.; 2 Bulstr. 226; Loft't, 782; not be in two of the same thing. Dig. 13. G. 5. 15; 1 Rolle, 157; Winlate, Mu.' 636; Broom, J4&l[. 1 Maokeldey, Civ. La", 245, f 236; Braoton, 28 b. 3d Lond. ed. 264. Dupli.al;onem pOllibililali. lu nOli 1'Otilu.- .. The

Dol .. ". lIZ ind,·eli. ".r-pi.Hi. proba'" e..,." ... il. law does not allow .. duplication oC pO.88ihility. 1 Fraud Ihould be proved by olear token I. Codo, 2. Rolle, 321.

21. 6; 1 Story, Contr. 4th ed. p. 602.

Dol, .. an.tori. non noul ... ee ••• ori. Tbe fraud or Ea lOt aeelpi ... da ''''erprdatio, qll. "ilia ea""_

.. predecessor do ... not prejudice the suc08lsor. That iflterpretation is to be received whioh ia free

Dol ... ,ireu;l" non p .. rfllllur. Fraud il not purged from fault. Baecn, Max. Reg. 3, p. 47.

by circuity. Baoon, Mu. Reg. 1; Noy, Max. 9, Ea qll. commlndllnd •• all.4 ill n"dilionibH' di- 12; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 210; 6 Ell • .t B. Cllnl",..i palam appa,·.anl ,'.ndilorem .. on obliganl. 948. ThOBe tbinge whiah, by "ay of commendation, are

Dol". ellraH •.. "",in; patroein. ... mr (patroeinari stated at salel, if they are openly apparent, do not d.bent). Deoeit and Craud shall ueule or benefit bind the seller, Dig. 18. 43. m.

no man. (They themselvel need to be exoused.) Ea qu. dll'" i"'poII.bilia ",,,t, "tl qu. i" r.,._ Year B. 14 lien. VIII. 8; Story, Eq. Jur. ~ 395; 3 "alura 'Illn IUllt, pro "on adj ee ,i. Aab.III..... ThOBe Coke, 78; 2 Fonblanque, Eq. b. 2, oh. 6, ~ 3. thingl whioh oannot he given, or wbich are not in

Dominium nOli pole.f .11. in p.nd,mti. The right existence, are held as notexpreued. Dig.50.17.135.

of property cannot he in abeyance. Halkers, Mu. E" q". ral'/) a<c;dunl, "on lemel'~ in auelldi. ne·

89. gOli .. eOlllp"lcllllur. ThOBe things which rarely

DOnllll I1Ia e"i'l'c, al tuliui"",m ,.e/ugillm. Every happen aro not to be ta.ken into account in tbe man's house il hil eastle, 6 Coke. 91, 92; Dig. 2. 14. transaction of bUliness without lufficient reUOD. 18; Broom, MOll. 3d Lond. ed. 384; 1 lIale, PI. Cr. Dig. 50. 17. 6 ••

'81; Foster. Homicide, 320; 8 Q. B. 757; 16 id. Eadem "'en. ",.,,"milll" r.gi. qUA' utjllri •• , qll.

646, 656; 19 1I0w. St. Tr. 1030. See ARREST. ell' deb.t, 1'rca.e,.,im ill dubii.. The mind of the

DomUil IKli .. imllRO clliqlle ,.t/uUium alque rerepla. sovereign is presumed to be coincident witb tbat of culum. Tho habitation of each one il an inviolable the h.w, and with that which ought to be, especially asylum for him. Dig. 2. 4. 18. In ambiguous ma.lterB. Hoh. 154; Broom. Max. 3d

Dona elalld •• 'illa .ulIl '''''per "''Piela.". Clan- Lond. ed. 63.

dostine gins are alw8YI auspleious, 8 Coke. 81; E ee 1".;a ,"cf.,i. d.cima. ,olrer. non deb,,1. It Noy, Max. 9th ed. 1:;2; 4 Barnew • .t C. 652; 1 Is not the duty of the churoh to pay tithes to the Maule .t S. 253; Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed, 264. church. Croke Ells. 479.

Donari ~idelllr quod, nlllli.iur. eogenl. coneeditll,.. Ecd .. i. magi. /a"endum e.' 'I',am per'''''.' The

That i. considered to be giveD whioh il granted obureh is more to be 1'a.vored than an individual.

when no law oompels. Dig. 60. 17. 82. Godb. 172.

Donatio nOli pr .. umilur. A gift i, not presumed. E"el"i" no .. morlltw. The churcb doe. not die.

Jenk. Cent. CIlS. 109. Coke, 2d Inst. 3.

Donalio .rJicilllr pOl ..... on. ac.ip,· ... ,i.. A gin Eff.cl ... '.qllil"r .alllam. Tbe elfect follow. the

II rendered' complete by the posseuion of the reo caule. Wingate, Max. 226.

ceiver. See 1 BOUVier, Inlt. n. 712; 2 Jobnl. N'I Ei incu",bil probalio qui diell, non qll; ".gal. Y. 62; 2 Leigh, Va. 337; 2 Kent, Comm. 438. The burden of the proof lies upon bim who aflirms,

Donationu". alia per/ecla, ali .. ;lIceplo,,' non "er. not he who denies. Dig. 22. 3. 2; Tait, Ev. 1; 1 lecla; .. , ,i donatio loela/llil ".01& .... 0, ae trad;lio Phillip., Ev. 194; 1 Greenleaf. Ev.I?'; 3 La. 83; 2 nondu". /lUril ,"boecuta. Some gills a.re perfeot, Daniell, Chane. Pract. 408; 'Bouvier, Inst. n. 4.4.11. others inoiplent and not perfeot; as if a gift were Ei .,,'Ail ""1'e, elli niAil .ali.. Nothing ie base read and agreed to, but delivery had not tben fol. to whom nothlDg is luffioient. Coke, 4th Inst, 53. lowed. Coke, Litt. 66. Eju •• " 'W~ nolle qlli pol." vell«; He may ccn-

Donator' lIu"qllam de.illil po.,,'der. anl'qllam do. lent tacitly who may oOlllont exprellly. Dig. 60. nalllrill' 'ncipial "oo,.-el.I"'. He that gh'es never 17. 3.

ceases to pOlseSI until he that receives begius to Eiu, .. , 1' .. ~·elll"m e'if"' ellt domini ..... aliI "0"'-

pO~SOI8. Dyer, 281; Bracton,41 b. modllm. lie hu the riak who hili the right or pro.

Dorm;llnl aUquando l.gu, "''''qllalll morilllllllr. perty or advantage.

Thelo.wl sometimes sleep, but Dever die. Coke,2d Ei"' null" <"'pa .tt clli po,..,.. n 1. No

Inat. 161. guilt attache. to him who i.e compeU.d to obey.

Do. d. dol. peli non d.b.,. Dower ought not to Dig. 60. 17.11\11.

be lought from dower. 4 Coke, 122; Coke, I.itt. EI.cI4 un6 "i4, "on dahlr ree.""", ad .. 'tera ..... 31; 'Dane, Abr. 671; 1 Washburn, Real Prop. 209. When there is conourrence of means, he wbo b ..

Dol. l.z/a.·.t; prczmium pudori. e.', id./) pare,,· choscn one oannot have recourse to another. 10 I1Ir. The law favors dower; it is the reward of Toull. n. 170.

MAXIM

125

MAXIM

El«fi" .11 (",illla [inl_a], libera, d 'POtIlan.a tu,.alibu'prltnept.it 0111 omlium, aul ct·.ilibu. ,., eol-

wpat'aJio ... i ... rei ab alia, .. ". eompuuiMl., c""- ',cl""'l d q"od in jt ,criplo ju, appellalur, id ,',.

';'1_ i. a8i .. o ,"'01"8Ial.. Election il an interna.l, ley • ..tOlgli. rectum dicil"r. Public and private

!ne, and .pontaneou8 leparation of one thing from law il tbat whioh is collected from natural precepts, 1D0ther, wi&hou& oompulsion,oon81lting in intention on tbe one band of nations, on the otber of oltizens; IDd wilL Dy. 281. and that which in tbe oivil law is called j ... , tbat in

61"";0 .... el lada, e' I'laeitu.. ',,'alum, n"" I tbe law of Englund il laid to be right. C9ke, paritlll" rtgreHUm. Election once made, and plea Litt. 66S.

"trim_d, lUll"era not a recall. Coke, Litt. 146. I E., aul_ til', l.g.m ';"Iulan.. Violence may abo

EI."tiOR •• jlanlril • ., lib...., tin. iHI'''''''pliot,.ali- put on tbe mask of 11110.

f"I- BleotiolUl Ihould be made in due form and E., boni judiei. a"'pliar. ju";,diclio,,_. It Ia fnelr, withont an,. interruption. Coke, 2d Inst. tbe part of a good judge to extend tbe Jurisdiction.

189. Gilb. 14.

laplor etni, 'l"am ... in,·tno 1"',.11,- "."dilor "."dil E., ipo,,",m "gi.lalorum la"'l',am "ir: .. r:=l r.bu.

9""" .. a.r~o po'ut. The bnyer buys for as little et "on ".rbi. '.yena imponi .. lu.. The utteranoe of .. possible; &he "endor sells foru much as possible. legislators themselvdllis like the living "oioe; we 2J.bnl. Cb. N. Y. 2li2, 2li6, 486. impoee law npon thingl,notnpon words. 10 Coke,

E •• eAa"fl" il ."", ... t 'l"~ lfl •• "atu """"t Igal... 101.

10 aD uohange it is neae .... ry tho.t the estates EotoDerig ''''It ard."di, g .... "di, con'truendi, .t be equl. Coke, Litt. liO; 2 HUliard, Real Prop. elnudendi. Estover. are f'or burning, plougbing,

m. building, and·inolosing. 13 Coke, 68.

B_eratio iflfil'"llta' r~.'ntn in ealib ... fI"" .",,- Eum qui noeentem i."ama', .. on e.t '"9l<lIm II

_""Ii.. Enumeration disafBrm. tbe rule in oues bMlu", ob .am rem condenonari l d.lielo. m,'", noul eJlunleratad. Baocn, Aph. 17. c'"';tI''' nola ."" "1'"",.t ., e:rp.dil. It is not jUlt E .... r .. tio .. "i ... e" ..,cl ... i" nil"';.... !.Ipeciilca- and proper that be who speaks ill of .. bad man tion of Doe thing is .. n 81olulion of the rest. Mat- should be condemned on that account; for it Ia Ier of Wuhburn," Jobns. Ch. N. Y. 106, 118. fitting and expedient tbat tbe orimel of bad men

Eotk. _do 'I"" onlllr, .od ... modo di&I";llIr. should be known. Dig. 47.10.17; 1 Blackstone, It it disehargeclln &he same way In whloh It arls8l. Comm. 126.

BIoon, Abr. Rel.tU.; Croke Elis. 8117; 2 Wml. £ ... ,,.. eorio. re. nOl1a '""'l'er Ttdd. A new Ilaund. d, 11. 1; 11 Wend. N. Y. 28,30; 24 id. 2114, matter alway. produee. varioul eventl. Coke.

2118. Litt. 3711.

Eocfe. tnodo '1.0 quid eoutil"it .. r, ."d'" modo E"..., man U P""'"med 10 inlend ITt. nat .. ral and

"-it.... In tbe laDle w .. y in whieb any thing I'robabl. con'luence. 01 M. 0"'" "olunlary ael.. 1 ill constituted, in that way Ia it deltroyed. 8 Coke, Green. End. 18; 9 Ealt, 277; 9 Barnew .... C.

is. 643; 8 Maule S. 11, 17.

Bq.ali~ .. <!Iquity. Francia, Maz., Max. 8; 4 Ex anlee.dmlil",. eI co""quentt'bu. jll "1'limo tn-

Bonier, Inat. D. 37211; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. f 64. lerp r elntio.. The best interpreta.tion is made from

E'I"iltU "'I"it .... leg.... Equity followl the law. euteeedenta and consequents. 2 Pars"n~, Contr.

1 Slory, Bq. Jur. 4; 6 Barb. N. Y. 277, 282. 12, n. (r); Broom, Mn. 3d Lond. ed. 613; Coke,

E'l"itydelig"" to dojtutice, otld tTt .. , nOlbl Ttal..... 2d lnst. 317; 2 Shal'lWood, Blaokst. Comm. 379;

i Barb. N. Y. 277, 280; Story, Bq. Plead. 72. 1 Bnlstr. 101; 15 East, 641.

&pity loUoIIH tTte la.... C .... _1" Tal • 62; 1 E:r; diulurnilal. -po";" OtIInia p"""umllntur

Story, Eq. Jur. f 64. .ol .... nile~ ••• e aeta, From length of time, all

Bfoity 1001:. llpoll ITta'tU dotoe, tDTtieTt oug1l1 10 be things are presumed to bave been done in due 110... 4 Bouvier, In.t. n, 3729; 1 Fonblanque, Eq. (orm. Coke, Lltt. II; 1 Greenleaf, Ev. f 20; Belt,

II. I, ah. 6, .. ~, Dota; 3 Whea.t. 563. Bv. , 48 •

• ty "Ie... ..oe g rigTtl ",;cAo", a remed,. 4 Ez. dolo malo """ o";tur aclio. A rigbt of action

Bouier, Inst. p. 3726. oannot arise ont of fraud. Broom, MaL 8411;

Brrw I.eatue .. "da .eritaCe tfl mull .... C I'roba- Cowp. 843; 2 C. B. 501, 512, 615; 6 Scott, II. B. "'ior l ., ''"1'''''''''''''' ratiu"i"". ,,;neic ",,"'Iotem 668; 10 Mass. 276.

,"or. Brror artfnll.1 oolored I.e in many thlngl Ez laclo i'" o";Iur. Tbe law arisea ont of tbe mo .. lIrobable than naked trutb; and frequently fact. Coke, 2d Inst. 4711; 2 Sba.rswood, Blaolr.st. IrrOr oonquerl trUh and argumentation. 2 Coke, Comm. 829; Broom, MD. 3d Lond. ed, 1111.

73. Ez Irequ.nli delicto aug.'ur pamo.. Punisbment

Zrror Jrtri.,._,_ Error of law Ia Injuriou.. inoreases with inorealing orime. Coke, 2d Inst.

See " Bonier, IIUIt. n. 8828; 1 Stor,y, Eq. Jur. f 479.

lat. n. Hz rIIal~Jlcio fIOfI o";tu .. c""lractus. A oontract 2rrror __ i_i ... nquatR "o"eI, .. de {1I8ftlitnle rei cannot arise out of' an act radically wrong and _. Kistakein the naDle n .... er injures, if there Illegal. Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed, 660; 1 Term, II DO dODbt al to the Identity of' tbe thing. 1 Duer, 734; 8 id. 422; 1 H. Blacklt. 324; II Ell. .. B.

lu. in, 1199. 1016.

Brror qtri _ ...... ti,.r, opproktu... An error Ez mali. mo";bus bo ... l.g .... al. ",nt. Good

aot l'8IIillted ia approved. Doctor'" Student, e. 70. laws .. rile from evil manners. Coke, 2d Inst. 161.

~ "";_Ii. _ .... """ debel. An error made Ez ",ullit"din. lignorum, eolligtlur idenlilo. ".,.0.

hyaelerkcnqrhtllottolnjure; aolericalerrormay From the great number of signl true Identityla be eol11lCted. 1 JenL Cent. C .... 324. &IOertained. Bacon, Max. Reg. 211; Broom, Mu. "'_.d _a ~a ... 1.,.,.., e.'N/.llerr. To 3d Lond. ed. 6611.

nter errora to thir origin ill to refute them. Coke, Ez fliMlo niAiI fico From nothl~g notbiDg

3cl1llst. 15. comes. 18 Wend. N. Y. 178, 221; IS ,d. 267, 301.

h ...... ' ,_ Jlli". eutiga ... pa ..... ,... The law EtJe nudo pacto n"" orih.r ceno. No action arisel

Waab. wh_ obildren oorrect their parenti. 8 on a contract witbout a conllderation. N oy, Max. Cok., 118. 24; 8 Bnrr. 1670; 2 Sharnood, Blackst. Comm.

BIt aliqtoid quotl_ opert." "tiaM .. It"",- qulo- 446; Chitty, Contr. 10tb Am. ed. 25; 1 Stor,y, ,.wi ....., - Ileel urta _ oporl". There are Contr. f 6211. See Nl1Du. PAOTU ••

._. thinp which an not proper tbougb lawfUl; Ez l'a",o illicito """ o";tu,. oetia. From an nl certalnl,. th_ thin" are not proper which are illioit oontract DO action arisel. Broom, Max. 3d

_lawfaI. Bob. 161t. Loud. ed. 168; '1 Clark'" F. Hou. L. '1211 •

... ..... Jw ps61-- If ". .... , pod .., no- • proe.d.nn6ue" _HquetIIi6 ... opti .. a jill ..

MAXIM

MAXIM

'wprelal",. The best interpretation iI made from things preceding IoIld following; .. c. the oontext. 1 Rolle, a75.

Ez tota malm4 ''''''''gal ,...olutio. The oonltrnotlon or ollplanation Ihoul~ ariBe Ollt of the whol, subject-matter. Wingate, Mu. 238.

E", turpi cau.4 no" oritur actio. No action arla81 out of an immoral oODsideration. Selwyn, Nisi P. 6S; 2 Pet. 6311.

Ez lurpi .ontractu tIOII onl.... aelio. No action arlI08 on loll immoral contraot. Dig. 2. U. 21. 4; 2 Kent Comm. 466; 1 Story, Contr. f 6112; 22 N. Y. 212.

E:IJ uno d" ... _flU. From ODe thing yOIl oan

dilcern all. .

E",e'ptio .JDI rei eujUl pet ... r dUlOl,,'io n"IIG UI.

A plea of that matter the dillOllltion or whioh II tho object of the actlo11 iI of no e1rect. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 37.

EllJCeplio falei """,ill'" ulti",4. A fal.e plea i8 the buest of all thingl.

Hzeoplio 1'''''',., fflJula", in caribUl nOlI _e'1'M.

The excephon aflirm. the rule in 0&888 not exlI'pted. Bacon, Aph. 17.

EIlJC'plio firmal r.gula", in contrari"... The ex- 48ptlon amrms the mle to be the other way. Baoon, Aph.17.

Ez.'1'tio n"IIG .. , "."IUI actio".m qu. ""'.'1'tion .... perimit. There can be no plea againlt loll action which entirely deltroy. the plea. Jent. Cent. Cu. 106.

Ez •• plio probat regr.lam d. r.b... nOlI -"fIle.

An exception provel the rule ooneeming things not eseepted, 11 Coke, 41.

E", e .,'io q ... .ftrmal leg_, ""'Ponu 1.,-. An tlICeptlon which 1I0nfirms the law, tlIpollnda the law. 2 Bulltr. 189.

Ez.rptio quoque r.gulafll de.IGral. The exoeption 10110 declarel the mle. Bacon, Aph. 17.

Ezooptio •• mper ultima ponenda •• ,. An exeepUon is always to be put l •• t. II Coke, 58.

E"'....... in jure reprobalu... Ez...... in ... quaUbel lure ... probatur eo",,,,uni. Exeel. in law il reprehended. Elloesl in any thing is reprehended by common law. 1 Coke, 44.

EZ.Dlal aul ezlenual dolietu", in capitali"DI, quod tIOII operalur idetll ill citlilibu.. That exen ... or extenuate. a wrong in capital callses whioh does not have efl'ect In oivll luitl. Bacon, Max. Reg. 7; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 2111.

E",.culio .. t .:reclilio juri ••• ",,,,du,,, Judici"",. All execution II the execution of the law aooording to the jlldgment. Coke, 3d lnst. 212.

Ez.culio e.t .ftni. eI f n.clI .. leoi.. An e:uoutlon Is the ond and the fruit oC the law. Coke, Lltt. 2811.

B.z!Ui .. m eot patrile privalio, nalal" .oli ",utalio, r.g,,'" nat.·varll". nmilr,io. Exile iI a privation of oountry, a ohango of na.tal Boil, • 1011 of native

lawi. 1 Coke, 20. .

E"'Pedil rcipublic .. ne ru4 re quia mak tltatu ...

It II for the Illterest of the Btate that a man should Dot 1118 hil own property improperly. hat. 1. 8. 2; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 328.

Ezper'.nt.·", p ... "aria. ael",'eg"",faeit. Jlaptra ......um .zperietlll·a. Ellperionce by Varioul acts mallei law.. Experience II the miatrell of thing •• Coke, Litt. 60; Branoh. Princ.

Ezpo.itio, q". ez "i.c.ribuo ea.... naoeitur, .. t apli ... ma eI fOrli ... ma in lege. That elIposition whioh springs from the vitali of a caUBe i. the fittest and mo.t powerful in law. 10 Coke, 24..

Ezpr ... a noc,"t, non "'''1'''.''''' non nocent. ThlllgB exprelled may be prejudicial; thinga not exprelsed are not. Calvinlls, Lox.; Dig. 60. 17. 111. 5.

Ezpr ... a non pro.llnl q_ non r.r:pr."a proderunc.

Thlllgi expressed may be prejlldicial whiob not oxpre.led will profit. 'Coke, 73.

&zpr ... io e .... um q'''' lacili i,.,u,tI nil" "P .... atv ...

Th. expreilioll of thOH things whioh are taoit11

Implied 'operates nothing. 2 Panoll., Contr. 28; 4 Coke, 13; 6 ttl. 11; Hob. 170; 8 Atk. 188; 11 Meel. '" W. 6611; 1 Bxoh. 28.

Ezpr"rio uni ..... , ael ... io aileriUl. The oxpreslion of on. thins is the ezcllllion of lIDother. Coke, Litt. 210; Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 6N; 2 Panon., Contr. 28; 3 Blngh. II. c, 86; 8 Boott, Jr. L 1013, 1017; 6 Term, 21; 6 id. 320; 12 lI_ ... W. 761; 16 id. 110; IS id. 244; 2 Curt. C_ C. 366;

6 Mase. 84.; 11 Cush. Mals. 328. .

Ezpr ..... '" facie c_'" taci"'",.. That whiela II exprell8d puts an end to (readen lne1reeU,..) that whioh Is Implied. Smith, Contr. 2d ed. 3110; Ii Bingh. II. c. 186; 6 Bamew. " C. 8011; 2 CroIllPt. '" M. 4.511; 2 sn, '" B. 866; 7 MUB. IPS; 2' lie. 374.; 6 N. H. '81; 1 Dongl. Mioh. 830; , Wuh.

C. O. 186.

Atinceo 'UbjHto, tolUtu .. adjnefum. When the substance Is gone, the adJllncta disappear. 18.1011.0 ..

N. Y. '38, 4.112.

Eztrtl leg.m porilUl .tI eiriUl.... "'om.... One Ollt of the pale of the law (an olltlaw) is oivill7 dead. Coke, Litt. 130.

E:lJtra I ..... itorium Ju. d,'Ceftn tIOII parerdr i_p"One who euralse. jurisdiction out of hiB territorJ' 0B:Dnot be obeyed with impllnity. 10 Ooke, 1f J Dlg. 2. 1. 20; Story, ConI. Law., 15311.



FaCia .u'" potentiora tHlrb". Faets are mon

powerf\Jl thaD word ••

Factu", a Judice quod ad eJu. ojJIeiu", nOli ."ec«czt, nOli ratum fill. An act of a judge which does 00& pertain to hll olllee II or no foree. 10 Coke, 'IS; Dig. 60. 17. 170; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 811.

Factum cui.,..., num, '''''' ad_aria, noc .... ck6.".

A man's actionl should injure himself, not hie l1livenary. Dig. 60. 11. 156.

Faclu". i,,/eclllfli fieri ""'I"il. What is done_not be undone. Ilram8l, Eq. 118, 2611.

Faetum "eganli. nll/IG probalio. No proof II inoumbent 011 him who doniel a faet.

Factu". tIOII dieitur qllod 11011 per"""'""t. That 1.1 not laid to be done which does not lut. 5 Coke, 116; Sheppard, TOllohst. Prelton ed. SII.

Faclum uniUl alteri nor er« "on d.bet. The deed or ODe IhOllld not hllrt another. Ooke, Litt. 162.

Facultao probationum no" •• t angu8!allda. Tb. right of offering proof iI not to be narrowed. Coke, 40th lnst. 2711.

Falo" d_Ir.'", tton n""". A fal .. dellCription does not "mate. 6 Term, 678. See 2 StorJ', Rep. 2111; 1 Greenleaf, Ev. f SOl; Broom, Mu:. 3d Lond. ed. 662; 2 Parlonl, Contr. «12, n., Gil, n., 72, n., 16, n.; 4 O. B. 328; 11 id. 208; 14 id. 122.

Fal.4 d.monrlralione legal .. m n01l peri.... A lesaoy iB not. destroyed by 8n incorrect deaorlptioo. 8 Bradf. Bllrr. N. Y. 1«, 1411.

Faloa ortlaograp1t.ia, "~e lalAa gram .. at1·C4, ,otI ",nal cone ... ion..... Pal .. spelling or false grammar doel not vitiate a gnmt. II Ooke, 48; Sheppard, TOllchlt.56.

FalcUl in IIno, falcu. in o .. n .. ".... Paise In one thing, false in every thing. 1 Bllmn. C. C. SIIS; 'I Wbeat. 888; 3 Wisc. 846; 2 Jone., No. C. 257 • Fa",a,.ftd •• , et oct.l". nOlI paliunl .. r Iud..... Pame, pJill;hted faith, IoIld eyelight do not endure deceit.

3 Bulltr. 226. •

Fatetur faeinUl qui Judici"". fugit. He who flees judgment DOnfelsel his guilt.' Coke, 8d lut. 1'; 5 Coke, lOll b. But lee Belt, Pres. f 248.

FaltIW pr_m"",. 'IN' ill proprio flomi". erra&.

A man il prelumed to be simple who make. a 1Ilistake in hiB own name. Code, 6. 2'. 14; 5 John •• Ch. 148, 181.

Faoorabilia in kg •• IInI fotNII, dOl, .. ta, I~ The treuury, dower, liCe, and liberty, are tbiDp favored In law. Jenk. Ont. Cu. 114.. l'attarabili_ rei pOliUl l.ua". actor .. 1cz6MMo.

Defenduw are rMber to be ayom tIIaD pWatota.

MAXIM

127

.lft:AXIM

Dig. 50. 17. 121i. See 8 Wheat. lilli, 1911; Broom, )(n. 3d Lond. ed, 11311.

FIJ.o,aoilio, ••• 11111 .z~litlllN aliu poeH"bt,. ,"i~qu.. Exeoutions are preferred to all other proeessel whatever. Coke, Litt. 287.

Faoo_ ampliaJldi ,,,,,,; odia ~.t";lIg ... da. PaTorable inolinationl are to be enlarged; animositiu reotnined. Jenk. Cent. Cas. 186. .

F.I;" qlli po,.,il .-.n.lR eognoeeer. ea, .. a.. Bappy iJ b. wbo has been able to anderstand the oaales or Ibing.. Coke, Litt. 231.

F.t.aia, u: .; I.,.".i.;, "fTAijicat quodlibel capiltal. "';_/.11.0 a .. imo perpclral .. ",. Felony, by force of the lerm, ligaifles lome oapital orime perpetrated with a malignant mind. Coke, Lilt. 391.

F.loaia i.pliea" ... in q .. olib.' prodilio.... Felony is implied in enry treason. Coke, 3d Inst. 16.

Feod._ .n quod qau Im.' e;r quliCJIII'lll' "0 ... 4, ,i .. ';lleano,n/u. "". r.ddilll.. A fee is that which Illy ODe holda from whatever oause, whether teneIIIeIIt or rent. Coke, Litt. 1.

F_i .... ,io ir"Iiti. ul "over"a injo,lIInii. The hurrying of justioe II the .tepmother of mi.rortune. Bob. 117.

FilJl jH.tilira rual _luIII. Let JUltice be done, thoogh the heaven shonld fall. Branoh, Prino. 181.

FilJI prout jI .... ~." nil lemere .. OfJIJ .. dum.

Let it be done &I formerly, let no innovation be III.I.de ruhll. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 116; Bl'&Doh, Prine.

Fidio c.dil " .... ,ali. Fietio jll";, .. Oil .n, ubi "';kU. Plotion yield. to truth. Where tnlth is, Selion or law doel not exllt.

Fietio p, .",,'ra ","'Ia_, •• d pro " .... ,a,. lab.,.,. Pietlon la against the truth, bnt it il to be eol_ed trutb.

Fietio legit i.iqu~ operatur alt ... i clamll ..... ""Z , .. - jlria",. Fiotion o( law i. wrongful if it worblon or injury 10 &Dy one, 2 Coke, 35; 3 id, 36 i Gill, Jld. 223 i Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 122.

Fietio kt!i. _i ....... lItdil. A fiotion of law injurea ao one. 2 Rolle, 602; 3 Shanwood, Black&t. 43; 1'1' lohn .. N. Y. MIl.

Fitlcli'.... De lIullo I ... em ... to, tJuod I ... elur ad .... i._ jlt Tlmraagii; fil 10"'''' i"n. fidelitali, '0- .......... "'... Fealtl. For no tenement whioh il held for a term II there the nath of homage, but there is the oath or Cealtl. Coke, Lilt. 67 b. '

TidH Hr.,..ada. Good Calth must be obsorved.

I Jlete. )(&11. 651; 3 Barb. N. Y. 323, 330 i 23 id. m.~2'.

Fid.. _atlG e.'; "raplicilao jNri. gentium pr... ltal. Good Caith il to be preserved; the limpli.ity of the law of nation. should prevail. Story, Bilil, f Iii.

Ti.ri 11011 debet, Hd factum ~alel. It ought not to be done, but done It il valid. 5 Coke, 311; 1 8traDge, 1i26; 111 John •. N. Y. 84, 92; 12 id. 11, 378.

FiliatiD "0" potul probari. Filiation C&OlIot be proTed. Coke, Litt. 126 ft. But 188 7 ... 8 Viot. 0. leL

,.1i .. .", __ en _ahlra, I.d _. "olllm jN"; ••

&D il a name of natare, bat heir a name o( law. 1 8i,l. 193 i 1 Powell, Dev. 311.

Fiti ... ita .. ter» ... at,u •• , PIU'. "i,cenam 11111,,;.. A 1"11 in tho mother's womb il part of the mother'1 Tital.. 7 Coke, 8.

FiRi. fi- ""iiluo ,ra1""'i', A fine pate an end to litigation. Coke, 3d Inst. 78.

FiM;. rft alt ... dend ..... t, The end of a thing is 10 be attended to. Coke, 3d InlL 51.

FiM'" •• j •• diei H' prill.ipilllll alt.,.;.... The ~nd or one cia, II the begiDDing or another. 2 Balstr. IU.

FnUw d po'",'ior "'" "perah'o legit quam dilpo,,'Iio '-i. i.. The operation of law II firmer and !141ft powerf\a1 tlwI the will of mBII. Coke, Lilt. Itt.

t Flumina d porlll' publica .. ,nl, ideoqNe jus p,'.candi omll;b". rOnlmlfn. e". Riven and ports are pubUJ; therefore the right of fishing there ill common to all. bav. 55; Branch, Princ.

Fctmi". ab olll"ib". olftci;, civilibll' "el pt,I>Ii"'. ...... 01 •• unl. Womeu are excluded from all civil and publlo oharge. or ·olllce.. Dig. 60. 1'1. 2; 1 Exoh. 645; 6 Meel ... W. Exch. 216.

Fctm;JI. 110.. ,,,"1 capac.. de publi",. 0lft.ii,.

Women are not admilsible to public offiees. Jenk. Cent. Cae. 237. But a woman may be elected to the 011100 oC sexton, Olive v •• Ingram, 7 Mod. 263; Str. U14, S. c., or governor of a work-hoase, and act by deputy, Anon., 2 Ld. Raym. 1014. or an oveneer. 2 Term, 395. See WOKEN.

Forma dal ••• e. Form gives being. Lord Benley, Ch. 2 jEd. Ch. 119.

Forma legaU./arma ...... tiali.. Legal form I, ellentia.! Corm. 10 Coke, 100; II C. B. 49S; 2 Hopk. 319.

FOl'flla "011 ob'Ilf'tIala, ill/erlll,. adnullalio lJ.hfl.

Wben form il not ebserved, a nnllity oC' the act il inferred. 12 Coke, 7.

For.,ella"; ... HI pauperlllll depr~.IOf', .1 toti ... com",,,nitali. et palri. plfblicu. i"iPlim,a. A Corestaller is an oppreuor of the poor, and a public eneml to the whole oommnnityand tho eountry. Coke, 3d Inlt.1911.

Fortior ut "".,adia kg;. 'l',am Aomini.. The CUItody of the law i •• trollger tlan that oC man. 2

Rolle,321i. ,

Forlior ., polenlior HI dupo",io kt!i. qua", MIn;IIi.. The dispOlitiOD of the law il Itronger and more powerful than that of man. Coke, LUt. 234 ; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 622; 10 Q. B. 944; 18 a. 87; 10 C. B. 561; S Hou. L. Cu. 607; 13 MeeL ... W. Exch. 285, 806; 8 Johns. N. Y. 401.

FrGcliOllIfll diei 11011 r.cipill.",. The law does not reprd a fraction of a day. Lofl't, 5'1'2. But lee DAY.

FrlJler Ira"';' uten'no no .. IVce~det ,n I.,..di,,,,. palernL A brother shall not lacpeed an uterine brother in the paternal in heritanoe. Fort. de Laud. Leg. Ang. by Amol, p. Iii; 2 Sharfwood, Blaokst. Comm. This maxim II now superseded in Eogland by 3 .. , Wm. IV. c. 108, I. 9. Broom, Mn. 3d Lond. ed, 4'1'1 j 2 Sbarlwood, Black.t. Comm.232.

Frau •.. , "IaN /raud..... It il a fraud to oonoeal a fraud. 1 Vern. 270.

Frail • ." odio.a .t "on prINulllenda. Fraud II odioul and not to be presumod. Croke Car. 650.

Fra .... ' dol ... lIetllilli plJlrocia"a"; d.b.nl. Praud and deoeit should excuse no man. 3 Coke, 78 .

Frau •• , jll' fllllltJuam cohabita,,'. Fraud aud JUIlico never dwell together. Wingate, Max. 680.

FrlJlI. IlJlet .11 g ... .,alibll.. Fraud liel hid ia general exprellions.

haul fIIerelur fraudem. Fraud deserves fraud.

Plowd. 100; Branch, Prine, Thil il very poor law.

Fr~i9hl i, Ih. molher 0/ tDag4', 2 Show. 283; 8 Kent, Comm. 196; 1 Bagg. 22'1; Smith, Merll. Law, 648; Cauders, Mar. Law, 339-348, 391,398; BUL N. Y. 1, 17; 6 John •• N. Y.IIi4; 11 id. 2711; 12 id, 324.

Fr.quenlin aeto. ", .. ltum opera"''', The frequenoy or an act eWects much. 4 Coke, 78 j Wingate, MaL 192.

FMrcl ... aug.at 1ueredilatem. Fruits enhance an iDherilanoe.

Fruct ... ptl,den"'ra"'fuRtli ""1 ... ,,,,.. Bangine Craits make part 0 the land. Dig. 6. 1. «; 2 Bouvier, Iust, n, l1i78. See LARCENY.

Fruetu. perr.ptoo ",1"'11011 .. " cOII,'ol. Gathered Craits do not make a part of the farm. Dig. 10. 1. 17. 1; 2 Bonvier; Inlt. n. l1i78.

FrHllltflta '1". lOla "',,' ."In c.der. illlelligv.nlolr.

Grain whioh II 10WD il nnderstood to form II pan or the IOU. Inlt. 2. 1. 32.

MAXIM

128

MAXIM

F,....,t'd agil qui jadieiam prtHloqlli n.quil cum of- I 'P.eiaW ....... , ""mpreA .... a. A general clanllll doe. /.elll He in vaia sties, wbo cannot proseeute biB not extend to those tbings wblcb are previouly

Judgment witb effeot. Fleta, lib. 8, e. 37, * 9. provided for specially. 8 Coke, 16 •.

.FrlUlra e.' pol.tllj .. qua lIunquam "erNl in a.t",n. O .... r .. li. reou'" g", •• ra/il ..... t inlellig ... da. A

Tbe power wbiob nevor oomel to be exeroiaed ia Iteneral rule ia to be undel'lltood generally. 6 Coke,

vain. 2 Coke, 61. 65.

L'ruolrd e:lCpe.'alur ..,tnlu. "!lUI effeclll' .... llu ••• - Glolla .,;p .... na • ., qt .. oorrodil ";.cero Ie:rtG ••

quitur. An event II vainly ezpeoted from wbiob no Tbat il a viperine gloss wbicb eats out tbe TitalJl

ell'eot follows. of tbe text. 10 Coke, 70; 2 Bulstr. '111 •

.Fruotrd ferunlur "0" .... i eubdi,i •• , obeditnCibUl. Gram",alica lal,a .. 011 ";1;01 eM,.,a.... FalM

Lawl are made to no purpOI8 unleu few tbole "bo grammar does not vitiate a deed. II Coke, 48.

are subjeot and obedient. 7 Ooke, 13.. Gra"; ...•• , di",'"a,n q"alll ""por .. '_ lied ...... a~

Fru.trd jll p ... plllr .. , qllod jleri pot •• t p.r pauci- j .. ,al..... It la more Perious to burt diviDe than o .. a. Tbat is done vainly by many tblngs, wbiob temporal majesty. 11 Coke, 29. migbt be accomplisbed by fewer. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 88; Wingate, Max. 177.

Frullr,} levi. au.,;lium qllll!7';1 qui in 100"'" e"mmi!til. Vainly does be wbo offcnds againat the law leek tbe belp of tbe law. 2 Bale, PL Or. 388; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 266.

F,·"."d pet .. quod .'alilll alun redder. cogori,.

Vainly you ask that wbirh you will immediately he compelled to restore to another. Jonk. Cent. Ou. 258; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 310.

Frullril probatur quod probatum lion relf'~al. It Is vain to prove that 11' blcb if proved would not aid tbe matter in question. Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 265.

FII";n.i lIulia eolunla. • .,. A madman has no will. Dig. 60. 1'1. 5; u. 1. 18.13. 1; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 282.

F .. rio.lI. abunl" loco .It. A madman is oonsidered as absent. Dig. 50. 17. 24. I.

FariOlUl nulllllll neoolilllll eontralte ... (y .... r.) pot." (qllia lion inlelligil quod ao'l). A IUDatio oaunot make a oontract. Dig. 60. 17.5; 1 Story,Oontr. 4tb ed. p, 78.

.1'111';0,"" .olo/uroro punillir. A madman ia pan.

Ished by hiB madneas alone. Ooke, Lltt. 2'7; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 14; 4. Sharswood, Blackst. Oomm. 24, 25.

Furio.", ,'ipulaN non polm lI.e aliquod lIegO';II,. ager., qlli lion illl.lligil quid O!J'·I. An huane perIon who knows not wbat he does oannot make a bargain, nor transaot any buslne8s. 4 Coke, 126.

F",.or eontrahi matrimonium flOn. B,on,o" quia eon..... a oP'" .11. In,anlty prevents marriage 'rom being ooutl'llOted, becauso consent i8 needed. 1 Ves. ... B. Ch. 140; 1 Blackitone, Oomm. 4311; 4 Johns. Ch. N. Y. 343,346.

Furlllm nOlI .,, ubi inilium Aabel d.,entiOfli. per dominu", rei. It is not then wbere tbe commencement of the detention ariaes tbrougb the owner of tbe tblng. Coke, 3d Inst. 10'1.

Dabem". "Ptimum 1.,,_ eonjlt ... ,.... NIlIII. We have tbe best wilnen, a confeBsing defendant. Foster, Orim. Law, 243. See 2 Hagg. 316; 1 Phillip., Ev.897.

Hrtr.d"", D.uI I .. nl, _ lro .. o. God, and not man, makes the heir. Braaton, 62 b.

Her.d"", •• , flom ....... 11.",;""",. Heir ia a eollectivo name.

Heredip.,a 11.0 propi .. ,ao ""I ntran ... p .... ""'" ... .an. "",tod, ""11,,, "omllldtatar. To tbe next beir, wbether a relation or a Itranger, certainly a dangerous guardian, let no one be committed. Coke, Litt. 88 b.

H .. rodil ... eft -to i .. tiM....". .. '" jtu quod tl./1111('111' Aab ...... al. Inheritance is tbo Buecessic1I to every rigbt wbioh wu possused by tbe late pOllellor. Coke, Litt. 237.

D_edita .... hil aUad .. c, qtIdm .. e ...... o , .......

I' ... ",n, jIll, qllod de/'lncl", ltab" .... 1. Tbe right of Inheritance is notbing elle tban the faculty of 11>0- oeeding to all tbe rights of the d_ased. Dig. 60. 17. 82 •

Haredita. ""lIqlla", a. .... d.,. Tbe inheritance never asoend.. Glanville, I. '1, e, 1; Broom, MilL 2d Lond. ed, 4.69; 2 Bbarnrood, Black~t. Comm. 212, n.; 3 Greenleaf, Crui.e, Real Prop. 831; 1 Stephen, (;omm. 378. Abrogated by ltat. 3 .II ~ Will. IV. o. 1 06, ~ 6.

H .. rtd"m appellatiORe .... i .. II' lr.nd~, "_od"", tn infinilum. By tbe title of beirs, come the bein of beil'll to infinity. Ooke, Litt. II.

D ....... , all ... 'P'" ., jlltu •... , par. pa".... An heir 18 another 8elf, and a IOn u a part of the fatber.

D_., •• , aul jure propridali. aid ,,,re ""Prw .... - laliOfli.. An heir i8 eitber by right of property or right of reprelentation. 3 Ooke, 40.

Herer •• t ead_ perlona eN'" a.t._H. Tbe heir il the BalDe person wltb the ancutor. Coke,

Litt. 22. .

e""oral. d,'elulII generaliter ." illlerprdalldlim. HII!7''' .,, nOIll." JII .... , jlUu, .. , "0111" .alur ..

A general uprenion I. to be oonstrued generally. Heir b a term of law; 1011, one of nature.

8 Coke, 116; 1 Ed. Cb. 98. Bar .... t paro alllee ... o";,. The heir Is " part

General. nihil c,,·lun. illlplical. A general ex. of the ancestor. Ooke, Lilt. 22 b I 3 HW, N. Y. preuion impliel notblng certain. 2 Ooke, 34; 165,187.

Wingate, Mu. 164. Hare, lIl1!7'ed" mei .If m .... "_. The heir of

Gen ... al. lantulII oalel in g .... roll'bll., qllanlllll' my heir II my heir. Wbarton, Law Diot. ,ingular. in .;ng"I". What il general prevails, or I1art. 10yiliml1. e.' qu"," ""pti .. d""'OfYtranl. He is worth u much, among tbings general, ywhat is il tbe lawful heir wbom I.be marriage demon8trate •. partioular among tbings particular. 11 Coke, 69. I Mirror of Just. 70; Fleta, I. 6, o. 1; Dig. 2. 4. 6;

Gon.ratia prr. ee dunl, .p.ei'llia .eqllanlur. Tbing8 i Coke, Lltt. 7 b j Broom, Malt. 3d Lond. ed. 45i. general precede, thingnpecial follow. Reg. Brev.; : AI to the applioatlon of the priDolple when the Branoh, Prlne, I marriage il lublequent to tbe birth of tbe child, O ...... alia 'PeciaUb", non d.rogant. Tblng. gene- see II Clark'" F. Hou. L. 671; 8 Bingh. N. c. 885 ; ral do not derogate from things special. J enk. 6 Wheat. 226, 262, n.

Cent. Oas. 120. Hare. millor uno et flig ... ti anlli ... "" re'POIItl.bit,

e.H.ratia .l1nl prlllpOnenda ringularibu.. Gene- ",' .. i'l ca.u dotU. An belr minor, under twenty-

ral tbings are to be put before particular tbing.. one yeai'll 0' age, i8 not anlwerabie, except in the

Generalia oerba 11",' genera liter inleU;o.nda. matter of dower. F. Moors, 3.8.

General words are undentond in a general sen88. H. ",ho Ao. cOfll",illod ill''1uit, .Iall 1101 lllH

Coke, 3d Inst. 76; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 677. .qu;'g. Franols, 2d Mu.

G ... eralib", 'P.ctalia deroga .. t. Tbings special He ",Ao ",ill Aa". O9 .. i" dOfl. 10 li. mUd ti~

u.ke from tbings general. Balkers, Max. 61. .quit, to IA •• am. per.on. 4 Bouvier, Inst. n. 37211

thn_li. cla", .. la """ porrigilur ad e" '1II1II aRI." Boo •• ",abitur q"od 'Rilio eo .... .,. Tbia .hall

MAXIM

129

MAXIM

See TiDda,l, C. J., 10 Clark " F. Hou. L. 210; Broom, Max. 3d LODd. ed. 245; , Shanwood, BI_okIL Comm. 27.

IgtloroNtio ... -e .. al"r, "Oft i"';' Hd /,,"'i. Ignorance of faot may elI.OUle, but not igooraoce of luw. See 18110R.&IIC ••

19"Mon,,'a facti no,"",,', ig1ll>ralltia j"ri. "0" netUta'. Igooraooe of fact. eltCUlel, IgnllraDce of law doel oot exeuee, 1 Coke, 177; , Bouvier, InsL II. 8828; Broom, Ma1l:. 3d Lood. ed. 231; 1 FUDbilUlque, Eq. 6th ed. 1111, a, See IGNOnAllc •.

IfI"0rurtlia judieU e.' cal"",ila. i"""cmlil. The IgaonLllce of the judge II the mllfortuoe of the inooeeot. Coke, 2d IDlt. 691.

Ignora"tia j .. n. " .... neu.,,'. Jjlllorarce of the law il 00 eXCUBe. 8 Weod. N. Y. ~67, 284; 18 id. 686, 1188; 6 Paige, Ch. N. Y. IS9, 196 j 1 Edw. Ch.

N. Y. 467, 472.

IU"0ronlia jllri. quod 9f1Uf.' •• cir. Im,'vr, lIemi,,_ &re".al. Igootance of aw which every ooe II bound to know, eXCUlel no ODe. 2 Cokc, 3 b,. 1 Plowd. 1143; per Ld. Oa",pbell, 9 Clark .t; F. 324; Broom, Max. 3d Lood. ed. 232; 'I Carr • .I; P. 466; 2 Keot, Comm. 491.

Ignorantia l.gi, "erni" ........ e".al. Ignorance ot lnw cxcupel no aile. See IGNoR.&KCZj , Douder,

Id _.,_ eool 'I""d .-I" .. ,.oddi 1"'le". That II 101t. n, 8828; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. ~ 111.

eertai. whlob may be reodered certaio. 1 Bouvier, IUNOf''''U I",.",i"i., ivnoralur d "rl. Terms being IDiL D. 11211; 2 Blackstone, Comm. 143; 4 KeDt, unknown, the art also i. uDkDowo. Coke, Lilt. 2.

C ... m. 482; • Pick. M .... 179; Droom, Max. 3d Igllo,cil"r ei 'I"" .angt';" ...... ""n 9"oliler ,.tdm,p-

Load. ed. 1iIi8. lu", ,·o/uil. Tho law bolds him excused who eboae

I~ per/~"'_ eel 'I""" e:r _,,16v •.. Ii, partib". that hil blood should be redeemed on BDy termL eo""ol. Tbd I. perfect wbich II complete In all Dig. 48. 21. 1; 1 Shulwood, Dlacklt. ComlL

ill para. II Coke, II. 131.

Id ,.".. ... ". 9"od d.jure 1'''''''''''''' We ne able IlIlld 9"od alia. licilu", "Oft UI, ,..ce"iltu loci.

to do that wbiob we OUD do l .. wfu11". Lane, 116. licil""" '" n.c .... ·,a. i .. dlAl';' pririlegi"", 9'IOd j"".

Id 'l"od.n _gil f'8"'UIH.., .on traAiI ad .e 9vod pn·Dalur. That which ia oot otherwioe lawful "'."gi.jllne,_,oed.colltra";oi,,_"le"'N. That Decelsity makel lawful, aod o~esBity makel a whloh is more remote doel Dot draw to lteel! that privilege which lupenedes the law. 10 Coke. 61.

"hieh I. nt'arer, but the oonlrary in every oue. Illud 9"0d alleri vnilu .. o",'i"uuil",', "t~II' "",.

Colle, Lilt. UI". pUiI. pe,. .e .. "CO,.. lied. That which I. united to

Id ,,,,,,, 11 ... ' .... 1Mf, ';"'/".'0 .. on .... , ad olium another i. extillguished, nor oan it be any mora ",_".rri "Oft pol_. WJaat beloDgl to u. caDnot IDdepeDdeDt. G"dolph. 169.

M tn1l.f.lT8d to Bootber without our coneent. Dig. I",,,,ubilia ';1"," IfIqllllfllur. Immovablel follow

60. 17. 11. Bat thil must be understoed with thll (the law of) their looality. 2 KeDt, Comm. 67. qua1i8_tioa. that the goYerameot may take pro- Imperilia culp" ",""",0"0"". Ignorseee, or WADt Jlfrty for public use, payiog the OWDer lte value. of skill, il eonsldered a fdUlt, i .e, a negllgene«, fOl Tbe tiUe to property rna" allo be acquired, without whioh one who profelles Ikill is responsible, Dig. the eoDleDt ot th. OWDer, by a Judgmeot of a com- 60. 17. 132; 1 Bcuvier, Iolt. D. 1004; 2 Kent,

",ftt tribaDa!. Comm. 688; 4 Ark. 623.

Id_ .,... eI ptllMu _ ...... p"ten. To be at Imperili" ell ",oziRla ",..,I""eo",m ptl'fla. Lack

ODee the perIOD acting and lhe perIOD acted upoo of skill I, the greatolt pUDbbment of .rtisaol. 11

II illlpoallibl.. leDL CenL Cos. 40. Coke, 64 a.

lfI __ /tHJ_, " flol,. proltibere eN'" P.,.';I. It Impe,.lOlIaliltu ."" e""cl"dil tI,. ligal. ImpcriI tile IUD. tJaing to do & thing .. Dot to prohibit It lon,,1Ity Delther ooncludes Dor binds. Coke, LItL

.b .. iDyour power. 8 Coke, IDlt. 168. 3a2.

14 .. eel "i1il dirn"tl.' in.,rjJlcinltr direre. It I. I"'pi" •• , ~Idtli'iudic""d". ell 9",";btrtali tI""

'II. __ thing to la" Dotliiog aod Dot to say /af)eI. He il to be Judged impious and oruel who

AlleieoU". Coke, 2d Ialt. 178. does Dot favor liberty. Coke, Litt. 124.

Itkta .. t """ pro6ari fit ..... e ... ,. """ d~tJ;1 JH., 1"'1"' .. i6ilillm nulla obUgotio • .,. Tbere la 110

MI prolHltio. What doel not appear, aDd what is obligatioD to perform impolSible thID,'. Dig. bOo Dnt, are the .. _; It-laDot the defeot of the law, 18.186; 1 Pothier, Obl.pt.l,c.l,I.4,~3; 2Stllry, lIat tbe W&Dt otproof. Eq. Jur. 6th ed. '163; Breom, Max. 3d LODd ed.

1"- eel MiN '"" ..:i ... d.bet "fllp"IIIi.... To he 228.

cbl. to now II the lame al til know. ') h', moxhD /"'polenli" "e" .. , I lrge",. Impo •• lbilit,. i, .D iI applied &0 the duty of c"ery ~DO ,,, kuuw the neuse io the law. Coke, Lilt. 29 j Broom, Mu.

Ia.. 3d Lond. ed. 223.

,tka ...... e_ rl ..... , "pp"rd. It II Ibe 18me In'p""ila. cOHlinuu", (lfferl,,'" Irihil deU"9venl'.

thiDg .", to exi.t and DOt 10 appear. Jeok. Ceot. ImpuDity utren a oODtiDual bait to a d~liDqueoL

C ... 207. 4 Coke, 'II.

id .. _".,. ... ,_d .. ,. pl"OfltifllO "q.rlN... Idom Impu""o. '_per ad deln'iora in";lal. JmpuDit"

81".,1 reIateI to th. oext aD~eDL Coke, Litt. alwaYllDvltel to greater orlmel. 5 C"ke, 1011.

W. In Itdilleii. '"pi. 11m'. 1"'nl ... tI"n .. , r."''''·."d ....

1M';'" MFa ""lUgi,.,. e~ ","lli",di" •• ign_tII. ID buildiogl a stone badly placod II oot to be reo Trae WeRdt" .. ool1eoted from a Dumber of SigDI. moved. 11 ('ok_, 69.

s-a, Reg. 211. IH "'q,,"/i j"re ",.Ii .. , e.t .. "nditio p"".id ... ,u.

I'_" .. fftia ......... 'IN_ 'l"i, 1cif'8 I""el" .. """~. When the partin han equal right., the conditioD _t. IporaDe4t or thOle thlngl which every one of the pOI.enor is the beuer. Mltford. Eq. Plead. II boud to know exou_ aot. Hale, PI. Cr. 42. J 216; Jeremy, Eq. Jur. 286; 1 Maddock, ChIlD ..

VOL. 11.-1

M pnaned whieh .. _ful In tbe begIaola,. DIr 60.17.23; Braot01l, 73 b.

110_ •• _0 PKI', pH,. .ver dee 6n./e .... "" .. rt " "", roil il a d .... i' 0" a lorl. A maD Iha11 Dot .. paDybed (or laio, out wrltllo the klog's eourt, "bether h. be right or wroDg. Coke, 2d IDst. 228.

aowiv ••........ jlU COII,'il.'u", •• ,. Law" eata-

hlilhtcl for tJae beDellt of mao. .

ao ... pol.,.... Iiobili. et ill1lah,·U. direr';. I ... · ,.,..;'", A maD may be oapable and looapable at diren tim... II Coile, 98.

/Jo .. o ........ 61fI.m ,., natHr"; pentm" Juri. ""li .. lila (1<'.0) ia a term of Dature; penoo (per_), of Ih. oivillaw. CalViDUI, Loll.

HOt'I/I 110" Ht •• 11"", d. 1N6.'oflli4 "'II"tii, li.d i .. ~Uo d. flI ali9Hand<> jlat ",m"o. The hour ia Dot or mucb ooaMlJueoC8 Itl to the IIIbltance of buiD .... altbough iD appeal It II IOmetim .. meatiDDed. 1 Bulltr. 82.

H_ .. v, 9.i 1I06i. ~ .. l 9'lib ... ".,. bel'.", d.e ... - Ii ... ,. ._fni tradilor •• ""I Fed"" .... nt; Eoem" an tho .. IlpoD whom we deolare war, or who deelare it agaiDlt UI; 8n others are tr_lton or pi.... 7 Coke, 24; Dig. 60. 16. 118; 1 Sha~"ovd, BlabL Comm. 267.

MAX!M

180

MAXIM

Prect. 1'70; Dig. bOo 17. 128; Broom, lIu. ad Lond. ed. 634; Plowd. 2W6.

1n all.l'flRtiv;. el.dio eol debitori.. In alterD&tius, the debtor h .... the eleotion.

I .. crmbiflU4 "oe. 1.lIi. oa I"'tiv. aecipirmdo .. , .,,"guificatio, qu. ,:ilia curet; P! pertim cu'" diu," ,w/ulilar l.fli. r.z: ko« eolliyi 1)0"il. When obscurities, ambiguities, or faults 01' eltpre88iun render the meBning of an eoaotment doubtful, that interpretalion Ihall be preferred which il m08t conslloaot to equity, e.peaiaUy where it is in oonformity with the ,.neral desigo of the legidlature. Dig. 1. 3. 111; llruom, Max. 3d Lond. ed, 61:i; Baoun, Malt. Reg. 3; Coke, 2d Inlt. 173.

In ambillui. oration;bu. ma",ima .... , ... ,ia 'P.eland .... , 'iUl qui ea. praluli'lU'l. Wheo there are ambiguous espreuion., the intention of him whu usel them i8 e.pecially to be regarded. Thil maxim of Ruman law waa confined to wills. Dig. 60. 17. 96; llroom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 606.

In al,oeioribUl dtli.,i. pUllit"r "./Je.,", li.d "Of' • equal"r tff.elu,. In more otrociuul orimea, the lutent il punished though the effect do .. not follow. 2 Rolle, &9.

1., ecuu utrem. ,,~ce .. ;ta'i. omtlia ... "t eom ... rnu."i... In Cllies of extreme necellity, every thing its In common. Hale, PI. Cr. 64; Broom, Malt. I.

1 .. eomm"dalo I".e paclio, ne dul ... p,""'telur, rata "on .". If in a oontract for aluan there il Inserted a clause 'that fraud should not be accounted of; aueh clause is void. Dig. 13. 7.17.

b. cO''J",Ulctivi. oportd utramque }la,·t"11 ~'1fJ !'tram.

In oonjunctives each part must be true. Wingate, Hax.13.

In cOH.irnili caBU con.i",tle d.l,e' .... rtmediu",.

In aimilar eaaes, the remedy should be similar. Hordr.66.

IN cOII.uetudjllibll. lion diutu .... ila. lempori. ltd IOUdila. ratiou!« e.t con.ide,allda. In eustoms, not the length of time hnt Lhe strength of the reaIon should be considered. Coke, Litt. l·n.

/" COII"'tlclib.II, bellign«; in te.ta,,.ellh~., beu;gtl,'orj '" rA,itutr"ouibIl4, b,uignl·,.imo i,de'"p,o,tnUQ/aci."dG .. t, In ecutracts, the interpretatiun or ecnstruetion should be liberal; in "ills, more liberal; in reltitutions, moat Iiberal, Coke, Litt. 112 a.

111 cont""clibu. tnc;'. i" .. mt pm .Nnl "w"i, d COReueludi"i.. In eentracte, those things whiuh are of cUltom and usage are tacitly implied. Broom, 11u:. 3d Lond. ed. 7611; 3 Bingh. II. C. 814, 818; Stur)" Billa, i 143; 3 Kent, Cumm. 260.

1" cOlltl'akt"da ".IIditioll" aD,biYllum pactum to,,Ira o."dilor~m illltrp,elandum •• 1. In negotiating a lale, an ambiguuus agreemont is to bo Interpreted against the seller. Dig. 60. 17. 172; 18. 1. 21.

1n convrmtionibu. eOlll",hellli,,". rO/ .. lllaltm potiu. 9'ltlnt ".,ho 'P.clari plac,dl. In Bg~emcntl, the rule is to regard the intention of tbe oontrncting parties rather. than their wurda. lIig. fiO. 16. 219; l! Kent, Comm. 556; Broom, Malt. 3d Lond. ed. 491; IT Johns. N. Y. 160.

I .. cr;III;IIalibll., prabationt. d.ben' e •• e lue. tlariore.. In oriminal cases, the proofs ought to be cloarer than the light. Coke, 3d. Inst. 21 U.

I" Crilllillalibu. "'./ficil Otll.l'ali. ,""/ilia ,·ftl ... - li""i • .."m /aclo pari. gradO.. In crimin,,1 oaees, a generlll malice of intention is .uffioient, with an aot of equal or oorre~ponding degree. Bacoo, Max. Reg. 16; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 291.

}" (,,·1I1u·Jlalibu. f'olmrt'" rrputabittrr pM In~'''.

In criminal acts, the will will be taken fur the deed. C· .. ke, 3d lnst. 106.

1n diojundi"u "'.fllcil alleram parltm .... ".,am.

In di.junetivel, it is sollloifnt If either part be true. Wing"t., Max. 13; Coke, Litt. 226 "j 10 Coke, 60; Dig. 60. 17. 110.

1" dub'i. b ... io"ior,. pr./trtllda ft'"'. In doubtful matten, the more ',n'orable are to be preferred. Dig. 60. 17. 60, 2 Kent, Cumm. 657.

Ia d.6ii. magi. dip". e.t accipjrmdum. ID dou btful ca.8S, the more worthy II to be taken.. Branob, Prino.

IN dubii. "un pr_ .. iI .. r pro t,,'amento. 10 doubtfulollUl, there is no presumption in fayor ef the will. Cruke Car. 61.

1" dub,,, It." Ityi. coft.lrtlelio quam "er"" ..., .. - d'IIII. In a doubtful cue, tb.t is tb. oonltraeti"o of the la" whioh the "",rdl indicate.

1" dubio pa .... eliol· .. , .~ ... d... In doubt. tb. gentl.r coune is to be follo"ed.

III dubio .e'l"."dulII quud tuli., .'. In dOli bt, the wer coune i. to be adopted.

1N eo quod plu •... , '_per ,,,t.' ., """,,.. Tho lei. is al"ay. Inoladed in the greater. Dig. bOo 17. HO.

1 .. e:rpOllitio ... i""",.,.ttltoru .. , .ala gram .. ali ra, quud lieri po' •• t, "ilauda .. t, In the con&tructir,o or in.t, umcnts, had IoIrammar II to be &\,oid.d .. muoh a. po.alble. 0 Coke, 311; 2 Panon., COlltr. 26.

In /aclo 'l"od .. Itabet ad "OIIU .. ., .al_ .... g ... de "una q'"'''' d. malo In itl, ... di/. In a deed which m.y be conlidcred good or bad, the law looka more to the good lhan to the bad. Coke, Lilt.78.

In /arorahilibu .. ogi. atttlld"ltfr 'l""d prod"", qua .. quod tlor.'. In thiDgS fo,·orcd, what do<. good is mOle regarded than what dues hal'm. Bacon, Malt. Reg. 12.

In / .. "("",,, ""1" li"erlali., et 'ftftocenl;. "","i .. pr ..... "'"ftl .. r. In fovor of life, liberty, Bnd inllUcenee, all things are to be presumed, Lotll, 126.

I .. .ficlioN. juri. '."'per II!9',"a. m.,i'. A h·g.l Oction Ia alw.YI oonlialent wltb equity. 11 Coke, bl; Bro~m, Molt. 3d Lond. ed. 120, 123; 17 Jcbll ••

N. Y. 3.8; 3 Shanwuod, Bl.ckst. C.,mm. 4l!-2f3.

I .. g""eralibUJI vw,."'r error. Error dwelll in general expreuionl. 3 Sumn. C. C. 2110.

1n '''''''e 'l",,,,,.qtIA uliquid dic,', .i,,~ a~ln ........ r~., " ..... e e.' ul p,obal. In general, ... hon·er IOy18n)' thing, wheilie,' plaiotiil' or defendu!., must prove It. But, Ev. 294, I 262.

I .. I,,,,..ed .. "ON 101.111 II'(lU"''' (lmo" .. qull! p ..... a1~ • • ..: maltficiu """I. Penal aotionl arialng frLm any thing of a rrilllinal nutllre do 110& pall to Lein. Coke, 2d Inlt. «2.

IN Hi. ,"im 'l"'" """ /aeorabilia aft' .... , 'l"a ... "'. "lfte anrmru.a reba., jiat aUf1Iawdo ertN";u "rrh"i. In thing. that are favorable to tbe spirit, thollgh Injurious to property, all elttenlion of' the .tatut. .h •. uld be lometime. made. 10 Cuke, ]01.

1 .. hi. IJU'" de jUl', """,.,uni o.,.IIibUJI ~eed",,'ar, «", .. ,.,,,do alil'tlj'" pal"i", "clloei 11011 eot all'gallda. In those thingl which by oommon right are eenceded to all, the eUltom of a partlclllar country or plaoo il not to be alleged. 1l Coke, 86.

1n jlldicii. millOri Itl,,'i .. ",,,";Iur. In jndicial proceedings, infancy is aided or favored. Jenk. Cent. CBB. 46.

I .. judicio 11011 Cf'f'dihtf' fti.; jllrati.. In law, none ia credited unlul he il SWOrD. All the fnetl mUFt. when eetabUlhed by witnel"I, be under oath or affirmation. Croke Car. 64.

1n iNr. IIOti rt"wla <ouIIl, .~d pro:ri .. o, 'P",'o"',,In law, tho proximote and nut the remote eDUfe is to be looked to. Docon, MOlt. Reg. 1; DrIJom, Halt. 3d I.ond. ed. 202. See 2 Panen., C •. ntr. 461i_

III ""'j"" •• Ilmft,4 c_ti".'ur mi"or. In the greater slim II contained the lelL 6 Coke, 116.

I .. mal'j1cii. ,,01".'0' lfHH"alllr "nt • .ntu.. In offencel, the Intention is reJrarded, n"t the e\'eDt. Dig. 48. 8. 14; Baeon, Malt. Reg. 7; Broom, Malt. 3d Lond. ed. 2112.

I .... nir.fi"'·" ,·,,'i"ab;lio .... "dalo COfIIpn"e"'", In a tort, ratificotlon il equivalent to a oommud. Dig. 60. IT. 162. 2.

IN .,a:ri.4 "." ... ,;, """i,,,o lit."ti... In the lroatelt po"er the,. II the I.ut liberty. Bob. 1611.

.HAxIM

131

MAXIM

/ •• e .......... tllicili. """ .;, """, .. erei".... No "mmeroe aboald be In illicit goodl. a Kent, C.mm. 28t, n.

hi 060 ......... ",,11Ml1I1. ",allu",itt ... ti. /afHJnd"", .ot li",,.,,i. Where th. eltpretlliun of the ... ill of one who seeks to manumit a .Iave is ambiguous, liberty Is to be fuored. Dig. 60. 17. 1711.

I. "'_..;. '.epiei lere 'l"od "'''',"mili"" e.',

.. t'l""d pleru .. 'f'MJ fie lel. Where there i8 ob-

lOurity, we aanally reganl what II probable aDd Irhat II ",nerally done. Dig. 60. 17. 114.

I. __ n', fUOd liIi"im"", .. , "'l"i .. "r. In ob-

Rare .. sea, "'0 foUow that which is least 10. Dig. 60. 17. II.

I. odi_ _""lialol"i. 0 .. 11" .. P""." .. u.",r. All tbings are p .... umed againlt a wrong.doer. I reru. Ch. 111; 1 P. Will. 7al; 1 Chanc. Cu. 292.

I. tnltNi acliofN .bi dua eonrurrlllll ai.tric,.°rn.r., oid.Uei, i. r_ eC i. ".,..."na .. , it", di.'riclio telleHdu .. , 9"" fIIagi. ti .. ttar d ",afli. liflllt. In every 110- Ilon wbere t"o dilltre_1 conoar, III thcle in r ..... and i. pe_Na .. , that i. to be chosen "hioh il mOlt dl'l'Sded, aad which bindl mOlt Armly. Draoton, 17%; Fleta, l 6, c. 14, f 28.

I. o_i re "a~i"'r rH 'l"- ip.am rem eotto"",i""t.

III every thing, the Lhing II burn ... hich deltroYI the thin, ilMlf. Coko, 2d Inlt. U.

J •••• i6u eolltra.tib .... , .. ON "o",i"",i •• i". ,oflUt)_

• ianti., puwo.'tdio ""'Itilld.r. In e"ery oontrnct, whethe-r DOlDinate or innominate, there I. implied an nohanp, i .•. a cOMideration.

I. _.i"". oWiflul'o.iba., ... quiOO. die. • .... ""aitar, p .... ati die dolH.. In all ebllgations, when no tilDe i. Alted 'or tho pAyment, the thing i6 due Immediately. Dig. 60. 17. 14 ..

I. 0 ..... ptnali6 ... JMd,ieii., et lIttali ., irtrpru~.",; •.. enarrilar. In all trials for penal oll'ences, &lluwanoe il lDade fur youth and lack 0' di""retion. Dig. be. 17. 1011; Broom, Mux. 3d Lond. ed. 282.

J ••• "i6 •• pid"", ",a.ri .. ~ lam." 'n Jure, "quila. .,.....ta.da .. ,. In all affain indeed, but principally in tho .. whieb conoern the administration of Justioe, equit,. .bould be regarded. Dig. 60. 17.90.

I. pa'" _" ,.... ••• 1101' pot;"r Ioa".".i deb.l. When two parti.. bave eqnal rigbts, the advantage is alw.YI in fayor or tho poues.or. Dig. 60. 17. 128.

I. peri dolkta _1o,. ." "o"dit;o pM';delili •• 1I'J.en the put_ are equally in the wrong, thc _dItlo. or tho poI_lOr i. bettor. 11 Wheat. 2liS; I Cmncb, 2«; Cowp. 341; Broom, MI1:I:. J~~ i • Bouvier, Inst. n. 37~".

hi pa'" tUlieto poIlor eot ~"ditio d./e"d,,"';4 (et ,....i" .. ,i.). Wbere boLh partiel ar~ equally In laralt, the oondition of the defendant il preferable. 11 1Iau. 378; Broom, Max. Sd Lond. ed. 266; 1 Bt01'1, Contr. 4th eel. 691, 692.

J. pa,._ a,,'io "" 'l"" ....... 0 agi"'''' qui "hIi,.,.. nI "obi •• d/ac1adHm aliquid 1).1 d,,,,dlllN. The lIGtion j" p"r .. _m II ijaat by which ... e sue him who Is IInder obligation to nl to do sllmething W1.ivelO.othing. Dig.44.7.26; Braoton, 101 h.

• ,.-,11;6". ea ..... 6."i9"i ... illl.".prel .. "da", "'.

Ia peDal _a, the more 'avorable interpretation is to be lDad.. Dig. 60. 17. 166. 2; Plo"d. 86 6; 2 Bale, PI. Cr. 366.

I. prllfHlraroriio ad jdiM"'" /a ... ",,. trtltnri. In lIIiDpi preparatory before trial, the plainti6 Is Ca,ured. Cok~, 2d In.L 67.

/. ",._,i ... "it>..;. pot_lIIi., fIIiflor pole.,,,. -III. ID the p_Doe 0' the luperlor po"er, the minor power _ea. Jenk. CeDt. CILI. 214; Oal. Intp. Bani". 28; 18 Ho". 142; IS Q. D. 740.

f. plWlio ..",..ni • ., _di'iOfli. flf.t.mliter lioe, _traAnt'''''' ~ ai""" .... a.re. In the prlco of buy-, .Dd IeIliDg. It II naturally allowed to the oonIrIdibg partl .. to onl'reach esah other. 1 Story, Coal.r. 4th ed. 608.

I. "..."ri. _e4 " .... jrtd"",. No one o&D be lad,. In hill own MUM. 12 Ooke, 13.

Tn qu" 'lui. d.linquil, ill eo d. jMr ... t p'Uliftfrl" ..

In "hat .. ver thing one offends, ID that be is right- . fully to oe puaieaed, Coke, LitL 2Sa h.

In r. ~.,,,, ... i Remi_ d"",inoru"l jure /110.".. 'luicq"a"" i,,!Ii'o all.".o, po.... Oue co-proprietor CRn exercise no authority over the common property againlt tho will of the otber. Dig. 10. 3. 28.

In re dubia " ... ignior_ '"Ierpt'.,aliOfl_ "'I"" "on ",in ... }mIt'" _', 9ua", r.ti.... In a dOlli;ltful Cl1I'e, to fello" the milder interpretation il Dot len the more jUlt than ~ il the Bafer ouurlC. Dig. 60. 17.192.2; 28. '. 3.

I" re d"bi//' magi. ,'fljleiatO qu" .. "jJI .... ntio i"t.lliy ... d«. In 110 doubtful matter, the negative il to be understood rather than the allirmative. Godb. 37.

I .. re lupcrnnri, tute. I"pana .... adrni",,"tur. ID a matter cOllceroing a brothel, proltitutel are admitted &II ... itnel.... 6 Barb. N. Y. 320, 324.

In re pari, pot"'''_ cau.a", .... proAib."ti. c_ .'a'. Where a thing is oWDed lu common, it I. ngn-ed that the cuuee of him prohibiting (itl uee) il the Itrouger. Dig. 10. S. 28; S Kent, Comm. 46; Pothier, Trail' d .. COli. de Soc. n.lIO; 16Johu ••

N. Y. 438, 4·111.

I .. re 1" Oprill i.i'l""'" ad.odu", e.' alieNi lie.,,"."", t,.iblle,·. ,Cfltu"i... It il extremely unJuat that anyone should be judge In his O"D 0_.

In ,..b" •• Iani/~.'i • ."...al pi lIutloriCal" l~fI" • allegal; '1";(1 per.pie ... rer ... 011 .. ,,' prob,,,,da. He errs who allegel the authoritiee of law iu tbinge mlnifell; because obvious truthl need not be proved. 6 Coke, 6'1.

fa retn actio elIl per 'l"am r_ .o.tra 'l"- ob ,,/io

,.....ide"'r poti ..... , d _per ad".r eum .11 'lNi

r_ po .. ia.,. Tbe action i" """' is that by ... hieh 100 leek our property ... bich is p088eued by ILDothu, lind il alw.YI against him "ho pou_ the proI,erty. Dig. 44. 7. 26; Dracton, 102.

I" republic//, ma;ri ~oa.e"'a"da ..... , jura 6~1Ii.

In the state, the la s of ... ar are to be greatly pre-

eened. Coke, 2d Inst. 68.

I" re.tilutioROfIf, "0" 'n 1'<""111, 11,..,... ",ceeail.

The heir sueeeeds to the restitution, nut the pcnalty. Coke, 2d IaIL 1'118.

1n r .. ,j'.'ionibt.. Irmifl"i •• imll 'nlerpret"tio /"";",,dcc .. t, The moat favorable oon.tmotion il to be made in restitution.. Ooke, LitL 112.

it, .alio/"""""iOO. "Oft ,,_ittuur a"pUIt. fie" 'l"lIm _el /u"' •• e.1. In paymEntl, more mUI\ not be received thaD hal been reoeh'ed onoe for all 9 Cob, 63.

/n .tipa/llll·OftiOO. "II", 'l" ..... ",,. 'l"id ar"'.. ";1 ,,"bll contr .. ,'iplt/atorem interprdandll "''''. In contraetl, ... hen the que.tion il what ... al agreed upon, the terIDI are tu be Interpreted agalnlt the party oll'ering them. Dig. '6. 1. 38. 18. Chanoellor Kent ",markl that the tme prinelple appean to be .. to gh'e tbe contract the .euse in which tbe penon making tbe promise believes the other p.rty to hd ... aooepted it, if he in fact did 10 nndentand and aco~pt it." 2 Kent, Comm. 7th ed. 721 j 2 Day, ConD. 281; 1 Duer, In •• 169,160; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 634; Dig. '6. 1. 38. 118.

I ... ,ipululionibu. id '''''1'.' opeclafur quo ~",.trllli",... In agreements, referenoe II had to th. tim. at whioh they were made. Dig. 60. 17. I". 1.

III .ltO qui.'l"" negolio lIalHlior .ot 'lH"'" i. ali""o.

Everyone II more dull In hi. o ... b bualn ... thaa In tha.t of another. Ooke, LltL sn.

I .. le.,,,,,,,,",i. pl,,"ill' te.'a"""·. '"t ... cio" ........

In .. ",.. In te'ltamentl, we shonld seek diligently the will of the teatator. Dnt, I&yl Dudderid,e, O. J., .. thiR is to be oblened ... Ith theBo two limitations: lit, hillntent onght to be ....... ble to the rula or the la,,; 2d, his intent oUllht to be collected oat 01 the worda of the "iII." 3 Balm. 103; BroolD, Ka&. 3d Lond. ed. 4"4.

I. t .. ta .. "'" pl.i .. trOZ • ..,.,. .. "CINIi_ ......

MAXIM

132

MAXDI

I'Nlt"Uur. Ia te.tameatl, the will of the tutator mould be liberally ooll.trued. That II to .ay, a wiII .haIl reoeiYe a more liberal ooaatruotioll thaa its Itriot m.aaing, if aloae oull.idered, wuuld per-

· .. It. Dig. 60. 17. 12; CujkO. ad We. cited 3 Po'hier, Pud. "; Broom, Mall.. 3d Load. ed. 607.

I .. luto ., p"r. """',·"eltar. A. part Ia iDoluded iD &he wholL Dig. 60. 17. 113.

Ia lradi'iOllillUl eerip'oru .. eA._ru. - fIIOd . die"'. eo', Nd q.od ~., •• jac,.m c,', iaop;ci'Hr. Iu the deliv."" of writlage (deedl), nut what ill aald but what Ia dOlle il to be ooa.idend. II Coke, 137. .

. I ............ !fNG'IIi,al- jldeju_r '"",nl.r, aift pro HrI' q.all,i",,. a_i,. ~t the sarety he holdea for the true quaatity uale. he agrued for a oertaln quutity. 17 M .... 6117.

I .... ,·bi, "". """1Ia .. d ..... , ratio 9H- .. da e.t.

III wonU, aot tho worlb, but the thing and thu DleaaIDg Ia to be iaquired aller. J.nk. Ceat. C .... 132.

I •...... 11.. t'id'o(/""If' 00 .. d q"o Nd ad quid "",QlHr. ID diBeonrMl, it il to be ,",en not frum . .. hat, buUo what, it i. alhanced. Ell.lmere, PUltn. . 112.

I,.".,.dill"' nlie"" non eni, debitn,...... A Bre

doe. not rel e a debtor from hi. debt. Code, 4.

a. H.

Ine.rl" pro .... 11i .. lrab.Rltlr. Thlnge aDoertaiD ·are held for aothia~. Dn.33.

IHeerla' q."a,i,,,. "itiat a.tura. Aa uaoertain quaatity "Wate_ the aot. 1 Rolle, -4116.

INciDile .", ui.i tot" leg. prOfpeeta, u" .. nli9"" IJtlrtieula 9 •• p,.opo.bn, jNdicar~, eel "~.pn"der •• It il improper, uniets the whole illw hal been ell.ami ned, to give jll,lgmont or advioe upun a "iew of a IIDgle olauH of it. Dig. 1. 8. U. See Hob. 171 Go

IRei";l. etf ain tota 'errlenlin i,,'1'«", d. aliq"" p .. rt. jlldicar.. It is impr"per to pasl an opinion on &I1y part of a Hnteaoe without ell.amialDg the whule. Hob. 171.

J"e/".io ... i ..... t ~zellUlio allm.,. The InolunoD of one ia the 8:II.OIUlloD of aDuther. 11 Coke, 68.

Jneflltu do .. iciU .. ", jacil. R"liuonoe creates domicile. Arnold, United Ina. Co., 1 Johnl. C .... N.

Y. 363, 8611. S88 DOIIICILB.

I,,, ...... _d ... nOli ool~it urgu •• "tum. AD IDooDvonionoe doel not lolve aa argameat.

lueorporaU .. bello nail aJqllirunmr. ThiDgtllaoorporeal are Dot acquind by war. II Maule" S. 10",.

Ind« dat. I.g ••... jorll'or omnia pa.M. ' Laws were made 1e.t the ItroDger Ihoald have unlimited power. Dav.311.

I"d.jIai,. .. ",.ipollel tIfIi ...... ali. The aDdetDed

i. equiv"lent to the ·whole. 1 Ventr. 368.

IlIdojillit" .. '"ppltl 1"".111 "n irer." lil. The uodeOnocl suppliH the place of the whole. 'Coke, 77.

I"depcrulnt.r H A,,6., a....,llratia a .. iaggio .an •.

The voyage inlured I. an iadepeDdeDt or di.tinot thing from the voyage of the Ihip. 3 KeDt, Comm. 318, D.

I,"/a emi .... _a. Speech Ia the IDdell. of &he miad.

J".". pOl .. , dor&aliani, ",0<1 ... , condilia nr. "n_: ut lI,od ... ",; II eo.dilio; quia ca",... In a gifl there may be muner,eoDditioa,aad eauH: 8. ("'l, latroducM a muner; if (,i), a oUDdition; __ UH (2"ia), a oaUle. Dy. 138.

. 1 .. /" ... 110 •.... Itu .. a /"M·O.O dutal. An Intant doe. not diff'er mueh from a lunatio. Braoton, I. 8, o. 2, 18; Dig. 60. 17. 6. 40; 1 Sto"", Eq. Jur. If 223, 22-1, 242.

l"jI .. il •• i .. J"N Nprollatur. That whloh II IDlalte ur endle. II ftprehenllble ID law. II Coke, 46.

Ia;qll ... II .. a ,._ .. , lJ.t~R .. da i"""'''''''o 6.lla.

Tho mOlt uaJust peACe i. to be p .. terred to the .~ war. 18 WeDd. N. Y. 267,306.

Iniq ..... ,., alia. pcr ... W_, alio. iralrib.,.. .weal.ram. It i. Inequitable to pet mit lome to trade and to prohllJit .. then. Cuke, lid Inet. 1111.

I .. iq""'" .It aliqu_ rei ..,i _. j.di.,... It i. onJult for ... y OD. to be judge ill hi. OWD ..... 12 Coke, 13.

IIIiq""m •• t illg i. "OIII •• i"" ..... _e Ii,..,...

rerulll ", ...... M ali at;o..... It I. agaiD.t eqail7

for freemen Dot to have the free dilpo •• 1 of their OWD property. Cuile, Litt. 223. See 1 Boul'ier. Inst. an, -4/)6, 480.

JNiuriCA jll ei eu' ......... ci •• di.tu .. eel, eel fl ... fac'"", carIN.,,' ja"'OIIN.. Aa iDju"" il doIIe to him of whom a reproachful thing il .ald, or cOIIcerning _hom an inramoue IUDg Ia.made. II Coke, 80.

IIIj .. ria .Oft <''''_, injNria.. A wmng doe. Dot ncule .. wrong. Broom, Mas. 3d Lond •• d. ~n. 343,3-49; 11 Eltoh. 822; 16 Q. B. 276; 6 su, ~ H_ 7 II; Branch, Prino.

i"i",.ia .111' prnv",iltar. A wrong II Dot pf&.umed. Coke, Litt. 232 •

illjuria propria N .... e .. drt ill bett.jI ....... j_e; .. '; •• Noone Ihall proBt by hi. own wrung •

l"i.,turN ",, ni,i tot« I.,. ;Ropeet .. , d. "". nUt'" ej." pwrlim,/' prop .. ,ila jlld,'clJ" rol reoputld.re. It is uDjust to give jndgment or adviue coDcerniDg any porticular oia .. oe of a law without haviDg elI.amined the whole law. 8 Coke, 117 ".

IH.ann e.' q"i, abject. raliUfl', o."ia .,... i.p,IN ., jicrol'o fn .. it, He i. Inlane who, realOD being thruwn .w.y, doe. eve"" thiag with viulence ud I'ILge. 4 Cuke, 128.

I ... ta,,, .. , jiRi, .. "ill' '-pori. el prin';pi_ all.,.i"". An {nlbnt ia the end of one tim. aDd the beglDaing of another. Coke, Litt. 186.

inl .. ,;o .... ca tHa/a. A hidden intention .. IIad. 2 BulBtr. 1711.

Inlntio 'N"""'r. d.bel legibUl, nOlI leg". i., ... - liON;. Intentioae ought to be lublenieDt to the law •• Dot the laws to iateationl. Coke, LiU. 114.

Inlelllio ... a i"'powil .. _en "1'.ri .eo. My iDt ... t gl\'81 a name to my aet, Hob. 128.

I,,'.r alia. en ... a. ne<J"ieili""". .. apa, .... /ebri •• ., ja"Ofa e.t eli"'" d""ati.mi.. Among otber .ethod .. of acquiring property, a great, mueh-ueed, and celebrated method il that of.gift. Braeton, 11.

I,,'.r aliot r .. o .. ta. alii, ..... pooH prltj"di .. ;". jae.,.c ut:po "",,,';ltatll .. e.1. It hal been OneD Rttied that thlngl which took plaoe betw .. a o&be2 partiel OBDnut pnjudice. Code, 7. 00. 1. 2.

Intardum c,·""il "' rrrcqJtio 'I'" pri .. a jacie }tuta "idc/ur, ta ..... illiq" nlle.al. It lom.times lappenl that a plea which leem. pri.,. jaeic jOlt, neverthele .. ia iDjariou. ud uDequal. lDlt. 4. 14; 4.14.1.2.

Int.ru' reipMbU ....••• al.jlei. ,...,l1li ... ' , .. - p .... ;'a. It ooaoern. the commonwealth that erimM do Dot rem aiD anpaD.i.hed. J enk. Cent. Cu. 80, l! I. lilt.,.." ,..ipub/i ...... '"a qui, ",al. ,,'atHr. It ooDcernl the rerublio &hat DO tiDe m ...... hla property. 0 Coke, 311.

I.'.reo' reipM/,lic. q.od lI_i" •• ~. __ "'r. n ouacoml the oommollwea1th that we be pruened. 12 Cok .. , 62.

I"ter.,t rei".,blie. ,.., jrldit'Gta ..... rwci .. di. It concernl the oommanw~allh that thinge acljodged be not reaeiaded. See REI JUDIC.A.U ..

I.'ere,' reip"b/i~. wpr ... a l .... i .. _ , __ ... ta

rata Atlberi. It OODoernl the oommoDwealth that men'l I ... t willi be IUltained. Coke, Lilt. J811.

Intero,t rei".,bli .... t ... re.,. .. n., i" ,,",0. It GOIIcernl the oommonwealth that prisODI be __

Coke, 2d Ialt. 6811.

I"tore.' reipvblio •• , ".... f. regao __ , ., q.""'''"q". pa'; W(Jr..rlCff' .. r p""";di d •• U .. nlttr. It benefitl the atnle to pn~ene peate iD the kiDcdom, aDd to p",dentIy decliDe whatal'er Ia •• lY._ to It. Coke, 2d Inlt. 168.

MAXIM

133

MAXIM

I.- mpH61_ III f"GliH' ....... b ....• .,,,""'. judre .bould b&ve two II&Its: the lalt of wlldom, It _0II'II' th. commonwealth tbat evel7 one 11M lelt be be Inlipid; aDd tbe s&lt or OODI8I.8I, I8It

u ,",pen, prop.rly. 8 Coke, 37.. be be devililb. Coke, 3d IDIt. U7.

IIJ/M'ft4 mp.£U". 111.;,11 .. ,. "'i... It oonoel'll. J .. _ no .. potut .". t •• ,u '" propri' 10 .... '. ·A

tile oolDmODwealth tbat then be & limit to liti,.. jlldge cannot be & "itoea. iD Ilil OWil AUIe. Cok.,

lloa. Coke, Litt. 808. 4th Inlt. 279.

"""',...,.. III _...t.n lega leg; .... UC opti- Jud,e;rc ."" polut i,lj.ria", .ibi dal"m ,_.,,... A

... i.'trprelaldi _od... To iDterpnt and reeoa- jndge 08DDOt punisb & "roDg dODe to blmlelf. 12 lile law. 10 that the, b&rIDoDi .. ie the beat mode Coke, 11" ' .r eOllatl'llotion. 8 Coke, 169. JlI.du .. OIl r.ddi, pi .. 9fICIa pod pe, .... 'pH re·

J_""'u,o jIftd ••• , .. , rei _gu filii ... , qtI"'" qtliri'. Tbe judge d08l Dot give more th&D tbe ,......L 8aeb. ooaltrootion III to be made tbat plaintlt!' demuds. 2 Iolt. 288, oue 84.

tile nbjMt ma, bave aD etreet rather thaD Done. JlI.d,"a .. dll. ... ul ¥b ... nOlI ""'_'pli.. We areolo

.leak. Ceat. Cu. 1118. judge b, tbe law., not by exampleL 4 Coke, 38

J.,.rpretaIio IIIIN aa";g;:ie HMper jl ... da "',.' b; 4 Sbanwood, Blaokat. Comm. 406; 19 JobnL ";ltC.,. i_"""i ..... , " •• rd.a. In ambiguoul N. Y. 613.

thiap, lIIoh a oonriruotioa .hould be made, tbat Judi" .... _ 'eII ... tur ."...MtNl ea ........ ,,,,ti •. what ill IncooveDient aDd abmrd m&, be avoided. _. Judgel are not bound to uplain tbe rI&IOa

Con, 4111 Iaat. 328. or their leDtenee. JeDk. Cent. C .... '16.

1."'"'P'io .. "lti~ "011 ioU., p.......-iption_ Judiei offlciu ...... UM e""ud.nti nON parmar. To

_.1 ohletl/.... Repeated InterruptioDI do Dot & judge wbo exceed I bie olllee or jurilldictiOD DO delea&a~pUoa ODCMlobtained. Coke, 2d 1D1t.1 obedience II due. Jenk. CeDt. Cu. 139.

'~L Judiei filIi, pm"" .. , quod Deurn Ao"ot .ltar..... It

I...,..,. • .ue.dit, 9"' av' _'.0 , __ .,01.111 .on Is punisbmeDt enough for a judie th&t he il rc:apon. /."i, • ., ... jrui j"eei', aUI id 'lrwd /..,eral rupt,,", I lible to God. I Leon. 296.

i";_. /aet ..... t, Gil' ... Il10 .." en __ .",·ti'. I Judi","" •• eu"" rrgi •.. em adnilile"hIr, •• d ., ... , H. diM latelltate who either h .. made no will at '"rob"r.",o quo''''l'''' per errore •• aut allin,'tuM "d. all or baa ao' made it le,;ally, 01' wboM will wbiob null ... '''r. JudgmaDta in the klDg'l lIOurts &re Dot • bad made b .. been aDnw.led or become iDelrect. to be annihilatfod, but to ",main in force until u· aal, or froIII whom tbere III DO liviDg beir. IDat. 8'llIulled by error or att&lnt. Coke, 2d IDIt. 6311.

1. pr.; Dig. 38:11.1; 60.18.64. J.diei" ill d.liHrationilnlf ""ebra .... turt .... '"'. i.

I •• tili. 1,,60r, ., .iH./",""", no .... , 'If-' legi.. aec.lerfJIo proce."" "''''qu'''', JudgmeDts frequentl,.

U .. l_ I.bor .. d without f"rDlt la DOt tbe etreat o( I become matured by dellberatloD, Dever b, hurried

law. Coke, Lilt. 127; WIDgate, M&x. 38. j procelL Coke, 3d Iolt. 210.

I_iae lib.U" .. /"1110''' •• , .. OIl __ peR'. J"dieia po,/eri,w" ",N' in lege /"rlior... The lat. ,...i/.,.. Ue who IIDdl a libel &Dd d08l DOt dutroy . ter decllloDI are stronger In law. 8 Coke, 97.

Ii, ill puDilbed. F. Iloore, 813. I Judiei" fUn' t« .. p .... juri. dielll, et pro .,.ril .. ,.

I •• ito ... ~.JIei .... ,. .... da'"r. No OIIe II obliged' a""ipi."lII.r. JDdgments are, &I it were, the dlcl&

t. ._,t • beae.' against bia conaent. Dig. 60. I or la"iDga or Ibe law, ud are reoelved &I trotb; 17. ee; Broom, Kaz.3d Lond.ed. 826. But If be . Coke, 2d Inat. ~37.

d""nlltdil_&' he will be OODlidared .. &leeDting., J"die;;. I'n./erioribu. fida .., adllib ... tia. Faltb s.. M •• .,.. , I or credit il to be gh'en to the later deolaioDL 18

I,_, kg .. ftlpi .. ", ., jHr. f¥(Ia,,",r. The l&wI . Coke. 14.

t .... lv" _Ire tbat the" shenld be governed by i J.di"i •• " in pronllnti,,"do .tqui refJIIln"" neep-' ri,ht. Coke, Litt. li4 b, quoted from Cnto. ',·'If.e nQn p,.ubal8.. The judge In bit deei.i"D (lDght I,. fM""" "r.rio .". Anger ie & nort iDIUIt,. to rolll)w the rule, wben tbe exception i. not prond.

, Wend. N. Y. 338, 8S6. J"diri •• "judi""r ••• """d .. m .. 1I.g(ll ..• r 1',..,6 .. ,a.

/IG l&e _,.;", .. eol. The law III 10 writteD. 28 A judge oug'ht to deolde aeoor"lng to tbe allege.-:

Barb. N. Y. 374,380. tion. and prOOrL D"er, 12 a; Halken, Max. 73.

/Ia _pe,. jla' rol .. ,;" vt filii .... dl.,.".itio. Let Judi"i. at j, .. dietre .", .. dare, It b the duty or

the relation be 10 made that the dilpolltioa Dlay a jlldge to decl&re the law, not to enllOt It. Loff&,

llud. II Coke, 76. I 42.

llu.., 1- ntlldi, 8",""'a .. <ll Aornill,·.; '"'" eli .. ", J .. diri. offi"'·u .... " .",... diei in di. "''' ~rjlur.; i--- Ggeodi H' "e~ie,d •• ,. Iler II the rigbt of . It i. Ibe dDt" of n judge to blah the work of eacb roin~ or _Ikln«. and doel Dot IDolude tbe right: day wltbiD Ihot day. Dy. 12 •

• r driviag • beu\ of burden 0' & carri&ge. Coke, I J.dici. offlei,,", .. t ut rt. ,III rn.porCI r ....... qt,.Li:L 6. a J Iut. 2. I. pr.; 1 MlICk. CiY. La .. , 8-18, I rare. qtI .... ilo I .... po,.. "'Iu •• ri.. It II the dDly 0(. f SUo judge to IDqulre Ibo timra (lr tblnga, III! well .a iDto

thlDgl; b, iDqulring iDto lhe time you will be tare.' J"- ..,...,.,t ... _per ."..,' .. re d.H,. A Judge Coke, Lltt. 171 •

.. ,btalw.,. toreprdequil,. Jenk. Cent. Ca'.46. , J.diei._ .. 11011"'0 jtM1iee dalll", .. alii •• tit .. ,," JaJu, Ga'" _1M ,."n;I .. , .... _per Aa/w,rfl dtbd. "'ttI,j. A judgment given hy aD improrr judge II

A j Gagbi; alw&,. to baYe equit, befon bl. " or no moment. 10 Coke. '111 b; 2 Q. .1014; IS'

." Jeak. CeDt. Cae. 68. ir.I.143; 14 Heea • .I; W. ElI:cb. 12"; 11 Clark .I; F.

,_ ........ lliAi' &Ie arb/'rio "0 fRei .. " "'" I'r,,- IIou. L·. 610. '

"'_iliol •.... "i_rol .. lari., HdiuzlCl ,,,,., d fa,.,. Judiciu ... ·e., qtI .. .; juri. die""". Judgmt'nt II a.

""""""'ee. A good judge .hould do nothiDg ,'rnlD : it were a .. ,iD, of tlie 1&11'. C"ke, Lilt. 168.

lIit owa arbitrary will, 01' rrolD tbe "Ictuea or bla I Judiei" .. "0" <l«b., •••• illfUOri""" .Ufl. ~If.,,"'a priYate wiahee; but be abould proDoun. _ording Iltab.re d.b.,. A judgmeDt oDght not to he ilIu-' to law and Jaatiee. 7 Coke, 27 a. ."r" It ought to ba,.e ita proper etrect. Coke, 2d

Jadutla •• ""'r_lIOenub,,.leilur. Thejudge Inat. 341.

Ie _"'11" wll", tbe guilty an &Oqultted. JNdieiuM mdil,.,. ;,. i.~ilu_, ,. p"1N_p'ion~

JdU: <k6e,jrMliftU"tl._tI ••.. 1If19alClelp""ba,... '89i.. In prelumption of I&w. & judgment il giv_ rIM Jlld-:e oa~ to _ide _ordiDg to the &llega. agAln~t InellDation. Coke, Litt. t~8 I" 314 6.

Iioaa ... d tIMt proor.. J"diei"", '_per 1''''' ... ril .. , •.. ""il,ihlr. A judlt-

Jrod .. _let lof-I. The Jadge ie the apeaking I ment II alway. takeD ror truth. Coke, 2d Inst. 380 J

law. 7 Coke, 'G. 17 MaiL 287.

JAW Ii .. ".,.. d .... ' da ... en"', ",,_ ... ,.; .... ti ..... , JIIHe/,. i ..... II" ThIDg. Jollied b&ve '.-IICIt. n ric ;aeipitlu, U ...z. .. oo....,; ... ,i .. R. ';t dia""'... A I But, 220, '

HAXIM

134

MAXIM

J.r" _kti".,ic" limilul" •• 111 i.ifra. li.RilOl '9'U""'Oll. Ecol •• iaatioal law8 are limited "i\hin "pa.rate boudL 3 Bul.tr. 63.

Jur" ,odem ",odo .wllil."RIUr quo CORlli_'ur.

La"l are abrogated or repealed by the Hume means by whioh they are made. Broom, Max. 3d Load. ed.786.

Jur" "CI .. r ..... III iRl"'.'Rbili". The laws of nature are unohangeable. Branoh, P.rino.; Oliver, Furme, 66.

JU'CI publicCi ulllt/trend" prio,,'''. Publio rigbt. are to be preferred to privAte. Coke, Litt. 130.

Jur« publicCi ,.., pri.R'" p,_i.cd decid; "OR d.- 6'"t. Publio rigbtl ought not to be decided promilcuousl,. with private. Coke, LiU. lSI b.

Ju,,, "!I'" .p.t:ialia non cOlletdun'u, per g.nemliCi t'erb". 'the Ipeaial rightll of the kiDg are nut ,r~nted by general wordl. JeDk. CenL Cae. 103.

Jura .aR!IU;Ri. n .. lln jure cic.·1i diri, .. i po ... ,.'.

The right of blood and kindred oannot be destroyed by any oivil la". Dig. 60. 17. II; Baoon, Max. Re~. 11; Broom, Mall. 3d Lond. ed, 474.

Jurall.en"", e.' i"di.",jbil.,., .IOR'" udmilt ... du ... i" par, ••• 'u'" ., in p"". /al.am. An oath il Indivi.ible; it ia not to b. held partly true anll partly Cal... Coke, 4 th In8t. 274.

J.,ar. UI D .. "n in I •• ,u", VOCU'" eI eal Uetll' dioilli cul,".. To ."ear i. to eall God to witnel •• and 18 an act -of I'1lligion. Coke, 3d In st. 166. See 3 Bouvier, InlL 31S0, notl; 1 Bentham, Ev. 376, a7l, note.

J"'fI'O cr.ditu, i. judic,'o, He "bo makel oath 18 to be believed in judgment. Coke, 3d IDIL 71l.

JlJratof"t' dttbeHt ".,1. ~teci'Hi, rttJlir1·'!rII •• el nil"''' .K'p.c,i. Juran ought to b. neighbour., of lulli· eicnt estate, and free frOID .ulpioion. JCDk. CGDt. OM.I·U.

J u~a tOrt' ... ", judic .. .facli. J uron are the jndgel of tho C:>et.. Jcnk. CenL Cae. 68.

Jure n"It",. "'Ilium eol, ntmi""", cu .. alI."· ... t/~"';menlo, tI i.tjuri4 fieri locupleliorem. Aroording to tho bWI of naLul'e, it il Just that no one fhoald be enricbed "itb detriment and injury to ILnother, .... at ana: her's upenlNl. Dig. 60. 17. 200.

Juri n"n eel con.onum 'lund aUq .. i. ucc.",o~; .. in ~,,'4 ~.[li. con.illclllur anl'qu"m "liqlli, d. /acla /ue,-;I a"incllUi. It is not oonaonant to justioe th"t any BeCO.lory should be convicted in tb. king's OOl1rt before anyone haa b.en aLtaintid of the Cuot. Ooko, 2d !net. 183.

Juri, .,ffeel ... ;/0 .ze.lllio". rcu;.'il. Th. etre"t of a la" oonsiate in the exeeutlon, Coke, LiLL 289 b.

Ju""diclio •• , pOI .. ,,,. d. pu6Uro ;,,'rot/ucla •• " ... .. c ... itat« jll';, di .... di. Jnrisdiotion is a power Introduced for tbe publio good, on aocount oC tho necessity of dispensing justioe. 10 Coko, 73 a.

Jurwp".d.nlia ,01 dh-i""''IIm alqu. 1&.mana",,,, ... ,... .. "",iI.,,; jl .. t. alque ;lIj""'.cio",ia. J"rlspru. den~o il the knowlodgo of things divine and human; the Iciencooflbeju.t and tho unjust. Dig. 1.1.10. lI; IosL 1. 1. 1; Braaton, 3; 8 Johnl. N. Y. 2110, 295.

Jllriqmuimlia l.gi. co",,,, .. ,,'" AnflU. ul .cinl.ia eociali •• , ."pia.a. The jurilprudenoe of the common 10." of England ~ a soieDoe aooiabl. anll oopiOUI. 7 Coke, 28 a.

J .. uccreocond; inler _rca lor •• locum Ron "ab." pro b.lI.fi.'·o rommercii. Tho right of lurvivorehip eloes not exist Bmon~ lDerohants, for the benefit of oommerollo Coke, Litt. 182; 1 Bouvier, IDst. D. 682.

J .. accre,.endi p~ .. /.rlur 0"""·6.... Tho rigbt nf aurvivor,hip II preferred to inonmhranoes. Coke, LiLt. 185.

J ... acc'Hc.ndi prtif."u~ "ll'm. ,,,,lualali. The right of lunivorship Ia preferred to a lAlt will. Coke, Lilt. ISS 6.

J ... ci"il. .,, quod ,ibi pOpullUl co ... ,il .... '. The

oivil law il what a people .. tablilb .. Cor iUelI. 1 John •• N. Y. 424, 426.

J .. d .. cend", el 1I0a terra. A riala& ~u, -' the land. Coke, Lilt. 346.

J ... die.r., ., .,," jUl da,.. To d .. 1are tbe I.w. not to make iL 7 Term, 696; AI'S. 10 .I ... baL N. Y. 666; 7 Euh. 64.'1; 2 Ed. Cb. 29; 'C. B. 660. 6tH; Broom, Mas. lid Lond. ed. 140.

Ju. dt.er., "ollj'" da~.. To deelan the law, Dot to muke it. 10 Jobns. N. Y. 563, 611&.

JUI .. t oro bOil' ., '"'IN'. Law is the lCi.noe oC what i, good and JUIL Dig. 1. 1. 1. 1.

J .... II lIormCi ,.el;; ., quiequid ,,, contra .......... rocli ""' 'njuri(J. The law i. the rule of ri,bt; •• d whatever i8 oontrary to the rule oC rigbt iI all inJury. 3 Dulltr. 3111.

J... ., / .. uuo .... n'l""" eola6;,,..,. Ricbt_d fraud never live logeth.r.

J ...• '" "tju,,'(J 11011 ,,';1.,. A right Gannet arl8e from a wrong. 'BinCh. 639.

J ... ,'11 ro ,nil .. rit .... ibu, .... VMlm..rii. A right In the thing oleane to the penon oC Out .. arn..tuary.

J ... 1ICllurar. HI qHtlIi "plld Ie_in .. M""- leab .. polell'i"",. Natural right II tbat wblob lIu the .alDe Coroe among all men. 7 Coke, ) 2.

J •• lI.e i".fleeli 11,,,,;4, ".e f"a"lIi pOI ... ,i4, .oo ad .. ll.,ari tHe ... i4 pnl"'j qll"d.i .0" .. ~flo ''PP'''_ ... m, oed dCH_ "., ".g/ill' .,i. a ......... '_ /111'';1, nihil .,, q"cd quUqllUfil •• hah.re c.""", a'" 01 ]HI"'. acreplu .. um, alt' lib .... , ._ r,li.",""", "rbj,_. Favor ought not to lie able to bend justioe, po".r to break it, Dor money to oorrupt it; for no' oDly if It be overborae, but if it be abandoned er negligently oblened, no one onn think that h. hold. Bny tblng ,ponrel,., or tbnt be will inherit aDY tbi.g frllm his father, or be able to leave "ny tbing to bil cbildren. Cio.

JI .. lion Aah .. ,i, ",~ .... ,....._. It il ...... Det to obey him who b ... no right. Hob. 148.

J, .. pu/,/icnn'IJ';.",n'lIlIl pacli, ",.tari .". po''''' A pnblio right oanDot be ohan,ed by .,reement of private parti.s •

J ... ,lin II.i •• ~.ilnl •• "111 .. ",,, • ., ,·d .. qtctHl .... "eIII privall. Tbo law which governs corporRtiono ia the lame "bich governs individual.. 111M ..... U.

J,.. r •• p;cil '"'1,';10 10m. La" regard. equity.

Cuke, Litt. 24 b; BroolD, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 143 i 17 Q. B. 292.

J"" .upel"eJli.". "wetor;' flflcra .. ·' ner:eu"';. A right growing tn a pOllauer aooruCi to a n_r. Ilalkc"" Max. 76.

Jill ~."liil quod ...... trpprobapil. The I." dispense, what U18 hAlllppruI·ed. EUeimero, POltll. ;';6.

JuoJllrandi (orma .. .,b;. differl, r. ell_il; iN •• .,,;m '.""'01 iiaber. d.b." vf D.II. i.IIONI"r. The form of takillg an oath differs in language, a~ in meaning; for It ought to have this lien se, that the Deity il invoked. Grot,QI, b. 2, e. 1'3, e. 10.

Juojur"wIIJII '"'or a lOw /UC'''M " •• "_" Ute prode",,, d.6.,. An oath mRde in another eanoe "ught neither to hurt nor prollt. Coke, 4th In.L 2711.

Juolir.ia u, ",·rl,,, • .,,,.U.,,. eC Alli •• i.o OI •• 'placen.. Ju.ti~e i. an Oltoellentvirtue and pleui .. , to the Moat High. Coke, 4th lo.t. 58.

J ... ';Ii" d.b., .... LIBERA, quo' .. "jAiI 'niq ....... - naU juolil;4; PUIIA, qNia /.,,,'ilia _ de6., ejm"licar.; ., CRLERI', qu;(I d.Ia,;o •• , ""ada .. lI"9"lio.. Ju>tice ought to be ""bollg", "_lII'e Dothing ia more hateful thin venal jnstiee; / .. 11, for Ja8Uoe ought not to halt; and quo'clc, Cor delay ia a kind oC denial. Coke. 2d Inst. 56.

Ju.'ilia •• , rn",'a .... , "..,."..a "0'''''''''';''_ c .. ;q .. Ir;bt,",di. Inlt. 11. pr.; Dig. 1. 1. 10.

J ... ",i4jirma'", ".It'".. By justice tbe tbroDet. eetablish.d. Cokc, 3d Jnlt.140.

J ... ,,·,,·(lII .... i .. i IIrgCllldn •• ,. JUlti .. il to b. deaied to none. Jenk. Cent. C .... 178.

MA.XIM

135

MAXIM

J ..... u« _ .., .eg"adc, _ di.ftlf"tl'lfd.. JUltloe ilDotlo "deaiednordelayed. Jeak. Ceat. Cu. 'Ie.

JUlirill __ it pa"" .... _h'ftI, 10111. etri__ .,-.Juli'ifl. Jutiee kao •• aeither 'eth.r Dor .oI.Iaer, juUoe look. to trutb &Ioae. 1 Bul.tr. lte.

J_ al .lique .... , ........... om .... /_

.... 1'11 ,IIi pro 101. ~il4 .114 pro """1110 •• " •.

IIIr. It i. aot Jut to mAke a butard aner bl. deatb tIDe elder bona ... ho &11 billllCe bu beeD _anted teptiaate. 8 Coke, 101.

I.'06ligali .... a .. "'_, Oil nr .... / ... _ eallN. 0" .......... illieil., .. pft' ."oir .IICH •• fI'" Aa oblication without oODaideratioD, or apoD .. fal .. ooasidlralioa (whiela fail.), or UpOD unlawful ooa.ideralioD. O&DDot bave aay dect. Ood,a.lI. '; Cbitty, Coatr. 1011a Am. ed. 26, not&.

1.'0. k I., flo •• elo •• , Ie ..... do ... .....di. II" ...... ...... Wbere tbe law gb.. a rilb&, it ,Iy.. a lUIedy to _ver. 2 Bolle, 17.

La ... _i~ .., Ie pi .... 1k,.fIItI"" d.. rIgH •• CoDlOieDoe ill the mODt olaaapable of ral ...

I.. k,/ ..... " It. "i • .r •• Ao... The law (ayora a maD'. liC.. Year B. Bea. VL 61.

I... I., / ..... r ,·i .... ril ••• ci'". 1_. The la ... ra"ol'll a maD'. laheritaaoe. Year B. H .... VI. 61.

Lo lq .... , pi ... IoeI •• fI.r ..... ieclUfe que .. II ill_ ... i..... Tbe law would ruther aul'er a mla.Iet Ih ..... laooaYtlllMoOD. Litfeloa, I 23i.

Lall, o .. lpa rJ"I • ..quiparah.r. Groa aegligtlllDe lI.qul to frnad.

J.4 ...... ',..."1 ""~ a."o 6e "'""ul ",lea i,,,,, .. d." irulil.r,.' ","""r ic ". ,,,./,,1 or .. 01. Wiagate, Mas. 111&; Fiub, La.; Coke, h. 1, 0. 3, a. 'Ie. 1._ ••• trrul" ,IIillg' aoeordin'1 '0 ~"""Oll poe"Mlit, or '.felld • ..,. Wlagate, lIbJ:. 189.

Le ..... " .. Ii Iii..,. ........ et. WIDI_te, M&J:. iss,

Law _rlle,llli .. '1' lOi,1I .",i" a"d ",oderalion.

Wia,ate, 1IAz. 183; Flaoh, La,,; Ooke, b. 1, 0. 3, D. r,.

L_ tlj./_r.1i iMpeIei.ilili". Wlagate, Mu. !ai.

Le. d¥_rW1& ,..",..6a"il"N.. Wlagate, Mu.

ur,

Le./ __ ttI1& ela";". Wlagale. Mn. 136. I.../a .. NCI& eo._. ,.;,11. Wiagate. Mn. 1«. I..../a ... relli rlili,lRlW, II"" Illre/ore la'e,l/ull,

earl ...,Ii,.,_. Wlagate, Mu. 172; Flaoh, ta., L 1, .. 3. a. 70.

L../....-.Ii lotI.r au or_. Wlagate, Mu.

IVII.

L../ ..... .,l j .... i ....... rigll. Wlapte, Mu. 1, •.

. Ltl. /aeorcllii/., liN"", .lId do_. 'BaeoD, Woru, 346.

La. /_r"" .""lUIl r"-JHIIH. WIa,ate, MaL 100; FiDch, Law, b. 1, o. 3, a. '2.

La. /aro •• t. "_"';OIJ .... r. t" ";gll i •• pal.

Wingate, MaJ:. 118; Fiach, Law, b. I, o. 3, a. sa.

Lo.I_ .... II p"Uio 110_"''' WiDlate, MaJ:. m.

L.. I_retl ,,,.Ii. q.i.,. Wlagate, MII:II:. 200 ; 'iDob, Law, II. 1, o. 3, a. 6 ••

Le. IUl1Qrdl 'pe.di"g 0/ ...... ........ WIapte, lias. 176.

I..../tIIIOr.,' ITtint/'/o.'1u • __ ..... 111. Wla. pte, Mu. 1117; Flaoh, La., b. 1, o. 3, a. 63.

L..1._lolruli,/.ilA, aNti em.illl,. Wlapte, Jlu.lM.

L.. laUIA rk"".. Wlag...., Mu. 176, Flach, La", b. 1, e. 3, a. 71.

La. lututll ... i_rio .. tllltl i .. ~ ... WIapie, JIu. 20'-

La. lalell ."""!1. Wlapte, Max. 1 .. ; Flaeh, Law. b. 1 ... a. n. 02.

L.. 0/ ,"'If prOUi".,l flO "II". WIa,ate, Max.

U8; I'iaoh, Law, h. 1,0. 3, Do ea.

La", reepee'e" .. allor "/ •• ".".,, .......... IAaN "'.,ler 0/ ,; ......... ,."".. Wiagate, Max. 101; Flaoh, Law, b. 1, c. a, a. 311.

Lalli N.,..~'dl po.nbil'" 0/ lking.. Wiagate, Mu.l0'; Flncb, Law, b. 1, c. 3, a. '0.

La. r~~lel" ," ",,,,d. 0/ .. alllr.. Wlagate, Mn. 78; Finoh, Law, b. 1, o. 3, a. 29.

LII,r/ul ,"nil' .,·e ... 11 miz.d. tll.k .. a form of l« • oppoee. BacoD, MaJ:. Reg. 23. .. The I .... gi •• ,l ".'/.lJOur '0 In .. /v' aol., Ih., .'lloug" l/oey b •..... - ('.'ed log ... • .. ·al aUIl,o,;lie., yet th. .. ... 1. ..eI ie good." Id •• Md.

Le cOHlral I.i, I .. lui. The CODtract mak .. the law.

Le ley de Diet •• t l~ I., de l.rr.101I1 'Oil' II", el r"u ., '·alltr. pr./_rre .'/a.uur Ie eommOll e' publi'l". bi ... rkll.rre. The law of God aad the 11111' of Ihe laad are all oae; aad both preserve nad fav('r tJae eommoa aad publio good of tha laad. Xail •• fUI.

L. ", •• , I. pZII' laul eflIoorila .... ",. I. roy "d,

ellr par Ie I." it .. e ",1 Iou",,,, "if,t, .,m' , ... Ieo,

., ,; I. ''11 ". llli' 1 roy n .. ""I ."lreritance ,erra.

Tho la. il the hi~ hcat laherltaaoe that the kiDg poII .. alee; for by the law both he aad all hi. subJects are ruled; aad if there ... era ao law, there ... ould be neither king aor illheritlnoe.

I.. lal", du p'''pl. ", III "'prIme lui. Mont~e.

Esprit del Loil, I. J:uiL oh. 211; Broom, lIu. 3d Load. ed. 1.

L'unlo. ";olnr. ~OIJ"·"JII' genlium .". It Is eentrary to the law of aations to do violeace to aIDb ... ndon. Brauch, Priao.

L.gal.m IHorle I.,'alon·. 'anI.", ~Of1j1rma"'r, ftCII' d""alio illler "i"o. Iradilio". lOla. A legaoy Ie ooa8rmed by the deatb of the te8tator, ia the .Ime maDaer .B a gill from a liviag peraoa ill hy delivery aloae. Dy. 14:i.

Legol"'. Ng;. ri._ l."g;lur II '1"0 d""II"'ur, " lolloralldu. e,t ncvl ill .. ""jll' , .•• ",. g"·;I. Aa nmballador IIl1s tbe place of the king by ... hom he i8 leat, aad il to be hoaored u he ill whOle plaoe he 1111.. 12 Coke, 17.

Leg"" ... im ~o,,'ra~h .. d .. t, Tha coatract make. the law. 22 Wead. N. Y. 216, 23l1.

Legefl' torra a .. i"e"'H "'1'e'."" in/.",ill! nolnM iNde ",.rilil i ..... rrll"'. Tho .. who do aot pre.crve the la ... of tbe laad, tLauoe jUltly iaour the ineWooe· able braad of iafamy. Cuke, 3d la.t. 221.

L.O" ..t .. glia "' .. , ,rip"rlita: jIll CMII"'""', c_

• .. ""dille., .0 d,.rela ~omi"on'... The law8 oC Englaad are threefold: oommOD law, oUltom., and deo ..... oC parliameat.

L.gu jlgefldi " r.Jig,"di ~II"""'IIdo .. , p.,·irullln,.i", ... The oDlltom of makiag aad uDmakiDg la .... Is a. most dugeroua 00.. 4. Coke. prof.

L.,.. l alt. wa,eufftur, ,,.,',,,,nt, ., ",or,·ufl'''''.

Humaa la are born. live, aDd dio. 7 Coke. 26;

~ Atk. 674; 11 O. B. 767; 1 Blaclnl. Comm. b9.

L.g •• nal1lra p'r/ .. ~'i •• in'lI! ."", ., ;",,,,.ta6;I.o; I ... ulli ".ro iuri. eClflclitl'o .emp~'· ,'" iynit.,." d~eHJ·. ,.il •• 1 "iMI ... ill eo q""d pe'1"'uo .t.re po •• il. L'Ot' '".,a". uClle,mlu,', "i.UII', .. oriunlur. 1 h. 1&11'1 of aature are mOlt perfect and immutable; but the ooaditioa of humnn law i. aa uoeadiag Iuooetlliou, and there is aothiag la it which oaa cODtinae perpetually. HumaD la". are bora, II\'e, a.lld die. 7 Cuke, 26.

Lege. n ... "erb;, Hrl roh ...... , impneilll!. LRW. are impoled on thiugs, Dot wurd,. 10 Coke, 101.

L.ge. ",.. .. rio'.. prior.. ~oklr .. ,.;". al"ng",."

Sublleqaeat la ... s repeal prior ooaliiotiDg oael. I Rolle, '111; 11 Cob, 826. 6!iO.

Leg .. ".um liflll",ln'"r •• ,. Lawl ,hoald biDd lh. propo ..... of them. Fleta, b. I, o. 17. , 11.

£.g •• ";gi"""i6"., "OIJ d_i""i611, ."br ..... "."

The lawl aid the vlgilaat, Dot tbe nellllgeat. FInniag; Danham; 6 J"ha •• Ch. 122, a6; TooleJ Couk; 16 lluw. Pro 142, 14'-

MAXIM

136

MAXIM

L.,ibN •• lfmplw d ... ·nnlil,,". leg. nalNr .. tI, ... d". L ... Jlngi. "bi ",Nioti'ltfl"illU. Law falgal wben ..,. Whea 1.,,1 impaled by the It.I. faU, "e mud equity lab.bu. ]] Coke. IKI; Brallela, PriDo.

loOt by tbe la" uf a"ture. 2 Rolle, ~1I8. L.z i", .. ,di' eicia_ ricin; fa~la .c;r.. The law

Legi. "' .... trod;u nutl l"c;1 ;''i'',,;'''''' The een- prelumel that one aeighbor how. alae u\ioa. ot .

IItruotioa of la" doea no "ruag. Cuke, LilL 183. aaotber. Coke, Lilt. 78 6.

L.gw jllI"adi eI "jlgodi eo"'tI.,,,du p.";c.luliui- Lu: j"dical de r.l,u. "", • .,ario la.irttdi. '1"."'"

.. " .. t, The caltom of fixing IUId reflxiag (mat. 'p.a lacli.. The la" jadgel of thiag. which mult lag .ad anaulllag) la". il mUlt daageruu.. aec"I&I'ily be doae u if actually dr.ne, Bnuacb, Le."i. 'III''1'rtl"l1o I",p' iii", obtill.t. The eon- Priao.

Ifruotioa of la" obtain. the force uf I",,,. BrlUlcb, L... " ... ,lilalil t., In 1-,,0";', i.e. i".tnti ..

Prino. The la" uf DecCI.lty II the law of time, that Ia, time

L.gi. mini,'.r "I)ft Ine/"r, ill .",_,io". "§lcii ",,', present, Hob. Ifill.

IllY'" a,,' r,'r" .. d.re. Tbe mini.ter of the law il Lee ...... i" .... cog.' tId .. a.", .. i",,'iliapera,tfll/a. aot bound, in tbe exeoatioa of biB ollioe, titber to Tbe la" force. nu oae to do vain or ulele .. tl.lagL lIy or ,.,treaL 6 Coke, 68. i Wing.te, Max. 800 i 3 fharpwood, BI.eket. ComlD.

u!li.'alo""M ." c;"a ro.r. rtb" •• , """ "erbi" I lUi 2 Bingh. II. c. 121 i 13 Eut, 420; 7 PenD. St. leye", imp""el'f!. The voice of legillAtoA I, a living 206, 214 i II Joba •• N. Y. 5118.

"nice, to impole la". On thingl &nd aot on word.. LIZ ...... i""" ~1!Ji1 o.,enrl er« ,,,od .nrir. pr. __ i. 10 C"ke, 1 U1. , I"r. The I." forces DO oae to make kno"a "hal b.

L'gilim. i",1'''''''''; pnrrre .... e •• , •• t. One who b prBlulDed Dot to know. LolI'l, 669.

commandl la"fully Dlust be obeyed. Jenk. CenL L • ., "em i .. i I".it i''i .. n·am. The I&w doe. "roDa

C ... 120. • to no one. Branch, Prino.

L., fit';"''' ."j."., d. I .. I"" eI ."" la '(li lb, Jlc. L... " .... ini optf'fJltlr ,'ni'l""'" ._irai I""i' i'!i ....

,inR.. Fiction. arile from tb. la", aad not law";...... Tbe I." never work, lUI Injul'1, or doe. him

f'rum lIotioal. a "rong. Jenk. Cent. Cal. 22.

Le« l"j. ra. H .Aar, ... t d. pllnir ",. I •• "",i""., La ni'l"cil Irwdra, "il jde'lrtldra. The law ."llri • .,r ... L.". do not unllert.ke to puailb other doe. aotblng .nd o"mmaDdl aothing iD ,·ala. S tbon out .. ard .otioas. Montee. Ea. de Loil, b. 12, " Bal.tr. 2711; Jenk. Cent. 0 ... 17.

t. 11 i Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 2711. L"" flO" ~o,i' tId ifIJl'0.";biU". Tho law HCI"ina

L.." ,,/"il"" ,nulUl; appetil puler'"",; • ., "or •. nothlag Impo .. lble, Coke, Lilt. 231 Ii; Hob. ge j 1 _a reen, The la" delights Iu equity i it oovt'U J!<,avier, lu,t. a. Sb1.

perfeotioa i it II a mle 01' right. Jank. Cent. C.... Lez ""n "ora' d •• ,i"imi.. Th. law dou Dot .....

86. gard ImaU m.lte,.. Hob.8S.

Lu: "'i'JW,,ndn '#f1ti/"r """',,,,_. The la" lom.- Lor "n" deficit in j,".'itia mli."da. The la'll' d_

Um .. (0110"1 equity. 3 Wils. 1111. DOt f.i1 ia fho'll'iag ustiee, Jenk. Ceat. Cat.31.

Le» .A.o!lli .... 1 'e", ",i.'l'i.",'(/; ... Tho la" of Eag. L,:Jt' """,f"ret .. uli. d.U.",orv",. 1 hala" ravon

llUld II a III" of mercy. Coke. 2d last. nb. not the wi. he. of Ihe dalaly. II Cuke, 68 ...

L •.• A"I/Ii .. nOli ptr,i,,,r aIJlN .. dllm. Tbe 10" or Le", "'''' i,,'l1Idil ali,Njd ifIJ1""libile. The law

England doea DOt sulfer an ab_urdlty. II Coke, 22. iatelldl not ~ay thlag Impouible. 12 C'ke, ~9 ....

Lu AIII/li .. IIU .. " ... ", _a''';, •• d ""'per pal";. Le» """ pnli,,,r Irtre/julle. ~, di"i .. , .... "a_.

1I, ... dlli",.nIt i",ila"; "al"l"m j"di.",. Tho lu" of Tb. Inw Iufferl an froctioal and diviaioal of .. tale&. England mle. tbat tbe ofl'spring shall .I,,"y. fol- 1 Coke, 87 i Branch, Prine.

10" tbe eonditlon of Ibe father, nover tbat of the La lion p'Ir"l'il i",,'ilia, '['Ii" i."tili. lohr .,.z,.

mother. Coke, Litt. 123. I .... TI,e 1.11' command. not u.elrPB thing., beeaun

Le.z: .A 119Ii'" """,!IIaIR Ii"., 1'"rlinme",n "',II"M. nlt,len lal;,or i. filolibb. Coke, Lltt. 1117; 6 Coke, ,.." •• t; Tbe I"" of England eannnt be ch.nged bat' 811 fl.

hy parliament. Coke, 2d Inst, 218, 819. La fI"" re",i";' ren'jl."re 'Nnd "1'fJtlU' "In'"

Le .• l .. nejl";"U, ,·.i ~" ... ·",ili r.",.diw", r.rINlat. The la" doel aot "'quire that to b. preyed whleb A brne8011l1 1.11' .!'ordl a remedy iD a liml ar caBe. II appareat to the euurL II Coke, 61.

Cuke. 2d Inst. 689. L,·z ,,1.., ,,,tldnINr '1"""do rnli"". pro6olvr. Tb.

Le« ,i,i". Inlerare 'IU" prirtr"'''' d" ... """ • .,.,,, .. I'IW is the more pralfed "bpn It II eonlnn.at t.

I',,/,/ieum "'tr/ .. ",. The law w"ald ra'ber loler.te a reuon. 3 1'erm, 146; 7 id. 2U: 7 Adolph. " B. private lOll than a public nil. Coke, Lltt. 162 b. 1667 i Bre.,m, Max. 3d Lond. ~d. 161.

L • .e d~ .ru'''r",jlld~;r d. pr.,.,.il". Tbe law pro· L.r. p',., .. ·.·"r tle,."g,,' 1"';0';. A prior .tltllt.

nde. for tbe future, tbe judge for the palt. .hall give rlace tn a later. ltI.ekddey, Civ. Law.

Lu d~fI.ere "u" p"'." j" jntl,i. uAi6 ... d •. The Iii; Broom, Max. 2d Load. ed. 27. •

1." ought not to fail ia dilven.ing Juatice. Coke, Lez pt''''pi(·i" "',. f't.p;Mt. The 1.w loob fo ....

Lit' IV7. ward, Dot baok'll'arel. Jenk. Ceat: Cu. 2114. See

~ di/",ion .. Hml'" .r"orret. The law alwaYI '1 RZTROIPJlm"" ••

abbors delay. Coke, 2d In.t. 240. L ... p".i, .,,·.daM..... Tb. I." ranilhea (.1 ....

Ltz ut a6.,entO. Tbe law i.from everlailiag. I hnnd. Jeak. CeDt. Cal. 16.

Brntloh, Prine. Ler r'jiril '''?l1Ifta, I'","",,'ia, ;._,",fI. Tb.

L ..... , dicla",.n ,."11·",,i.. Law il tbe dictate o( la'll' reJrcta eul'UtU01I1. oo,.t.radlctol'1, .nd ;DOOD-

rC&I'on. Jenk. Crnt. Cu. 117. ,moul thla". Jeak. Cent. r .... 1311. UO. 1~8.

Lr.r .. , ."rNla redi. L,,'II' II a rule of righL Lnt repro6a' "' .... a... 'lh. la" dlsappro"H of

Lr.r ~., ralio "''''''''', , .... jllbe, ,,, .. INHI .'ili" " delay.

ra'.".""'tr, '-' ~'"I"'a, i" pr"Aibet. La" II the rer- L.:z: rapt .. ·t ...,.,i,,,t_. Law regard. eqalty. See

faction of reOlon, wbich ~omlD"ndl what i. u.~ful 14 Q. B. 601, 611, 612.

and nece'lary, IUId forbidl the ountral'1. Cuke, Lez ...... , .. r daMI ,'""e(/i" ... 'The 1.11' will alwa,..

Lltt. 3111 b. Iflve a remedy. 3 Bouvier. lalL n. 2411; Buo.,

L..,. e.' ",,,C!I1',, ItJRela,j"b",. Aon",'a. "p"""i""" Ahr. A.'i"", i .. C;","al (B) i Brnoh, Prb'a., ."nlrari". La" II a •• o .... d .anolion, commlDding BrnnlD, Max. lid LlIad. ed. 181; 12 Adolph. .. B. "bAt II rigbt aad prohibitiag the oontrary. Coke, 268 i 7 Q. B. IbJ.

Id Inlt. ~S7. L.Jt ''''1'''' i.,,,,dil qtIfJ11 11011 ..... ' ,.,,';011;. n.

L.." CI' '"ti,,,',,,a err •• i" .. 6 .11II'~a legit n .... o d.. la" .I .. ay. IDteDdl wh.t I. acneable to NUt .•• .t'filllr. Law il the •• fe.t h~lmet; andtr the .Meld Coke, LltL 78.

o the law no ODe II deoeivfld. Coke, 2d In.t. 66. L ... "P" tal ."",,. .. "rdi...... The 1811' ftl!ard.

Lu 1"'Ht doli. The 1&11' favorl dow.. 3.t' the nmer of natnre. Coke, LitL 187; Broo .. , II ....

Will. IV. 0. 10D. . 3d Luael. ed. 231.

MAXIM

137

MAXIM

La 'N_rri, ipora.ti. Th. law. la_r the 1p0nDL .JeDk. CeDt.. CaL 16.

Lu _'"' .. i.0",6... Tbelaw uIII&. mlDon. leDL CeDt. CaL 67.

Lu .110 0,.. 0 __ aUoq"".,. Tbe law apeak' to all with ODe moatb. Colle, 2d In,t. 184.

Lu .ivi'.",illu .011 do"",i .. ,il.". ,",~i'. Law llliatl the ... akefUl, Dot tb. lI_pID,. 1 Story, Coa&r. 4t11 eeL 602.

Li6c,..,. ~UR;. _ lib ..... ' 01",,_, MODey heiDg ,..toJed don Dot 18& free the party olreriDg. Cuke, LiU. 207.

LiN"" eel "a"'rali. /""""'" ~ .. pod "";qIM I."'" liNt, .i'; '1- d. iur. "H' ,,; proltibelu,. Lihetty ia tbe nataral power of doing whateYer one "Ieuea, noept th.t ... hich ia rutralnad by la ... or turca. Coke, LitL 1111.

Li"""". i" ... h·"lnhUi. rei uf. Liberty I. aD In. estim.ble pd •. Di,. 60. 17. 1011; Fleta, lib. 2, e. 61, f 13.

Li6c" ... IIOR renp;' "",,,,,,Ii,,,,,,,,,. Freedom doe.

• ot admit of "alualion. Braoton, a.

Libe"". " .... i£"" ,~bu /a.urubmo, .d. Liherty II more fayond tbaD all tblDgI. DI,. 60. 17. ]22.

Li".,... ""1''''' ... 'iI.ati ..... II& "Oil ,..c;pit. The Wy of a freeman doe. nut admit of valuaUoD. Dig. t. 3. 7.

Li'_'_ .., ..,;.,... aptld .. uplora ... a .. "p.dla, .in ee •• ifiu",. Everyone i. free to a8cettain fur lIillllelf ... hether a reoommendlltion I.advan&.ceual to hi' interat8. 6 Johal. N. Y. 181, 184.

£i6ror... appellali .... OOtIli"."tur 0 .. ";" ",,1,,.'114, ,ire ,. eAa"", .. or. in ",,,,,,b"lu.4 .,·"t, hr. in "",ri. ali .. ",,,'eria. Under the Dllme of books are _lainedan "olum .... "hetherupoa v.per,or parcbant, or auy oth.r ma&erial. D~. 32. 62. pro ., ,rrllll•

Lic., ,J.'~Iio tM ,·"te"".llIIwro ,il,·, ... ,ill, t"", .. pntUI jkri dec/a.·,.tio p,·.,..tkn. qu •• ""ia'H' cff.e. ,_. i.t.~ni."t •.... r" "c'". Altbough the ,;raut of a rata,. IDtered be Inoperative, yet a declaration preeedent lDay be mad. wbich may take elfeet, proyided a D .... IUIt Intenene. Baoun, MIU. Reg. U j B_ID. )las. 3d Loud. ed. 600.

Li.ila 6.... ..i.., •• ".,., 1""",,,1.. fli,i Jllri. "b.t.t.

La ... ral UtllDay ... ell be fUied iDto one. aule.1 I"me rUrD! of la ... forbid: eo g. t ... o haviag a right to CClDYlY. neh a 1D0iety, lDay aaite aad coavey tb. whole. B_a, Ma:l:.1I4; Crabb, Real Prop. 1711.

Li,etAati. cot 'fUll'; lagi •..... ,ia; H' ";,,.,,/ .. 111 Jd.i. Allegiaace ii, a. it were, tbe ~,'ence of the Ia.; It ia tbe boDd of fsitli. Coke. Litt. 1211.

Li,_,i,. ... ""ali., ""IIi, .1" .. "... ..."".".".r, .. iii. _di. re!r_ala" "Hili. jI",bUJI pr_i",,.. Nalural a1legtauce "re.tralaed by no b .. rrlen. uarbed lIy DO boUD.I., oompreaed by no IImitl. 7 Coke, ] O.

Lig ... d lapM ••• "b "r_ ...... "PJH" .. ,ifl"" flO" _,iaetoI.I'. Slieb aad Ito'Del are Dot cuatalaed auder the DalDe of .rml. Braatoa. 1'"' 6.

LiaN rec'" • ., i.dtll N; _, obli'lHi,. I~.I!"" ,,' .. ,., rorfi. A right liDe il .D Ind8:1 of it.elf aud of aD • b1iqlle; la w " a liae of right Cuke, Litt. Ib8.

LiruA ,....", """pr,. p"./e, tNr "'om,rer."Ii. Tbe rIlfht Ii.e il aI .... y. pretern'l to I he ooll"teral. Cuk.. Lit&. 10; Fleta, lib. 6, e. 1; 1 StepheD, C __ • Ub ed. 4-06.

Lit .... pal .. ,.. rq/i, "" •• "'., .... ~".. Lattenpueat of tile kiD' .hall 1I0t be "Did. 1 BIII.tr. 6.

Li,. • .., poNolfJU ",,:till,,'" _J,.", .. a .. ,.ri ,..,..,eHit. 'l'he .h·.n il "bt'f'e tbe bllChnt ... aye (rom tbo Ie" ... _bed. Die. 60. 111.116; ADgeU, Tide-Waten, 17.

LitU _ .... ';0 ••• eignijl t, ei .. i. ,. .... eire ,."

IN-. Bil. ne nrd "I ," i.e. a lawluit. lig.

.' •• nary .. tlw, bMlaer i or ill _"..· ... "a ••

c..k .. Litt 212. .

~ _".,,_. ""!IiI a.'."" The place nt tbe _t ..... ",,,ern. tb. 1IOt. 2 Relit, CumiD. "6~ • .z.... I'" ~ redilAc .'" pBft.i.--.I ...

eo"diti"..... diJlli .. ,o"i. a", obligatitnri. 01 "ri"t' ObHmflHd",. Tbe pi Ice for the p.JmeDt of ftat or 1D0Dey I. to be Itrictly oblHlrYed aooording to the conditioa ot tbe leue or obligalloa. 4 Cok., 73.

L~"g .. p,lIi ... ,i". traM"r ad cu............. LoDg .nlreruDce ia con.trDed .. OODHat. Fleta, lib. 4, Co 211" 4.

L""9a po.,oBio ft' p"ci. J..... LODg JIDII_IOII " tbe la. of peace. Coke, Lltt. II.

Longa pt, ••• ";o p"r;, i'" p .... idIRrll, et tollil eetiOtle .. rero d",,,i .. e, Loag po_ilion prodllcel the rlgbt of po ..... iOD, aDd tH k ••• w.y f'rom the true owner hi. action. Coke. Litt. ] 10.

L",.g.""_pH.,.t Ion,... H ... 'lui ereerlit .. _ori,.

It,,,,,iHU''', "rffieil pro iure. LODg lime. and 10Dg aM beyond the memory of IDa a, lamCel ror right. Coke, Litt. us,

r.a""""dHm H' ",,111"" .,,,linrl ... vt d"",i. W.

Iboald speak a. the common people, we .hould tbiDk U tbe leamed. 7 Cuke. 11.

Lullrieum li"I"'. ,If'N Ittci'e t,aMttd_ ,., ill I'GIII""'. Tbe .1Ipprriae •• of tbe'toDgue i.e. ill 11 .... bility tn err-ougbt not lightly to bor labJt:eted to panJlhmeat. Croke Car. 117.

L .. ,.", IfJc,,,~ Nt l"'piUi "",I .. "'tor ." .. rI,lH,.

A guardian oa~bt DOt to make m"Dey .'ut of tb. gaardiaD,hip of bia ward. 1 Johal. Ch. N. Y. 627, 636.

L""at'·",,., 'l"i gttlld., i .. 'H<:idi ••• """,U.. He

i. a luaatic who enjoy. hlCid iIl_"ala. 1 Story, CODtr. 4th ed. ~O.

A/,.."i. dig".". tral;' tttl H .. ,"". dil1"v",. Tbe 1D0re wOrlby drllw. to iteell tII.l •• a ... orthy. Year

B. 20 lien. YI. 2.rg.

A/tt!li., .. r".,.. " .... ,. "'''gf''''''' r .... _ ",,",'''''';do UI. il tbe ma.ter of things; csperlence I. the ml ... tre.1 of thiDg.. Coke, Litt. 611, 2211; Win,ate, Mu.7li2.

Alag.a ClIa" .. and Clare" de Fo .... ,. tI,e ,...l1.d 1 .. d."", g r ",.d dflre.ro. MU'Da Charta and the Chatter of the PoretOt are calied the two ,reat chatterB. Coke, 2d Ind. liTO.

J/afl"R ""pa d".llle ",. Great Deglect II .qul" .... lpnt to fraud.· Dig. 60. 16. 226; 2 Spa .... , So. C. nil; 1 Bonier, ID.L D. 6411.

J!tt'l"n .. tgliU",'la ... Ipa "', .. ap .. ru'"" dill •• ,,,, GrOll DegligeDce I •• fault, groal tault I. a fr&ad. Dig. 60. 16.2211. Cll/pa I. aD latermediate degree of negllgea"" t elweon """g .. ';", or lack of enerlltetie care, aad dol ... , "r fraad, _min,; to approach nearly to our" negligeuL .. " ID mellniDg.

J/alt"",iu .. ", lIo.,·";l1i"". i"rAo"",,, MaJhem ia IlIdp;eDt bomlcide. Coke, 3d Inat. 118.

Alaile",i.",. H' tH'I!r er;",,·,m fII"jIJrG .. i.i"'H., d ,'nter ",illnrll ",,,71,,,,,.,. M.yhrm I. tbe I ... t of ,;rt'Ilt erimee, and tbe greatelt of Imall. Coke, Litt. 127.

JI"ior _redi,,,. ,,"";, ""icv;"... .0.""''' " i",e d "''ph". 'I""'" .. p" ..... ti6N.. A lfr8ater IDberitaDoe eo",e' til every ODe 0' UI rrom rI~ht aDd the I ..... tbaD from pareat8. CokC', 2 •• Inlt. 611.

A/oi'" HH ......... ;N Ie ~n"'i"el "';.0' .... The Jrftater Damlier contalnalD itlelf the le.l. BractuD. 16.

N"j,r. pGI". nltrel". 'I""" "rti6" • .,,,,,,,,. r.', .". ." ;'I/a",;.. ODe 1ft"'Cled ... itb a gr"'er punl.h. m!!nt than Is provided by law ill D .. t Inrllmoa .. Coke, 4th Inlt. 1111.

Alnj.,; CO'Nli"" i • .,. mi.".. Tbe paler iDCI.d. the Ie... 111 Vinrr, Abr. 3i ••

Alnjo"; ... "'''' •.. i"ur i .. ..". The 1 ..... ' I. Inclnded in tbe ,;reater aam. II Kent, ComlD. 618; Stol"1. Ag. f 172.

AI"ilUl dig"" .. _It" ad .. trri dip"", T' .. e

mnre ... "ttby or the greater dra 10 it the lell

wflrthy or tb.lener. 6 \,iaer. Abr. 684, 6~1I; Coke, Lilt. 43, 866 h; Colle, 2d Inlt. 307; FIDOh, Law. n.

A/"i"' .ot d.lir"' .. ''';''_ "ocitl.,.. "..a. "liH" It " a ~r Grime to kill ODe' • ...,. til_ .. other.

MAXIM

138

MAXIM

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

JI",," 9"".,,,,atioll """ "ih'tt' e1ur.rlaflll ,.d '" C:1:· I AI.lior .. , eondilio p""idenli,., rei 'IN"'" ttrlon •• ,.,..llione inetralllftllo""" ""'/ .. gralll",aticlI 9"06d I Better II the conditlon of the pOle_or and that of Jlni pooi' •• ilalldll .,,. Bed grammar d081 not the defendant than that of tbe plainlilf. Coke, vitiate a deed; but In tho oonstruotion of lnatru- 4tb Inst, 180; Vaugh. 611, 60; Hob.l03.

menu, bad grammar, &8 fur u it oan be done, il to AI.Ii"r •• t """"lll,, p'JII,ld.,,'il, .. bi 1I,,,t., iN.laH" be avoided. II C.,ke, all; 9 id. 48; Yiner, A br. Better it the oonditlon of the pOl!euor whl're Oram",a,. (A); Lolft, «1; Broom, Max. 3d Lonel. neithor of the two hal a right. Jeak. CeaL. C ...

ed. 1112. 1118.

AloW,·r.tll e:rpo"{tio 1]11. <'Orrutllpi' tal"... It II Alellor e.1 i""l'ia ".ra p' .... ni.... qtrttlll ...,ri

a oureed oonstruetion which oorrupu tbe text. 2, p""i.n,. TbatJulticewhinbjultlyprenDllaerime Coke, 24; 4 id. 8b; 11 id. 84; Wingate, Max. 211. is better thn that which leverely punbhel. it.

Jla/,.ftoia """ fk/ .... ' re"'aner. i.'p."iln, ., I",· i A[.lio,'nl c""dilio ....... "''''' faeer« po' •• ' "'i"or, p"n",o. cnnll"""", olfe.'II" "il",l, d.lin9"enli. Evil I d","'nr.", n'·9"n'l"tlm. A minor ean impro\'8 or dHd. ought not to remain unpunished, an,l impunity make hll condition botter, but never worse. Co .... alforda continual incitement to the deliuquent. " Lilt. 337 b.

Coke,46. Jlelin .. ,i. I_pore 0_"_, tpI .... poe' ett .....

J[o.leficia propooitU di.,ing"unhrr. Evil deed. ,,,,lnemIN'" remedillm 9" .. reu. It II beUer to reare dlltinguilhed froID evil pUrp01lfl1. Jellk. Ceut. atraln or meet a thing In timo, thin to leek • Cu.2YO. remeely alter a "rong hu becn inllieted. Coke, Jlolili" • ., .. rida, .. ' .... U o"i.,,· njftel"" Malice 2d JUBt. 2119.

ia lour, it il the quality of a bad miud. 2 Bulltr. 49. JI.li". e,' am,,,'a mala pall tptttm ""n .... ttre, It i.

J/olilio. '"pplal.,o.km. Mllllee auppliel age. Dy. better to lulfer (·very wrong ur ill, than to COUIeD*' 104; 1 Blackltone, Comm. 4114; 4 ;d. 22, 23, 312, to i'. Coke, 3d Inat. 23.

Broom, Max. 8<1 Lond. ed. 284. See MALICR. ::cli". e.' "'CII".,. 9"". ","I" e""lI'I'e. It i.

Mtd", .. "om;II" ... ell ob.io.lld",". The maiioioul briter to reoede tban to prooeod wrongly. Coke,

plan I of men mWit be avoided. 4 Coke, 16. 4Lh In.t. 170.

Jlal"., "0" "abtl .J/I"-.", •• ,, .. d d-flcinle", en,,· AI .... I"',,'nl·i. ill I •• 'am."ti. "1'r."",d" td. Ia

.".,. Evil hal not an efficient, but a defioient, I wm., the intenti"n ofthe teltator ia to bo regardtcL

.... Ie. Coke,3d Inlt. Preeme, Jenk. Crnt. Cae. 277.

lIa/ ... n"" 1',... .... 11"... Eyil ia not prelumod." AI ... ,i ... e.' c,,"I,a ",nol.m ira. To lie II to go

Coke, 72; Branch, Prlne, agRinlt the mind. S Bulstr, 2no.

A[1I1"", q"" c", .. ,,,,,,,i .... n P9"" The more oum· A/eret' nl'ptllati" ad ,tI mobil •• t,,"llma perli"d.

mon the evil, the worle. Branch, PrinG. Th. term mercbllndile belongl to movable thinp

JloIII' .1.''' .. ' o.bo/."du,. An evil cUltom II to only. Dig. 60. HI. 68.

be abolilhed. Coke, Litt. 141; Broom, Max. 3d AI .... i. opp"ilalio". "omi" .. "OR conlineri. Under Loud. ed. 827; Littleton, i 212; 6 Q. B. 701; 12 the name of merchandlle men an not inoluded..

Wi. 1145; 2 Mylna .t K.4411. Dig. 60. 18. 207.

Jla .. dolo.licilo. Blrielo", reel'piuII,inltrprelalit*em, A['f'Je .. , qll;d9l1id rCHdi pal •• t; MerchAndise I •

.. d i/liri'a Inl"m eI .."."",,,,. Lawful command. whatever ean be aold. 3 Meto. MUI. 305. Se. ieoeive a .triet interprcbtiulI, but unlawful, a wide MER('BAIIDIIB.

ar broad OIlDltruction. Baoon, Mu. Reg. HI. M.oi .... " ... ,,,,, .tqtrihrr. The harvelt 'ollow.

J[alldaln,i, .. I.""illoe rilli poail". traH'g,erli Hnn the lowing. Enklne, IUlt. 174.26; Bell, Diet.

pal .. ,. A maudatary cannot exoeed the uoundlof A[.,,, .. e.' pr",,,;II.,e, """ din';lI.r.. It is mine to

bll authority. Jellk. Cent. Cu. 63. promise, not to dllcharge. 2 Rolle, 39.

JlaHdo.lHIII nilli grallliltl"" ".e//.I", .n. Unlell a Jlitlima pmln r"l'pnrali. e" ""'I'" 911ulibd 1' •• ".

mandate i. graluitoul, It i8 not a mandate. Dig. niuri4. The amnllelt bodily punlll,ment il greater

11. 1. 1. 4; Inlt. 3. 27; 1 Bouvier, Inst, II. 1070. than any pecuniary one. Coke, 2d Iut. 220.

J[anifula p",balio,l. ""n i"d"g.,," Manifelt Alillima IIIull"'"" .Hnl 9"" rerlo.., 1 ... b"PrH'" inltr-

thingl require no proof. 1 C .. ke, 40 II. 1''''(lliollem. Th;ngs which ha"e had a oertain in-

Jlari, ., /rr",i". COtIj""clio •• , d. i"re "f"IIr.. terpretlltiun nre to be altered u little al pOiliule.

The union or mille and female i. fuunded on tba Cok~, Lilt. 366.

law of nature. '1 Coke, 13. Mill;"',,'" .. , "iTall" prO:1:i","",. The leut II nex'

JI,,'rilllOllin d,ben' to .. lib.ra. !l(IIrriag.1 ought to nothing. Bacon, Arg. Low'l Cale of Tenur.8.

to be free. IIalken, Max. 811; 2 Kent, Comm. 102. i 1Ii"or ahl. ' •• '1'11. ogere "on pul .. , ill .""",ro-

JI"''''IIlnn,'"", ... 6,.9" .... lollll p.rertl."I,r...,.d.II ••. p","tttU, Hrc rlinlll .,,,, .... ire. A minor before meA lub •• quent nlarriageonre8 preceding orimlnality. jority oannot aot In a Oale of property, nor eYeD Jlau" .n I.!! ne .erra ",i." ... 6,,,,eA. tiel i"ror.. agree. Coke, 2d Jnlt. 291.

Matter of lawl Ihan not be put Into the mouth of Jfjllor i",o.r. """ pOl .. " A mlnnr canDot make

juron. Jeuk. Cent. CII. 180. oath. Coke, Lltt. 172 II. An infunt CAnnot be·

J[o.Inri"ra .11'" "IOta mllli er " .. 9""'" ,ofronrm. The Iwnm on a Jury. Littleton, 2811.

wiabel of WOlnen are of quloker growtb than those: A[;"", ",j"" ... ". c".tf,dire IIOR d,"tlj O/ioo .. i. of men; i .e, women arrive at matarity earlier than P",..u .. il1Jr nllli. ,.g .... 'In; Hip.lln, r.g.r. H ... ,·I. A. men. II Coke, 71 "; Bracton, 811 b. minor ought not to be guardian of II minor, for h.

Jlo.,i ... il" diclo. fllia 1I'(lzimo t.' oj"" difJfIilo.. at il prelumed to govern othera ill who due. nut knoW' .... ,i,oin/II .. '1010""0', "''I''. q""d nm:r; ... a _nib". how to g<"'ern himlelf. Coke, Litt. 88.

prob~IHr. A maElm il ao oallad because Itl dignity Ari"or """ 1.""lIr '·"l'"nd.,c dllrnnl •.. ino'" "'"ti; I. chiefelt, lind Ita authority tho mnlt certain. and ni,i i_ cau.4 dol".,p,."pl.,/"ro,..".. A minor i. no' becaule univenall)' approved by all. Cuke, Lilt. bound to &lI.wer during hil minority. Ul't'pt a ••

11. matter or favar In a CAU •• of dow.r. 3 Dubtr. 143.

Altt:1:i,d 1'''c; ''''', can'r"ri .. , "i. et '·"'""'n. The J[inor, qui i"fra .. ,,,1.,,, 12 annor" .. fuml, ,,'/a-

patelt enemie. to peace are force and wrong. go,. n,,_1"""', ".c .",1, .. legem po"i, "..io. ""'.,.'_ Coke, Litt. HII. "',,,,''', IIOR .1' n,b I,g. ttliqll4, n.c III de........ A Jla:riIHH' .rrori.1"'1*'''' ",ogi,'er. The people Is I mluor who i. UDder Iwelve yean of Age eRnnot be

the greatelt muter of error. Bacnn. I outlawed, nor placed without the IIIWI, because be-

lI,lior ell 0'111'0. pne.irf"",i.. The oaDle of the: fore lUoh age ha I. nut under any lawl, nor in •

pouNlOr Is preferable. Dig. 60. 17. 12R. 2. I decrnnary. Coke, Lilt. 128.

Mcli"r H' .,,,,d,.,;,, d./ ... rlet,,.... The ORUI. of the Alillo, 11 "'III", non "G .... ilnlu .. fore u.curnr ....

def8lldllnt II tbe better. Broom, lIIax. 3d Lond. ed. A minor under seventeon yean of Ace b not ad. 139, 1142; Dig. 60. 17. 1211 • .2; Bob. 11111; 1 III ..... 66. I mitted to be an exeoutor. II Coke, 117.

,

MAXIM

I I

139

MAXIM

Mi ...... I.il, 9Hi I"rdi ... """"; nGm ~I t."'pore .Ut ••• "I";INr. He doe. not pay wh .. pay. too lato; r.r, f!'Om the delay, he U judged nut to pay. Dig. 10. Ill. IJ. 1.

JliHm fI.t •• m' ... , "bij •• "" ."gum Gut ; .... rIMm.

It II a miMrable Ilawary where the law il ,·ague or 1IIleertaiD. Coke, 4th lueL 248; 9 Johnl. N. Y. U7; II PeL 288.

Jli,; .. i"1Hra.,i ... li". por.,.r. The more mildly On. oommandl, the botter II he obeyed. Cuku, 3d IaaL U.

JltJ6ili.. .... "''''', oilu.... Movablee han no rit... "John •• Ch. N. Y. 472.

J(obiU,. ,..r."no", '.qHHnIH', ' .. ",obilill oil .. "..

MOYablo thing. follow the pOHon; immovable, their loea.lity. Stury, Conti. LawI, 3d e,l. 838, 839.

JloIIili", o",/ ..... ,.r p.r.""om. Movablel follnw the perlOn. Story, Cuntl. LawI,3d ed. 638, 639; BrooUl, M ... x. 3d Lond. ed. 462.

JI",lI"cII d,..,,,,,,.tGHlitJ /odi j.. "''''at. A 81JIall _mll&nce attending an aut ma1 chango the la".

J/,rd •• d. ""R d.";"."Rd" n"', rul". A IIlod .. (prellCription) not to pay tithe8 i. void. Loft, '27; Croko BJb. 611; :I Sba .... woo.l, Black.L Comlll. 31.

Jlod ... fit to,.,."",i" .ineHH' 1'9-' The form of 8jp'OOIDent ad the oonveotion of the paltiu8 overrule the I..... 2 Coke, 7 S.

Mod.,. lege,. dal dOI",'''''ni. The manner giv" la" to • gill. Coke, Liu. 111 a; Broum, Max. 3d Lcnad. ed. 016.

Jlo'MllI ut jut.", ",edium eI ",m .. ,rll rerum eo",·

• ",.6ili,. .. , rta .. per .. ."iu".flUJnel",ji, ""lHilllll .erum _ .... in., If j.eto .-i1ll"tiO. Muney is tbe jUlt mediam .nd _re of all oommutable things, for by the mediam of money a convenient and just estimation of all thing. is made. See 1 Bouvier, bit. n. 922.

JI"Retandi j ... """'prtn •• ditICr ill r.v,,,libHII q". ••• ,Ha. a ,..,po .cop'"'' "hdieaulur. 1 b. rigbt of loining i. ollmpreheoded amoog.t those rigbtl "f royalty wbioh are n~ver relinquisbed by the kingly _ptre. Day. 18.

JI_ nl'roba'"r i" ICfI', Delay II dilapproved of in law. Jenk. Cent. Cu.61.

liON dieilur .. IIi,,,. ..•• ppliaium. Deatb is deaomiBated tb. eztreme penalty. Coke, 3d InlL 212.

JlO" 0.1Iia ..,I.il •. Death di8l0lnl all thingl. JloreM IIIOItteIIIIUIi t.' till;",.'" "it. m"Dlen'Hm.

Th. lut moment of life is the moment of deatb. , Bndf. Surr. N. Y. 2'6, 260.

JI""" .. e.r:itu 110 ••• t nil".. To be dead-born II Dot to be born. Coke, Litt. 211. See 2 Paige, Ch. If. Y. 3b; Doma&, Ii ... pr61.L 2, &.1, n." 6; 2 BoII .. ier, In.t. nD. 1721, 193;;.

Moe reti" ... ri ••... , jid."''';m. utll.t"U.. A alii. 10m of the tram .. tiquity II to be retained. " Coke, 78.

M.lrla da_lll •• _ 'rroflGI. A tloe doe. not impo,e a 1088 of reputation. Codo, 1. M; Cal.. 1IIu, Lex.

JI./la ",,"eeduatur "..,. obU9H"'" qwr '"'" COIIUd •• 'ur d. dir..,"'. MIUlY tbialtl are oonoeded indio rootly whieh are Dot .lIuwed direotly. 8 Coke, .7.

JI.ltu jlde". pru",i •• " lorolll. MaDY promisee le_a conBdenoe. 11 Cu,h. Mull. 360.

N.ll" ignoramuo 9". nobi •• 0 .. 'oIn ... ' .; "."I'1lm !..dio nobi. /"il /,,, .. ;U,,ri.. We are Ignorant of • 8IIY thinp whloh woald Dnt be hidden from UI if th. Nading of old anthor. "ere familiar tu UI. 10 CelIe, 78-

1I1Il ... i. itlre _muni contra t"tJIiDft .... di.p"'flnni 1'''' __ ... lIi "t£I;I,". ;",r"d"eta ."",. Many tbingl lIa ... beftllntrodaead into tb. commOD la", witb a .... to the pablio good, "hiah are inoon.ietent wilh _d _n. Coke, LitL '10 l Broom, Max. 3d I.9nd •• 11.160 l 2 Cob, 76. Bee 3 Term, 1'6; 7 id. 162.

JI.,. -.140 ~talitm. /.oili.,. 9"". repli.

"....ipi... You will perceive many thlnge much more easily by prACtice th"n by rul8.ll. Coke, 4.111 1a8t. 60.

Jiu/w. ","I "oIa! I.or, 9"'" I .. ", ... I"";I~ dallltlGMt.

The la" fail. to forbid manylhiDg. whiah yet it has Iilently condemned.

MM/llI Iratl.rUNI e" ... ,lfti".r.ilat. 9'"'" nOft p'" •• Iran.eN.'. MRny tbings pall u a wbulo "hie1l would not pasB .oparately. Coke, LitL 12 ...

Mulli milito, nemu ulnni" no.,il. Mlny men know maoy thing., ao one koo". overy thing. Coke. 40th Inst. 348.

Altolli tllili ... eel 1'''''.0 idonea ejftlftn.re, qua ... multi. i",lIilibll. humin •• 91"0""";' It Is muoh more uleful to pour forth a few useful things t han to opprese men with many u8elell thingl. oj Coke, 20.

MIIllipl.z at indi.,ill.'llm parit ."'"/H.i"' .... ; ., 9",0Iio" .. 9"0 .illll'liciOl· •••• 0 II(tidi"rH. Multi. plioity and indiltinctnes. produce ooolillion: the more limple que.tionl are, the more lueid tbey are. Hub. 336.

AIHllipli.ala tran.gr ... ion e e reef'''' 1''''''''' i"jli .. ,io.

The iatliation of puni8hwent .bould I.e in propor. tiOD to tbe increl1le uf erlme. Cuke, 2d Inst, '79. jJlulliluriin<:fl1 dec.m/deiuut. Ten make. multi. 'ude. Coke, Lltt. 247.

.J/ulU,,,do t>r,"auti"m tlnn parit errori pt.'rnt:irti .. ",.

The multitude of thOle wbo err II no protectiun for

error. 11 Cuke, 76. (

jJ/ultitudo ,·mpe";torH ... pwil wriam. A mnlti. tude of Ignorant practitioner. deltruy8 • oourt. Cuke, 2d InlL 2111 •

N.tu,fI "pp.til perf •• ht ... , ,10 din. ·Nature .'pirel to perfeoUun, and '0 doel th. la". Hob. U4.

Nah,ro jidejH •• iOfti. oil .tricli •• imi juri. at AO. d,,'al, .,.1 uleHdGlllr d. ro ad r~, de p~r_la "tI p.r.om"", d. ""por. Gd t.mpN.. Tbe na.ture of the oontraot of suretysblp il .tri.".';m,;j"ri., Ind oanno~ endure nor beextended from thing totbing,from perIOn to person, or from time to timo. Burge, Sur. 40.

N((tul"a 11011 faai' .,,/tH .. , ito nee le», Nature makel no leap, nor doee the law. Coke, Litt. 238.

J.'"atu,"u tlOIi loci' .,CUllllln, n('o l~z ."pWDQr'u • .,n.

Nature make8 no vaauulO, thela" nothing purpu ... lell. Coke, Litt. 79.

NalHr", .,.. mazi",,,; nah,m bi. ",azima. Th. foroe "f nature i8 greale8t; natllre II doubly gHat. Coke, 2d Inst, 664.

Nal .. ,ule '.'9',idlib., di"olvi." ",od" '1"0 ligflt.r.

It is natllral for a Ibing to be unbound in lhe snmo way in which it "al bound. Jenk. Cent. ("u. 86; 4- D .... N. Y. 4U, 417; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed, 786.

N ••• lIriO d.flurrl ita j,utiti4 .d,·A.ndL No. should tbe oourt be detlcient io Ibowing Justice. Coke, 'tb 10Bt. 63.

Nee t~I''' .. e. I""". "c"",,;! regi. Neltber time nor 'plaoe ban tbe king. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 190.

A,e "'"tam rl''',.lJo .""!/ui"fI, ca.",lnbet. Where blood II Ipillad, tbo cue il unpardonable. Coke, 3d Ins'. 67.

N ••• • ... iam, 1 ... " ."mille, CtJeU. Jlllbel. Wbere the Divinity i8 insulted tbe oase II unpludonable. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 167.

N ..... a'i" .. eft 9'lDd to"tO pilt.., "li,w .. lab.r •• That is Decenary wbich olUlnot be otber"i, ..

N ..... il". H' ItfJI: t .... pori. et loci. Nec"nity I. tbe law of a particular tillle and place. 8 Coke, 69, Hale, Hilt. PI. Cr. Ii'.

Nec .. rito. nel .. at aul !!Irl at ddirtN'IR itO tapi~

lalib ... , quod 11011 "p.ralur id in m";lihN •• Neeel •

• ity excules or extenuate. delinquency in capital caMS, but Dot in ciTn. See N&CII81ITT •

Ne .... .;la. lac;1 lirj'"m "vod .. U ... """ •• f Ii"t .......

Neoeulty make. that 1."f'IIl "hlob otherwiae i, u.~ lawful. 10 C"ke, 61.

NeGMeitOll iRd .... ,'ri""."tu .. fIIHd j ... o printa.

MAXIM

14{)

MAXIM·

Witb relt&rd to printe rI,btl. n_it,. pri"Uegft. Buoo, Max. Reg. 6.

N.e •• ,,;,u ... 0fI1ab.,l.g .... Necessity b .. no la".

Plo"d.18. See N.C .. SITT. and 16 ViDur. Abr. 6M; 22 u: 640.

NflCflllil", p"bliea ""jor." '1 .. a .. prirala. Pab· lie n_.aity i. greater tban private. Baoon, Max. Reg. 6; Noy, Max. 9th ed. M; Broom, Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 18.

N.e_ila., pnd eouil, d.l ... dil. N_lity deIlInd. what it compel.. Hale, Hilt. Pl. Cr. 6~.

N.e •• it« •• nb l.g. """ eora"n" .. r, '1uia '1"od alia, _,., lieil ..... nee .. ";lae/rrei, liei"'m. Necessity il not reltrained by I." ; linoe "bat other"l,e i. not la"ral, n_ •• lty makel 1."fuL Coke. 2d IUIt. 120; Fleta, I. 6, c. 2S, f 14.

N.e ••• ila. "' .. cil ,'''_, N_IIlt,. crt'erocm" the la". Hob. 1"-

Neeeooi'1 create, """ty.

N'U",io ""ael .. ,OfIu .. , error { .. lege. The denial of a oonola.ion Is error In law. Wingate, Max. 2d8.

N.fJfItio d"'rII" ".f/"ti,.,..m," amb_lam" .. , ".IIr",a,;"".... A negative destroy I a lIegative, alul both make an .ilIrmatlve. Coke, Litt. 146.

N"J",i" d"plez •• t a.ffirmalia. A dUlible lIegatl.v.

Is an aillrma.tive.

N~lige .. na ..... per lablt in/ortll"ia", l!OIIIit ••• Negligence al"aYI bas miRfortuae for a oompanioll. Coke, Lltt. 246; Sheppard, Toucblt. 4711.

N.m'_opo"''' .... 'api.llliore .. I.gib.... No man need be "Iser thaD the I."s. Coke, Litt. 97.

N .... " admilllllld", .,, inAabililllre •• 'p.II.... No one II allo"ed to incapaeitate himself. Jellk. Cellt. 0 ... 40. But lee To STULTIFT; 6 Whart. Penn. 871; 2 Kent, Comlll. 451, n,

N .... o (lgil , .... iplltl7N. No man aote agalDst him. .. If, JeDk. Cent. C .... '0: th~refore DO mao can be • jad!!e In hia o"n oaule. Broom. MIU:. 3d Lond. ed, 291, II.; 4 Biagh. 151; 2 Exeh. 6U5; 18 O. B. 263; 2 Barnew. " Ald. 822.

Nem" ali ... rei, "" .. uli.rlllli"n~, tkf •• ",r it/onn. i",.Uig,·Iur. No man I. con,ldered a oompel8nt de· feader cf anotber's property, "itbont _urit,.. 1 Curt. C. C. 1102.

N .... a ali'''1) ."a;., I.ge "gno,1""'." No men oan ,ue at la" in the name .of another. Dig. bOo 17. 12S.

N .... " ,,'i'1_ pa"'_rft" ,,,'elligwe pot •• t, allle"",m lal" .. " ........ 111'1". il.ru, .. p,rl'gil. No one ean properl,. anderetand any part of a thing till he h .. rend through the wbole agaill and apin. S Coke. 611.

N ... o allef/a,n ..... 111 ''''Pilltt/iN'''. aprli""tiHl "'.

No nile alleging biB OWD turpitude is to be heard .. • "Itllen. Coke, 4tb Inlt. 279; S Stllr. O. C. 614, 618.

N .... " b"lun'INr 1''''' end ..... d.lieto. No one all be pUDlabe twloe ror tbe .. me crime or mi.de· m'8Dllr. 2 Ha"klu., PL Cr. 877; 4 Shanwood. BI..-kst. Comm. 316.

N •• ", engitHr rem 'H". _ ..... , elia. iH"D " .... liD.

No Doe I. bound to nil his property,even ror.just

pri... But lee BIIIIIB,n' DOII III.

N_D f'OHtrafll"'_ .H "ir.,pDt •• t. No man

An oODtnuliot bls own deed. Coke. lid lnat. 68.

Ne_ da." .... I,''''' •.. i'; '1'" ,dleei' '1 .. nd.loewe i.' n".. Aa6". No ODe I, conoldered .. doing damage. un!e •• be "bo Is doing what he h .. 110 rlgbt to do. Dig. 50. 17. 161.

N.",o dI" '1.' "" .. 1"b.t. No one oaD ,tv. who cloea Dot po...... Jnk. CeDt. CM. 260.

Io' .. D d. "_0 INa "'raM !l#6rl. A oitlnll call· Dot be tlk.1I b,. foree from bl. houn to be conduoted before a Judge or to prilOD. Dig. 60.17. lOS. This mas I. ID favor of Roman IIhertyll muoh Ibe '8me .. that ... ,., .. " .... l_ i. li. _'''. Broom, Max. 14 Lnnd. ed. 884.

Ii_ cickc al." Jaet .... loe.p,.,..ri. No one

ougbt to pia b" &Dotbel'a 10... II Xent, Co ... SSII.

N_ d.bet b;. p __ iri pro ..... cicU"",. No 0_ ought to be p~lIilbed twloe ror the AIDe o.~noe. , Ooke, 4S; 11 .d. 6U b.

N .... o debel bi. " ... art pro ead_ ea..... No on. should be t"loe hara •• ed for tbe I.me oalilO. II JUhDI. N. Y. 24, 27, 182; 13 ,d. 163; 8 Welld N. Y.10.88; IIHall,N.Y.45'; 3HUl,N.Y.OO; 8 u. 133; 2 Barb. N. Y. 286; II itL 32.

N •• ", deb.1 bi, ,,"zari p"o IIn4., .utUm. ea" .... No one ought to be twloe vued for the .. me aeun. 5 Pet. 61; I Archbold, Pract. Chitt,. .11. 4711 ( ..... _" bu d.bd, eta.); 2 Mu ••• lI56; 17 id.426.

Nftlo d~b", bu. ~U'a"i, ,; eaN.'all!tlrtlt '1lfod ";1 ,.,.. • .. 4 ., ,adem eli".... No lOon ougbt to be t"ioe punlahed, if it appear to the ellurt that it is f •• r 00. and tbe &ame oaun. 6 Cuke. 61; Broom. Mu.3d Lond. ed. 211'.

N.mo deb" .... i"du ,n proprt4 ealll4. No ODe Ibould be judge ia hi' own eaa... 12 Coke, 11'. Broom, Max. Sd L.lld. ed, ) 11.

Ne.,o deb., '7N'Hi.ur •.. rei ali. __ d ..• iTail ".rlinmli. No one should interfere in what 1111_&7 coDcernl him.' Jeak. Cent. CaL 18.

N_D d.bet'."" .... ".i" •• ,or" .. 1--'. Noon. sbould be retained in a partnerlbip agaiD'& hi' "ilL 2 Sandf. N. Y. 688, 6113; 1 JohnL N. Y. 108, 114.

N.mo d.bnlocHpl.,ari e:r a/l,,-i .. i"co ... "do. No one ougbt to be made rich out uf uioth~r'. 10 ... Jenk. Cellt. C ... 4; 10 Barb. N. Y. 6211. 633.

N ..... o d.bet r.m ."a., ";If. larlo a,,' dr/.r-III_ a""II.re. No one .hould 1018 biB propert,. with_, his act or negligeaoe. Cuke, Litt. 2113.

1,""'0 duo"". ,,'alur ''./k-ii.. No one shoDld an t"o "ilIoea. Coke, 4th Inlt. 100.

N.mo eju,de", '."."'l1li1 •• i.",l pal e ." .. N ,.~ ... , do., in II.. No one can be at tbe 'DlDe lime heir aDel lord of the lam8 fi.f. 1 Reeve. Hist. Ellg. Law, 1011.

N •• a .. , lurre. ", ... ti.. No "ne i. an heir to the living. Coke, Litt. 22 b; 2 Blackltone, COlOm. 70, 107. 208; Viner. Abr. AI'.I/a .. «; 2 Bu.vler, Iut. 16114,1832; 2 Jobn •• N. Y. 311.

N .... o.z al'.ri"'larta p""Yrarari debet. No maa ought to be burdened In oonfeqnence uf ftn~ther'. ROt. 2 Kent, COlUm. 848 j Pothier, Obi. EnD. eel. 133.

N_D ocr eotIIiliD D61if/olllr. No maD II bOllad for tbe advice he give.. Slor,., Bailm. f 166.

J;·,....o .or ptopri" tl"Io eo'''"''1.il"r arli",,_ No ODe .equirel a rijlbt ,., aotilln 'n.m hla own wl'Olla. DrolJm, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 270.

NtJllIO ea: Bua d.lict" .... lior ...... alii _t/";,.,, .. fa ee re 1""'''' Nil one caD improve bil oODdltion b7 bis o"n "I'tlng. Dig. 60. 17. 1M. 1 •

N_a ia p"prta ea •• " I .. ,i, .... d.b... No 011. oaD be a witnell in hi. o"n eause, But to thia rale there are many uoe,.tionL 1 Shanwovcl, DIDekaL Comm. "3; 3 ill. 870.

N_o ;Raut/ilil' e""d ...... tI ... tl,6".'; _ .if ..... - "'",a:r. No milD ought to be .,'ndlmlled "nhraM, ullle" he be ooDtamaoioas. JCllk. Cent. C ... 18.

N_a Milil,,".lJe .. '''I'Ii ... fUr ,.""lari6 ••• '1/''';i ..

No man "arring for God .h .. uld be trouhlecl "7 _alar bUlinea.. Cuke. Litt. '10.

N.Mo .a .... t .. r a"i/,.I:. No ODe Is born .a utiIoer. Ooke, L:tt. 97.

N.n", palria ... i .. 1J1Ia wahl ... , n-atr •• "eo Ii ......

Ii. debil..... ?"rar. P'''''''' No m811 oall ftn'.UDoe the oountry In "hicb be "a. born, nor abjure lb.. oblilation or iris al1egl.DOo. Coke. LitL 1211 a; 1 Pet. 165; Broom. Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 72. See AL. L&a''''''CB; BXP.A.TBIAnOIl; N ... TIIRALI .... TIO ••

N .. o pi .. 00 ... 00, Aerrdi 'N" reliwpi' "",. i,,_ ""6I1il. No ODe lea\'es a «"a'er beD.lit to Ida belr tban be bad blmself. DI,. 60. 17. 1110 •

N."", pl"'j"ri, ad ali ... " .. Ira"'/erft 1""..,. pot. ipHliabee. One C&llIIOt traaafer to anuth •• 1&1'..,

MAXIM

141

MAXIM

rlpt thaD he himlelf haa. C"ke, Litt. anI 6; N_ ' .. e' .. r .de ... ; •• ,"" ..... ,a Cf1ff"" ••• No ma. Wlllpte, lias. 611; 2 Kellt, Comm. a24; I StOI')', I. bouDd to produce WritiDgl a,aiDlt him .. ". Bell,

CODtr. 'Ih ed. '17, D.; 6 Cuke, 113; lU Pot. 161, Dlct. .

176. Nnno le ... III, ' .. /_ar. '1"i •• ..,., ud 'I"{~.

N_ "", ......... "... I'ffM'd_ "mjleore pw ptI- ..,iro quod i"/,,",,,," No one who Ii Ip"rant of • lri".. liro ODe eaD nrify by the ollunt". again.t tblDg i. boDnd to giY" infO! maliull of It, but evel')' a reenrd. The Illue DpOD a reourd oaDnol be tried one Is bound to know that whiob be gins iDform ..

b, aJII".. Cuke. 2d lust. 380. tioD of. BrADch. Prine. j Lane, Exob. 110.

N.Mo pol"' _e do .. i"UI e' rurre.. No one oaD Nm" ,."tlftr jHrar. i" ... "., "'rpt, .. d; .. _. No

be both oW1leraDd beir. Hale, Hi.t. Com. Law. 0.7. : ODe II bound to teltify to hi. OWD bllienul.

N_opolre' .... "flllIl "rlor •• jlldu. No oneoaD i N_o , ... , .. r .,ip""111 a"."are. No ODe Ia bound be It the .. me time Judge aDd suitor. Broom, Max. to Bocu.e blmlelf. Wiogale, Mn. 486; Broom, lei Lond. ed, 112 j 13 Q. B. 827; 17,tl. 1; 16 C. Mnx. 3d LUDd. ed. 671: I Shanwood, Blackst.

B. 786; 1 C. B. If ••• 82a. I Cumm. 443; 14111MI.'" W. Exob.286.

N_o pol __ 'e • ..,e e' do.'aw.. No maD caD N ... o '".'ur etip"'''' i./"r, ... ,i •• , periMlU, _-

be at the AIDe time teoaDt aDd laDdlord (of tbe porter.. No ODe Ia bOUDd to nro" him .. lf to mls-

_e tne_tIIIt). Gilbert, T~D. 1112. fortuDe aDd danl!'~ra. Coke, Litt. 263.

N •• " put .. , /u..~re p.r "liulI, '1,mtl 1"'r "a ... po-I N.III" I,,,.'''r .~''p'''111 P' nd •• -e. No (lne II bODDd "". No one 08D do tbat b,. anotber wbiub he CaD- to expose bimlelf. 111 N. Y. 10,33; 7 Huw. Pract.

Bot do byllimself. Jeuk. Cent. Cas. 237. I N. Y. 67,68.

N".", p .. t~" laeer. ,..,. o/;li'l""'" q .. "tlll"a 1"'''.' Nemo ".'1""'" ";r "'''11''''' / .. il Ii •• aU'I"" tliri.o

/a .... per tlirm..... No ODe oaD do tbllt iDdireotly I "ffI"'''. No ODe WAS ever a grellt maD withou'

wbieb caDDut be dODe direotly. 1 Ed. Cb. 612. !aume divine 10lplratioD. Cicero.

N .. " 1",1 •• , ",,'are ee ... iUulII "'UII' i" allm". in- lI'etIIO fJid."'r/,. .... d"rc ,.,., '1'" """"', rl _, ....

i-ri".. No ODe caD obange bi. purpose to tbe 10- I 'itlnt. No one i. eonaidered as decelYing thOle who JII".or Ulolher. Dig. 60.17. 76; ~roum,1II ...... 3d know aDd eensent, Dig. 20.17.146.

Lond. ed. aa; 7 Juhnl. N. Y. 477. Nilil .. UNd p",eol r.;r '1 .. ,1", q.",d de jrtre 1'01.",

It·_ "..,." .iM d.be,... Noone COD owe to liim· The kin, ean du Dotbing bllt wbut be oan do Justly.

IIlf. Bee COllrUlllOIi or RIGBTS. 11 Coke, 7-'.

N .. o ",.."", ... ;" i""'/UII"" One I, Dot pre .. Dt NiMI con_,,; I" .. _tr"ri"", .. , '1""" ria nl'l'"

1UI1_ he uDdentaods. See PREII.lIe.. ..,.... N"tblng I, ~o conlrary to COD.eDt ..

N •• o ~ .. itHr ali .. "", pn".,·illll"lH "'III pr,.".- foree and fear. Dig. 60. 17. 116.

li_. No ODe II presumed to have preferred an- It'ihil dfl' 'lui non Aab.,. lie giua 1I0thlJl, who

other's posterity to bis OWD. Wingate, )lax. 2116. ,haa nothing •

• \' .. 0 ",...u .. ilur .na.... No UDe i. presumed to I lI'ilil de r. net!rO.M·1 ti 'l"i .il,il i. r. 'I""ado j".

live. I " ee re"".r., Aa/;et. NothiDg loeraes to him who,

N .. o """_;"r aN ( __ or, ... IrI""'1II ."1",,,,, wbeD the right acorue~, haa n~tbll1' ID the subJeot" .".n' •• ia ",'{eHIo IIIorli.. No maD II preaomed ,matter. Coke, Litt. 188.

to he forgettol of hi. etemal welfare, and partlou-I Nihil e,' eIIi", lib.",l. quod nOlI id .... j",'ulII. For IvI,. at tbe point of death. • Cuke, 76. there I. notbiog generous whiob Is Dot at tile 8ama

.\ ..... p,.., ... i, .. r I"d .... i" ulremi •• No ODe II time Just. 2 Keot, Cumm. 441, Dcte a.

pl'l!llumecl to trill •• t the polot of death. Nil;' ~,t .. "gi, raliu,,; """'0"'0"'''''' 'I"'"'' ."d ... · • N •• o pr_u.,·, .. r Mal".. No ODe i. prelDmed to ",odD 'l',od'l'" di""I".,~ 'l',o """flo'"", •• t, N olhing be bad. II more eoueonsnt to real"n thaD tbat every thing

N_o p"""/6- ,.'ure •.. rg"'i",io .... Ii"" arl.. Ihould be di.luh·ed ID the .alDe way ID wb;cb it ..... reer~. No 008 l' reJtraloed frum eurolllD' was made. Sheppard, Toachat. 328 .

....... 1 killd. of bDlln"1 Ilr arts. 11 Coke, U. NiAil lac;' .,·ror nOlllini. M'" d. corpore oo",'al.

N_" p .... li" .. r pl .. rib .. e tl./.no;nllib". ult. No An error iD tbe DalDe 11 nothing wheD there il eerODell r.tralDed f'rom ullnlr "veral defeooaa. Coke, I taiDty al to tbe thlo,. 11 Coke, 21; 2 Kent, Comm.

Litt. 80-1; WllIgate, 1IIu. '711. 2112.

N_o ".-.tlffU p"a,' ", prllllmld ,....o~ ... t1Ir,"tl .. , NiMI Jab_' /",...'" .,. ".nt4. The CODrt haa do-

/wtwN p_ianllW. No wile one puol.he. that tbing to do with wbat 18 not before it.

tIIi11p dODe ma,. be revoked, bat that fotur. wroDg. Nilil in I.flo i,,'ole,a/;ili .. , eol, .""dm r.m di~",o

-1 be preyeDted. a Balstr. 17. Ju .. e cm.m. NothlDg in law II more Intolerable

N ... " pM", .. r p .... al;ello delicto. No oDe I. to be thaD that the lume 088e IhODld be lubJrct (in difJIIIai.hed fo. lhe orlme or wroDg of &Dother. WIu- fei-ent oourts) to ditrereDI "iews of the law. "

gate, Max. 336. Cuke, Ila.

N ... " p.";,,,,, Ii". I"J"ri4,/tlelo ..... tl~r(Jlto. No NiMI irtf,a rep"'" ... bdilo. fIIfJgi, COIIHrfJ'" ira

ODe i. paDI.hed uolel. for lome wroog, ."t, or de- 'rall'l .. i/i,,,,. rl c,,"curdi4 '1"'"" d.bits {.gil .. "df.alt. Coke, 2d Ind. 287. fI';,.i,,,,,,,;o. Nuthiog preae"ellD tranqUillity and It·_", '1"i eo .. tle .... "re P"'''', "b."lr"e n ... pnl .. ,. cODoord tho.e wbo are lobjected to the .ame govNo oDe who may oODdemD II uoable to aequit. Dig. , emmeot better than a due admlDiltratlon of tba

60. 17. 87. Ilawl. Coke, 2d 101t. Hi8.

N_ ,,6i ._ Jvdn •• 1",1, j"" die". d~b.t. No I NiMl ",nui, jura", eo' 'I'"'''' '1Notl ........ ari .. '" ." • ... ougbt to be bl. OWD Judge, or to admiDister NothlDg II more jDlt thaD wbal II Dcee.IA".. DaY.

jaRi. ill c .... wbere bl' rel.lIoDI are concened. 12. •

12 Coke, 113; Cod. 8.6.1; Broom, 1IIu. 3d Lond. NiMlaeq."", HI "...... ..... d"... NothlD' wicked

14. Ill. il to bo pre.umed. 2 P. Will. 688.

Nm~ "1M aeli ..... uoperi .. r, .. Aoe aon .,'". bretle /I';AiI pw/."/U", eo' dlt'" oUqwid rula' ag ... d""l.

" .. liM", eonDftflioftllli. No ODe goes to law with- NothlD,la perfHt while aomethlD, rem,IDI to be eat 811 actiOll, aDd no ODO oan briD, au actiOD wllb. dOli.; II Coke. II.

eat a writ or bm. Bracton. 112. Nilil peti po'e.' tI.'. itl Inn,.." 9"''' per ........

• 1f_" ........ atl i.p' ... i6i1e. No ODe II houlld to na"N'" pw,,,l,,i P""';I. Nothing oao be demaDdt'd

III Impoaiblllt7. Jcok. CeDI. Caa. 7. before tbat time wbeD, In the Dature of Ihin,l, I'

N,." "'''wr lI""tlr. odre,,"r ...... """... H. No 08D be paid. DI,. 60. 17. 186.

_ '- bead to 8I'I1II bla advena".. WiDgate, M...... lI'illil "....." ... , C""tr" fJorilal.... We CaD 40

166. nothing against truth. St. Albau.. Doct." Stu.

N_" "" ..... din • .,... No ODe I. hoUDd to fore- Dial. 2. c. 6.

WI. "Cok., 28i 10 itl. 66 a. NiAil p,..m6iNr "i" IJIIDCI poIritleNr. Th_1I

MAXIM

142

IUXIltl

DO preecriptioD lor that whlob I. Dot paNelled. 6 N_... non njJi.eit .i ru nOlI .it d. jura Q1&C tU

B&l"Dew.·.,I; Ald. 277. lacto. A Dame docs not sulBe. if the UaiD, do DO'

Ni,.il quod e.' eo .. trll ralion .... ell lieil"... No- exist bylaw or by faot. 4 Coke, 107.

~Ing against reUOD i8 lawfuL Coke, Litt. 117. Nomi"<1 .i nuei. ptJril e"fl"ilio rtJrll... Ir yo.

Ni.it q""d ~., i"o"".eni." ... , licitulII. Nothing knoll' not the naIDcs of things, the knowled,a of

moonvenient i. lawfuL 4 Hou. L. Cu. 141i, ll1li. thingR tbemselves purisbes. Coke, Litt. 86.

Nihil .i",ul '"oe,," ..... , ., perl.dum. Nothing No",i_ nnl "",'abitill, ru " • ., .... i",,,,obi/ ...

I.a invented and perfeeted at the .ame moment. Nam •• are mutable, hut thing. immutable. & Coke, Litt. 230; 2 Shanwood, Blackat. Comm. Cuke, 66.

2118, n, I Nomina n,,' .. au. r........ Name. are tbe DOt.

NiMI lam cono""il". ut ""',,rali "'quilali qu"", of tlliDg" 11 Coke, 26. .

unumq .. odq .. " dilOUl.i eo lif/amin. quo lif/al"'" ul.· NUf .. i"" ."nl ',lIIbolll re...... Nam .. are u.N othin:( i~ 80 oonllOnant to natural equity ... that Iymbola of thin,s.

eacb tbing should be ilielolved by the lame meane NOli accipi d.b"" "erbG i. d_OfIltraliotln. by whioh it wu bound. Coke, 2d In It. 36u; B,·oom, f"lram, qN.. eo"'pet,,"1 in U .. ilaliOfl(m cern .... Hax. 3d Lond. ed. 786. See Sheppard, Touohat. 'Vorda oDght n"t tu be accepted to import a fal .. 823. deecrlprion, whioh may ha\·. elreet by wIly of trae

NiAt'l tlllll cOII_i ....... , lIa'"rali "'!lnilali, q,cc2m Ilmitntion, Baeon, Max, Reg. 13 j 2 Pal IOn .. • ollllllerle'" domilli ~ol."Ii. re", lila'" in ali"", IruII"- Contr. 62-0S j Broom, Max. 3d Lond, cd. 1i78; a I.rr., ralalll ""beri. Nothing i8 more ounformable BarD"w." Ad. 4b9 j 4 E~cb. G04 j 3 TaunL 147.

to natural equity thaD to oonllrm the will of un .No" a.li" ",odo p'IIIialur aliq"i., 9"0.111 .cnt"d". Owner wbo delirea to tran.Cn hi. properly to an- 9'IOd Ie "abel f!tJlIIl'NlRuli". A perlon may nQt t.otber. In8t.2. I. 40j 1 Coke, 100. pcni-bed dill'tfently thun according to what tJae

Niiil III'" nalural. u', qud", .0 g .... ,., quitlqu. aentenee 'nj~inl. C •. ke, lld lnet. 217.

di .. ollHJrtJ, q"" "oUiyal"ln .. t, Notbing 18.0 natnral AOll Gliler d .,'gt';jicali(Jllo .. orban,m r."tdi (Ipor'" U that an obUga.tlon should be diasolved by the 911am cum m""V".""1l fll, a/i"d ."".i ••• 1 .. ''''0 ...... .. me prinoiplel whiob were oble"ed in oontracting , We must never depart from tbe eignillcation of it. Dig. liD. 17. 31i. See 1 Coke, 100 j Coke, 2d words, unleu it il uidcnt that the, are not CODIna!.. 3611. forma.ble to tbe will of tbe testator. Dig. 32. 68

Ni,.il In"; pNlpriam imp<lrio qNam legib ... ",·"er.. pr.; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. bOO; 2 De Gu. M.

Nothing I. 10 becoming to authority 01 to live ILO- .. G. Ob, 313.

cording to the law. Pleta, 1. 1, C. 17, f 11; Coke, /fOil auditur p ...... r • .."/",,.. One who wilh .. to

2d lust. 63. _ I· p.rilb ougbt not to be heard. But, Bv. I 3S:i.

Nil agil "" .... plilm lil ... 9"od lit. r .. ol ... ·'. An N(Jn ru"e, dUll",,' ei,,,'iolle. P';II'qua .. ta-priMa"'"

example doea no good wbioh . settles one quetOtion '''p.r qlla re Jieri d ••• , eil"'io. Summonses or citaby anotber. Ha.tab N. Ma.nn, 16 Wend. ", 49. . tions should n"t be granted before it i. expreued

Nill".i, error n" •• ini •• i d. eorp"'" cO""III. An upon what ground a citatiun ouaht to I.e ieauecL error in the namo is immaterial if tbe body II oer- . 12 Coke, 47.

taiD. Droom, Max. 8d Load, ed. litl6 j 11 C. B. IN"" co",,"Iil qvi wral. He whu errs dOH DOlt

'06. . conlent. 1 Bouvier, InsL n, liS] j Braat/.n, U.

Nil.i ... prud."'i I.cil rnl;on. "ellI.,.... Antiquity I }r'UII dal 'I"' 11011 II"I,ct. He r;ivel noth.ng who

did notbing without a. good ra&lon. Cnke, Litt. 65. I hal notbing. Broom, Mu. 3d L~nd. ed. 417.

Ni/,. .... I'. noH"d".... Nothing should be ruhl, Non d.bto .... liuri. c,,,,dil",,,i. u.e, '1""" Uti"' ....

ahangsd. Jenk. Cent. C .... 163. I "'''''. d '1"0 jll' in " .. ',·all.il. I ougbt not to be in

Nim'" ... bIUiln. ill jNre '·.probaltlr, el lali. ccrti- better condition than h. to who .. riabta I succeed. , .. do """il"dine,,, eo'V"OItiil. Too gNat eubtlety Dig. 60, ]7. 175. I.

I.a dlaapproved of in la. j for sneh nioe pr.tenoe NIA' d.bel'eI ,,/ii Roeere, ""od iII'''' ali", acohl. of certainty oonfounds true and leK&! certaiDty. • ... t, No one ODabt to be injured by that which Broom, MIIo][. 3d Lond. ed. 176; 4 Coke, Ii. hu taken place beLween other parti... Dig. 12. 2.

Nimi ... " "/Ierc,,ndo ".rila. amillil .. r, By too ]0.

muoh altercation truth II 101t. Hob. 3U. No" debet addl,ei wteplio ~j". rei "'j'" pelil",.

No m"" can Itold II .. 0""'. l"Ad ,·",medial.ly 01 di .. oluti», A plea of the lam. matter the dillol.-

""" .tlHl,.alla"dlordil. Coke, Lilt. 162. tion of which II lOuaht ougLt not to be mad ..

No mnN i. pr •• "m~d 10 do "",'ltillg again.' na- Bacon, Max. Reg. 2; Brolm, Max. 3d Lond. ad.

"'r.. 22 Viuer, Abr. 16" 11i7 j 3 P. WiIl. 317 j 1 Ld. Raym. 67 j 2 id. 1"3-

No mlln may b.judge ill Ii. "1011 ta..... N"n d.bel a/1m per all~rll'" illiqlla _dilio i ..

No m",' ,,.,,ll •• , lip hi. i'lfam, a. a del.IIM. 2 ferri. A burdensome eoad.tlon ougbt not to be

W. Bleekst. 364. I broughl upon one man by the act of another. Dig.

No man .ltall Ide b, d.«l 6,d parlie., .... leu in . 60. 17. 74.

r.lllnilld~,.. I NOli d.bel, ,"i pi". li..e, qvod ...... ". ",, .-

N" 0"" enn granl ar eolOur tor.", .. dot. nal Oton. li",re. He wbo il permitted to do the greater m.y 26 Barb. N. Y. 28~; 301. See 20 Weud. N. Y. 207; . witb grflator reaaun do th. le81. Die. £0.17.21; 23 N. Y. 21i2; 18 id. 121 j 6 Du. N. Y. 232. And. Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 166 •

• ee ESTOPPRL. I Non debit .mori tieer" 9nod reo "011 fH"IIillilNr.

N(Jbil .. magI" "lectuIlIN" p.e .. ,,;4; pl.be. "era ill . That wbich ia not "ermilled to the defeDdant ougllt corpora. The higher claalel are more punished In not to be to the plaintitr. Dig. 60. 17. 41.

mnnoy; hut the lower in person. Coke, 8d lult. J,'ml d .... ' l(JftI in •• d.d.r •• "".a non cugll;ln. It

220. II nnbecoming to lurrender nlen wb~n nn caDse ia

Nobil ••... ", qui armll ge'llli/ili" "Nt~e"'OMI'" Ihown. 4 Johne. Ch. N. Y. 100, 114; 8 Wheel • ... orum p,.,iferr, 1'''' .... ,. Tbe gant..,. are thOle wbo Crim. N. Y. 478, 4S2.

are able to produce armorial benringe derind by NMI deeipilllr qlli lei, .. d.",pi. He ia not d .. descenL from tbeir OWn &Dceltore. Coke, 2d IDlt. cel ved w bo know. himlelf to be deoel.ved. 6 Coke,

691i. 60.

Nob&'lior .. ., b .. igniore. pr •• II"'p,jolift i" d"bii. N .. n d~jinil"r in jure 9"itl ", _.,.... What ..

IlIn' prr/.r .. d.. When donb" arile, the molt attempt II, is not dell ned In lAW. 6 Coke, 42.

generoul Dnd benign pruumptioDI are to be pre- N .. n diff ....... ' ".,. eoncordctil re, ' .... ,n _ ••

f.rred. Reg. Jur. Clv. ..erb" ..... tbm. Thole tbinge wblch agree in 11Ib-

Num ...•• , '''".; rti .. olaRlm. A DUDe I.a .. It ltaDce, thougb nut in tbe I&lIIe wurdl, &0 no~ diJrer.

.U'e tbe note of a thin,. 11 Ooke, 20. i Jenk. Cent. Cas. 70.

MAXIM

143

MAXIM

Nn dll1lilal , eI •• ap«ialiter "endilor e.ictiollem Non 0""'. tHod lioel 1100 •• '"'' HI. It il not

III>R p"".i.eMI, eviclll, u ."'pln comp.ter. acljo".... every tb ing w iob il permitted that U hODorabl,.

It i. oartein that aUboagh the vendor h... Dot Dig. 60. 17. 144.

JiveD" apecial gDaraDtee, an actiOD OJ! .nlflu liell Nu .. om.illm q"a a ".ojll";6 ... noan. cOH.'illllo against hlm, if the parohu.er i8 evicted. C. 8. 41i •.• "", .. alio recldi 1'''''''' A realoD cannot .. lw"YI be e. BIl~ _ Dootor .t Stud. b. 2, e, 47; Broom,! giveD fur the iDItitutioD8 of our .no .. ton. 4 Coke, Mall. 3d L')nd. ed. 6911. 178; Broom, Mu. 3d LODd. ed. 149; Branoh, PriDe.

Non '.I'.il aJ!«',,, ".·.i '09IM'lIr 'lIoeln.. The Nu" pOll .... ori i"cumbil ... ee ••• ·ta. pl'Obttndi 1'011-

intention amouDta to DotbiDg uDlel1 Bome elfect .n.ioll .. ad .e/,.rljll.re. It ill Dot inoumbeDt on rollo".. 1 Raile, 226. I the pO .... lur 0 property til prove hll right to hill . N .... .., oreli ... ";IIeul .. m inter Aom'·.01 q .. am jll'- pOllel8iool. Code, 4. 19. 2; Broum, Mu. 3d LODd. i',"ud.-. There is no stroDger link amoDg men ed. 6a9.

tban an o.th. Jonk. Ceot. C ..... 126. Non po, •• f adduci creeplio 9".dem rei ClU". pel.·II.,.

No. _, •• r'"lId .. m de reguli. JUTi,. There ill DO di.eolulio. A plea of the .ome motter, the dillolu-

dilpotiD, about rllie. at law. tion of which Is sought by the actioD,oaDnot bo

No., • ., di.plflandlllr& eOlltro principia HtflGIII..... brought forward. Bacon, Mu. Reg. 2. Wh~n 'l'bere i. DO disputing against a man deuying prin- aD Ration il brought to IoIInul a proceeding, tho eipllll. Coke, Litt. 3~3. derendo.Dt CaD DOt llead .uoh proceeding in bar.

N" • .., j'"', uliqu.. C1"I4malu .. po", ",ortem Broom, Max. 3d ond, ed. 164; WiDgate, Max.

I .... ,. 6ft.,ClTd '1"' lotll tempnr« ~i"" II •• pro 647; 3 P. Will. 317.

'''Jilu.o 1I .. lleh"'"r. It i8 not just to make an elder- N01I pDI." prollaTi 'l"ad pro6al ... ftOft ,..1",,01. bora a butard aftor hiB de .. th, wbo duriog hia Tho.t aaonot be proved which proved ill irrelnanL.

lif.time wu _ounted legitimate. 12 Coke, 44. See 1 Exch. 91, 92, 102.

N". _, Il01l11''' ul priore. I'[li. ad poll.,.;o.... No" 1'01 .. , qui •• in. b.· .... ageTe. No ODa oan .ne

",,10111111'. It ill not a new thing that prior statutel without a. writ. Fleta, I. 2, o. 13, f 4 •

• ball ,ive pl_ to later ones. Dig. 1. 3. 26; 1. 1. No" pol .. , r.", gral;oUl It1.COT. ellm i"jll";4 .,

'i Bro"m, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 27. do","o aUorum. The kiog oannot oonfer a CavOl'

NOli al reee,u",I"", d ,om",,,,.i ob""'417111'4. There whiah ooo .. ionl iDjury aDd 1081 to othen. Coke, Koohi bo DO departure from a oommOIl obaorvaDeo. 3d IU8t. 236; Broom. Max. 3<1 Loud. ed, 60;

J Coke, 74,. . I Vaugh. 338; 2 EII . .t B. 874.

NUll .of rO[lllla 'IlIi" /aU"t. There il DO rule bat I NO'll polal rez .ubdi'"m r.ntt ... ,.". OIIera'" i ....

"bat may fail. Oft'. Ex. 212. [>".iliollib.... Tho king aaonot load a lubjeot witla

NOli eMI .illfl"li. eo"c.de.dum, q .. od p~r "'''fli,- Imposition agalnlt hil COD18nt. Coke,2d IDIt. 61. ''''''"m p·.hlica t", .. il jkri, II. ncca.i" .il m",jori. No" pol •• t "id."; d ...... Aab.n, qwi "ullq .. a ... ", ... /111' J;.~i.,.di. That. II not to be conceded to "abuit. He aaonot be oODlldered as having oe&!ed private I'o .... "n. wbiob oan be publioly done by the I to have a thing, who never had it. Dig. 60. 17. lD"gl.tr~te.l .. t it be the OOCUiOD of greater tumllita. 208.

DioJ. 611.17. lill. No"pralal 'mp.di_f .. m quod. d.j",..,,07laoT''''

No. u: opia.·oni6u •• i,,!1uloT .... , .ed '.'I! eo .. m'lII& lur .1I.eluln. A thing whioh haa no elfeet iD law ...... ,. .. iIlCi _alliUM deb.llt. Name8 of thing. II not ao impedimeDt. Jonk. Cent. Cu. 162, Winoagbt to be andentood acourding tu oommon usage, I gate, Max. 727.

Dot according til the opinioDI uf individuals. Dig. NOli q""d diclum .. " ltd qllo<l /acl .. ", ",, ill.,n.i-

S3. 10. 7. 2. tur, Not what Is laid; bUI what il donG, II to ba

]l"olO/ao;". malum, "' illd. "",ia' &0""111. You regarded. Coke, Litt. 30; 6 Bin&h. 310; 114eto. are Dot to do evil th~t good moy aome of it. 11 Mall. 31i3; 11 Oush. Mall. 636.

Coke, ,-& a. N,," r./eTI aA qui' aN.".WIII "'''111 pTa/.r' " ... bi.,

Ng .. imped;' clall."l" deroflatoTia, '(UO ",i"N' a6 a" r.bu. ip.i. eC /aeli.. It il immaterial whetber ....u... ,.,,'",411. , ... di.aoh·alllur " qillbu. con.,il,,- a man gives his "' ... Dt by wurds or by uti and .. t.r. A derugatory olaole docl not prevent thingl deed I. 10 Coke, 62.

or actl from beiug di .. olved by the ... me power, NUll T./.rl quid .'" '"9"ip"lle",jbw.flat. It matby which \hey wera originolly mMe. BacOD, Max. terl DOt what becom .. of eqnipolleDt expreellon ..

Be,. 111. 6 Coke, 122.

No .. iM I.,,,,do.ra '" iRlclli!1c"d" 1'!1'. ,,,,,.i.'unl. NUl. re/erl 'Iuid ",,'um .i, judici, n "otllm "0" oi,

'ne I.w. CODBiat oot io beiDg read, but in being '" lormll jlldieii. It matten DOt what il koown udenr.ood. 8 Coke, 107. to the judgo. iC it ill not kDown to him Judloiall),.

N". Ju, Hd .milla laci, .,ip;I..... Not right, 1I Builltr. 116.

bat ""i.;n. makes a stook !'rom which the inheritanco },'"II r.leT' ~ ... fji. a" /o.,i. fI' .. "",cal in. It matIDlllt deseend, Pleta, L 6, eo. U, 2, I 2 j N oy, ter. Dot wbether a revocation be. by wordl or b1 M .. L V:h ed. 72. n. (">; Broom, Max. 3d Lood. ed, aota. Croke Car. 49; Branch, Prine,

466 i 2 Shanwooll, Blacklt. Comm. 209; 1 StepheD, Nora r.mnl" ca ... a .. d prwci.a 'peetallAr. S"

C,.mm. 31b, 36~, 39~; " Kent, Comm. 388,3119;" CAU .... Pno:u .....

Boott, 111. R. 468. },',," '·.'polld.bil m,"or, .. i.i I'll ca.aII doli., ., A".

Nm. IOt., qllocl di.p.nd.·o li •• ,. That which is pro IUD"T. doti. A mioor Ihall Dot anlwer unll" permitta.l only at a lUI. II Dot permitted tu be in a. ouo or dower, and thil iu Cavor or dower. 40

dODe. Cuke, Litt. 127. Coke, 71.

N" •.... ci, ., Hal" ... mItT., pdr,'(1 '''111. Not to be N"n r.". "Wi "' ..... il "'11. Not guilty anle ..

110m. aDd to be dead-bum, are tho lame. the iotent be guilty. 1 Story, CODtr. 4th ed. 87.

N~N t>6li'JaI I" "i.i promNI!1,da. A law Is Dot N,,,, .of.", q.,. abllndaNI Diliur. IHlMpIH~a.. Sur-

ebli,;"tory anle .. it be promulgILted. plu.age doo. Dot nlllally vitiate WritiDg" Dig. liO-

N.). ot.. ... ""I4/",.".4, ;nl.TINT odnllilatio 0014.. 17.94; Broom, Max. 3d Lund. ed. 6611, n.

Wben the furm il not obaerved, It II inferred that No,. .olum quid licel, otd q,,;d •• , eonDeMi"". eoa-

the aot .. anoalled. 12 Coko, ,. .id ..... lldum, q">'u ,.ihil '/ .... d i .. eo" .. ni ...... , lieil ...

Rna "Jlit:il ",,,,aIH' "i.i .eqlldlUr '11'.'"'' An Not oDly what iI permitted, but whatilconvcnlen" aUempt doel n~t harm uni ... a con.equenee Cullow. is to be eonlldel't'd, becau18 what ill inouDvcDilnt ill

11 Coke, lid. megal. Coke, Lilt. 66 d.

No. " ••• da ... """, indlleil lnjllria.... Not every No" ... ", fllllga IIbi RiMI .. , !plOd w .... ,..,.1 ••

1_ prot}uces .n Injury, i.e. gives II right of aatioo. There I. 00 prulixity where there ill nothiDg thu s..:s Dlaokltnne, Comm. 21Y; I Smitb. Leo.l. Cu. aaD be omitted. Vaugh. 138.

131 j Brvum, Ma.x. 93 j 2 Bouvier, Inlt. D. 2211. Nen I ••• ,.. cr.d.,.., .. , •• ,." .. Hlpinl& No' to

MAXIM

144

MAXIM

bellen ralhly I. the Derve oC wl.dom. 6 Coke, lU.

No ...... kl n"epl'" 9".d .... rei "'!iN' pe"',,r d(.... Iulio. A plea oC that oC wbich tbe dlllolutloD i8 lought I. DOt valid. 2 Ed. Ch. 134.

N",. ~ald ;mrdi",elt,um qKud d. jure '''''' .0>1it",. .lIo.tll"'. AD Impediment I. of DO avail which by l .. w hy uo eIFoet. 4 Cok., 31 a.

NOli wrbi •.. d ip";. r.b"., I.U.' '·"'PMli",",. Not UPOD worde, but upon thiog8 themselve., do w. Impo.e law. ODd., 6. 43. 2.

NOli ";d.,dur q,d .rraltt eOIl."",ire. He who eml is Dot cOD.ldered &I conseDtiDg. Dig. 60."17. 116; Broom, Max. 3d LODd. ed. 240; 2 KeDt, Comm. 477; H. Ga. 207.

No" ~iclelll .. r ""' 0",(tt8re qllib... P'''PM .. lion I"j,. They are not oonsidered &I lUling a thlog whus. OWD it w81 not. Dig. 60. 17. 86.

No" t:ide'ur con,eutlm ,.d'-nuia.e.i qUY e~ prl/J•• riplo ... ,·I1I1I1,i •.. liquid im","I .. eit, He does not appear to have retaiued his eonseat, who hlU chJDged any thiug at the command of a party tbreatening. Bacon, Max. Reg. 22; Broom, Max. 3d LODd. ed. ll64.

Nu" "id"'"r por/ecl~ "'!i"'que id ... e, quucl n c:<&.u .. "f.rM p"'.'" That does Dot truly beloDg to any ODe which call be taken from him UPOD occuion. Dig. 50. 17. 159. 1.

N"n ~icl.t",. q"i.qH .. m icl cllp ... e, qtlOd .i II ...... e.' alii n.,i'uer.. One is not considered &II acquirIng property ID a thiDg which be is bound to reItore. Dig. 60. 17. st.

lio" "{deh,,. ft'm/ac"e, , •• i i"r"e ,un ntitnr, et or· dinllM" ac'i"n. e"'Peritur. Ho i. not judged to UIO foroe wbo ellerelles his OWD right and pruceeds by ordiDary utlon. Dig. 50. 17. 166. 1.

NOli "olel c:o"./I .... 'a'io, "i •• ill., qui """./II'ffIat, ,il ,n po ..... i" ... ffl ".1 i""", lind • ./Ier' 0'.1 •• , cOIrjlrmaliD,. ., eod.", ... "do, IIiei ill e e IIi cO'rjll'fflatiu ./I', ,il '" pD ..... io".. OODfirmation il Dot valid unleu be who cODfi rm. II eitber iD po.selsioD of the thing ltaelf, or of the right DC wblch confirmation i8 to be made, aDd. in ILke manner, unleu he to whom eonflrmatioD i. made II iD po .... sion. Coke, Litt. 295.

N",cil.r It aocii.. It Is kDown from its asloolatel.

The meaDiDg of a word may be aleertalned by referenee to the meaniDg of words usooiated with It. Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 623; II E&IIt, 287, 1:1 ill. 6:11; 6 TanDt. 294; 1 Ventr. 225; 1 BarDew. " C. 6"; Arg. 10 itl: 4Y8, 619; 18 C. B. 102. 1193; 6 Mann. " G. 639, 667; 3 C. B. 437; 6 id. 380; 4 Exch. 611,liJIl; 6 ;0'.294; 11 u. 113; 3 Term, 87; 8 id. 118; 1 N. Y. 47, 811; 11 Barb. N. Y. (3, 63; 20 id. 1144.

N".eilur 'ID ''''''0, qui """ "ngn".cil"r fill: Ie. H. who cannot be kDowD from himself may be kDown from hil .. sociate. F. Moore. 817; 1 Ventr. 221i; 3 Term, 87; 9 Bast, 267; 13 icl. 531; II TauDt. 2114; 1 BarDew • .t. C. 844.

Notili,. di.iIH~ d """.« .. d",. d "",i,(o "0" d.bet "l"udiear •• Notice Is oalled from a knbwledge being had; and notice ooght Dot to halt, i.e. be imperlect. 6 Ooke, 29.

Nova c:o,,,',I,,','o 1",,,,,;'10,.,,.0'" illlp""".e d,I •• " "".. pr""erili.. A Dew eoactmeut ought to impose form opon what Is ta come, Dot upon what is p"".t. Coke, la Inst. 292 j Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. ~3, 36; T. Janel. 108 j 2 Show. 16; II Meel. " W. Elich. 286; '7 id. 636,2 M .... 122; 2 Gall. O. O. 139; 2 N. Y. 246; '7 John •• N. Y. 503 et .e"., where tbiR rol. Is fIllly oODsiderod aDd tbe anthoritl .. reviewed.

No.,,'io MOil p"If!..,,,,il,,,.. A nO"atloD is Dot preIDmad. Halken, Max. 104.

Noo"01 non lalll ",ilil",. prod .. , qllll'" lIo.il",. pemrbm. Nnvelty benefits Dot 10 much by ttl Qtlllty .. It dlstnrb. by Its novelty. Jonk. OeDt. 0 ... 16'7.

•. NolItA .. Jwdiei_ "on da' IIDDum Jua, •• d deelal'fl'

.. II"·qllll"'. A Dew judgmellt doel Dot mak. a D_ law, but declures the old. J 0 C .. ke, 42.

Nooro .eq,,,·I,,,· c"pu'. The injury (i .•• liability to make good an injury cauled by a alave) follow. tbe head or person. i.e. attach., to his ma.ter. HeiDeeOiUI, Elem. Jur. Ciy. 1.4, t. s, f 1231.

N"da p",'io obligatiollem "on f",·i'. A D.ked promile doe. not create DD .. bUg"lIon. Dig. 2. 14. 7. 4; Code, 4. 66. 27; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 670; Brisson, Nud ....

Ktlda ratl» el "uda p .. ~I(D "on ""!lallt ,,';,1" .... d.bil"re",. Naked re&llOD and Daked promise do not bind any debtor. Fleta, 1. 2, c. 60, , 26.

Nuclll'" paclllm ell "b. nelt« ."be.t eflN.a pr"1""1' cotll!'e,,';oRt'tll,. .ed "bi ."bed «"au.n, .fit obligatju, ~C paril ac'i, .... m. Nudum pROlum il where there u no oonliderl\tinn for rho undertakiDg or agreement; but when there il a c"nlideratioD, aD "b!igatiuo ,. created arid aD action arisee. Dig. 2. 14. 7. 4 j 2 Sharlwood, Blacket. Comm. 446; Brnom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 680; Plowd. 3011 j 1 Powell, Cuutr. ;,30 .. , •• q.,. S Burr. 1670 el •• q.,. Vinn, Ahr. Nud .... Puclum (A); 1 Fonblanque. Eq. lith ed. 335 a,

NIU/"'" pactum r.r 9"1) nn,. ""it",r tlclirJ. Nudum pactum Is tbat upon which DO ... -tlon ari88ll. C"dl', :I. 3. 10; Ii. 14. 1; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed, 676.

Nul lie d"il.'ellriehir ""'" dip"'" de. antre«, No one ought to eDrich himself at th. expen.. DC otherl.

11" .. 1· prendrR od",,"'og. de """ lor' deme.II.. No one .ball take advantage of hil own wroDC_ Broom, Max. 3d LODd. e.l. 266.

Nul/a ""ria ,,"If! recllrdum 11011 If,,"., 1''''''' i.poner • .fill.rn, lIequ~ nliquenl ",andure eareeri : qH;a i.'a 'perla,.t ltlnt .. ""nod" ad eltM'a. d~ rerord», No court which by DOt a record een impose a Ii u e, or commit any porIOn to prison: beoauee those powe,. belong onl) to cnurta of record. 8 Coke, 60.

Nulla '·"'p" .. ibiUa aul i .. "oll,,'a 'HII' p .. ",I1,,,, ... da; ".,.a a,,'em eI hOlle,'a et po.";bili". No IDlpus.ibl. or dishnDnrable thiDgs are to be presumed; but thing. true, hODorable, and pOllible. Coke, Lit&. 78.

N"IU pOCI:O". elft.i poi." tie dol". p"w,'''"r_ By DO agreement oan It b. eIFeated tbat tber. .hall be no aooouDtabllity for frlud. Dig. 2. 1(. 27.3; Broom. Max. 3d LODd. ed, 622, 118, D.; 6 Maule .t. S. 466.

N,dle .. lgle .an./a.t.. There Ie DO mle without a fRUit.

Nlll/. I ... ,.. "',.. .eigneur. No laDd without a lord. Guyot, Iolt. Feod. o. 28.

N,dli ... ,'". r ••• uu le,."it jllre "",il,.'ti.. No on. caD have a servitude over Iii. OWn pr()pert7. Di,_

8. 2. 26; l'i Ma ... "3; 2 Bouvier, Iut. n. 1600.

Nllm ... Aomi.i. a"ctorilOl "p"d II.,. ral~rr 0'.1,." ul ",eliD,.a nu" 'eq".,..",ur ". qui. all .. lerit, The autbority of no man on~ht to anil with UI. tbat we should Dot follow bettor [opinioDs) should &11.7 on. preleDt them. Cok., Litt. 383 b.

Null"", c:r;'n'H m"j'" e.' '"ol,ed,·ftHli/J. No crim. b greator than di.obedieDoe. JeDk. CeDt. Cns. 7'7.

N .. Uum '11:''''pl" ... e.' id .... oll,,,ib,,.. No example Is the lame Cor all purpo.e.. Coke, LitL 2 12 a.

Nullum ;II'·qNII ....... , prlf!."""lfdu ... iN j'"'" NothiDg UnJUlt Ie to he prelumed iD law. 4 Coke, '72.

1I'"l/ .. ", ma,,.imMli,, .... ibi ,,,,II,, d".. No marriag., DO dower. 4 Barb. N. Y. 192, 1114.

N"lIl1m .imile eol it/e.... N "thiDg which il lit. another is the lame, i.e. DO Iiken"l il exact ideD_ tity. 2 Stor. O. C. ~12; 8tory, Partn. 110; Coke, Lilt. 3 ",. 2 ~harlwood, Blackst. Comm. 182.

N"ll"m .imile q"al,,,,r p.dih,,, ",,.,';t: No almO. mOl UPf)D four feet, or, as ordiDarily exprel'8ed, .. OD all foun." Coke, Litt. 3 a; Eunomul, Dial. I P. 1~5; 1 Star. O. O. 143.

N"I1"", ''''''P''' o~c,,"";1 re!li. Lapse of time doea Dot bar the right of the orOWD. Coke, 2d IDIt. 273;

MAXIM

141

MAXIM

I Sbmroocl, BI .. kst. (l0ll1l •• 1 .. '1; Broom, Mu. 3.' Lo.e1. 12; Hub. 34'1; 2 8tepb •• , CumlD. 604; 1 ... Wi 2 Brook. C. C. 8U3; 18 Jobu. N. Y. aii 10 Barb. N. Y. 1:~II.

N.U •• 1_1'.' u_rri, "';p.llli~.. Lepta of th .. e1_ .0' bar &be eumBlC>D.ea1&b. 11 Ora&. mi Hilliard. Real Prop. ml; 8 Tes. 410; 10 id. IVa; 6 )(a~, C. C. 113; 111 Mo. M7.

/1'.11 •• "" ... ,Ofl".. rupcre pole" de ... j.ria ..... ,,,,prl4. No OD •• ball &aka ad\,&D&ag. of bl.o.D wroDg. Cuke, Lit'- 148 II; Broom, !lias. 3d Load. ell. 2a6; 4 BiDgb. 11'. c. 3116; 4 BarD.'II'." Ald. '09; 10) ..... A W. Bub. 309; Jl id. 080.

NoJ",. d • ." .. ,.re ••• '0, IIhi alia am'e .. II .....

Where anotber form of actioD Ia glv •• , DO UDII .. ,IIIIo.ae 1D tb. _Iaa d. dulo. 'I Coke, 112.

X.U". flicit ...• CI~" paet /.IoNia ..... file ,.i .-il pri..,ipale .. /eloflia .. /dCi_, ., ill.". .... "JlIf1~il tI ...... /urlaeit. No ooe i. called a. aeee .. IOrl after tb.. faa& bllt he wbo kne. !.be principal 10 ba,', eomDlitted a feluDY, aDd reeeived and Qomrol'll.4 lIilll. Cuke, 341 I •• L 138.

N.,I •• dicilrcr l./o pri"cipali. rU.i allior, aliI ",i "._ -. .....,all. aul ft",.;U ... ftcl"r .... ad /.10- • idll loci."daa. No ODe .ball be oalled a principal r.Jua neept lb. partyactaally oommittlDg the relODY, or the party PreliODt aiding ud ubelting ia III commill.ion. Coke, 3d IDIt. 138.

X.II., .dm •••• I .. ,i. i. r •• ,,4 inl.Wgilur. No _ ill ed_tood to be a eOlUpeteDt "itDe •• la hi. ow. e_ Dig. 22. 6. 10; 1 8amD. C. C. 328, 844.

N.II .. jH' ali ..... 111 /uri./tlecr. poI • .,. No maD aB lorfeit &Do&b.r'. rigbt. Fleta, I. 1. e. 28, f 11.

N.II .. -.dat • curia canedlaria .. '". ,._""io. lI. OIIe oaght to depart uut nf the DOurt of ahaDoary witho.t a -ed,. Year B. 4 H.'a. VII. 4.

N.II .... d.,.r.Io/"" .... q .. i •• oj""""';,.r. No ..... II to be e.teemecl a "rong.doer wbo anll. .i_lf of bl. I.gal right. Dig. 60.17.65; Broom, )las. 3d Load. ad. 124,118, D. ('I); 14. WeDd. N.

Y. 3119, 401.

/t .... ,,_ " ...... , _ poet /a"'" prlderili d.li.". lIIi .. ",io. The quality of a put ofl'eDc. i. D.v.r auruated by that wbiah bappeaa lubMqueDL Dig. H. 17. 138. 1; BeooD, !II..... Reg. 8; BroolD, lIaL 3d Load. ed. 'I.

Jr'"",,_ dccurri"',. ad a>tmorliifUJrill .. oed "bi '.)kil .~i_ri.... We are ne,er to raeur to .bat ilu&rMrcliaary, 'ill.lant I. ordiDary faila. Coke, 411a Ia .• t.. 84.

N""f"n • .1r:tw ..... lege. There II DO 8ct1oD ,"thODt law.

N...,,_ .W. ,/ioitur ",0fl"'"'1"a .. CRti. dlri"'r.

Whd II DIIVer IIIIlIIoleDtly laid l' D.v"r aaid too lIueh. Coke, LilL 376.

N •• ,_ p_ri6i,.r i. /"1.,,. There Ia D .... r prweript.laa ID cue of fal .. hood (cri_ J'ot.;). Bell, Die&.

N""f'UJ- ,... l ........ prollp.N nee.d .... ubi ~lig.n".r di ... a!. HumaD tbing. Dever prolpn •• rD .1,,1De thing. an D.,looted. Coke, LitL 116; "'in~ate, lias. 2.

X"1"i ...... "",,,,.,,,, ... , .. d """ • ..,._/n"'. Not fO.ubi&lltloD bat 00llleDt make. tbe marriage. J)~. M. 17. a.; 1 Bu ... I8I, IDat. D. 289; Coke, Lit'- U.

OWi"";. HI l.gi. _.'ia. Ob.dlen88 Ia tbe _.oe of the law. 11 Coke, 100.

OWe.pn'fI.d •• .., _ .... ,u .. i"i mtio"nbili ,".,... legi. A _nab1. oa.tolll II to be obc?yed like law. 4 Coke, 38.

0""."".,;. jln.' ... ffI'd". TbiDg. abandoned __ .... prupertr or &be (8rst) OI.'OUpaD'- 1 PeL Adm.6s..

Otl~ eC ,.lIOIIt_ """ nell' ,,, I~. pr .... ",,,,,tia.

Hioa, _II dlaboD .. t act. ar. Dnt pl'8lam.d ID law. Coke, LIlt. '18; • Wad. N. Y. 228,231; 18 N. Y. ~, 100..

VOL. IL-ID

Chlio.a .. "" p' .... "''' .. ,Hr. Odiolll thin,. are Do\ preaamed. Burr. SetL Cu. 1110.

()Jlle .... ",a, "., "alllill. ,I .. judicial a"'" ,,/ 1M _reo

Ojflfta j"diciaU. ItOII oo"ecdant", .. nl.q""'" "..... t, JIld'llli~ 0111081 ou,bt Dot to be grlLllwd befo,. lbey are vacaDt. 11 Coke, 4.

0JII.i. ",oll'.'ratu. """ d.be,,' e.H ,,,"alia. Tb. ollces of lDagIMtratei ou,Ia' Dot to be .old.. Coke, LltL 2M.

O§lcit _alue .. e.J!.etue Hqllalur. Th. attempt beeome. of ooDleqaeDoe, if tbe elfect follow I.

OAkiN ........ ini d.b., .... d"",n."u",. AD ollce ouglit to be iDjnrloas to DO on.. Bell, DieL

o...i ... o ......... 'I"" '"cil. ; ... "", "iMI "p.ralur • The omlaioD of thoM tbiDg. whiob are .ilenlll espreHed la of DO coDBequenC8. 2 Bulltr. 131.

Om •• acl"nl nb i .. It"'i,,,.e trg",,'i ••• , j"die""dll'lll.

Bvery aot i. to be e.timated iJ)"be inteDtioD of the deer, BraDob, Prlno.

Om •• "";.11"1 .bri.'a •• ' i"Cftldil.' dtugil. Drank~nn'I' la8ame. aDd reveala every crime. Coke, LltL 247.

o."e i'" au' eon'etdtf. lee"', au' flur •• ita, con .. .lil"il, a,,' JlTfIl"fJ;1 co ... u.'ado. All law baa eitber I_D derived from tbe eon lent of the people, e8tablisbed by neee •• lty, or 1l0Dftrmcd by ollilom. Di,. 1.3.40; Broom, Mas. 3d Lond. ed. 610, D.

0....0 ",olli. dig ... ,,,, I,' .. hil (ld •• ",;'''" d"gnll ... 11 antiqlliH'. Every "ortbier IbiDg draWl to it tb. I ... worthy, thou,b tbo latter be 1D0re aDclent. Coke, Lltt. 86~.

0...". ", .. gnu ..... emplu .. lI .. bel aliq,"'d C!CIC in'q".., quod pllblicd ",i lila I. compneltJl"r. Every great e:rample b81 .nme portioD of ... iI, "hich Ia oom· peDlated by itl publio utility. Bob. 2711.

Om.. majN' conti"., i,l .... i"... The gre.ter eODtaID. ID Ihelf tbe Ie... 6 Coke, 116 a; WiDgate, Mas. 206; Story, Ag. f 172; Broom, Mu. 3d Load .• d. 173.

Om ... ""j'" d'gn"" COftlinel in H .. in dign" ....

The more worthy oODtaiDs iD itlelf tbe Ie ortby.

Coke, Lltt. 143.

Omn. "'''j''' ",i.". i.. .e t:ornpl.cilllf'. Eve"1 p"ter emtiraees in itlelf the miaor. JeDk. Cent. o .... 208.

O",n. pNn.ipau I,...HI tId t. ""C.noN",,,. Eve"1 priacipal tbiD, draws to It.elf tbe aceellory. 17 Mu s, 426; 1 Jobn •. N. Y. 680.

0 ... "" '1"00 i"rtdiji"a"'r .010 crJlil. Every Ibln, beloDg. to the loilwbich II built UPOD It. Dig.41. 1.7. 10; 47.3. I; Inst, 2.1.29; Broom, lias. 3d LoDd. ed. 866; Flota, 1. 3, C. 2, f 12.

0... ... ""cram ... '"", debet .... d. ,,"", ... "iet,'i4.

Every oDth ollght to be fouDded OD certain knowledge. Coke, 4th 1D1t. 279.

Omne ,."" ..... , .. ", ",,,rl •• " ....... "."'''''' rtf.. Evc"1 "III i. cODl1Immated by death. 3 Coke, 29 b; , id.61 b; 2 Sbarlwood, Blackst. Comlll. 600; Sbeppard, Touch.!. 401.

()""'tI ",,'io ...... 'III'I"d" ,,,fra earla I .... pora A,,/wnl Ii",il",iolf..... All actioDs In the .orld are limited "ltbln oerteln period.. BractoD, 62.

Om .. et 1I .. ",ill" "", lib.ri .. ,nt "lit .en;. All meD are freemea or .lave.; Iullt. I. 3. pr.; Fleta, I. I,

e. 1, f 2.

Om IICft11ia .. 11011"" IIi. '1"" pro •• ;lId.lla

,,,nl, r nMare. All .ball bave liberly to renounce

tbo •• tbin«, wbicb bave bet'D eltabllshed In tbelr favor. Codt', 2. 3. 2U; 1. 3. 61; Bruom, MoJ.. gd LODd •• 1. 826.

0", .. ;" ,m ... "",,,nttlr r,,1 .t .,,' ..... ilar _ ,,"'a.

All tblng. are prel1lmed to bave been rightly aDd reJ(ularly doa.. Cuke, Litt. 232 b; Broom, Mas. 3d Lond .• d. 847; 12 C. B. '188; 3 Esoh. 1111; 6 itL 716. Om .. in "'i .... "cia I"· ...... m"nl"r. 11 CUBh.. Mala. 441; 2 Obio St. 246,24'1; 4 id. 148; II i". 2113.

o..ia ",-_ .. "",,. rita .. Nlettlli",. ._ aQ'

. MAXIM

14G

MAXIM

~O"H 1"06., .. , i .. eo. 'ron'..... All tblags are prelamed 10 b~\'e beea dona replarly aad witb due (urlDality until tbe oontrary i. proved. Broam. )1&1:. 3d Load. ed. }ii7. 6411; 8 Diagb. 881; 2 Campb. U; 1 Crompt. .t M. Excb. 461; 17 C. B. 183; 6 Durnew • .t Ad. 660 i 12 )I .... " W. Eub. 2iH i 12· Wbeat. Gil. 70.

O"'''h prud.", .. , ;tla ad",ilt.,.. ,ole,,' fU. 1"0. "autll' ii. fNi ;11 arf •• u4 b •• e re .. nli ... nt, All prudent mea are aceu.tomod to a.c.Imit tbose tbiag. wbicb aro approvud by tbo.e wbo ara well ,.en.d ia tbo art. 7 Cuko, 111.

0 . .,,'; .. deUcl. ;n aperlo leriora .""t. All erimu ,omm;tted openly are ooalidered ligbter. 8 Coke, 127.

O ... ,,;a pr_.,,,nt,,r co"'ra '1'0Ua""..... All tbiag" are prelumed agaia.t .wroag.doer. Broom, Max. 3d Loud, ed. 843.

O.lIn;d p,. .... II .. II,' .. r II(11·',"",./a.'o donee 1'robe"'r iN eu,l/rd,i"",. All thing' aro pre.llmed 10 be done legitimately uatil tbe coatrary Ia proved. Coke, LiLt. 2:12.

Omni .. prftll"''''Hr ril. nH "cln. All tblage are prelumed to bo doae in dne torm. Oukc, Litt. G.

O.II.ia '1". ju,.. onntraA" .. t .... , ee .. t .... rio itt" pe. r'UNt. Obligatiolll oontraated under • i .. w are deatroyed by a I.w to tbe coatl'llry. Dig. 611. 17.

100. .

0 .. ,,;,. f". "mt ,,,,. .... i •... ", ipftH' "iri. All thia~1 whiub are tho wile'. beloag to tLo hu.baad. Coke, Litt. 112; 2 Klint. Comm. 130, 143.

O ... lIi. IIcl;o .. t /I'qnelG. Ev." aot.iun Ia a IIOmplaiat. Cuke, Litt. ~1I2,

0",,,; •• ",acl •• io b .... i ., ".,i j"d;cii Ht/"itu .. u "",.i. el rwi. 1'r.".i .. i •• t dicli. j"raIO""". E .. ery eoncluaioa "f a good and true judgment nrilel from good and true prami ••• , &lid tba urdicta uf juron. Cuke, L.tt. 22G.

OHlni. "',NIl .... ". I"llit .,.,.",...... E,.." aoaleat relDo,'u error. 00ke.2d IDat. 123.

Om,.i. d'ji.iI;o in j,'re ci~;li peri""/"1a .. ,. par ... .. t ""i.n lit .. ",. ... bue,'; 1"",.;1. E,.ery de6aiti"a in tbe el vii In.w II d&llgaroa., for tbere i .... ry Iittl. that o.lanllt be oYert.hruwn. Tbero Is ao rule in the civil law whioh i. not lIal:>10 to lome exoel'tioa: • nd tbe 108llt ditr~rence In tbe facta of Ibe eUle roa· d.,. ita appliutioa uRle ... Dig. 60. 17.202; 2 W uoeMe.on. Leot. 1116.

o .. "i, clrjl"ilio .ill jure peri, !lila." HI; pnr ... eol m;III Ht " .. " .Nbrerl; "",.rt. Every d.flnitioa in 1 ... " i. perilou •• ror it i. "ithia an ace of being Rh... rte,l. D.g. 60.17.202; 2 WooddelOn, L..et. 1116.

0 .• '';0 utH!pl;u ~" ;p'" quoq ... reg"I... Aa .x.optilla i8 ia iteelf .110 • rule.

o ""i. ,'""".,11;0 pi". Nor-i'al. ,..,.,,,.bn' f .. a .. ",ilillll. "rut'-I. Eve" inno"ation dilturb. more by it. ao ... lty th.a it benellLl by ita utility. 2 Dulatr. 338 j 1 Salk. 20.

o •• i, i"terp,.,t",i ..• i jI.ri 1""'" ilts jlnld .. .., in i ... t'"U",eH',·It, ., 0"'"" eontrtlrlettrln ",.oret,,.htr. The InterprelAtioa of instrum~nLl I. to be made. if thoy will ",Imit of It, '0 Ihat.1I eoatradiolioa~ may

b. rom" .. ed. Jank. Ce"t. 0 ... \16.

Om"i. in'.rprrlll,i" '11-' de.l"'aI, .. rl ul",dit. rd .... "·;"~/i'. E"ory iaterpret.tion .:tber deolarel, .xtond •• or re,lrainl.

Um"i •.. "." "'1H.'il"tjn / .. ,,,"', ' .... poribN./"""N .. ,,,,,,'111". deb.t. n"N ,,,,,,eN,;,,. EYe" ae" ,tatut. "Jlght to .et iLlltamp up"n the future, Dot tbe put. Br.~t·'n. 228: Ook.·, 2d Inll. 116.

0 ... ,,;. I" ·"lHa •• t An"ltI. Hd "". "'cill'·"'. En" perao" is " m.n, but aot e ... rYlDaa a penoa. CaI\'Inu .. L.'x.

0 ..... ;. Wi.nt;" prl/ltl,,1'1"''';' "abit"... E ... " prl· ".'Ioa presnppolel Cona.r 8IIjoym.at. Ooke, Lltt. 13V.

0",,, •• , ...... 1"., _"i. o..n" ;.j"ri" .... li",;t"t .. ., irifra .,.,.Its '_pora. Every plaiD' &lid .,.."

loUlla for iaJuri .. Ia limited within pertain time&. Ooke, LI.t. ) 14.

OmN" rat;IIabil,"o ,..".., 'ralit" .. ~, .a.dalo "fillpo.rat",·. EYery labl.qnllat I'II.ti6clltiua hils .. fttro.pootiv. effoot, aad i. equlv.leat to • l)rior aulDmud. Coke, Lill. :Ie., ,,; Story, Ag. 4tb ed. 102; Droom, Max. 3d Lond. fd. 7l~; 2 Beuv ler, IalL 26; , id. 26; 8 Wbeat. a8S; 7 Excb. 728; 111 ilL 846 j II O. n. 632, G07; a ;d. 63.

0 ... ,,;. regv/tl .Ha, pali'", e",repti""... En'7 nile of law i. liable to ill own exo.ptioa ••

Om.iN'" "m.t"';6"t,·one MJreiat,., 'INod 1 ru MIt.'r. •• d"r.n, r.'. 'W bat i. given for .11 sball be • "01-

fellAted for by the ooatributioD of adl. 'Biagh. 21 j 2 M:arah. 30V.

O"' .. i .... UrN .. f""""" ..... ''''. poIelt _e """.,, •• n.t .. ,. ."liI rol'ce/,Iil. 'l'here may he na al·u>1! or e,·.ry Ihiag IIr wlileh thera II IUl Dee, \'i~tue "al,. exoepled. D.,.. TV.

O"ce a /ra.d, o/'l&a,. a /,.,. .. d. 13 Viaer. Abr. b3Y.

ChI •• 0 ",ortgage, a/lllay. 0 .. ortgdge. 1 BUlIardl.

Re .. l Prop. 318.

0".. 0 r .... """...., a(II:a,. a rft_pn'" l' \'iaer, Abr. 277.

ONce quil .".d """,,r.d, ft'IIr quil .. "" .1 ... NfI.

Skeae. d. ~wb .• ;p. ;t.r "d jI .

Oil. ",a, "", du an ",., I" l.i r1f,

0" •• /auNld be j".t b./",·. At t'II,,,erow •.

0,.;'';0 qll .. JU"et I." .... mt" ed '.".N,(... 'fha' opi.iua i. to b. followed,. bieb favun tbe will.

O/"",.t q"od .... , .. , ..... ,,, ... , I,n''', ot ea,i .,,,, ... eO"1'"I1."""",,,. ;n o.,.'a,o.';"", .... "... 11 i~ 11.c •••• ry th.t oerlai. "."'001, landi, aDd e.tate 8 b. ..... prebeaded la • dtol.~ahl,a of u,e.. U C. I.e •• _

Upu,t., ,("ud .. r'" '''' ""'lie"'.,, , .. jfld'""... A thiag. to b, b,ought to jud"meat, mu.L LI! clrtai. or d.6alle. J. ak. Ceut, Cae. 84; BraoltD, 16 6.

Op<Jr,., 'l".d ,., In •• t ,.~. 'I"" r..,di"'r. A thlDI. to be sold, mUlt be ot', tMia • .. r deSalte.

Opp",;'a j"~lo. ee ,..,.ila ""IIi •• IH~.,""t. OrpOlit .. placed out eacb otb.r arJlf'ar i •• eluler iiI ht. 4 Baoon, W ork., ~ bG, ~58, 1I63.

Opli",a n;., eol I.yi, ;N''''7''·N "' ...... nd ... Upago II tbe b •• t inlerl reter of I~... Cuke, 2d InIL 18 j Droom, M.x. 3d Lond. ed. 8~3 •

O,.t; .... e" I."" 'I"" ",i"i",,,,,, ,...1;"'1"il ",6",i. jH,/i";.. That 18 Ibe IiIIlt I.\lltm or IIIW which r •. atille. a. liltlll .. " .... Cm. to lb. dlnrelic-a .... tb. judge. Bacon, AI b. 46.

Opli .. " .!ut .. t; i"'''1 rel"t,i", elt (,.",,,i/ ••• p""-

,;,,,Ii. "iN,d ill~r'.) ;1""" ."""In.. TI,e I.F'

hlll·rprelre of a .lllote II (all Ih. lel'Drat. I·ut.

I elng CI a.idered) Ibe Itlliut. itle.f. IS l"Le, 117; Wiaga.le. Mu. ~311, II n. 6l1.

01";""'" •••• ''1'"'''' '1". ",iN;",,, ... /i"9"i' -Mlno j,u/.iN.; id 9,·od •• r1;",d" rjtlll"".'"'' 'J hilt law I. Ibe belt whieb Ita,.el Ih"lo ... 1 dhcnt.oa to tbo judge; aad tbi. i. au .d,.nlag."bieh 1~1I,L1 from il.ll eertllialy. DRooa, ",,,b. IS.

Opti"'" ;""'P'" ... n ..... ,... (TSlge il the HR lah·r,,,.ter of Ihiagl. C. lie. 2d lalt. 2112.

Opt,'",,,,, tnl'll"uat,d; ",flU, •• u, ",'r I-Iii. '''trrp-e_ 1m', .t I.,," I'lii/.". 0"" n, ,,,,,. 'J be I,e>t wcrd., I" iaterpreting 1."'8 i. to mLke tbm uocord. II l't.Le, 1611.

Opt{ ..... j1rd.:r. fBi N/i.,·.H ... iM. n. I. Ihe be.' Jadge who r Iiel a. I ttle .8 po .. iblu oa bla "" Il dllOrelion. Baao., '" I,b. 'II.

Op,i", •• I.,.", iNI.,p'" ,,,,, .. cI,,do. (' .. tODI fa t.b. but intel'J'reter of l"wI. C ...... 4th Ia.t. 76; 2 Pannal, Coatr. 611.

U.di". 1',,,.;t,,,,d. _In. t.rrttl'llf' " jN'. 'rhe order of pl'·8r1la. heln. pleKned, tb. J.w .. p ..... •• "ed. Coke. Lilt. :103.

OriliiN. P""I,ri4 N ... '''.. P'- .... 1"""". ".a r .. • .. ; "".i./~"". ,.,. Jt I. mallir •• t tbat 110 0 •• hy hi. IIwn will "In r.D"""". hi. orlgla (plI& 01' or di .. bar,e hla oaturaL alle,Uca .. ). Code, 10. M.

HAXIM

147

MAXIM

•• Bee I Sbanwnod. Blaclut. Comm. o. 10; 20Jobu. K. Y. 313; 3 Pet. I2:l, ~46; Broum, Mas. 3d Lund. ed. a.

On,~ ffi ; .. p.'~' ".6.,. Tbe origin or a tbiDg oalh'to I.e iDquirecl in'o. 1 Coke, 1111.

PaM "' .... """me ...... ,M'in, ,,;, at ,·.j_ria. Force IDd wrong ano e.veciall1 cuntral')' to veuce. Coke, Litt. 101.

Pa"," t'ONNltla, t" ... eyue ...... tr« l'9'" "'9". dolo ... 10 i.ita •• N', ""'Hi "flclu ob .. ,·fIf'''Gu "'flt. COD .. Irao', whiob are nut illegal, and do aut origlnKte in fraud. ma.t in all refpoell be ohlOrvuL l:od. 2. 3. 2V; B",OID, Maa. 3d Load. ed. 624.

P"" .. da.' I'flr", "uN'.uclll;. Agreementl glYe Ihele. to the COl. tract. Haiku., MUll •. 118.

l'urtn p,i rala js"; p.bU.·u d .... U.,,·. H<n' 1"""''''.

Pri","e cuntractl caanot derogate from tbe publio I ••. 7 Coke, 23.

l'nda 9.'" ",,,,,,·Il I"!ie. """.,;I .. ,i ... ,,"9". rei COllIN koo •• or .. Ji"." u/la .. oi", 4 .. b",·., i"d"Mla,ijur,', ,.,. It iI indubitable 1.... that eon tract. againlt Ihela" .. or g.lOd 1II0rala, have no forco. Cod. 2.3. I; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 620.

Pnrta ,.,. tH1fHe' ("tlUM'" ftJ"'i,,f'ftt "on _nne 0& •• - ••• dft. Contract. founded upon I1n Immoral oon81- ieration no not to he oh .. ned. Dig. 2. 14.27. 4i 2 Pet. 6311 i Broom, Ma%. 3d Llln,1. ed. 11.;8.

l'uoli'r";r .. ,o,,,.juri publieu "". de,·ollfllll'. PrITate euntr..,tI do nut derogate frolll publio law. Broom, Max. 3d Loud. ed. 621; per Dt. LUBhlnglon, .Arl. " Clark ... I'. lIuu. L .. UI; Arg. 3 id. 121.

I'rIfIIo .li'l"otl liritu. ~", ,IIid .in. p(l~/" "01& .<I.itlil.,. By a CI ntract IOmetb:ag I. permitted, which, .ithout it, eould not be IIdmitl4d. Coke, Litt. 188.

P., i.".,..,., ;.pwi" •• OII iON'. An equal blS 10 po.er unr an equal. Jenk. Cent. CIIS. 174. Ezamp:e: One of twu jud"el of the lAm. oourt lUIoot commit the "th~r for ooatempt.

P"I'rII' .", """'fill U, •• ,·,,/. ad " .. ". 9"'"' c"9"aIi.",i.. Panat 18 " geDeral aalDe for anT)' kiad of reletWnlhlp. Coke, Lilt. SO; Littletou, f 108; II.,. Cart. Job. o. 60.

P.rr;" "''Pula",., lIarib... Similar tblngl ullite wllb .!mllar.

Pro,i""" _Inolii. reH' aNo/lfillfr. When opiDlon8 are eqnal, • d.f~lIdaut. i» acquitted. Cuke, 4tb bat. M.

POI •• ,. f-t 1".... Wordl make tb. p1... 6 Mod. 4J8; 1".ar B. III Ilcn. VI. 48.

ParI, ,"""U",H' illl'll,a .. ', ... Iol(lla, t"lliIH' In''' •• AD IDwgraI part tM,ing taken awa)', tbe "bule ill takeD awa1. 8 Cuke, 41.

l'arla. rlt: I."ili .... '/aGro 110ft ~rti" •• ooril "''''f'ftII "' ...... i"' ...... 'M.. The ulf.pring of a l"Ritl.ate bed kllOWI not hi. muther wore oortalnl1 than Iaio father. ForlelOue, 0. 42.

P.rr ••.. "..il., r ... ',_. The olflprlng follow the eu.dllloD or the motb.r. Inst. 2. 1. 19. Thi! lithe law in the ease of IllInl and 8nimall, 1 B.·a.,ier. Ian. n. 187,602: hnt .ith regord to f'relmln, uildnll rol;ow tbe _dltion of lb. father.

I'.r •• ",r~t ,,,,,,,,... N atur. take! IIttio heed. 2 loh .. C ... N. Y. 127, 1M.

P", ... dile",.' 9". re .... Ift""rda .. ,. TMng. dUr.r "Ilitll. wbiela agree III .Ublt&llce. 2 Bulatr. SII.

P..... e" '"t"fII ..... _".,i ... " lI,n .. a.dellff' __ ioai. 1& ia not cnllDtrb IbM "Dterc. Ihould

.. «iv, n .Dl_ i& be ecmmlUed to executi"a. Coke) Litt. 280.

p",.. ",.,.~t ,eir. pi Jirr, d.l,f'/, .i " .... eng ..... - ..... _.,J ..• ;1 /"rl.,... It l'Iail. IItlle to kllow • hat oagb& 10 be done, if 10U d" nut know bow It II 10 be dOlI.. Coke, 2d lalt. 603.

P .. ,", ia.., r- ... pri. d ...... tra.t. Tb.r.tbor II he .halD tbe marmle prllnh nut. 1 BIIOklt. te. .. "0 J ., liar&. .... 648, 663 I Dil. 2. '. 6;

1 Bonier, Inlt. a. 273,304, 322; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 468.

l'dlria luburi'nc •• , n:p .... i. "uti d.b~I/"'ig"ri. A jury ougbt not 10 be har&l8ed bylabora Ind ex. penlOi. J~nk. Cent. Ca •• 6.

Patri« IX""".II ,'" 1';.''''. d.bd, .0" in alroeila" c""";,,rre. Palemlll power .bould oon.tat iD aft·_ tion, Dot In atruoU,.

Peeoat« cUIII.... .wtum.. ",nl gra~i,.i"'''. or. rencoa againat lIature are the heavlut. Cuke, 3d lult.20.

P.cca'"", pec,.alo addil 9'" ell/". ,lIam /a,.'" rIf'Ot"i"iu .. dr/eno,·",,;. adj,,,,uil. lie addl one olfellc. to anotb.r, wbo, "beD b. cummitl a crime, joins tp it tb. proteetiou of .. delence. 6 Coke, 411.

P. .. d.lIl" til ... iAiI illll",,' .. r; During a litlg.tioD notbing Ihould be changed. Cob, Lilt. 344. !"e. 20 Huw. 106: Croae, Lien, 140; 1 Slor1, Eq. Jur. I 4tl6; 2 John •• Ch. N. Y. 441; II BRlb. N. Y. aa

Per .. !llfr''''' .... id ";det,,radjici, qllud ;1" palll,,'i,. adjieilur, .. , ;"trllig.re """ 1""'.11.'". 9"Oftl"'" 9"(1- 9'w ."",eulo It:fupuri. adji";al.r. Tbat is laid I" be added b1 allavion wbicb I. '0 added liltle by little (hat we cannot tell how ameb la added 8t I1n)' .,n. moment of time. Dig. 41. 1. 7. 1: Ilale, d. Jur. Mnr. para I, e. 4; Fleto, I. 3, 0.2, , 6 .

Per ,aliu".,. Prrf''''''II' .. d Irgitino" ... raf;"""".

By reaaoniDg w. cume to le,a1 realon. Litrleton, , ass,

Per re""'" .. atura",,/ar'"m "ega.li. ""l/" p""b .. ,ie HI. It I, in the nature 01' thlnga tbat ho who denie. a filet II aot hound to gl\"e proor.

Per rario. ac'." /~II_ "1, er i ... ,;a /a"". BJ \"arloua aotlexperlenc. rral&e8 the law. Coke, 4111 Inlt. 60.

P",/.el.", elC .lIi .. iiil de~.' .er"ftd" .. 'fIIl! 1'.r/,oli""i. "tl ",,'.r. ", .. dll"'. Tbot il perfect whleb wautl nothing Iccording to the meBlure oC Itl perfection or nuture. Hob. 161.

Peric"I" .... "., .... • ...... at ;IIII"'al .. , ; .. rlll~r ..

It Is daagen1uI to Introduce aew 8nd uaaceu!· tomed IhIDg.. Coke, Lilt. 3711.

P.,; .... /Ullfl'" n:;.,,·mu 9H"d """"""" ri"" .... ", ...... tolllpr .. 6",",' ""-""'1'io. I ILink tbLt dangerou8 wbich I. nut warrauted by the eXLmplo of good mln. 0

Coke,1I7. .

l'.ri.III"", rei f',..r!il., """""'" ,r"d;,. •• " _ptnri.. The rurohuer runl .he risk of tho It", of a tblng aold, tb4>Ullb nllt delherrd. 1 Bouvier, Inlt. n, 93Y; 2 Kent, COlllm. 498, 4911; 4 Darne ..... C. 481,941.

P"'j"ri """ 9"" .~ .. ,; ...... bi. i"'''''''''''; d.ri1'i" .. ,. a,,'.' .ur.", ,,,i fI.~;l'il"". '1 b.y nre rrrjl red 11 ho, pre •• ning Ihe word. (.f tn oarb, deeeive the car., of those who re~i\"8lt. Cok~, ~d Inlt. lell.

i'e,pe,"a i.", "', ,,"U,,,,, /'11"" 1,""' .. 110 .. ".,>tJ,ilimIR perp"'H"", e .. e; ~t ('/ou'lda 9ftl! UbllJOlrtioHtfIt .lrellldil Ifb ill"io ."Ift .. ,,1.,. It i. a ,erl,,·tu81 Ilw tbat no bumn (of pooith'e Inw onn le rell'etunl, Ind a clal1l. in II l.w.1I bich I'",cludu 11'l" I,,"~r or nl,ror;atlfln i. ""Id nb '"i/in. Dl1oon, Mu:r.. lIeg. 19; Brucm. Max. 3d LOlld. ed. 27.

Pe'I,.,,,;li.,. are •• d; •• ". i" I"", alld '9"i" •

P., .... 'a ,n"j" •• 'a "'1"'''''''''''' ;nl.rute l'''7'rio.

Tbe h.le"".t of a penol1al tonnecli<,n i •• "n olia:ea regarll.II in I.,w II tbat or the indh'idllal hill:.df. Bac"n, Mu. Reg. II!; Broom, Ilax. lid Load. ed. 474.

PerltJfla ,,, I_fl, ...... ",,"' 9"0""'" ..... ".;""fJI ••.

A ~rlon II a mall e. nlldend wltb J'(f.ICI1CG to • certain ,'al ••• Hei.eeoiua, Elcm. Jur. tiv. I. 1, tit.

3, " 76.

]'.r.an. "ice /""flilll' .. "",,,ipi_ at d,.. .. ri ..

Towns nnd toroughl act u if p~I·IOU" :3 Wend.

N. Y. 10~, 144 •

/>", .. ,""/ ,/ti"r 'nul lie II"".", _011.... Fillell, Law. b. 1. e. S. n. 14.

P" .. , i tAi.U' fl'"GfI'N 0",,". I'illoh,

Law, b. 1, 0. S, II. 16.

HAXIM

148

MA.XW

Per_,.l llIi.g. dN ,"IA IA. peI"6OII. Fluob, La", ; ".'1JW 1";.... POltUmln, ,.Ignl tbat be "bo b ..

b. 1, o. 3, n, 16. \ been captured b ..... ver 1et'r. tb. lta.e. loR. 1. II.

P.r'p;cua ".ra , .. ". .IInl probaNd,.. Plain tratbl 6 i Dig. 49. S I.

pced not be proved. Coke, Litt. UI. Pulo,,';a ""bal "9"i ,".,i,iafll, "nil ... ,refl .....

PITt"a • ., A".';' /",mUl.i 11 •• 0';" A plrat, I. -.a , Power ougbt to fullow, .IIt to preoedo jnltloe. a

.nemy of tbe bumaa race. Coke, 3d bit. 113. I Bulate, 1119.

Plenn .1 •• leri. j".lil;u fiul p",.,;bu.. Let full .ad Pule"'ia i.utili. Ir."ra _ot. lJ .. 1ea1 power hi

.peedy jUltioe bo dun. to tb. partlel. Cuke, 4tb nln.

bit. 87. Pot ... tt« "ON •• , "in ad ",",,,... Pow., it ftO'

Piurall« " .. ",enf' H' dnobll' ...... , .. "IU. Tb. plural oOllferred but fur the public ",od.

Dumber is oontained in two. 1 Rolle, 476. Pulm 9.i. reun"riarc p"" ",.,.Ifi" j'" 'I""d pro

Pillralilie, ar. odio ... ;n ',,111. .. iHlrofl"~hf'" .. t. A m.a ma, rellnqallb. fur bim-

Plyr" c"luar.d .. IUIII q .. an "ill~," corp.w. P""P'.,. lelf aDd tbo •• elaiming under hilll, a right which ""ilal""juri. qUlld A"b ... t. Several oo-boin .re U i waB Introduoed for biB own bendt. See 1 Bou\ier. one body, by reason of tbe uulty of right "hioh ID.t. D. 83.

they pOBSe... Coke, Litt. Ift3. Pole.tn, ,,"'cll iftte,."rot,."'r. Power Iboald be

PIII .. e. 1101'1;0;1'.' , .. ", 9""'; ""'f. enrpll', ; .. eo .trioUy interpreted. Jenk. Ceat. C ••. 17.

'I""d .... lin. jt .. lrabeNI. Several part-ownen are al PaIN'''. "'p"_a .ei~lI. di,'_'I"""'IIOI~", 1igflr<tt one bo,Iy, by reaBOD of th. unit,)' of their rightl. tlOII 1",'.ot. SUpl1!1II0 power eron dillolve, bat C&D-

Coke, Litt. 164. Dot biad it .. lf. Baoon. Max. Reg. IV.

Pl,.. e.r.ml'la q"alll peccala ,,_,. Esrolllplea Pul;or,.oC .II"dili .. d.I .. ,de.,i.. Better I. tbe COD-

hurt lIIore tbon offence.. ditlon of the def,·nd.nt, tbaa tbat of tb. plaiutUr.

PIli. peeca' all.lor q.am flclor. The inatigator Broom, Mrox. 3d Lond. ed .• 8~; 16 Pet. 471.

of a crime la wOrle than he wbo porpelr.te. it. Ii p"'i,,r t.' ~,,,,dil;o I",onll,,,,i.. Better I. the eon-

Coke, 99. ditlon of the pu_alor. Broom, lIax. 3d Lond.

1'1,,0 enlol Ifnlf' oc"I"IN' ,,,,;,, 9ua., aNn'l; doc.... ed. 201. n,

Ono .ye-witne .. i •. better Lhaa ten •• r ..... I1... Cok~ p,'ff1Jl'Op'rfI ro".ili,. ..... ro 11'''' 7"""1'"'«. nuty

4tb Inst. 279. ooun.e1. ror. teldolll prolperou.. Coke, 4tb In ....

PI". "idenl oct/Ii 9'"'''' 11.111".. Eyea lee more 67.

than one ey.. Coke, 4tb Insl .• 1110. PI'_cl'iplio .11 ,il"l ... lIZ ""' " Itfllp"re ","Ita_-

Puma ad p"N."', ". .... , till oRlnet. Punlsbment li(llll ."p;t". ah 0111·10. ilal. l.gio. Pre.crlptina I ••

to few. dread or fear tu all. title by autbority of law, derh'ing ita force frolll n ..

l'atRtI ad 1"", ..... ""'110 ad Orlll'''' peMJ.,';nl. If sad time. Coke, Litt. 113. .

puni8hment be inBiotcd on a fow, a dn:ad OOlllel to I',. ... cr;pl,." et • .r~",;" , .. '" 1*"i"",' od "'''0' ....

• n. .n"'!'aNN'. lOti tlffl .. "p'" " mod" •• "el;o"i. i".,il,.-

Pm'tI .z d.licln dp/llneli, 11.1''' Ie1Ic"; "nn deb.,. ."cUr. Pre&eril'tion and tbe ueoutlnn ef a co.traGi Tbe heiruugbt not to be bouDdiu ro penalty inBkted do not affect the v.lidity of the eentraet, bat. tb. fllr tbe orlllle of tbe IIonolltor. Coke. 2d InBt. 11111. time .nd manner uf bringinjt an .otlnn. 8 Ma ...

Perna '''HI pnl .. t, <'lIlpu pere,",i •• rit, Punishmont S4; Decoueh. e •• Savutier, 1I J~bn •• Cb. N. Y. 1110, cannot be,orlme will be, perpetulLl. 21 Viner, A.lor. 2111.

271. Pr_I .. re "ilil <lUNd.If '''''.1'1''''0 dare ....

Pat". POl,·H. IIInlli."d. 9"". tJ:ra,p'f'rINd. '''111. Dl0rl·e. To p ..... ent i. DO more than to give or offer Pllni-hmcntl sbould rather be lollenell thu agllra- on tb •• pot. Coke. Litr, 120.

~roted. Cuke, 3d Inst. 220. Pr .... llli,. .""P0ri. Inllil or""",,,, "...u"i., " ...... -

Per". ,,'111 ,· .. "-;"y.,,cI... Pnni.blll.nta Ibould be tn» """,;"i. lollil ..,.,.,.,.tlH d""'ON.'ralim,,·,. The

restrained. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 29. i prel<'nco of tbe hody ~urel Ih. e""r In tbe Dallle;

POI". 'H'" teeer« debet 11.''''''' at .', .. olio«; Pun-, the truth of thc nume cure. an error in th. delerlpishlDent ought to be inBiated upon the guilty, and I tion. Baeon, 1\1u. Reg. 26; Bn,olll, Max. 3d 1I0t upon other.. Braoton, 3~U h; Fleta, 1. 1, o. 'I Lond. ed. 6611; 8 Coke. S6; a Dlmew ... Ad. 840, 38, i 12; 1.4, c. l7, ~ 17. 8 Term. 67S; 11 C. B. 998; 1 llou. L. Ca .. 'i112,

1'"lili.le!/ib"ollo" "I/e. palilil', arlnpland •• Poli- . 8 D. Gox. M ... G. Ch. 1411.

tiel are to b. adapted to the 1 ••• , IUId not the law. p"tolal caNI.la '1Ha", ",,,d.ltl. Preventloall be'-

to politics. I1"b. 16~. ter tbron cure. Coke. Lilt. 804.

PUI,d.,·o"IIfr I.,'e. IInll ""mora.llf,.. Witnellea Pr ... "IIf<lI.r 'P'o jll,'ilia _I .. "i... Tbe Jnln.,.

are weighed, not counted. I Starki., Ev. Cobol; of. Pentence should be prelumed. Belt, Ev. Ia ..

Be8t. Ev. 426, , 389; J.l W end. N. Y. 106, 1011. 42; Mueardal d. ,. ... ,b. crJII •• 1287. n, 2.

/'".;1" .. ,," uppn.ilorr,., "'galnr allu .. ",. One or P,·""'flliltll· 1"0 "9;li",,,'i,,... Legitlmu, I. t.

two opposite pOlltiona being atllrwed, the other il be prelumed. 6 Coke, U8 h; 1 Sbanwoud, BlacillL

deniod. 3 Rolle,422. Comm.4S7.

P ....... iu HI qlla" p.di, pooilio. POlBOllloD I., Pr",..,,,,ir,,r pro l"';Iimoli"... Tbere II a pre-

aa it were. the pOlitlon of the foot. 3 Cuke, 42. lumptinn In favor of legitilllotion. "Coke, 98 6;

P" ..... :o 1'<lII·i. de/.odo .impli.i I"oit .o .. orem 1 flbanwood, Blackst. Cumm. 467.

.... lIlIer.drm. POtBelllon of the brotb.r iD ree- P'·.'""'/Ilio, • .r .0 9.IId pltr"Mq .. e fil. PreIllIllP.hnpl. lIIakes the lister to be beir. 3 Coke. 42; 2 tionl ari ... from wbat generally blppeD.. 22 Wenct.. Ilbarawood, Blackot. Comlll. 227; Broolll. MH.3d N. Y. 426. '76.

Lon,l. ed. 473. P"'''''Hlplio riol"",,,.pl_ prob",;o. Violeat p ....

A ..... no pacijlea l'0llr O"N' 80 I".il jwr. Peace- IlImption la full proof •

• ble pOlle .. ion for 81:1ty yearl glvel 110 right. Jeuk. Pr"''''''p'in ";ol,,,'n "o/ft "' '.ge. Str'OlIg pTe-

Cent. C 28. lumption aYall~ lD lrow. Jenk. CEat. Cal. 68.

P" illll i. a llood IiI I •• telor, flO bell., litlt ap- Pr_ .. pli,,,, ••... ~t CMI_jte'"r. n: np" re';.;MiN

"_tlr,. 20 Yiner, Abr. 278. ad prn""."N .. """"'Pl."'. Preeumptlon •• re N>njeo-

P"' .... ion 0/1'" '''''''01', pOI.".i,," 01 Ik. "'''or- turel from probable proof ... a\ln,ed for p"'P .. te. or

nflller. evldenoe. J. Vo· t. tId At.d. I. 22. tit. 3, a. 14.

P""Hoor h. rigll "1/,.,'"" .. ll lIIen loHt Ai .. ",Ao P .. Itt.rIM lidl' """ debel "dllli"i iLUcil.... lJ ad ...

la, IA. """/ "·gAl. pretut of lelfRlity, ,.hat II Illegal ongbt aot to be

Poa,ibm'N ea ... ol ba ". a ,,,,,,,·bm,,. admitted. 10 Coke. 88.

P ... , ... iara d.r"fl'1II1 p";oribll.. Poaterior tbln!!:1 J>rn,.ri. jlldien", .. , ;.,.,.",... 1",-. rhe praetioe

«''''grote frllm thingl prior. 1 BODvier, Inlt. n. 90. of tbe judge. 18 tho interpreter of the la".. llu.

Potllimi .. i .... fingil ..... qlli • ...", ...... , in .iPi4 •• I 118; Br~Qh, Prine.

----------------------------------------------------------

1.

MAxtlf

p,.,.,.Je,oy An .. _ ..... "'_ .. , jtt"'N. nutloa; the .. _tin ., th. Ia. 810ft. tile

p~ "'at PftM .N6 .. ibt,.,ie .,. eJ tltflc or... ".rk. Coko, LltL lI811 •

• .uM'lr. 16 VIDor, Abr. "II. P""A,6ecar" '1",',/"";01 I •.. e f*od __ ,..,.

Pr __ ,_die ,'. ,..,.. rei. Th. prioe .tau.. a lidO. It II prohibited to do OD OD.'. owa p .... ia lb. pl_ or the thiA,lOlcL 1 Blluvwr, !aIL Do perty th.t .hioh may injure aDother'L II Coke, 611 • .. ; I him. Ill. P,...lu .. ,tlilar 110",_ paY"''''', Th. oll"lprla, P_i_ iNl.a,i".. .. Ni.,. 6, ................. '011.". the eoadltioD or the rather. 1 8aDdt. Cb.

,DeL N. Y. 311, 328. N. y. 688, eso.

Pri_ ,..,.. "".i,,.,i • .,...z.... The radiaal .1.. Prop,'N'Iu;",r ezeladit prGptn'lN_; fW'OPiltfdl

_t or JIl.tlce il eqUality. f'ftIIO"'./ II retII_ ,..otio,_. D •• ho I. Dearer

P.i_ u.,.,i.ltll • .., wrbi "'., •• _M "",u eslliadel blm .bo II aear; be wbo i. near, bllll .""''''''.r .,..,ie, ,i ... Iv .ilM ..,.,._.ti.. Tbe foroe : .ho ia remote; h. who i.I nmote, him .ho i.I moM .f •• IIN il to be .rllt .:lRmilled, le~t by tbe raDlt "'lDote. Cok .. LitL 18.

e' dietlOll tlae .. nte ... be dealruyad or the Ia. be P""P''';' •• iNd",,,it •• "9"ipolkt .. ,_Ii. Ail

.i&II ... t "p_.'" Coko, LitL 18. lad •• lllte propo.lI;lon II equ ... to a goaerat oae.

Pri.CfI/H ., .... p"bli~" tU' JfUII' e ...... _,... .. ,., .... Proprieta. loti... • .. ",', ca'; .. caM... ...,"'tIlP .

.... • II/e'.... Tbe kiD' aa.1 tb.oommon.eallh Tbe P"'pertl or the whole Iblp Mlo •• tb, ownerr.r a j •• t ........ take a •• , ml properly. 12 Ihlp or the keel. Dig. II. 1. III. Proylded It bact Colle, 13. .ot b_ conltruolt'd "Ith tho mal.Ol'iaII of aDotber.

Pri_,.1e!Ii6 .. eol ..... ..,. The emperor II fHe Jd.; 2 Keot, COIIIm. 812.

tro. I.... biB. 1. 8. 81; HallifaJ:, AD.... prof. p,..,.ri.ea •... r/lo'· ... .., 1". ",..,p,.{""",,,. Tl.

,I, ril, DOte. propnet, of .ord. II til rety of proporty.

PrilHli,..'ie tlellet "*IN" _Ii .. "'..,..... pe""" Proprie"''' ..".110,. .. 06. ...,. '8111. Tb.pro •

• 1ct.'fltljitl,';J __ • TIIepriD.lpahbouldal •• ,1 prieti. (i. Co prolll'r memlnr) 01 .orda an to 1MI .. uh .... ,adWOn_I.,DpoDtMnn&l .. Coko, ob •• rvad. Jook. eeaL C .... 1311.

2d '[UL til. ProI..,It·"lralil ""bjectioa.m, .. bjel!fi" pmlM!I'OfIftfI.

Priruoil"" d.", Hft' .. "" ",,_il"Nli.. GlftD Protection draWl to it lubJectioa; IllbJeation, pro-

prla,i,l. are followed II, tbelr ooa .... ltanb. telltlaa. Coko, LilL 80.

Prill"i,ifl ,.""'fltot, ... 1',..6 .... ,.,. Prlaolpl. PrOllJiMJ eel prorfidere pr_Ni .. et ftt-, 11011".. ...

,... ... Liley era .'" proyed. • Coke,.o. See PBIX- ,",I... A provlao I. tu proYide ror Ibe preo.at Ind ClPLilI. tb. Ratare, aat tbe put. I Coke, 721 Vaa,h.l!78, Pritld,... o6eta. Oppo_ be,In.IIlr- Brueh, BI'OOIII. Mu. 3d Load. ed. 276.

Pria.. Pro.ri ••• ~n e., ........ ltleHdit; "'PreMO, tel

Pritldpitt", •••• ..., rdl;". There I, ao _- q_ 11_o "'1"'''''' He I. aext .bom DO one prela, or priasiplea. I BRletr. 1311. 8ee Pan,oIPu. oedel; ho i.I lut .hom nd no fbllo... Dig. 00.

P'ia~;pi •• ht ".." .. ia .. prsr. ""j'"'1''' rei. The 111. Ill.

~IDaia ~ i.I th. IIINt po.erfal ptlrL of a thiag. 10 Pru""'''', ttg{t ftti p'Itf!~'O legi. eblertlperot. D.

Cok., 411. llet pradantl,.lao obe11 the eowmandl of the Ia".

P,,,,,, Ie"'''''''', 1'«io, JNN. De .ho I. 8nt la 6 Coke, 49.

lilDe is p .... ferred in rlSbt. Coke, Lltt. 14 "I II P. PHerieNald""'lIg"'"eptJ'""' .. , Htlpole,,,.,,,..,

Will. 4 .. ; t T ..... , 733; II Wb.aL App. 2" ""H .,,'" du."pia" 1"'.'."'''' Cblldrea are of lb.

Pri .. ,", I't'ftHPI'''.;' Ia .. bil.r. A d.prlYII&Ioa p_ blood of thdr pareub, but tbe fatb.r Ind motbe.,

."... • .,.._ioa. 2 Roll .. 4111. are aot tI' tho blood of tbeir ohltd .. a. 3 Coke, 40.

Pri.trIW p"~i"ai'''' tloa dHbi",. .., _ ''''', j.. Pwpill". p",i 1"- a,,.. ;,"",Ugiltlr. A pupil I, _,..,..... There i. no doubt tbat tbe .r!,bt. of Dot eoolldered able to do aa act. whloh .uuld be Mb..I'11 .... otbe preJudiced byp.-ivatelgreemeob. prejudiolHI to him. Di,. 641.17. 11U. lI; 2 K8IIt, Dilt.l. II • .s. pr I Bru< .. , Mu. 3d Lond. ed. 1128. Comm.245.

Pri",,"',.. .."ar •• ti" i"" p,,6Iie.. ""'. tlel'Ofl .. t. P",...11" .. r ."illa"., """"f! ""t ob"'~d '0 d,'_er til

Prh· ... ..,.......eal. eanDCIt dero,lIte from pablie ' Me 0_ ANti. £I .. , Buuyier, In.L D. 68311. S.

Ia. DilJ. 60. 17.46. I. 1x'BA. PO'&IIPI4.

P,i_ •• eo""" •• pJ.litltl nei'!. PrI,ate "..ldI Ie p.blie pod. J.nk. CenL Cal. 273.

Pri, ••• iaro ... ,HI ... "",.lico ""." p" • ."",r. PrI..... iaCODyeai_ i. lIIade up ror by publio pod.

PrwiMp.- ... be.~.f!eilf" pe_"I •• , &I"'.gHil"r .... pereu".. A priYalo,e I. a porlOa'" beneBt and .; •• ith 'lie paI'IOIl. 8 BuIAr. S.

p, irilegi_ ellC '1""" ,."{fltlt" '.z. A prlynege I., .. 1& ._ • prlnee la.. 2 Bulltr. 188.

Pri.ileoJ;". ... ...,. ..",.,,.. rntp"bl;c",.. A pririle.. anl1. Dot a~ .. IDII, tbe comnlnDwealth. B_. lin. U: Broom, Mn. 3d LoDd. ed. 17.:

Jr.y. lIu. "h ad. 3-1.

p,. ".,_,.. "'kNr '" rloI" {.J.rl're dmi' ,_,;,u,.. H. i.I ....... med a "'_",r .hON ,.....

... ioIIla.1 ...... diltarbed by fraud or IaJUI'1. 08'. trl •. 'N.

Pre6aruli .-lttl, i_.b', illi ,Ill •. "It. The • _·.ity of proYiD,II ... Itla him whu .oel. Iu.t. 2 ••. 4.

Prw6cti_ d_., Hf" reM,..,., (itl,." ,_.,n- • /.l'Il. (.''''tigi. Proof'l _"ht to be ma"e frid .. " (illd.) el .... aDd...., to be alld.ntood. Cull .. Lilt. 181.

P"""',le ut_io, "_.;",, .. edia. The ozer... WiDe pro .. ..t, ''"' Intermediate prooeedinp Ire p,....... I O_I .. r, By. f 20.

P'_'" 1egI, .. t fIN"" ... .l'tltio. _",i" lrqi, ........ T .. ,...... or tIM I ... It .. rrin_

Q". ttb lattlttib". ~"1'l"'''''' nttfi'" ""i",,'lu, jlII.'.

Thln":l taken from public e"em.N imlDediatel, become tile property of the caplon. Inlt. 2. I. 17 t Grotlul tie I'''' n~lI. I. 3, I!. II. , 12.

QUit lIb ,.il{u iNulili. ft,;1 ;""il,,tio, N' ""., / .. t" r<m,,,I .. c.r. a"" "",,,.t. Aa Inllitutioll yold 10 lb. beginnlag olLnnol sequin y ... idity from after-matter. DI,. 08. 17. 210.

Q_ 0_'",;".. lot!N. obliallllt, eztj"!fII"""" rlhN 1',;,,",..,1 .. r.. ,.........1't. f".';",. Wbrn the prlaoipal ill dr.troyad, thl". Iflill,. wbleb Ire 10- _.,. to it are .. 1.0 deahoyrd. POlb:er, ObI. pt- 3, e. fI, arL 4; DI,. 33. 8. 2; Broom, Mn. 8d Load. ed.4311 •

QUit atl .,." .. jI.rfII '""",,ttl "''''1 " .... d.benl ,,,' .. U"", """"'1"e'''' Wordl.,.ken to nat! eDd ougb. Dot to "e po"erted to another. 4 Coke, 14 .

Q ••• ,,~,..,.en' per" .... Ii fin ......•• parn'; .''1NO""I. Thill!" •• hioh belon!: to the penon ou,bt noe to be .. para.ted froID tbe perIOD. Jeak. Cea&. Cu. 28.

Q". ,.".",.,,/1,,1 " .... '",11' ......... {.''''7'"" .. "II,,..

J •••• wblcb demllD'e from tbe eomlDoa law oUlh. to be Itrlotly coastrued. Jenk. Cent. Cal. 221.

Q". ronl,." ""jon~1II I""" {"'rntiud,, ..,",. a"'" J~1;re' Ir"AI In """"«1"""""'. Thla'!'. Intr!'dllcctl Gontnry tn tbe ,."lOn of tbe I"w nught Dot .. be draWl! into pnc.dentL 12 Coke, 16.

HAXIM

QIUI d"bila,iOlli. CIa"" 10ll1Hd. ''''''''.'H' COlli· III"""'" ulle ... II .... hId,,"I. Whatev~r il inlerted for the purpule of remuYing donbt dou !lot hart ur "eet the oommon Illw. Coke, Litt. 20S.

QII'" d.bi'u,i ... i. t .. U,,,d .. ca ... a ~"a.'ibu. ;". ,.r.III'"r,jJl •• " .. ,,,,,,,,, ."" l",dll"'. Partioular olaalel lalerted in agreemen!1 to avoid doubtl and am· higuity do not prejudiee tbe comm"D law. Dig. to. 17.81.

Q"It in ,,"ria aelll ,,,"1 ril. agi prlUlIlII""',,r.

Whatever il done in oourt ia preaumed to be righUy done. 3 Bulltr. 43.

Q."" ill parI .. diridi "'q" .. ,nl ."Uda, a ","gllii. p .. """alllll'·. Thingl (i.e. lerv;"el and rent .. ) wbioh oannot be divided into par!1 lire rendered entire by each loverally. 6 Coke, 1.

I Q" .. in 1 •• 'ameHla it« ."", .eripla ,,' ,·",.Uigi 110. P""HHI, perilld •• NlllfI(I.i Iflripla ",." ...... t, Thlngl wh:oh are 10 written in a will that the1 oannot be nnd~rat"od, lire a8 if the, had not b .. n written. Dig. SO. 17. 73. 3.

QuIt i"c"",iH.nler ... 1 cerIa fi"'" ,'" • ..,. widrlJl"r.

Wbatenr thlngl are d"ne at onoe and certainly, appear part of the lame trlUl'l1otion. Coke, Litt. la6.

Qu .. 'ul aU". o.'a '''01 "em;H; ft,..,..r. d.b.ftl, uti

p,."t/ •••• p "",. Tran.ao'iuns between strange ...

ma, benefit. but cannllt iojure, per.oDI wbo are partie' to tb,·ID. 6 Coke, 1.

(J". 1.lIi e""'"lIoi d.rO<J,,"t 'II' •• "", 1,."!tmJ,, iN ez."'I,I"",. 1'hings dero)l:atol')' to the common 1.11' are n"t to be drawn iDt.. preoedent. Bruch, Prine.

Oil" Irqi e .... "'''N. der,,!/alll .'ric'~ 'nl..-"rrl"ft,"r.

Tb .e things which derogate from the Clllllmoo 1.11' are to be oonBlrued Itriolly. Jenk. Cent, CIIS. 211.

Que ,,,,,l,, .HI" t'1I~h"llltr ill pri.t·'pi" r,·.e £"110 "''''11''''''''' • ett«, Things had in tb. commencelDent •• ·Idom end well. 4 Coke, 2.

Q.,,, H"" rahu,t .illll"I".ju"rla j"t""" Things whioh ID01 nnt avail lingl" wbe u united have an .1I'80t. 3 Bulstr. 132.

Q". p,·ltl.,. eGlI.uel1,di""" .t mnr_ mlli"n,," ji,,,,,, .-q'''' 1"""""', n'q". ,·tel" .';dffll"r. What Is done contrlLry to tbe ou.tom and ulage of our ancestors, ~eitber please. nor appears right. '" Coke, 78.

QUit propter "e,'e •• italenl re('cptft .""', HUH d,bn' iN arg""""'11 ... tr"hi. Things wbleh are tolerated on acoount of Decessity Ollgbt Dot to b. drawn into precedent. Dig. 60. 17. 162.

Oil .. , .• ,." ... "",,.,., " .... hib,"IIIr. ",dl, I'a' """. jlrn",!a ,"n'. Wbat i8 prohihil.ed In tbe nature of thing. CaD be oonflrmed b, no law. Finoh, Law, '14.

Q". I1,nl "",,,,,,.,.. ",tip", ... 11' ",ajnri. ;;'/"",i",.

Thin':s whioh are of tb •• maller gnilt are of the ,rellter iDfalDY. Ouko, Litt. 6.

QlIIlCIIII9r'fl int,." ra.imlnH It,.-" ;""mi""tNr, ''''''0 I.!I'''' '1"u", •••• judira",,,r. Wh.tever appears within the reason of the law. is considerad w itbin the law Iteelf. Coke, 2d Inst. 688.

QIIlI'libel COII ..... ·.. /<'rli ... ·nr. ",,"Irll .tI ... ,,,,,, ... ,,, i"'''1"·.'n.d,, .. ,. B\'er1 grant il to be t.,ken most strongly ag&lnd the grantor. Coke, Litt. 183 II.

Q",elibel j"ri.di.,io CIIRt~ll". '"'" 1Iab.,. Every Jurisdiotion bas ita bound-. Jenk. Cent. Oa •. 139.

Q,,,,,lib., paRa c'rrplJrlllil, qlla",.i. mill;"',., "'''i"r .. , .,,,ali6,' 1',.,,4 p •• ,,"ia,-i4. Every oorpornl pun. iahment, although the very lellst, i. greater .haD aD, pecuniary pUDlshment. Coke, 3d Inst. 220.

Q ... ",. de d .. /,ii •• '"11 .... 6,,,. di.cu •...• i,. In. quire intu doubtful points if ,.OU wilb to under· Itand tbe law well. Littletno. ~ 413.

Q"",r. d. dllbii., qu.·a 1'.1' ra" .. n •• p' ..... "il1,.. "tI 'If/i. i.", n, ral;"nem. Inquire Into donbtful poinll, becau~e by realonlng we arrivo at legal l'8&Ion. Litt.'eton, I 877.

Qqr ... , ~I .aper. '1"_ ",., "gil"o ".r~. To

150

MAXIM

inve,tigate II tbe wa1 to kDOW what thiDgB are reall1 lawfn!. Littleton, I "3.

(,Jlla/il ... q" .. 'u •••• d.b", /aeil. pr_",;hrr. A qnality which oUllht to form" ptu't ia _il,. prelumed.

QII"'" lollfl"'" deb.' .... ration. bile temp •• , .... d.ji'."lIr;1I 101/" •• d po"r/II e.r di",,·diu".iwotici.,.,·,,_ r'II". What is r.".u.abl. I; .. e the I.w d, el DO' nenlte; It ia left to tbe dilOrelioD of the Judl(~ Coke, Lilt. 66. See 11 Cuke, 44.

(,JOIU •• rlll;0Ila6i/;. d"I." _. jini.,.Oft deji.;"',., .~d fJ1J1tI;bu, ('1rev ... ta .. lii. ;""}Itt'll·. JI~'fdt1 ez jN." li<ia,.i"rH,1t di"'relit'.... What a reuillnable tiD. ought tu be I. not dellnecl, !rut is left to the dl ... cre'ion of the judges, all the cireUlll8taD08II lreiDI( oonlidered. II Ooke, 44.

(Jlla,""i. llliq"id p.,. ••• "" ";1 "'al .... 10"''' ... ";1 mali ''''"''pli, .,,'" "" /" .. ,."r/",,,. Althougb i.

itself a tbing Dlay n' t be ball. yl t ir it bold a'

a bad etamp:e it ia not 10 be dUDe. CuiIe,2d J L

664. .

Q""",r;. I,,,,, g .. "rolit., l"q""Hr, .... 'r;",""I. ',,,,,ell e.', It' ~t:"""ftte .,rrli(JN~ f't ,p"" w..at. Although tbe law Ipukl gfner"Uy, it i. to I .. re.t.ralned, .inoe wh~n the rea,"n (jn w!rich it 'founded fail., it fdls. Coke, .Ih Inst, S:iO.

Qt,und" ai"., p. "ri"" 11(1,1;., atl~.' l'ruri.i" 1'!1i_.

Wh, n a 1 rovill •• n or lite V.rt, ia luolo.ing. Ihe &r1'Ovi.l, n or the law i. at baud. 13 C. B. 1160.

Qlla.d" IIUq"id ",,,,c,·rli,,,r, e .. He,dil.r id ';11' 9"" m"" {I.,; "011 p"".it. Wben 801 thing is );ranled. thut a1.0 is grHnted whioul .. hicb it cannot be ut effect. II Barb. N. Y. ~16, 618; lU ;d. 364, 3e9.

Qlfo"d" a/iyll,'d fllCflld,,'"r. fHfllld"tJl,' d uu"''' per 'l,md ,.,.,.~"il'''· ad iIlNrl. Wben any thinlE I. c"mmanded, every thing by which it ean be aCl'omplished il .110 commanded. 6 Coke, 116. See" C. B. P811: U itl. lU7; 6 Esch. 10&6, 8M'; 10 .d. 4411; 2 an .... B. 8111; Story, Ag. "'.h ed. 110, I'll, 242, 2811; Broom, !tIu. 3d Lond. ed. 4:n.

(I"andtl aUqm'd prr .e ",,11 .it .la/HUI, ttTftI" ft· ft', ",,,Ii ..".mpli, , .. ", •• 1 !ari.HdHm. When an1 tbiDg by it8elf is not evil, and yet ma, Ire 8n enmpl. for evil, it II n.,t to Ire done. Cuke, 2d h.L 664.

Q .. "ud .. ali911iJ p""hibelur .'" direrlo, p,,,Aibel.r et ,.er IJbliqH'''''. Wb. n any thing il probibited IIirectly. It is allO prohibited indireotl,. Cok., Lilt. 223.

QII,II,do "lr'qN;d proll1·betHr. prnAib.hrr " .... ~ 'l,IIId de.m"'lIr ad .lIIId. Wben any thing il prohibited. ever1 thing b1 "bich it i. reached i. prohibited. Coke. 2d InRI. 411; Bruom, !tin. 3d Lond. ed •• 32; Wingate, Mu. 818. See 7 Clark &

F. Hon. L. 6U9, 6411; 4 Barnew C. 187. III:!; 2

Term, 261, 262 ; 8;d. Snl,411i; 16 M \V. Bub.

7; 11 Wenn. N. Y. 829.

(J1It,,,do "Uqlli. tl/iqllid COfIc.dil. ""ft""J .... ridrhtr ., ;d ";,,. 9uo r,·. ",i "" .. ,",, •• ,. When a peTlO. grantl a thiug. he is RUPl'oled to grallt that alao witbout .. blob the thing cannot be UBed. 3 Kent, Comm.421.

Qualldo elInrl" """,'i"., gttn.ral.m dalll.ll/alll, ", .. - e"q'" d .... ·,IIdil ad """"" '1,,,.ialia 'I". el"N .. i. 9t1,waU ."", ("m'ft'HtaHtu, ;1'f~''Prdn'NdB ~., f"A"rta ""","dum r"'ba .~eit1Ii". Wbe .. a deed cIIDtnin ... general clan.e, an,1 afterwortls de~eend~ to .poolal word., conRillent wilh the gfneral cllupe, tbe dee4 il to be cnnstrued aoollrding to the special wurd ..

8 Coke, 1M. .

Qu,,,,d,, d. "" •• , .4dm! r •• J"" "".rnbtu. ~:ri.tUII', " ..... , ,Ira i"'".8I"i.nl;a a/lerill'. d. 'Hlegro ..... Nlbil"r. When two perioD. are lI.ble ollncerDing one and tho .ame thing. if one makes d.·r.ult the other mUlt he.r the whole. Coke, 2d JOlt. 277.

Q'",R,I" di"P"';li" r./erri 1'",.11 lid d." •..... , ilo qHlul .eCMndHftI r,.lal;tMI"'IfI I".a. f)i';n'Hr el .~""dN. ,,/,.,"," ",ili. "'. I,,,,, lnr; ... r/a .. , r.I"Ii". "d ;IIa. ", .... I.al di.p".iti". When a dl'politioD may be madd to rerer to two tbiDSs, 10 tbat _ordin, ~

MAXIM

lIS 1

MAXIM

oae .. re noe it would be vitiated and b,. the I Qui flileriu.jure III,"IHr, eodrnniur. urI deb"', H.

other II ald be m .• de elf.etalLl, luch a refereaoe ... hu U"I tbe right of another ought to uac tho .nme,

IIIlUI be .ade Uaa& tJae diopu.illolllllalJ have etreat. right. Pothier, Tr. D. Oka,,!!o, pt. I, e. 4, ~ n<1i

e Cok., 78 •• Brullm. Malt. lid Load. ed. 421.

Q.o"IUl., diN ... i d ••• ·d.ralllv, fltr". ad ali9".. Q"i b.llt dioli''II,';I, b .... doc.'. He wbo dlltlll-

11." •• p.rjW,".Md" .... "INe ,..pici. "",,, a.llI .. orilli- gulehes well. teaches ell. Coke, 2d Inst, 470.

aa1... "bell ditrel'l'nt actl are reqainJd to tbe Qu," b.,.. ,'nltrro!!al, b do~et. lie who queatioal

r.naati~1l of all ... tate, the law chieSy ngarda Lbe I weillearal well. II Bulltr. 227.

origiDal aot. 10 Coke, 411. Qui ""dil d 'lIliabo ."di, d Md .au,,,. He whCl

QruuaJo d .... }al'u, .".eNI',...., i. u.4 ".,..",,4, i faill in a 1,.II .. ble fall I In his "bole eause, Dr.ct. ., ...... a.,.i _rill iN di"",..i,. Wbea two rigbu ful. 211; Stut. Wnl.s, 12 Edw. I.; 3 SharI wood, eaaear ill one penoa, It il the lame u if they "'~re Blacklt. Comm. 40;.

IIII .. o.pante "erllU:lI. 4 Coke, 118. Qlli ee ", ee dit ali'l"id, ",",Cld.,.. ",'d"II' •• id ,in.

Q ..... tlU jM ,J'"H;"i "lu ,t ."hd',i I'OIIcrtrr",,' pCl CIIMf",,,iu eolC "')-itrr, .i", (1'10 rei ;pw. elf'" 'Wft 11&0 regi. pra,.1' • 1k6.1. When tho right of tbo pn'uit. He wbo gn.atl any tblng is eonshlered III iII •• relgD and or !.he labjeat ounCllr, the rigbt or graating that without wi Ich bis grant would "tb, auvereillL'll ougbt to be preferred. 1 Coke, 128; idle, ... ithout whioh tbe tLing itl.lf oould not exiat.

Coke, Lilt 30 "; Broum. Max. 3d Lnad. ed. 6&.. 11 Coke, 62; Jeak. Cent, Cas. 32.

(J .... <10 Ie", "1,""",",, .. lielli "" •• ,"1, colI""dcre .,ide- Qlli """jir"m' .. ihi, dat, He who ooaflrm. doel

IItr id .,..., 9"0 r .. ip." c ... "". polett. Wbell Ihe Dot give. 2 Bouvier, lost. n, 20&0.

law gi ... Ra1 thillg. it gh'ea the meaal or obtailliag Qlli oollln.",il P"""tplum, conlem"il pr.Mpi."' .....

iL b Cuke, "7; 1I Keat, Comm. "21. He who oontemal the precept eunt.u.o. the partT

Q."u., ltz ali'/Hid fll,"CHi '''H""dil, 0""'0 iNM- giviag it. 12 t.:uke, 06.

~., ... t"eia "" .... 010.'.1'. Wben the law gives nn,. Q,,; ell. ,,10'0 oolllra"i" r.l "', e.l d.b., ... e .. OM thia~.lt g" .... taoltl,. what I. iaoicleDt to it. Coke, i!J'l"ru. """di.ionu 9"" He wbn .natmcta kno ... s, Jd hlL 326; Hub. 231. or oagbt to know, the qualit,. of tbe penoa "itb

<i do lez .li,t"id ""·9HO ....... edil. CB •• ,"'Nr.' whum bo contracts (otberwlpc ho II aot exeusable),

id Ii 9N" 1'.' 'i .. " ft ••• ,," 1""'.'. Wben tbe law . Dig. 60. 17. 10; 2 Hugg. Con •. ; Stol7, ConS. Laws,

graDII a tbiag to any one, it II'raau thut all" wltb- : f 76.

nt .. bieb tbe thing iuelf C&Dnut e&iaL 16 Barb. I Qui d", ji"tIfII, d"f m.di" ad jintfll no.e",,,ri... He

N. Y. 163. 160.. wbo give. an ead ,ivea tbo mellnl to tbat cad. a

Q".1tdo I"", .., .~ei"li" ratio nr,'_ gewwali" M .... 1211.

,erwrnlir.r Ic.c .11 iul.llige.d". When tbe la", il Q"i d •• , ... ';1 ",.di""" d •• t ... ,,·. jiR...... He wbo 1peCi3',hut iu rea'lOa isgear.rul.lhelaw ilto be un- d.ltroy. the Dle.IlB deltroys tbo e. d. I I eLk., del'8to.ocl pDerall,.. Cuke, 2d Ial'. 83; 10 Cuke. 101. 61; SI.e,'pard, Toucb~t. 3"2; Coke, Litt. ILl ".

Q .... d" {;e •• id 9HOel ."i"" ridetnr li.". id ,/H,.d Qlli d .. ;, i •• lItr,·ter "I ~., doil i"I,.,i,., "I JI'"

.i.... When tbo greater il allowed, tho le'8 Ile ",bo ougbt to laherit fl'l m tho foth~r ollght to _. til be all"wed allO. Shel)pard, Touchst. ~~9. In',erlt fr .. m tholl·n. 2 SlInnwucd, B'.~klt. Cumm.

Q.,..uz" pl •• flI 9""Ift .ft.r. dph." rid"I,u e'i"", 260. 273; Broom, Malt. 3<1 Lond. ed. 4MJ.

ill.dfori 9ruod.f,,,iud"IIf .. t, WI,en more il done Qui ..,.,·til ea ... a"" e.erl;I "0"''''11",/11'",... ... He th,. ought to be doae. th"t too .ball be ooa.ider.,d wbo onrlhrows tbe cause overthrowl ill futun u perfonaed wbleh sheuld bve been rarCorm~d ~ ell'eetl. 10 Coke, 61.

u. if a Ul"n havin~ a po .. er til make A lease for QI/oi e;It da."al" roi,,, .. " ....... ,"', iN'.1' U"troI ...... Ie. ,. ""' ..... &k. oae (or twenty year., It .ball be t""'pul.nfllr. Tbey who are born of nn illicit un II • • ,,101 0·,1,. for tbe lurplul. Bronm, MilL 3d Lond. Ibould net bacouated Amoall' children. Coke, Lilt. eel.. HIS; , Coke, 116; 8"".85 a. . 8. See 1 B,.uvier, la,t. a. 268; Dr.atlln, 6; DroLm,

Q ..... do ,,,Del "g" """ ralel .. , a..,,,, rllieal 9"""- Malt. 3d L, ad. ed. 460.

III •• ,,1.,.. I',of • .,. Wben that which I do doe. aot Qui /IIMI .tI 9110d "I", •• f, /Ilril id '1"od .. ,i"". haYe e"eet u I do it. le~ II b".,e u much etreat.1 ",, .ed " .... "",,,:il .. ,. He who doel that .. ·bicb ~ II eaa. 18 JUbUL N. Y. 172, 178; 3 Darb. Ch. N •. more doel tbat wbicb ia lUI, Lut aut "ice vcnL

Y. 212. 281. Draolon, 207 b.

Q"".tlo .... ." .. ""ld "I tJ!1fI, ""1.,,. ""nil'''. QII' fae-il per aU ..... Inril per III. Be "'ho actl

.. I •. y """". Wben. thia!{ i. or no foroll &8'1 do b,. or throagh anotber aotl himself; i ••• tbe nrte ut II, It lIIall bave &I mlloh u it caa have. Co ... p. an agent ara tbe act. of the principal. I Shrl- 100; Broom. Max. 3d L~nd. ert. ~83; 2 Smith, wood.Biack8t.C"mm.420; St0I7.AIl'.f"40;2BouLea.J. C .... H ~: 6 Baat, 10~; 1 Veau. :16 i 1 n. "ier, Ia,t. aa. 1273, 1336. 1336; '1 Mal)n • .t O. 32, Dlaobt. fIl.'. 620. 33; 16 M, e ••• W. 26: 8 Soott. 11. R. bllO; 41 Clark

Q· ..... tlo 1'.,6" ., III'.' "'"'gr"H.'. """ ... illl.tpre- .t F. Hou. L. 600; 10 Mau. 16$.

"',i".i I....... When tbe "'''rd8 ond the miad acne, Qlli , bel ;'u";.d,·, 1;",,_ "b.o,,"n.rli. 1t,,1>.1 j,ri ••

there il n" plAOa for interpretatioa. di,·li ", li!lfll,d;. He who h88 jurifdict ILa to

Q~"Hdo, Nr6 .. ", .. ",i 11,.1 .peeiali ... r",i" 'a"'e,,, 100Ben baa jurl.dictioa to biad. 12 Coke. 6U.

,. .... "fit. g.".,.ol;,., .",IIIIN'n ul ill,.lIi.qffld",,.. QII' / •• , .. , ill lilr,·o, "IItret ill .0' Ii... lie "'ho odWben tbe words of .. llatate are ~peol .. l. hut the b~rep 10 the letter adheres to tho bark. Cuke, ra_o or ubj ot or it II'8neral, the ,tatate II to be Lilt. 289; 6 Coke, "b; I I ;d. 34 bi 12 East, 372.

_atraed ~ellpral'y. 10 Cuke. 101 h. Qui 'poral 9',,, .. ,(1., IUte.,e dobeat, "" .. pol .. , ill

Q~ •• nd-tMM "d 9""'''''''_ /",,'i ..... pee"",,- p,,,hll. ","derr. He wbo doe. n,·t know "hat he 4t..'J"di<'eII, ,'ltI Gel qHft''"''''.'''i''"' n .. " r • .,.,...d.nl "ngbt to I'n1 deel not waat probitT ill DOt paying. 1-"""reo. Ia ·tbe aame mann.r tb.t Judgel do Dot Dijl:. 60. 17. 99.

U •• er to qu .. Uoal of f!lOt. In jurnl1l do IlOt anl"er Q",' ,'" i'" d"",;ni""," allert'" •• " ..... rlil Jllre .ju.

t. q_tiaDI nr law. Coke, Lltt. 296. III,' rI.hel. He "bn pu~oeeds to tbe right ur pro-

Q.i .te .... ", ;1II11f/l'a .Ii, •• " •• , "" .. .,;"',."....... rerty of Ronlher ought to u,e bil 1'llI'bt, i.e. holds it Let hha wb ... IICOUIII" be Ilt olear flme, and aot .uhJect to tbe Illme rigbl, Ind Iiabilltiel II atarimi""l. Coke. lid ralt. 28. tnchrd to it in tbe band. or tbe "Iign"r. Dig. 60-

Q.i ndi.,", .m;nI d,-,.;",;I./I".... He who tak... 17. 177; Broom. Mall. 3d Lond. ed. "20, 426.

a.a,. tit. meaal ... tr",.1 tbe pod. Cnke. Litt. 161. Qwi ,n "'e,." ul. ".... J"'" Itolo A .. b.III' 9Nof,· .. de • Q"i II1i".;d .',,"'wil p"rl. ,,,,,,,dita "/I,,·a, "'q'IN" tJN' ,..,,,,,,,,,d,, q_rilur. He "'hn II In tbe ",omb II Ii .... dilerit, lI"ad """no. /actri,. De wbn drcidel olln.idered &I born, ",heae"er his beuellt i. oonaD,. tbinlf, .. put,. beiag anbeard. Iholl," be eemed.

,h-'ald d .. ld. rllI'bt. dou wron,. 6 Coke, 62; • Qui i." "'0 Hit"", ... _in;· I,,~il i .. j •• -1"",. H.

Biaeb&olle, 00_ 481. wbo UIeI hI. I.,al rl,bta harma nu Olle.

MAXIM

152

MAXI.

Qlli jll"" jN";,," aliqlfOllleeeri' ..... ,"·rhl.~ dol" ."/0 I •• ;,.,e, qHid p"re~. _ ••• ,. H. who due. lolly tblng by oomm.ad or a Jadge wlllllut be lUll· posed to bave acted from an imp")ptlr Dlotive, boo oause It " .. aeculary to obey. 10 Coke, 76; Di,. 60. 17. 167. 1.

Qtei ",,,1. "gil, odit I ... "",. He wbo &etl badly lIate. the ligbt. 7 Coke, 611.

QII; """Id", i,,_. I.<i •• i ",·d.twr. He wbo onm· Bland. (a thing to be done) il bold to bave dOlle i~ blmaelf. Story, Bailm. I H 7.

QII' no,lill' p,·"blll, ",.Ii". !&abe,. He wbo proftl most reoover~ most. II Viner,·Abr. 235.

QIII' n"'Ut.~ i ... idi". ill pall'ialll, id lam' 'lued ''''UUII HtUlta pe,.P"ofJW. H,,,·.,B ira '1"4 .elli'",·. n. wbo betrays bil ooantry i8 like the In lane IIIlIur wbo bore. a bole ill the .bip wbiob oarri .. him. Coke, 3d Inst, 311.

Qlli HtJlfcilNr ,in, l~g"';""o .a'';".",.;o, ."dr ... "q"illl~. He wbo is hom out of l .. wful lIIatri· mony followl tbe condition of tbo mother.

Q", NO'. catl,.,,, itt ml".'""'r,,, "';,,,., "filii Ii.ore. ... 111 "'i"",,,di. Tbo.e are to be nt..,med vain tearl wbioh do Dot deat a wall of a Ibm mind. r Coke, 27.

Qlli """ lobe" ill. '''''' dol. Wbo baa Dot, be ,ive. not. Sboppard, Toucb.t. 2":1; " W.nd. N. ·Y.619.

Qu' Rnn. !lab.. in .. ,. 1"", {II corpnre, H~ q"i, """,.,"~ impu.... lie wbo oaDnut pay witb bi. pu"e mUlt 8ulfer in bis pe"on, l .. t Ia. wbo ulfench .hould go unpullisbed. Coke, 2d Inl&" 1 73; , BIDckst·,ne, Cumm. 20.

Qu' liON h"bel 1"', •• ,,,,..,,. .U,,,,,.d,· lid., """ ..... 'nl.1II r.';".nd.. lie who bu' not tb" po"er of alienating i. obliged to retain. Hob. 3:ltl.

Q nfl" i"'p""bal, ."P",,/)(I', He wbD doel not

lIi pprove ap'pro1'oa. Cuke, 3d Ia.t. 27.

Q"i 11011 llhre v.,;lnl.", p"",,",,<:ial, pmd,'Il>r tI' ..... il"'i.. H. wb" doel not freely speak tb. trutb .. a betrayer of tbe truth.

Qllj ,!Un u6ot"t '1"od "b"a,. pot .. , In., ...... id.,..,.

B. wbo doci not preYeDt wbat be oaD, _WI to *>mmit tbetbing. Coke, 2d In.t. 148.

Qui ,,,, .. prr,/aib" cllm p~"Aibe~e """",J"bel. He wbo doel Dot r .. rbi,lwben be oaD forbid,oummandl. 1 Shar,."ood, Blaok.t. Comm. 4:i0.

Qlli 11011 pruloib., q, .. ,d pr"laib~" p.'nl auenlir. .idel",. He who doe. not forl.id wbat be oan for. bid, .. ema to .... Dt. Coke,2d In.t. 3011; 8 E.~ob. a04.

Qui nON prnp""'"t ,'''J"r'',,,,, qNnnd" pot"', i"/."', ne who 11"01 not repel a wron, wben be 0l1.li, UOlllloo • Ionl it. Jenk. Cent. C .... 271.

Qui "f,.'MAi' 0,(;1",", d""'"il .."mmod.",. n. wbo olll'ruo&8 an .ntranoe d .. troYI a oonveDleD01. Coke, Litl. 181.

Q,,' 0111'" dicil, ",'1oil Mel"dll. He who lAyl all naludes notbing. Cokt,4tb Inlt. 81.

Qlli p",.i, "" • .",.b". ;IIN"ceNI.b.. P,,",·I. n. who .pares the guilty puni,hel tb, ianoeent. .Jenk. Cont. Cu. 128.

Qlli ,,,,,,.,,, ebriM., I",., ... b,........ He wbo olFelld. drunk mUlt be punilbed wben aober. Car. 1;13.

Q,,' p., ali"l11 1,,';1 per .";p .... Ineere rirJ,t .. ,.

He who doel 8ny tblnl( througb a.n,·ther i. oon· Iidered &I doing it biIDI.lf. Coke, Litt. 268.

Qlli per ",n"delll "gil, I~u.'rrr "1"'. He wbo act. fraudulently aot. ID V&ID. 2 Roll •• 17.

Q",i prJle.,.t d.bel "',,re, .i"bet. He who 0&11 ADd • ught to forbid, aDd d .... aot, oommand ••

(JR. pri ... " .. p' •• '" iUe laci, ri"",... He wbo trat olFenda O&u..,. the atrife.

QII; p~io, •• , I_po"" pul;"r .. ' j"re. He wbo I. tnt or before In tilDe i. Itronger in rlgbt. Coke, Lilt. 14 ,,; 1 Story, lilq. JUl'. f 6~ d; Story, Bailm.

t;U2; 1 Boavler, In.t. n. 1162: 4 iG. 37211; 1 Smith, _d. C ... 4tb Hare & W. ed. "4; 3 B .. t, 113; 24 1I1Ia. 288.

Qlli pro ... aliq.,·d laml, .. ilti I,.m- ftu",\ He who do .. aDy beDellt (to &Dotb.r) for me it oOlllidend u doing it to me. Cuke, 2d IDat. 1101.

Qlli prt>fliJeI "bi, prorirJet It,.,..d,·6,,,. He who provide. for bim"'f provide. for bi. boil'll.

Qlli .... ti« .. em i" ""A'·.'" q_'VII', raliotN • ...I. """",,t. He wbo .. eka a l'eUOD for every thlD, lubvertl reelOA. 2 Coke, 76; Broom, Mu.. 14 Lond. ed. 149.

Qui _d •• aotle", r.""a";"reric, ""pU •• rep.,.".. """ pole.,. He "bo reDOUDoe. his action once eanD"t aDY 1II0re "rial iL. II Coke, 59. Sea:R&TBAXIT.

Q"i .. ",eZ "'01 ... , te .. ".r pr ..... ""·'lIr ._ .. 01 ... iA ""d .... I, .. ,.,'e. He who I. oaee bad ia presumed to bo a1w.YI 80 ia tb. I .. llle degree. Cruk. Car.

317; But, Ev. 346. ,

Qlli .. ",ii "' .... 04 ... , ,",.ire debe' ., OIIU'. He

wbo deriv bellellt from a tbing ougbt to bear

the diaadvant&gu atteDdiD, it. 2 Bouvier,In.t. D. 1433; 2 Woodb. & M. C. C. 217; 1 Stur. Cunat. 18 i Broom, Max. 3d LODd. ed. CIao.

QH' .. n,it 0"", .. nlire ".6 •• d _ .. ,.d"",. 1 Coke, 119 a; Broom, Max. lid Lond. ed. 638; 1 Ser ... .t R, PeDD. 180; CIKJ&e, Mortg. 3d eeL 617 (d); Franoi., Max. 5.

Qui "cel cou'lIlir. f1id.hll'. He wbo II aileDt appeal'll to aonlent. Jenk. CCDt. C.a. 32.

Qui , ••• , c"".",'i,. "id.,,,~ ,.hi Ir"elal.r tle ~ conl."do. He wbo i •• i1eDt I~ eonlid.red aI .... al.ing, wben biB "dvantage i.,debated. IIlIIod.38.

Q.i I.HI au. .tiq'" 1"'''''', .,d ''''''eN reM"" e ., ...'" non "'11"'" He "bo i_ .ilent doe. nut iadeecl oonren. bat yet it II true tbat b, d_ IIOt deD,.. Di.(.50. 17. 142.

fJ'" tardin, ... le,·I. ",i"", tOlri" Be wbo pa,.. tardily pay. Ie .. tbaD be ougbt. Jeak. CeDt. C ..... 38.

Qlli Ii",."" ~"c",',' ,;,,,,,,. Tbey wbo fear tak. oare HDd avoid. or. lilx. 162; BraDch, PriD"

Qui r"ll d,.ipi, d ..... l'inl.'. Let bim "bo wilb.e to be deoeived, be d.ceh·ed. De Gex, III. " U. Cia.. 687, 71 0 i Sbeppard, Tuuob.t. 66.

QHirqHid a.q"i, itllr ,,,,'roo ".'1";"·',,r tl_ ......

Whlttenr ia laqui"d by the I('r1'&Dt i. acquirM for Ibe malter. 15 ViDer, Abr. 327.

Q"i."vid d.""",.,r"',, r,i addilHr .ali. d ...... - ,'rol"I'."','" ~.'. Wbatever II added to tb. d ... IOriptioD of a tbing a!ready tolliaiently d_ribe4 II of nu .ft'eat. Di,. 83.4. 1.8; Bruolll, Max. ad LOlld. ed. 662.

o."q",·G ... to,,'rn """"0. r.,.,i ,.t iajlfrio..

Wbaten-r I. aplllit 'he rule uf rigbt II a wroDa • l! Bulltr. 31a.

Q"icqnid i •• ;rc._ acl .. ", e.', loy. proli6ittrr.

Wbnte"er I. dnl'. in noel' il prublbited by 1a •• Cuke, 2d lalt. 107.

Qui,·y"id i"di';. aHrlorila,j •• 6i ... ·INr. .oriltrli .'''' ''''dicillir. WbRtner i •• ul'j"t to tb" autbority of a Judge b Dot lubject to ianovaUoa. Co .... 4tb Ia.t. 66 •

Qllirqllid pl",,"''''r 110111, ",,/0 .,d.1. Wbatey., I. amud to Ibe loil beiODg. to It. WeDt. 011'. Ea. 145. Ste Ambl.lIS; 1I Eut,61; F,XTII .....

Q"ir'l"id re';pilllr, ,..i";I"r .. clI.dH'" .oll". r.r,p;,.,.,i.. Whatever II received ia reeei,..d 10- cor,ling to tbe inlentillil of tbe reoipient. Hmo .... Max. 3d Lond. ed. 727; Halhn, Max. 149: La. Mac. 11155, p. 21: 2 BIIIgb. 1'. C. 461; 2 B.rnew. " C. 72 i 14 Sim .• Cb. 622; 2 Clark & F. Hou. L. 6811 2 Crompt. .t J. Bsoh. 678; 14 BHII, 239, 2~1I e •

Qni"'l .. id .0/";1." ... I .... ·' .. ~ _1I"d ••• oll •• eo'. "",'0.. What.Tor II paid il to be .pplied _rd. i'Dg 10 the Intention of tbe P.10r. J Vera. lOa.. See ApPROPRI.TIOII o. P.YMRIITI.

QUI'd .il jN', ., iN '1"" _ •• '14 ;"iNn'a, legi' ... d'jlAir.. What oODstitutea rigllt, and wbat iDjuf7. it la,the bUlia ... "f the law til tkolan. Cvk .. LU&. US II.

IUXIH

]51

MAXIM

q,,; ....... 0_'. Not to anlettl. thlag. wbioh ; lity, i. n .... i' Introduoed .:leapt .hea a_a17.

an .. t&blialaed. 28 Barb. N. Y. 9, 22. 12 RoUe, 612.

Quil;'" ,...,.., ren".e; .. re j"ri pro ., i."iueM. Qllod ee' illeon .... Wte •• all' r",,'ro ra,imll'" "0.

ADY ODe m&J' renoan" a law inuoduoed for hia . fHrIWi_. e.';" l.ge. Wbat II iDaOD\·.nienl or eoa- 0 ... heneiL To tbis rale tbare are 10m. exoep· tr.rl to reuoD, Ie not aUowed ia law. Cuk., Litt. tioaL See I BOIlvler, !aIL n, 88; 8 CurL C. C. 3113; 178.

I Ixah. Uf. Qwod tift "ee_rt'"", .. ,lic;I_. Wbat I. n80 ...

Q.i",,,;. pi Hlil J",;, _"'''''' A .. bert', _ .ry i. lawfuL JaDk. Ceut. C ... 7C1.

li._ "",ti , "'i' .. "''''''''''1118 do ... ". Who. Qwod /u.'" ••• t, ev", i" ot.oc.ro ",, 'II! "1I,efi_

rv.r wilh .. to he beld a jllrilOonlult, lat him eea- "i".,,,, cap;' i."'·p"'ati __ . WheD there I. tiuaU, ItwI.1, and deeire t!I be taught bl eve17 doubt about an aot or exprel.l"a, it ee ee IT •• iDter. body. pretaUoD from the (kDuwn) feelingl or atr .. t.ioal

Quo lira"'r, eo d;.",IIIi,",. .As a thiD' Ie bouDd, of the actor or writer. Dig. 60. 17. 1611. 1 .

.. iL ia aAbouad. 2 Rolle, 21. Quod JIc" d,tH, /"eil, pr.,."".il",. ThRt i. e .. n,

Qn-l'" ~ ".lit. 11'_" .. ,1&, .. odo poni" pre.amod whl.h ought to be dODO. Bukon, MaL Iu lIDy .ay ha wishe .. ill 1ID1 "81 he 01lDo 1& 163.

lubal. N. Y. 484, '"2. QH"d fl.ri .. Oft d.IHI,/o«_ ""Id. What ougbt

Q.od d ,.", •• ptImlllIO .. i". calli .... , id eid_ not to be done, wben dUDe, i. "aUd. II C"ke, 31l; ""'i"', ....... 0 eogilllr. That whi"h h .. hoen ex· 12 Mod. 438; 6 Mee ••• W. Buh. 68; II id. 686.

laled .. a peaall1 DO ODe Ie obUsed \0 nltore. Q .. ud ill Jllr. -,)1" "j ... " app.II<I,.r, id 'n l~.

Di~. 50. 17. 44.' ""gli .. "rect""," .... ,1i.""T. Wbat in Ihe aiyil

Qtoud .. 6 imlio 11011 "alet, i. frcIe'" _pon. 110ft law il oalled "j •• ," la tb. law or England I, Rid _..t_~I. What II aot guod in the beginalng to be "T.ell ... " (right). Coke, Lltt. 260; Fleta, 1. eaDaut be rendered gOlld by time. M.rlla, R6p. I 8, o. 1, f 1.

_II. Regie tk Dr0i4. Thil, thoogh true ID pD.r"l, I Q.od in .i"ori ""I.,, ""t.I>i, {II "'tljort'j ., qll04 b DOt IIni1'8rsa1ly 10. 'Coke, 26; Broom, MaL lid i .. ",ajo" "" •... l.t, ... e .",I.bit 'If •. i .... ri, Wbat LoDd. eel. 166, 172, n. ; anU. in the lei., will anU ID the grea""r; .nd

Q'"'" ad jM 1IGIuro1. ..ttiR., ""'"U loMi" .. ' ,.bat will Dot anil la the greater, .ill nu. a1'8il ia .,."k. ,1&,,1. All men are equal &I (ar .. the . the le8ll. Coke, Litt. ~60 .

.. tan I law Ilooooemed. Dig. 50. 17.32. . QNIJd in " ....• imilium ""I.t, " .. I,W, ill "" .....

Q_I"ijlca'III';N .. re41'f1 .. t4 •• dl, I'o"to. What. ~ What anil. In ene or 'w" limilar lhlngl, wm avail ever I. bailt upon land givea by will p&IIel with I iD the other. Coke, Lilt. 1111.

the gift of th. laad. AmOl!.t; F .. Fixturel, 2d ed. Quod ilfeotlIHllo /.ei .. "., ~_1Ii ... "'''''~'''''''

241; BI"OCIDl, Max. lid LODd. eel. 87'1. Wbat i» done wlthuut aonliderallon or rd .. tlon.

QIIOfl .. lia. 60 .. 11111 eI jut •• "', ei p'" ft. ".1 apoa bett.r oonlideration wo .huald nvoke or DDdo. /rtI.dni ""''''''', ... l"III et ;'!iN" ••• 'JlidlNr. Wbat leDk Cent. C ... 116.

Ia otherwi .. lood and jalt, it .ougbt bl foree or QN' •• , iN;,i" .. i,i,,,,, ... ,.t, """ p",nl ""'rtll '''''poN'

er.ud, hecuDlfll bad aad alljuat. 8 Coke, 18. """r .. l_,.... Time ORnllO\ render ,.alld an act void

Q~ ali ... "an/"i"lci"'.,IH ... itDltlia,"tu"./aci,. in it. origin. Dig. 60. 17. 211.

Neeaa:ty mak .. tbat lawful whicb other. I .. w.re (I."d ipoi" qlli """"0",'''",/, nl,,'"11 et .", ... ""ri·

anlawful. Pleta, L 5, a. 23, f 14. II" ... ",em ob.'abil. That whlah bun tbo.e wbe

Q ... d "1'1"""" flON rep","", Wh.t I .oeept I do have ocDtra~tcd wm bar their auooealora allO.

D·.t reject. Broom, Max. 3d Land. ed. 6.:6. Dig. 60. 17. 103.

Q .. Hl .. ni_ ad jM ei.iI., Hr.i pro ""Ili. Adm· (/""d j /teri ..... ,leitNr 'pro '0 •• '1""" ;pri

I,,,, .... " Cd_a" joIre .01"Nd;, ,,,ia, 9,,"d ... 1 jll' ",111'" 1. That wbich i. I'ald bl tbe order ot

''''.,ale "Uiut. 0 .. " ... "" .. i .... "'1",,1 .... t, So far I aDolher 10, 10 far RI ncb penon il eoaeerned, &I If asthe.irillaw iI_ovned, lines are aD, rackoned I It had heeD p.ud to bim.elf. Dig. 611. 17. 1:0.

al periOD" bUI Dot 10 bl aaturallaw, for 10 far "a Q.",,, .,ftC .. ",, .. H. facto .i •• d./ ee t. 110'"..,. ,.~ards natural. law all men are equal. Dig. 60. ""'illi .... i ..• Ii" .. ,,,,"IIj.rri """ p"'"'' That 17. 32. whioh II ourl aannot I.e lod or traDlferred 10 aa-

Q.od _at .. , ria", "". d.tHl fJ.rijltoar.·. Wbat other wltb, ut our own ad or default. 8 ('oke, 112, b elearl1 appareDt need not be pruv.d. 10 Kod. Broom, Max. 3d Lund. cd. U6; 1 PUltoD, Ablil'.

1.>0. 141, lIlS.

Q.od _ ... , ..,.;. op.re lem ••• 0" ;RtliO.' QNod IW", .... , ...... M. tI~/er,,' "" .. pm"" What

What appean to the conrt aeed. not the Iaulp of I. mine elLnllot be taken a.ay wit bout nl)' on.aeDt.

.itaeu... Coke, 2d lut. 682. Jank. Cent. Cu. 261. BDt _ EIIIIIIIIIT DOli AI ••

Q."d ..... ,ra j ...... r"IiOll ... rrffIJl ••• at, non ,., Qllod MiuN' ~., iN ObU!ld,im,enl ~;d"", d"1".,,, ••

l'""d" ... IHl_ 011 """'.,lIftt,io.. Wh •• t b .. boea Id. I 'l'hat wbioh i. the Ie •• i. beld 10 be impnrt.d Into .. itled a«&inat the l'8II.on of the law, oaght not to I the aontraet: •• g. A 08er. to hire B'. bn"ae lit ai. ba drawn lllto preoedenta. Dig. 60. 17. 141 I l:l I huadred donan at tbo .ame time B nile" to let I_ Cok .. 7 ~ fur eve huadred dnllara; tile OI'DIl'llot II for live

Q.nd en.'ro I.,_fl',pro ,',,/ot!ttl ""II",.,. Wbat huadred dollan. 1 8tory, Contr. 'Ib .d. 481.

II clone ooAtr"17 to the law, il oOD.idered u not Qu"d fill"',..."" ratio ;,,'or ,....... I"",i" ... , ... do... 'Coke, 31. No "lie oaa derive 1ID1 adV8Il. .til"it, r"rtl'ur i'" g ... ti."... That lI'beh ndural tap froUl .DOh an aot. relUlOn h ... eltahll.htd omollg all meD, I. called Ihe

(IN.,J dll' .... ",..,.1 ..... , dnt_ .. , INo. Whatl. I"w or lIa'illo" DiR. 1. 1. II; lnlt. 1. 2. 1; 1 Ji .. ea to the ahorab. ia givaD'to GcxL. Coke, 2d 8hanwDod, Blooklt. Comm. 0.

Iut. .5UO. Qw,,d H ..... O' ii i"t,Il'gi'Hr id "". Ii_I. What

QIIOtl tI.. .... ',..."di COl".4 addi,., ...; .. ti. d... I, neoeu.rlll uDdentood ia not w.nting. I Bul.tr, ... .,Mce./r._.ilI. What ia added to a thiag n.

IUllleiently palpal.re, rur tbe pUrpOIfl or domonl"a- QNod ....... 'n. ~"fI'.,. d,/",tlil. Wbat D ..... I"

&oea. ia ... 111. 18 Cok., 113. roroel, it jUltilles. lIal., Pl. Cr. 64.

Q .. Ifl d .. 6i' ....... / ••• ri •. WbeD 1C1u doubtaboo' o- •. d "" •• P1'''~' , ..... uf, " HOII "I'P"ref Jttdi-

• thia,. do D<4 do it. 1 Bale, PI. Cr. 810. .,·aW., .... '" j,.d'';"... Wbat .pr-n lI11t .(_ DO'

(IN..d niM ._.1 .", 6;' utail, ,.,. .. ' .... H., '''g;'. exilt, .,,4, nothiDI appeara jutilolall), bef. re JudI.......... Tbat .hlob Denr bappenl bat 0." or menlo Coke, 2d Jnlt. 47U I JeDk. l'ont. Ca •. 201. t .... J.;dalatort paaa bJ. Dig. 1. 3.17. Q""d.OII "'f>1" Clri.", ••• npi, } .. ",.. What the Q""" '" ,,I ....... im'" ."'7"0" 'R'rod"eitu" .in ollureh doel no. lake, tha V_url take.. Year Do r...w --"- Wbat ... bWod.uoNoIlI_ 111 Ua. VI. 1.

MAXIM

154

MAXIM

Qnod 11011 "nbet p"'""ip,'''11& "D. Aa"'" /1""., I./"od ._el .tv. ,0' '""1'';''' ...... " .... -

Wbat hILI no be"inniDg bal DO end. Coke, Litt. poI • .,. Wbut is enee mine OMOnot Le lIIin. m"", a4S; Broom, Max. 3dwnd. ed. 170. 171. oompletel,.. Coke, LltL ~II h; thepp.rll, T~uch.&.

Q .. xJ """ legilllr, " .. " crod.'"r. What i. Dot read 212; Broom, Max. 3d L. ad, ,d. 416, D.

II Dot believed. 4 Coke. 3U4. Qllod ...... 1"1,,.11,·, i" .I ee ,i"" e, ""pU". d.i.plienw

0 .. ",' .,," "al., ill priacipalia, , .. nc"".eoria... ROIl p,,'r-.', '1 hat wbicb in m"kiDg his ell~ti<.n a eo""'1"eHli .. "" •... ,.MI; ., 'I"ad lI,m flal., i ... of/'·' mlln h .. oDae bUD "lARd to cboo.e, he C&IIDut p""pi"'lno, " ..... ,d.bi, i,. R,a!l;. """,,',,. Wbat 11 afler.IOrds qUllrrel .ith. Coke. LitL HI!.

Dot gond .. to thiDg. priDcipal, 1I'iII Dut be good u Q .. "d ... ", i"aaiji.a",r 00/" r.di,. Wh.tever i. to acoeeloriee or oon •• quennel; aDLI what i. Dllt IIr buHt OD tbe ,un i. an Nlce .. ory of the I .. il. Inllt. roroe at regard. thiDg. DB ..... ill Dot be of (uroe.. 2. 1. 211; 16 Ma ... 4411; 2 B(lul'ier. Inlt. n, 1~i1.

to tbiDg. rewute. 8 Cuke, 78. Q,,"d aub ",'III/om,a C""C'"'''' "., roHn''''".

QII"a NHlli". ""'1"""'. id '" OliMfj ... /I.rel .lIll.. ",, ..... ImAilllr oa ro/r" ••... 1 "",,,,,"1;,,,,.,,,. obUllal;" ~a"" ~Jllcere. No agreement eaD avail to That wbicb b granted or reRlVed und.r a t'ertaia. make that tbe "ropert,. of ROY ODe .hiub caD DoL rorm, I. Dot to be drawn Into valu.ti~D or compcD-

be &8quired &I property. Dig. 60.17. H!2. .atioo. Baeon, Max. Reg •••

Q,,,,d N"lIi", •• t, •• , d".,i"i r.I"'.. Tbat whioh Qlfud ",bi",.IIi/li,.r If"" de .. " Wbat b IIDd.l-

belongl to nobody be:ongl to our lord the king. steod II not •• DtiDg. 2 Ld, Ra,.m. 832.

Fleta, 1.3; Broom, Mu. 3d L,·nd. ed. 31 j; BaGOn. Quorl lacil. illl.lUgil"r de .... "0" rid.,,,r. \fh., Abr. P'·.""lIwitJe (B) j 2 Sha .. wuod, D:aoklt. il taoi!!,. underatood dOel DoL appear to be WaD&-

Cumm. 2611. IDg. 4 Coke. 22.

Qlfod ",./ti". ~., id rnl'· ..... ""'II",li "o~lf"anti Q,wd ,,110""' .1 i""'il. e,'. In ROIl rC'l"i,,·'. Tbe

"""oNi'Hr. What beloDg. tu no one, by natut.1 law do .. Dot lequire wbaL 11 niD lind uI.I( ... rea'OD belon.g. to tbe 6 .. t ocoupant. In~t. 2. 1. Coke, Litt. 3111.

12; 1 Bouv,or, IDlt. D. 4.111; Broom, Jhz. 3d Q .. "a rrl';' eoar« rnliOflm jllri. rH"P''''" til. """

Lund. ed. 316. e.' pr"dffc .... d,,'" lIa COH •• ,U.",i".. Dut th.1 .hi~1l

Quod .... Ne. lalloit, "b o,."ib". d.I''''IfP1'"rl"ri. h,lI been &olmitted cODtrary tu tbe re&fon of tbe h,w, That whiob concern. all ougbt to be suppurted by ought nllt tu be dn'lI'D inlo preoedentl. !Jig. L a.

all. 3 Huw, St. 'l'ri.ll, 8IH, 1087. 14; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 160.

Q .. ud pe!idel, N"" fIJIl 1"" ee, 'llfo.i ,il. Wbat Is Qu,.d ruluil' ..... di.zil. He did not fay wbat ...

in .UlpenR i. considered a. Dut czil:.ing .duriog , intended to, I KenL, CumIn. 46~. D.; • Alaul. "

allob luapenle. Dig. 60. 17. 1611, I. 8. 6~2, "r/N I Jobn •. Ch. N. Y. 236.

Q"ud per "'" "0" p', .... III, Ree per n'sHm. What I QUOdClllfq'" "'i,,,;. ub ,,,,.I,,n, (", P"ri. ,"i /""0';'

aaDnut do in p8ra ... D, I olin nut do tbrough th. illr. id l'c;,,, "M""r. Wbatner "D~ do .. in d ... &geDo,. of aDotber. 4 Cuke. 2 ~ b; 11 sd. 87 ... ten". flf hi. perlon. tbat bo il oonBidend to ha ...

Q .. "d ".r lire "" .. 1''' .. " .... ".0 l .. r aU".... What 1 dune Irgally. Coke, 2d Inst, 6110.

caDnot do for mYR.f I oonnot do througb thB Q,mdq". di .... I,il"r .,1d.,H .,od" 9"0 liO"'Hr. Ia.

ageooy o( aDutber. 4 Cuke, 24 I.; II id, 87 n. tbe 80me mIlO ncr that a tbing ie bOUD.I. it i. UD-

Quoaper reeord .. ", pr"baflflH, .. " .. deb.t .... ""11"- bound, 2 Rollo. 311; Ilruom, 11&&. 3d Lond. ed.

I",". What is provod by the rooord, ought Dut to 788; 2 Manu • .t G. 7211.

be denied. QM"'""d.. '/"id co .. .,il",·h,r end ... "",d." di .. "i"i,,,,..

Q"od 1"'1',,111, ptJIIlramN'" j .... il. idjl" ral"", .. ,,,. In .bate" .. modo .. tbiDg II cOD.Wuled, in the Wbat tbe!eoplo b"ve I",t enacted, let thllt be tb. lame manner il It diuuh'ed. Jlnk. Cent. Cal. 74. .. tabUlhe la.. 1 8b.rn,00d, DIAOkat. Cumm. bll. Q""""D' p,' .. teet«, ".0 aUII" .fe ,"iH"il •• "'~"'ia .. ,

O"ori pri,.ci/,i plac"i,. f'!li. Au"" riy",.....; "'pul. ..d lalltun, c"''./I'"'''''' p". ",i •• ". .. Qllor" .. pr",ula" ..... WII. roll'· ... 'lM. d. ;",I .... ;u 'j". lat .. ",, 1"'1'11/"1 neitber inc~u .. Dor dimlnilhel tbe menDing. bui ri ct itt ""N ""'". 'NII8I imperi" ...• 1 po'al",.", co .. - ooly eODfirml tbat whicb •• nt bef..... Pluwd. 1I2. f.ral. Tbo.ilI of the emllllro.· b ... tho force uf 1./1101,. .... d"bi .. i"'.'prd",;o fiberl",i. nl, •• ra.law; for. by tbo royal law whicb ha. been mu.dB all". Ub.rlnlom r."P",,,f.,,d .. ,, •• ,.il. Wbenev.r lbe .. aoncornin" hi. authurity. tbo peup!e hu oouCurred I." duubt bet,,'een liberty &Dd Ilavery. tbe dl~8ioa. upon him all It. own luvereigDty anJ pu •• r. Dig. mupt be in f.,·or (If lihcrty. Dig. 1I0. 17.20.

1.4.1; ID.t. 1. 2. I; Fleta, 1.1. 0.17,,7; DrU8- Qu",i,,,. id ..... ermo auo •• nl.Nlio •.. zp.,· .. i" ...

tOD, 107; Belden, Di ad l'lel. C. 3, U 2-0. "oli •• i .. " •• I,-tpi"'lfr, 'l". r.i g~I·."d. fI",iur •• t.

Q""d pri", .. , ""i ,.,; e' q""d I'ri ..... 1 , ... - WheDever tbe 10llle words eZl'relS tWII meaninR~

f",ra poli ...• ., jHr.. \Vh"t II first i. true.t; and tbaL i. to be taken whicb II the better lillo'll fur wbMt oome. lint ID time is bo.t in la.. Coke, Lltt. oarrylng out the pr .• pO«C!d end. Dill'. 60. 17. 87.

3U. . Q.,uli .. iN ,'ip"/"'ioHib,,. "",bi".,a "mli" "". <'0lIl-

Q""d pM .. inllre U.il .. ", .at. ~, pro .,n)"re li.il".. ..odi .. ;,.H ••• , id oce;p; 'lifO rH d. 'l"" "gi,,,,. ;" •• t. What i. lawful io tbo le~1 i. lawCul in the t"'o.il. WhlDover 10 IUpulalioD. tbe .al'r"'lioD &roaler. 8 Coke. 43. is ambiguous. it i. mOlt proper to gin it that in-

Q"od 'l"i •• .." .'rfp ....... a",.,,,,,,, •• nlit, .. ". i",.I. terpretation b,. wbicb tbe Iuljeot matlor m.,. be in U!lilHr d" ... ", ...... ,,'ir.. He who lulf.r. a dlLlDlige ... fety. Dig. 41. 1.80; 60. 18.2111.

by bl. o.D Cault ie nut bell! to .ulfer d&Zll&g<I. Dig. Quoli •• ;n "."bi. ""II ..• 111 a .. Mglfitn. ibi ".11.

60. 17. 2U3. upooili" ~u,,'r .. ".rb" /le .. d" .. ,. Wben tbere i. OG

Qu"d 'lui ... ien. i"d.bil"", d.d:, Aa. "'."," If' ambiguity in tbo w.,rd •• thell DO upnfil iUD cnn,001'" r~p".rel. r.peler •.. ,," pilI • .,. What one hu trar,. to the word. i. to bo mude. Coke, Lilt. U 7 ; paid knowiDl( it nut to be <lue. wilh tbe luteD'ioD Broom. Mlz. 3d LODd. ed. 86U.

of reeoyerlnl it back, he O8IIDOt recover back. Dig. Qu"", ae 1110"0 d''''MI'' 'l".r"hlr, ",.U,.,. .. , eft.-

I. 6. 60. "r'lio p_id ... ti.. Wben the gain or one of t.o I.

Qlfud 'l"i''l"i •• 11";1 i" 1"0,, .1 ....... "'. Let every In qDestion. the conditioD of the pONe •• or 11 the one .Dlploy himlell lu .h~t he kDU... 11 Coke, better. Dig. 60. 17. 126. 2.

10. Qu ... in ""am'IIlo n.t.ifitl. aliI .Ii". pn-pero",

QNml re • .di" d.,'it"il"r ;p.,I r •• ,,1., ri ... Ip" .. rip"" "'. If ... i!!". ,,,terpretari ., ,1"., id

a6,il. What II without a rt'medy i. by that ve.,. 'l"od or.dibn. et ,'nO;Io/lI", .rtd .. d ~". "'brll

r&et vllld If there be no rllult. DacOD, Mu. Reg. In •• iII an amblgDoul or neD 8D errnne"DI .aII; 3 Blllflkatnne, Comln. 2(1. pre •• inn occun. it IbuulLl be oODllrurd lib ... 111

O"tla ..... 1 "u, b,', • .ri"i, pr"'.",,,., 1~!1i.lnlort'. anLl In IcoordRnoe wltb .h.t i. tbnuJlht the prob •• Lejfluatnn pUI over what hRppen. (nnly) onee or hie meaning of tbe tpI'ator. Dig. 34. ~. 24; Broom, , .. loa. DI,.l. 3. 8i Broom,llaz. 3d L.Dd. ed. 4.~. Max. 3d LuDd. ed.137. See DrileoD, P.rpcra ..

MAXIM

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

155

MAXIM

Q .... (,,~ .. ) pri""'pali • ...,IIfa .,m I:ON".t,·, ,., fa 1 lit" erN., b. ""'''''1 i.pai,.d. N"1. MID. '; WID",id •• q_ "9""'''1' I, ....... /."b •• t, Wben tbe gale. Ma:l. IU; IhuolD, Mu. 8d LUDd. ed. 6U6; ,ria.ipat cIou Dnt held ItilgruDDd, Deither do tbe J"Dk. CeDt. Cu. 180.

_riee SDd plaoe. Dig. 60.17.1211. 1; B.'Oom, R.I,,'il1fJ .... '" eogNito vno. eogwoeeilvr ., all.""",

IWI. 3d Luad. ed. 438; 1 P"tblel', Obi. 413. Of thlngl relating to eacb otber, ODe \lolagluaowa, the other Is kaowa. Cloke JIIO. 6119.

R~",,,i,,d er ,.,," dep .. d "/'''" "" •• ,,,1. bH' ",lta' b."i,u .. ,h ,,' II" _all,,, Ii",. th~ ,·~"",i"d~,· d .. th.

RftllaiNd er .,.11 reo' u' 1M .a ... i •• ,u," tAal tA. ptlrt,'"lar ,,",ul. d"'''",';Neo.

R.IHai"der 10 a per.UR R .. , '" " ""IIGeity I" I,.i. 01 ,It. ,;"'. "f "pl'uinli"!1 iI, i. "uid. Plo .. d. 27.

R .... ,liee ful' ,·il/ltt. a,·s "'1' fueoruhll "",tead.d.

18 ViaeI', Abr. 521. .

R"",.di .. ""Uhl 10 b. r.eiproeal.

RfHf,i •• ill. i",p~r,,"'i ",.liu. p',rr1 .. r. A maa commanding aot 100 Itriotl1 Ie better ebeyed. Coke, 3d Inst, 233.

R ...... tn i"p~di""flI". em~rgil "",i". 'lhe Impedi-' meat beinlf re'lIu\'"d, tbe aotioa arile.. 6 Coke, 761 Wingate, Ma:l. 20.

R.II' .,HII b~ ,.. .... red I" lri .. f", .. ",i01ll Ii. ".10 "f IA. I""d "'0""". C, I.e, Lltt, 148.

RqHllU'"r a .",...,,", .. tn i./a",i.. An infnmou.

I'el'loa i. I't prlled or prefoated from takiag aa oa~h. Coke. Liu. 108; Braeten, 186.

R.-,_lIilllr u e .-,I;ON. e.d."d"",1II "eli ... "... n.

II dcfeatod h1 th. pi.· .. tb.t the Roti,.ns ha,-e heea u8igood. 1 Johnl. Ch. N. Y. 4011. 414.

Ifoprol",t" 1'0 .. ,.;11 iii,.,.", ."1,,.,.,..... Mone1 refllHJ Iib~rate8 the delotl,r. 9 C"ko. ~II. Bu' thl. muet be DadenteJod with a qualilioaliuu. Be.

TB:fDRR. .

R.-,,,,,,,i,, • ., ""!1"ri. cpi"in .bi "",. .., .. "rila •• Reputatloa I. a 0 mmou nl'iaion where tbere i. nil eertaln kaowledge. ~ Coke, 1117. But lee COARACTER.

Rer« .. ord» """fundi"'r, .i .... ,."",.qu. iuri,die';o ,,,,n "~'-"'lIr. Tho order (If tbillg. I. ollnfouaded if e.-ery oao I're,er.el aut 1.18 Jurlad.otioD. Coke, Ub IUlt. Proem,

R.rH'" p"'U'· ••• II o., •• d"n' ",,,"a, pit in iNilio "rftar:eri .ell prl£tdderi tlOI'1.oaIfN"'. In tbe eour •• ur ovent. many millChief8 arl80 which at tho begianing oould aot be guardod agaialt Ul' f~r~.eea. II . Coke, 40.

R., am n,arllm ",ilib., e.' ",,,b-r,,',,r .1 "rbiler.

Every IIao I. tho manug. r bud dilpolel' of 1;1, OWD matter.. Cuke. Litt. 223.

Reo """",,,ria '.qll;llIr r_ "rinl','pal.... Aa secenory foil ..... Itl prinolpa!: Druom, Mu. 3d Load. ed. 433. For a defio:tioa of .. ea ae ...... ri ... lee Mackeld"1,·Civ. La .. , 166.

R •• dc,,,,,,,ih,,tur " "d".i/,,,It'ori part.. A thlDg il aame.l from Ita principal I'lII't. Ii C. ke. 47.

R •••• , ",i •• rll .M ju ••• , ''''fI''''' ., ;II<orl"",. It I, a milerab!e Itate of tbiag. where the law Ie vague aad lIacertain. 2 Salk. 612.

Rt., g''''l'Olell' habo' .ipifi''''''''''"", qu"" lam coroporea, fIIGm iJlr"'7"l1e", cntJNlCtlaqu, 'U',' U"""""', IIalur. ,,'.0 "P,c;,i. 'onlpr"t.,"d;l. Tbe word tblags hOI a general li,!lDifioatioa. bOOBII'O It comprebend • aa .. 011 oOl'poreal u laoorpnronl ohjectl. of whl\tever a"tul'o. lort, "I' _peel... Coke, 3d Io,L 4lI2; 1 BouYicr. la.1. D. (U.

ll .. illtrrrr/io. ""'0 tI""ri ,.o .. r. liON d""". Thlnga dnae bo'weca Itl'llagon ougbt not to InJul'o thulo wbo oro not parti811 to thcm. Coke, L.tt. 132 J a Curt. C. C. 403; 11 Q. D. 1028.

Reo inl~r "Ti, .. jt<dtN,t. ""II.", aU .. 1"'.jlld,·ciu • .",cirr.t. Mattrn adjudged in II. rnule d" not preju-l:ee thon wbo .. ere Dot parti ... to it. Dig. '-C. 2.1.

ll •• judi.,.,,, flle" Q. ,,'bo ",." .... "" .:r. "jurn album, .'" 1.1,"," r.c;"m •• .:r , ... ," ~H"'""'. A thin:; adjudged mak811 .. blto. blaok; blnok. white·; tbe orookiBd, It I' ,igbt; tbOitraight,orooke.. 1 Bou\'ler, lUll. D • 840.

lleo i.d;eata p'" •• rital. aeeipitvr. A thln,

Rah'I"billo _"d",,, ltI/~ip'er,,'ar. Ratillo.tioa II ,qual t .. a eommand. 111,. 46. 3. 12. "; Broom, lias. 3d Load. ed. 7i I; Stor1, Ag. 4th ed, 1I02.

R",i" ", /o ..... "U. ta,,'" c,,,,.,,"I.di,,Y. It_a II tbe .uurea and muuld .. f ou.tom.

Ru/,·" u, '.'Ii4 trHilllCl, ",uinta legit rntiott. "./11 .. "'r eI I"",. Rcawa il tbo soul or the la .. ; tho _n or the law beiag oban"ed, til, law I.t al.u oblaged. 7 Cnke, 7.

R "i" .. , Mdi .. diriNi I"m,·"i.. ReaoD I •• ra1 of diyiM li;:.ht. Coke. Lilt. 282.

Ralio .1 allel"";lao duo cz"rilll;m" ",H"tli ''''IIIi.". 1leaflOa ant! autbority are tho two brigbt.st Iigbt. In tbe world. C .ke. 4th lult. 320.

Baliu ;If jure "'l"ita, 'm." a. Rauoa la law Ie ,...reet equh,..

Rol:o "'9'" ." I".i'lll" ,~.. The rea.oa of the la .. II the 10111 or the I.w. Jcnk. Ceut. C .... 46.

Rllli" "n,. "la.djllU/oe". R .... ua u aut ooaliaed to Iny ,,1110e.

R-"i.. 1 0 _, all"9t1ri dejici.,.,. 1"9" aed r.rtl ., I.,,,li •• , "",. up,...""" "Rea.oa may be aliege.l .ben the I" .. ia def~otl\"e. lout it mUlt be true au,l 1,,1101 re .. OIl, and aut lOorel1 appareDt. Coke, LiLI. 181.

Be. .mi., "'"'1"", """_". ,r"di,,·mer. i" .. rlllr" _. ""'''tr, ptlo'" .o'r,,'. Compaotl u.DaUy t·,ke their elo'hlog from the thing It'e!f. fr' m word •• rro. "l'lt.ag, from olla18ut, from delivery. Plo .. d. lei.

R"re-litllr " p,,,,,,·ti. juri., ,.",i". qu"'" '.juri. e' d.li~I' .. UHW,,' ''''pH"illJ. PUlitive '1'1I'el of 100w will be !'OCe,led from rather thaD erimes and wrongll Ih"ald remuln uupani-hed. Bacoll. Ma:l. Reg. 12; Broom. MaI. 3d Load. ed. 9. Tbi. al'l.liel uDly to .aeb mulml.1 are oallod 1'ZIIeil"jH";'; tbe.e .. i:J ~ di penlled .. itb ratber thou crime. Ibould (:,0 nnpaui.be I. 9"i'l .a'", pop,"i '''pre",a lu, booaulG tho pllblio .arety II the lapreme lAW.

RerorJtI .ulIl _'i!/i .. "~III.'a'" eI .. en·I .. ti.. nO· enrda are VNti ... of antiquity aad truth. 2 Rolle, 2116.

Renrrnrd .. m eat atlezlr""rd,""tJrt'"", ",,,,,ti,, nnn .,,1« "rdi."riH... We mllst hll\'o reeourse t .... hat II ntmnrdlaar1 wbru wbat II urdiaary fuils.

Rogvlll "'.ja,.;.qllide .. i!l .. or"",i .. 111 CH'·qU. "or ...... / .. ti "'1'0 ignoraNtia,,. ,," .... ,,"",... Tho rll:e Ie, tltat Iporaneo or tbo In .. dnel Dot e:lcu'e, but th,.t IptlrdDee of a faot ma1 eltCU'O a 1 •• rt1 from tbo 11.&1 consequences or hiB ooaduol. DiI;. 22. 6. U; B"IGm. Mas. 3d wad. cd. 232. Bee Ining, Clv. La •• 4th ad. 74,

R'r/Ill, prn 1"9". at" drJleil l..e. III de"'ult of the Ia ... the mRsilll rulel.

R"'plariler ROil ~ .. /et 1'''"''''' de ... men ""n ali..... d". Regularl1 a ooatraet Dnt to alieaate 1111 ,roperty II Dot bladlag. Coke. Litt. 223.

Rei I.rpi. ..U .... ,,, .... dalll .... ,. A maadate of &II m .. g.1 thlllg il void. Dig. 17. 1. 8. 3.

Rcip.£l-_ i.'''I'NI rolu"',,'ee drfu".'OMJ. rjJ""'lIm ... rtiri. It ooaecrnl tbe atnto that the wi1!1 of tho dea" shoa].1 hRVe their (lfe' to

R.I,,'io e'" jle/in jHri •• , i., ... ,,, ad """.... R~I,," lion II a flOtiuD of la., aud lateaded foJr one thing.

• Colle. 28.

Ile/atio ""p'-r Jl'" ut "a'M' diaptJllili". Referenoe Iho.ld al.a1- be hai in RU' h • IORaaer tbat .. dll.... Ition In a .. 111 ma1 avan. 6 Coke. 76.

Ilelntio ..... 1' d./.al. ",,110.1., al ael.. 18 Ylaer, Abl'.2112.

Rrlttl; .... 1,,11 ft ....... ",,,i. gnntl a rt>i.l gran. or . kM"" of ," pnrl!/. 18 Viner. Abr. 2112.

".,iN _"" r./'I' CD d .. RUI a.'.cetlettt, ""lou

MA.XIM

156

ad.!udpd mUlt be taken t'cIr truth. Coke, Litt. ] 08; Dig. 60. 17. 207; 2 K~Dr., Cumm. 120; 13 lIee •. " lV. B .. ch. 6711. 8e'e Ru JVDlC.A.U.

B .. ]II!" pc_iCl. ..,Ii .. a""," ""N p«mtia p" r... The nlue uf a thiug b .. timatea by it. wurth in mODey, and the value uf money ill Dot ""timated 1Iy referenee &0 the thillg. II Coke, 76; 1 BuuYier, lo.t. D. 1122.

B ... p.,il do .. i"o lUG. The d .. tructioD of the thing i. the lUI. of ill owner. 2 !iou\'ier, Io.L nn. 1466,1466; 8tury, Bailm. 426; 2 Kent, Cumm. 6111.

Bel P"''Pritl.ot 9"' oo,.",.uoi ... ,," •• t. A thing il printe w hieh iI Dot 001ll1l10D. 8 p .. ige, th. }II. Y. 211, 2'10.

Ru 9- inl,a prw.idia pe,d.e'" tI""d_ .. m', f'IG"'l"o" .b A,,.,i6 ... Uf'CNpal .. , ide" 1",.tlimio;; ." .. .1/"", 9',i" datN; .. _ n""dH'" ",.'arl1n' p", O ... 'i .... jure. Tbingl which haye not, yet been introduced within tbe enemy" IinOl, although held by the enemy, do not need the fiction of postliminy on thil account, beeau .. tbeir owner.hip by tbe law of IIAtion. haa not yet changed. Grutilll, de J., .. Bell. 1. 3, c. II, , 11; 1. 8, e, 8, * 8.

R ...... ,,... """ recipil .ti"""ion_. A I&Clred f.hing doe. not admit af valuation. Dig. 1. 8. II. 6.

R... tr« ... ;' _ 1U0 0 .. ,... The thiDg palle. with ill burden. Fleta, L 3, e, ] 0, f 3.

R ... ,,,ati,, no .. d.bet R.e d. prnjievi •• 'poi. ",ia .a eoncedu,,'''' ••• d de redd;", noro """'a l,,·oJi""". A re.er"alion ought nllt &0 be of the anDual inere .. e Itself, becauH it i. grantad, bnt oC new reDt apurl ~om tho annu .. l iIIerea.e. Ooke, LilL 142.

R"'·!I"",illl. ell juri, proprii '1'''''''' ... 0 rifvtnlio.

Re.ignalion I. the sponllDeo •• relinquilhlll.ot of "wn'. owo right. Godb. 284.

Re."lu'" jure """ .. d.· .. ,i. rRo/";",r /", <:o"ce .......

The right of tbo graDtor beiug extlngui.hod, the tigbt gmDted Ie extingul.hed. Maokeldey, Civ. Law, H9; Drcom, Mas. 3d Lond. ed. 41'7.

Bupici."dvIJI e-' i"dic,,"'i, "eqvid a .. ' d",iw "u' rn.i ... ·". co""truahlF ",am ("a"." drpn,c,', I wee ",i", aa' .,.,ril",i. "., e/_ ... ,;. gloria rj'.el""da •• t, It II a matter of Impurt to one .dJudi~ating that DothiDg .hould be e:.her more leniently or 1II0re Averel,. eenatrued tban the c.ule itaelf demandl; for the glory neithrr of "'\"eri'" r-or clemeDcy • honld be all'ected~ Cok~,::d lult. 2~0.

R.tpOfldea, raptor. pi ;!In,,,ar6 "0" po"';' '1IUJd "..pill",,, 0/; ....... abduri], Let the ravisher an.wer, fur h. eould DI.t be Ignorallt that he hu taken IlWIlY aDother'1 wurd. lIub. 99.

Jle'l'(mden' .u1'.rior. Let the principal anlwer.

Cuke,4th lnlt. ]14; 2 Dou,.ier, In ... n. nS7; 4 id. D. 3686; 1I Lev. 862; 1 Solk. 408; 1 Dingh. If. c. 418; • Manle .I; 8. 2611; 10 Exeh. Gb6; 2 E:l. & B. 216; 7 id.428; 1 DUI • .I; P. 404; 1 C. D. 678;

• Meel . .t. W. Exob. 302; 10 E .. oh. 66G.

R'''P",,,]era _ eo.<r";gNe. Hi. luperior or malter sh,,11 .nlwer. A rtioull IUp. Chart. o. ]8.

Re.pv"lf;o tln,'H. "on o."i"a Qudit,.r. The aulwer of ono wltnu. Iha'i not be h.ard at all. 1 GreeDleaf, Ev. ~ 2GO. This b .. maxim uf Ibe ei,.1118w. where every thillg mUlt be proved by two witDea ....

R.... ..,.ip; ... do fit aelo,. The defendant b, a plea becomll plaintlt'. BIDnler, Tr. d •• p,.... ... , If 162, 820; Belt, Brid. :11"" , 262.

R.... (_. "'ajeeloti. ptmt'hlr, 01 pe ...... , ....... e p ....... 'iI .... "... A. traitor I. paDia bed tbat eDe lnay die leat all perilh. 'Coke, 1::4. .

R.", ""'M d.b.t ••••• vb ,,,, ... i ... oed ... b Dto.I 1"..

The kinl .honld not be under tbo au.hority of mOD, bat of God and tho law. Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 4P, 111; BraoteD, 6.

R.", IIU" J.·o''''/"II.re ... e /a7li. The kiDg C.DlIot deeei.,. or b. deceived. Grovad. & Rud. oC Law, 438.

R." ...... p"'''' l'e~ear.. The king can do 110 wronl- 2 RoU .. SO,; JeDk. Cent. CaLli, 101;

Broom, Max. 8d LODd. eeL 61 j 1 Sbarawoocl, BI.olIlL Comm. 148.

Be", "HII9..... ..orjlur. The khll lIenr eli ...

IIroom, Malt. 3d LODd. ed. 411; Braaell, lias. 6L1i1 ed. 1117; 18barawood, Blaok." Comm.II'".

JUIJAI. "..,., di ••

Ript,rv.. v_ ""bU.II. e.' jw.N fJft"-, .... , ip"'.' ftv ... ini.. 'l'he u .. of ri,. ... -banb II by tb. IMW of DatioD. public, like that t,f tbe etn: •• It .. lf. Dig. 1. 8. s. pr'i Fletl, 1. 3, .. I, , 6; I.oeceniul d. Jur. A/llr. I. 1, c. I, 112.

Roy , li4 per '''CUR 1111'."," tl •• IOit _-

p"." , ........... The king i. not bO~Dd by a.,

Itatute. If b. ia IIOt exprelily nlllled. J(nk. C_e. Cu. 807; Broom, Malt. 3d Lend, ed. 611.

Sacra ..... ' ..... lta"tI i .. H IrH ~0fII;1 .... mtllt~, jv.tili"". eljt,diei .. " ".,.i,,,. 1.ab."da •• t ;" jt<rato; , •• 'itia ., jtI.tiei_ i .. judie.. AD oath hi. iD it three eomponent partF-trnth, JUltice. al,d JudgmeDt: truth ID tbe pert,. lu.riDI!; JUBtiee BDd Judgment iD tbe judge IIcmiDiateriDr the oa&It. Coke, 3d lult. 168.

&"'0""""111 Ii /(I","",/ • .,.;t, lieet /01 •••• relit ... ... COfIIWlitl" ptrjt<riwD'. Ii. fooli,h o ath, tbOllgb falae. m.kcI not peljury. Ccke, 2d In,t. 1t'1.

&cril.!f'H _niv .. !!rr«l,,", .. ""pidilal_ tI ...,._ ,.em •• p"",,'. A nerilegioul renon tranlc"Dd. tb. oupidity aDd wick.dnea. of all other rubbar.. .. Coke, 108.

S6p. eOfl.t;IuI"", ~'" r •• ,,,'er olio. }tIdienla. "li'. .. " .. p,·,jvd;"a,... It hR. oftfn bern eettled thal matten adjudged betweeD othera ou,bt Dot tit prejudie. tbeH who w, re not partiel. Dig. 42. I. ea.

Swp. "''''or_ """'" ." .... , •• orb,'a I.t/lil. OileD it il the new track, not the old ODe, whieh d_iv_ tho traveller. Coke, 4th Jnlt. 3'.

Srp ..... rro ""i P""frict". rerbor ... a" ... tI;,..., .....". ,,"';Ialio o",ittittlr. Frequently where lb. rrorriety of worr I ill allend,d &0, the meaDiDI 01 truth I. 10It. 7 Coke, 27.

Sn/ ... populi •• t "'pr .. ,a left. The .. Cely ef tb. people i. tho lupl'fu:e Jr.w. DaooD, Mas. Ik,. ]2; Broom, !In. 1; ]3 CLI:e, ]~9.

&l ... IIbi .. ulti ~o".iliarii. ID maDY oODDHllon the,e II .. rety. Coke, 4th IDIt. 1 •

Safl(1l1illi. eo.jomdi" " ... ~"I",/ia tlm ... , It'''flU d earitat«, Ii. tie of bleed overcome, men tl:rcnp:1t hDevolenc. Dnd f.mlly al"ecticD. 6 J.hn •• (h. N. Y. I, 13.

Sapi irudpil a Jnt. d ",orl pri",_ ~., ,'. 1 .. ,_

lio,,~, .1',· '" .. t ill ."' ..... ,i"".. A wi.., mCD l.elinB

with tbo lalt, ODd what II Irlt in iDteDtleD ill Iut Ia oecutioD. 10 elke, ~6.

Sapiell' ""'H"" aoit ...... efJlloilio. A WIM ... doe. every tblng advir<dly. Coke, 4tll InlL , • Sapi./ia Ie!,,', "" .. ""ario 1'nll'" •• " CII _in.anda. The wi.d, m I.r tbe law cannoC le Talueel by mOlley. J,nk. Cent. C ... le8.

Supi .. ,,;, iudie/. ,,' eooil"re la.' •• Ii"i ... ~ per- 111; •• """ 9'f""I ... ~OfII .. i._ ., e .. tJiltl",. It i. the dnty of a wi •• Judge to thil:k fO Jrllch 'III)" rermilled to Lim 08 iUIU:lllitted .nel iIItrulted to Lilli. Coke, "h I1l8t. lG3.

S"rj~l(ler; .... oA" .. ld b ... ode ... '''a' / .. tl ... lic.

Aa •• lIot"i".d IA. 10". 'DLuvier, In.t. D. I1Z1.

Sali •• tI' peI.r'/OIIIe. 9',a .... da'" ri",/o,. It II beller to IteK the !}Intaln then to f •. l1ow rlVIIlct .. 10 Coke. 118. It II bt:lttr tu driDk at tbelo.lIlaia tbaD to lip In tl:e etr .....

Seitfl';a .e;olo",,,, •• , .. i",'a itl"OI'a"',·G. 'rhe knowled,;e of llilatteren ill mised igDOl'IIDoe. a Col,c. Ibll.

.~, i","/a III"'"",. P"" p.ru """".'If,., •• /eft" EqL~1 kDowledgo OD hoth aid .. mal;. .. theeolltraetiDg I artirs equol. S Ilurr. IG10.

Sci ... ,;; ., ,,,1 ... ,1 ...... fit '''i-riG. A wroDII. aet elono to (!De "ho know I .Dd .nI. It.

&ei ...•• bee ••• "'" .. lIIruN. Yell ",II~"

IUXIJI

157

IIAXIJI

IIBow wltla ...... ,oa cloaL 11 II ... " W. Eaoh. 40~. &32; IS ,fl. IT I.

8";,.. I.,.., .... i"" _, ... r'" ....... ,.. ..... Nil "i .. _, JMC-Ia,_ To IIDOW tb. law., .. Dot to obMrYe their more worcb, but tbeir foree &lid power. 1>ig.

1. LIT.

&i,.. preflria "' ..... rnfiolt • ., per eall.a .. "fl. _...... To kDOW properly II to kDOW a thiD' by

ItI &lid In lte n&llnD. Coke, Lilt. 188.

& /IC,.. _, Gift,.. To write I. to aot. II BolIo,

It; 'Shanwood. Blacllit. Comm. 80.

Ber;1''' oliligol,_ ...-Ipa. loll""tur, eI .. IIi _'" obligal,o, "",.tmrio ...__ di_I",,,,,,. Writte. obligatioDI an dill80lnd b, WrillDg. aud obligatioDI 01 Dalled ..,roemeD' by nakocl agreemt!'llt to &be ooDtral'1'

&de ... pllg." ",,,,li_, "",d oet",... a ... a., .... oelio"i"".. eI 'I",,1Ii a""'.u."',,r glad;;.. ,'a rlli (i ......... ) ••• i,,"111, u:upl;""i6" •• eI 1I'/ftld""tt.r "",n rl~ A luit II a oi .. 11 battle,.1 tbe plaiD. Ii ... are armad witb IIOtioDI and •• it were girt witb I"unl •• 80 OD tbe otb." blDd tbe defendanh an fortifted wllb pleu. aDd defended .. It woro b, bel· _.te. Hob. 20; Br .. 'ton, 83U b,

Bee"" f- ...-Ipto .it',,,r a '''''pto earl'a'" .011 tkkt. A suit wblob roliel Dpon a writiDg ought ao& to "'1lrom the wrltillg. JeDk. Cent. C&II, 65.

s.e..u. _him. Ht, rulll .. oda c"jH"l'" rei "" .. """, '1"- ..,.e .. ,.., i"",' .. ",otfa. It il n.tDral that he wbo bean Ibe cbarge or a thiDg Ibould ~n the prollte. Dig. 60. 17.10.

Be ... ri ... uJlftIi".,,,,, ... gutia "0"' .. ; .... pl"r;6N •• ., pi .. "ill .. , oe,,1i ",11111 01' .. 1".. Buslne .. Intra.ted to ..... ral -.-d. belt, aDd .... era! ey .. _ more tha. nDe eye. 4 Coke, 411.

&i.i.a laci' .");1 •• , BeiliD .ake. tbe ltock.

II SMrewood, Blaobt. Com_. 2011; Broum, Max. ... Lolld. ed. 4-H; 1 Stepben, Comm. 811T; 4 Keut, C __ .1I88,8811; 13 Ga. 238.

s....l .. a I.. -P"" I'""""","r e'N ... alu. f. ..,.,_ g .. ",.e. Wboever i. onoe b.d I. prelUmed to lie 10 ah •• y. in tb ... me degree.. Croke Car. 117.

a-,.- •• ddii. ""."0."·" .... ""'I,",,,da .. aI. In dubious _ the mon liberal ooD.'ractioa. are aI. way. to be prererred. Dig. 60. 17.611 •

... pw i. lI""ii. ill agnd .... HI, ", ",a ... tll,;"'· ... O -. ru ri' bolla jllle CVII',a .. t", .'0' ,,,.'" a".,t. _ •• .",ipl". e.'. Alway. in doubtful CaHl that I. to be daDe by ... bieb • bona fide oonlraot •• y be I. &b. rr-telt •• rety, except wiMIn Itl pro-

ristDD' are clearl, eUDtrary to Di,. 34.6.21.

... ,.... i. o"_rio quod .'"i .. , e.' .e"," ... ",.

(Npe,..). In obaun e .... we a.l ~y. follow that

• bieb I. I ... t. DijC. 60. 17. II; Broom, Max. ad Lead. ed. 1113, n; 3 C. B. H2.

a".,.r f •• "prdatioaib .. et i. ~"'erio ",",lra"'''''" ..,.... ..... pod a .. ,... •• t. In ltipDlationl .nd .ther IOnmOIl ". al"ay. follnw tbat wbleb ...... ..... (i.e.. .,reed). DljC. 60. 17. 34.

Be.,... it" flnl ... /01;0 ", mi.", diepnllitio. Let tile nf_ a1w.Y8 be 10 made th.t tbe di.pOIitiun

• ay aYail. II Coke, 711.

s..".r .-'ta. ", .. &",,11; i""" .. ",-, ei ",i afllt.

Tbe oIal ... t Ia alway. buud to prove: the bv.rdeu .f proof Hes on blm.

&.,...,. prall""'" pro l..,il;.,,,,i_ ". ... ....-, ., .fIlial;o .... potNt prob,,"·. Tbe pruumptioD il II.a,. ID favor or le,hlmaey, fllr IIliation akDnot lie pro .. ocI. Coke, Lltt. 126. See 1 Bou\'ler, In.t. •• HI; 6C"o,1I8&.

"per p'_"'" 1'''' -eva,,'e. The f1ftlump. tlo. II aI.ay. in fa"or of tbe ODe who denlel. See II Clark • P. Bou. L. 634; a Ell •• B. U3. &."., pr __ i"" 1' ....• elllnti,. Pft.Dmpiloa"

..".,.. ht fa"or 0' &be "·Dtence. 8 B.lstr. 4lI.

Beta,Ier qui _". proi;"' pm Ie ,·""rurti ... , ...... .... ... fll,.". Be wbo dOtlll Dnt pr"blblt Ibe inln. ..u.. ol .. oUaer ill b .. bellalf II IDppoMel to __

tborl .. iL 2 KeDt, CoID_.1I16; Dig. 14. II. 18 j 4&

3. Ill. 4.

&wop ...........• ""e"li.". ~i".I_i.i.". _ti. .el. Tb. male MS a1w.,. iDoIudel tb. femal .. Dig. 32.lIlI.

Sen'p.... '1'.eialt'a Oftt.rtlUM '_t. Special elau ... are .1 .... '. aompris.d iD leD.ra1 O.DOI. Dig. 60. 17. 147.

8eNatuPft "' .. , pta",.. corpori. regi.. ~n.tore .re part of tbe body of tbe king. St.UDlifurd, 711 EJ Coke, "b Inlt. 68, iD mBrg,

B.Nn • .,.rbo ..... HI a,,;.a 1".'0. Th. _UIIiDa of "ords is the .plrlt of tbe law. 6 Coke, 2.

B..... .....6_ ,of d"pl ... , .. iii. of 0'1''''', .r ........ _,pet' a .. eipi .. d" ..,111 iN .. itior. ........ The m8llDing of WOrdl il twofold, mild aDd bar.b; &lid word. are to be reo~h'ed iD their mlld.r HDI.. , Coke, 13.

S .... ".II.rl>o""'" .... _" dirndi .ee'pi ... d ....... '" _Oft.. '_per aft'ipi •• di ... N' •• ~ .. d.", ",,,. joet" .. ",,,,eri,, .. ,. Tb. leDfeof words i. t .. l", t.k •• from tbe OCO&llIOD or ."eakiDg tbem. and di.eoun .. Ire al"I,1 to I.e Interpreted acoOrdiDg to tile sub. ject-matter. 4 Coke. 14.

&", .. ,i" ,I .. "" judice lola _i •• debel ....... r •• A. aentenee pronounced by one wbo Is Dot a judge sbould Dot bum aDY one. Fleta, I. II, 0. 6, f 7.

BeH'''''''' co"',a ",al,"_o.'"'' •• nqrta. 'r"Nlil i. ...... j"di-ala",. It. .rntence Igain.t marriage Dl\'er paaHI Into & jud,lD,nt (coDolueIY. upon tbe partie.), 7 Coke. 48.

Sen, ... ti« lue;, jll', ., Irgi. i.'erpretotio '''fl' ",'. 06,,' •• 1. The .ent'Dce makel tbe "w, .Dd the Interpretation b •• tbe foree uf I.w.

&"t",,';a laeil JUII. et re. judieala pro eeri,,,,. ac"ipit"r. Judg_ent areKles tbe right, IDd wbat is adjudic.ted is tak~D fur trutb. ElI .. mere, l'01ta. 6S.

Benl"';a ',,'erl ee IIloria r_ri po, • ." d''jInlli.". 110" pot •• t, AD IntarlClt'utory HDteDoeor order me, be reyoked. bDt Dot a IIDal. Bacon, !du. Reg. 20- 8"" ... ,i ... oa 1m,,, d. r."'" "". liquidi.. SeD· teDOI I. Dot giyon upon a tblng "blcb i. DOt cle.,. 8,,,,i debet p"'''''''' jtNlilia., .0. prltfletl .....

Power .bould folluw j ultice, Dot pn:oede It. C"k .. 2el !oPt. 464.

B .... o i.d.", oa'.i. Speech is aD iDdes of tb. miDd. 6 Coke, 118.

s.....o ,,10'" ad 1'''''''''''., '.trlltgt debel d. _ 1I;,i"". """0<11,,. A tpt'ecb rel.tiDg to tbe penllD i. to be Dndentood ... relating to bis coDdition. , Coke, 18.

S~",aNda •• , eOll.llell,do 'oei "bi r""'a aut"' ...

Tbe cu.t"m III tbe plaee wbere the •• tion I • brougbt i. to be ubM"ed. a JobD'. Cb. N. Y. IgQ.21I1.

8....,;1;" pw."""l;a "''I"""',,r pe'''''''"'''. PeneDa!

.eni .. 1 foliuw the ponoD. (;uke, 2d Iu.t. 874;

Flete, I. 3, o. 11. f 1 •

,W R iMre d .... du. flO,... m., '" ....... t _.'a _.i. b .. '_eerla. If 'OU deplrt from tbe law, ,.OU will wander witbout a gDlde. aDd e .. e.,. tbiag will be i • a ltate of DD .. rteiDty to eye.,. one. Cob, Lilt. 227.

8i aU",'i''' rli .ociela. "', rt jlN;' "~II"t;o ;"1'0.. n'" .. '.)1." .......... eta.. If tbere is • partnerfblp ID aDY mntter. &lid tbe ba.ID ..... ~Dd",t, tbe p.rt.aersbip 01..... 16 Jobns. N. Y. "'8, .811.

8i ali",ill N eulffI,,,j,,,,. drjlei"t, ~_ rtqw"'" plt",it ... b.",iend,,1N .ot. If IDy tbing be "antin, from reqDired fOrDIl •• brn rquity reqairel it "ill be aided. 1 Kent, CumlD. 167,

8, ".",eh •.. ed.ri pu.,i. "ora 110 ...... , 'ra,,,,,dR.

If 10a o.a be nliand byacoultomed r .. modia, De" ones .bODld Dot bo tried. 10 Cnke, 142.

RI jHdw..., eoga....... If you JDdge. aad.ret.nd.. 8" .. rli .......... , ,,, ... d"eil a_ur, "I.reo ..... , ",01 rorri,,', li",or. If thOle are lIettar "bo an led b, 1 .. ".. tbo •• Ire tbe gnater D.mber oorrooted b, f_ • <Joke, LitL 1112.

MAXIM

158

JrlAXUI

Hi 10011 "PJI'rreo.' 'l"id ... "" .. e.' .ril 80"'''1''''''. ,,' iJ "'l""", .. r y .. "d i" f'elJi"". in 'I'''' "~/_ ""./""l""',",",. Ir It d ..... Dot ap~ .. r wb .. t W&l agreed "POD. the eonsequeuee wiII I.e tb .. t WO! maMt follow tbat wbieh i. tbe ulage of tbe plae. wb.re tb. agreeIII'Dt WIU made. Dig. 60. 17. 3ol.

Hi nulia oi' """j'''cu,,, 'I'" clN"'" olin, ""rh" i.,.l'iflt!Hda "II' Col: pr'pr;el"", twa yrl''''IIIatica .ed popu/ari ..r ",n. If tb.re b. DO iDf.,.Doe wbleb 10 .. JI to " dilrereDt re.ult. word. are to b. under_tood ue .... rdlng to tbeir prlll,.r mellDing. not in .. gr .. mmatiolll, but iD .. popular aDd ordiD,u1, IeDle. I KeDt. Cumm. b5~.

Si pl .. r .. ""ndiliORl' "."ripl./.ern' d""aIiOfli eo"j".~'i •••• ",,,;6 .. e .. pa,....d"",; .,,,d ."jJa' .... et.p"'nlir~ ''''l"iriIN' ",od ",,119M p"r, .. ', WI"'. Ii IIi .i.,·",. "uilibel •• 1 aflll,i ea .... ". '''ti •.... ol."",perare; ., ,'n d;'!iHrlC,i,,:., 1I,""e;' a/'erana J'fJ"'elll PH .. raa. II" lOme oODditiODI are oonjunl'ltivcl;v wri~ ten in .. girt. tho wbul. "r tbem 'mult be oump:ied witb; and witb ~epeet to tbeir trutb. It i. n_ .... ry that e\'ory pIOn be trae. tak.n j"intly; If tbe o"n· ditionl ",e IIClpamte. it i. lumoi. nt to cllmply witb eitber on8 or otber of them; aDd heiag di.juaclive. that one ur the otber be true. Cuke, Lltt.

226. .

8i plllrH .i",jitbjN .. "_. 'l"nd'l"i''''''HI ""litem. • i"U,,1i i" ",lid .. 1lI ,,".,,'.r. If tbere are more .uretie. tblln nne, how many IOGver tbey .b .. 11 be. tbe, • hall"ench be held for the wbule. IDat. 3. 21."; 4. lHI; 1 W. BlllOklt. 388.

Bi 'l,It'd "Hir.,oilali rUh.'.r lin(Jtl.fi. "0" tl,heh,r. ." '1"0 I d.bel. "",·c.r.ila. ';"(Jllt; debelll. If "ay tblng i8 due tn .. cllrporo.tion. it II nut dae til tbe ladil'idual'Dcmbe .. or it. aor do tile wemben ind,vlduftlly owe .. bat tb. carporll Iun owe.. D.g. 3. 4. '; 1 I3barawolld. D1l1Ok~t. ellmm. 484.

S; 9u:Je1l'';" "om;"t', Ct)!/.It)lHille,pre,mfft'ne, flgHn.iae lC'g,,'.,.U .""re,"t,· n\m tI, ,.,'.aN' """"''''. "flu· ... lo .. in~. cal., I.U .. t".... If tbe tCltatur b&l ernd ia the name. cognomcn. pralDoruen. or title of the legatee. ,,·beDe,·er the P ... oa i. rendered eertaiD, tbe IcgllOY I. aot'erthe.e •• valid. In.t. 2. 20. 211:

Drnom. 1Ilru:. 3t.! LUDd.od. lii4; 2 D~IDat, b. 2, t. 1. .. o. IJ 10. 111.

Bi 'l"i, ell'IoI/",ud.", p"piif" /_ril. " ,,,,,,,,, .... -

• 0 •• "J .... ",. If" ga"rdian hebav. 1'1'"udDlentJy to b:. ward. he _hall be rcm~"eu froID the gu .. rdiaD-

Ib:p. Jtak. CeDt. C 311.

Si 'I."i. p'·"I/"all'.m "r ...... li9";'. """ .id.".

line f,l .. ri, decem,... If R mRn di, 8. IC''''ing hil wiro "rrgaDnt. he Ibllll nut bo oun.idcred ... baYiDg died cbJdl ....

• "Ii '1Ki. 0""" pe,e".uM·I. ell .. "liu. ,..rcut ... e .wleI. (. /.I""i4 leue"'.. If a maa kill uae. meaDing to ki:1 "notb", h. i. b.ld guiily or CeluD,. Cuke. 3d Inll 61.

Bi "'II.'I •• tio """ Ii' NM. lil.r" pIt'ellld .n ..... ,uIII. II' tbo luggeation or " "ateat i. fal .. , the pateDt It ... f i. ,·oid. 10 Cuke, 113.

Sic "Hi", d.b.r • ., ..... ",,,/i,,,"'" """ .. 'N"",/ne~", "e rit!J'.,· de t.n'u,'"" )iro;,,'. EVI'ry {'De ought '0 til impro"e bi. lAnd DI aut to lujure Li. Dtlghbor·.. a I'ent, Corum. 4"1 •.

B.-., ,'", •. prela.dKIN ~., ret ,.,.,." n~.;p;n""'r ea ... -If •• '''. Such an iatl·rl·rot ti~n il tu Le mude tbM the wor II way bllvo an eli'ee:. Coke. 311 In.t. 80.

Bic II/rre '1M. ,,' oli ..... m h .... , .. I".. So u,e your owa ... n"t to iajure anoth.r'1 pr"perty. 1 BlIck.tODO. Comm. ::00; Dru"m, Knlt. 3d L"nd ... d. 200. D .• 2'0. 327. 3:1:1. 3: O. 3·;0. 348. 36:1; :I BOD,·I.r. In"t. a. ~:IiOI 6 Exeh. 707; 12 Q. D. 7:19; 4 Ad"l, b. .I: E. 281; UJobal. N. Y. ns; 17 ;d.lIl1; 17 Mau. 83'; 4 M·Coru. SOl. C. H:l; II CI kr. 611.

Si",,, "a'.,,, "il/".i, IH'r ."1',, .... i.-" 11ft! Ie,. AI Dature du,.. notbing I>y " bOIlDd ,.r leap, lu noith.r duel tllo I"w. Cok", Litt. 2311.

B'·Uifl •• , • ., ,,"II ill,,,,.,. ... ,,. '/";" ~.'n Ii". ;",~ •. .i""" nON eo' ,iUiU_. A. Kal I. a plooo or WII& illl-

preued, beea_ Wall witboat aD ImpreuioD iI ad .. leal. Coke. 3d Iolt. 1811. BaL _ 8&.1.1 ..

Stl ... e •• 1 .. "" 0 ........ ,. 0 Barb. N. Y. 28. 36. Bil."e leUN i,,'.r 0","'. Law • ...., .Cent amiu' arm.. Cuke. 4th Inlt. 70.

Si",iUlotl" lrf/"li. ",, ea_ dir_ ...... (", ..... ""I/al ........ ",iti, ra';,,; 'f'Wd in """ ,;.iU" .. ".1",. .. a/.6i, i" ufl...... Di, .. ",jli" ... di.,·.,ili. ft' r"rio. Legal .lmlllrlty I. a .imllor r8&l0n whiob ",.-rnal varioul euel wben compared witb ea.!b .,tber. for wbat avaU. iD line liml.ar caae will avail iD lb. otber. Of tbin,;' dill.milar, the reuOIl i. di .. imllar. Cok •• Litt. 1111.

Si"'plu: "',., ..... rl,,'io """ obli,,,,. A Ilmple reellmmendation dl.e. not bind. DI,. 4. 3. lI7; 2 Kellt.Comm.486; Broom, Malt. 3d L<lnd.ed. 109; " TauDt. ~8; 10 Q. B. 282. 28.~; Crllke J 1&0. 4; i Juhnl. N. Y. 364; 4 Ba,h. N. Y.1I5.

Si",pl • .., rl p"ra d""ulio diri ,,,.,.ril. III'; ""II .. __ "dje.'11 .""cli/i,, ... " ",,,nil'. A gill i. laid to he pure and Ilmpl. wheD no e~Ddition IIr qualilleatiull U aDDUed, BrutoD. I.

llifNpliril" •.. , l.gib ... ""';M •• , "i.itt ... 6tilitn. in ju, e r~p",b"tre.. Simplicity i. favon,ble to tb. Illw. aDd too wuah lubtlety il blameworthy ia law. 'Cuke, 8.

Si". ,.". .... io.. • .... fOpi" prot!«Io •• " ... pt.,..,.

Tbere CaD be DO prellOriptioll witbout ~I.oa • 8iHII',/i in ... I.d" .. , ........ "',.. Eacb i. t.ound for tbe wbule. 0 Juba •• lh. N. Y. 242. 262 •

Bi •• 1"la re, .. i .. "utlll' •• ir. pa," hob", rr,,,,, __ ""p,,,r ill ... "dil", ...... 'l'he I,urebaler 11 bo baa heea cv,cted la wbole or in pllrt h&l all actloD .!falnR tbe nudor. Dig. 21. ~. 1; BI'O\IIII, Ku. 3d Load. ed.6DO •

• VfIf!l·j ",el eoei ..... ft' 10 .... " ..... I. The ranllel' lOf m, partner il DOt mYI,.rtnu. DI,. 641. Ii. 47.1.

&1,. de: per N .",ce'N" d""al;""rra '""mw.,.,,',, ..Ii' "·"".0"';0" .... """ rililll. Old age doe. no' aloDe IIad of I' .. lf "iUata a wUlllr a giR. 6 Juhlla. Cb. N. Y. l-ll1. 168.

8 .. le"""·,,,,,,,,j,,r; •... 101 ol .. err""tl& The 10Ie.I1itI.lllf law aro to be ob .. n·ed. Jenk. Cenl C .... 13.

Sui .. udit quod 101. ;fNpl"",a"'r. Wbat II "lnte4 ia tbe luil (,elong. to the IOU. ID.L 2. 1. jill; J Bouvier. Inol D. 1672.

80.10 o.,lie ",,,d ""1,, i".,:lIrol.l'. Wh.t .... r t • hailt OD tbe .IIi! beloag. to the ,"i1. Iu.t. 2. I. 28_ See 1 Maekelde,. Cit'. Law, l21i8; 2 DIIDYi.r. In.&. n.1671.

8o.iUl D .... I .... d_/a .. " God alolle makel tb, beir. Coke. Litt. 6.

8"1,,'i,, ,l1'f1tii. ""'pll""i. lMe I,,"""r. Tbe pa,.men t or tbe price ltandl ID tbe plaoe or ... al,

JeDk. CeDt. C H.

Bul ..... do 0"" ,,,,.l1k";"'r "i .. ",i .00ill_

p""" ".lewe. No ODe II cOD.id.red til be luhen' un' ell be caa pay all thnt be owe.. D g. 6U. HI. 1l~ 8o.I,;'or adlr"" ",..iflln. .hulII "'0"0 ".Mi. A pulnerlblp Ie moreover dll~oh'ed b, tbe deatb or. part ncr. Inlt. 3. 20. 6; DII. 17. 2 .

• 'lp'" P' Di,il"",i. _"i.... Ih,p' II the dru. of Ibe "igiiallt. Cok •• 4tb ID~t. ~ua.

.<;J"" ; .. , .... it"li. tOlcli"",,IIt "1""'.'" 'rib,"1 .l"".,,_ ",.IIdi. 'Ibe bl P' o{ Impunity hold. out a • oatiDual temptation to ,·rime. Coke. 3d Inlt. ~30.

S,,,,liol., d,lM, a,,'e ", •• ia .... ,il"i. He who b .. beea d •• "lIiled ougbt to be r_tored before any tbiDe rile. Coke, 2d 1D1t. 714; , ~hanwoud, lilackat. Comm.363.

Sl',,,,de' prriliafll "rei.. Ue prollll •• tG Die tbe Ikill or hi. alt. Potbler. L""'g" D. 426; JUDe .. Barm. 22. 6S. 112.117. 120: Dumat. liv. 1. t. 4. I. S. n. 1; 1 ~t"ry. DaUm. , 431; 1 Bell, eo.lII. 61h eeL UII; 1 Bou'·'er. Inll. D. IOU •

• 1(/""'" vi",. /IIy; .... _Ii.,. " od., •• /ne'a, do,i ..... fWreaI. "i.i .''0.'. ,..,",",". A woma. leaving her bu.h.lld of h.r IIwn a .. ord. aDu GOIII- 1II1Uilir adlllter,. lu_ bor duwer, uDI_ hu b_

MA...,,{IM

159

MAXIM

•• d taIl_ h.r b~k oC hie ow. aGOord. Coke, Lilt. 37.

SIu.i, pr_p,io d-ee pro"."'r ill .... "tra" ......

A prenmptiun will .land good uatU the eUDtrary II pruYed. 1I0b. 2117; 3 Sunwoud, Biliekot. Cumm. iii; Broum, Mas. 3d Lund. ed. 862; 111 M .... 87.

&"re deei.i., eC .. o .. qHiela "''''ere. 1'u adhere to preoecienu, and aut to uDtoettle thiDgl whioh are ntlblilh"d. Y atel N. Lansin~, II J "bDl. 3U6, 4211 ; Driggs ft. Rockwell, 11 WeDd. 60~, 607; Bllte. ~ •• Rely ... 23 id. 3311, 840; Moore .... LYUDI. 26 ;d. liD, 112; BuCord .... Artcber, 0& Hill. lI7l. 32a; Taylor H. lIea,h,' id. 6U2, 6U';; CalkiDI " •• LUDg, 22 Barb. t7, 108.

S,," pro ro'iulle nl",.,,,.. The will .tand. In pl.e~ oC • reDlOa. 1 Barb. N. Y. 4U8, 0&11; 111 id. 6U.626.

S.a' 1'1'0 rali,.,.. rol •• ,,,. fH>p .. li. The will .. r the peopleltaDd. iD plaoo of a re .. un. 26 nub. N. Y. "4,3711.

".,'''" pro "..blieo ...... "'ofiq 1",. {,,'.rpt'eCa .. '.r.

Sta&ole. made Cur the publio good ought to be libe. rail, construed. JeDk. CODt. Clil. 21.

&01"", .. ".JII,,,,atill"" """ d""'!/'" e ... " .. ,,,,; leyi.

An alllna.th·e ItaiUte doe. not take Crom Ihe com· mOD law. Jenk. CeDL Cae. 2 ...

& ..... _ ~II.",UI'" u, i.,.llig""l",. fll'lJldo ... rb" " .. hlli ,,,,,, opHi"/in, r",io ".'.m g.".raU.. Wbea tile woroLo oC a .tatute • ..., 'peoial, bu~ the reu a or it paer;L!, it Ie to be uad.ut..oJ. geDerally. 10 Coke, 101.

SlI,,.,,, .. -PHi"l •• ,,,t .. 111 "IMeiali "0" d.rognl. Ono 1p801.1 .t.tate do ... aut take .wa.,. Crow lUIuther Iloeoisl. statute. Jeak. CenL C .... 1119. • S.£1a,4 ....... 4 tu/li' .. r 'ff.rl~" Re:no ... tb. oall88 ud the erect will nal.. :I Blackstune. Comm. 20:1. 8,,61.,,4 _rr,ti"" •.... y'·.'rll'''"IN, roopuhl;." rN;'.

T~e colDllloawealtb perlsb_, ir re'ppot Cor magiltraI .. be taken away. Jenk. CeaL Cu. 0&8. 8r1M"", /,n.dn •• "'o endi' 01"'.. RomoTe the founot"tioa, th".traoLliroorwork f.u.. Jenk. Coat. Cu. 1011.

S"/.lal" p"';,.c;paU ,,,n,,.r ntlJ"""'."', If tbe prlDO:p;L! be &akea a .... y, the a4iaDot i. alao taken ."ay. Coke, Litt. 3:111.

S."r"1/·,tio ee' ""'IA/".io ."iHl "rediln"';. i .. "i~., ",tle. HI ... ·'""i ",,,,dilln,,.. Subrogatloa i. the 'llbRltatiag .. ao areditor in tho place or lin· otber ia tbe .arne or • betler auadllioa. Marlin, (I •• rI. D"";,. 8"b .. o[/"'i, ....

S""""rritllr .. i""ri; .r"em •• ot 1"p"'" ';''''.'111;'.

A 10 iaor ill to be aideJ; yoath Ia liable to err. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 47.

. '1~._ carillU .. '/aINJr.j_tM"fII oI"rt"U •• , " •• i t •• p'.re 'I" .... dt) " .... _ /",,";,. Tbe greAtest obarity b to d" Ju.tioe to every ooe, aad at &II)' t.mo wbea•• er II 10 'y be a_ ••• '1. 11 Coke, 70.

8 ..... , .., "'..0: 'I". pro reli[/im •• .rue;t. That Itbe high~" I .... wbiob Cavon rell.;ion. 10 Mud. 111,1111; 2 Chaao. C .... 18.

ll".".,. ro,i" .., '1- l' 0 relirti",.. /11";1. Thl\t ."nal:leratlua I. strong •• t wbiob delertlline.la f .• vor of religiua. Coke, Lltt. 3U a; Broum, Max. Sri I.o"d. eJ. 18; 6 Coke, 14 b; 111 id. 66 a; 2 Cbi"" CM. 18.

8" •• ,,,. _.. .."'i .. ",,. 'I'" pro f'fIliy,'''II' /a';,.

Tbat O<III.ideratioa Ia Itrllage.t whioh dotenaln .. la f ... or or reIlK;oa. Dig. 11. 7. '3, o'ted in Gro. Ii •• rI. J .. ,. Bello, I. 8, eo 12, e. 7. 8ee 10 lIod. 111. III •

.'/· ..... _ i".' .11""''' •• ljllria. The rl~r nr height of 1.\" 18 th. height of ... rong. Hoh. 126.

8."./0:/ u dl ...... " i"ritl.ieve. 12 Joha •• N. Y. 17S. 180.

,fl,,.,jI_ ._ ._111. 8aperlalUe. do an IDJury. .Jenk. Ceat. C ... 18 ••

8..,."""";11 ftri, r~.;o .rlllel. 8up"l'HIIlnll or til. trIItb I. ("'lDI .... lent tn) Ihe expr ... ioa uf 'wh.t II ral... 11 Wind. N. Y. 814, 417.

Byp,...;. ..n, "'fIgell'" /_"'i. 8appr .. lou of

the truth i. Cequlnlenl to} tbe ,ugg8ltiOD of ... hat i8 fl&l... 23 Barb. N. Y. 6~I, b26.

Supremu. '.', 'I"'" " •• 111 .e'lu;l",r. B. II l .. t wbum no ou. Coli "WI. Dig. 60. 16. 92.

S.rpIUlog;u ... II.... .. .. eel. 8ur)Jlulftg' dOel ao harm. 3 Bou"ler, Iu.t. a. 29411; Brollm, Mas. 3d Load. tid. 66U.

rao;tll 'l" .. d"", 11"6"",,,1' "re npNlloI,. Certaia thin" thuugh unellp"elled lire coalid.red .a ex· pre~led. 8 Cuk., 4U. .

Tali. i.'."I',.,ali" ... "". Ji""da ",, "" ftI;I~t.r "In"rdlf"',~, ;,,,onr'ftilPtl., II tu~ jttdit>;"", ,it illu,o.. i..... Interpretation i. alwaYI to be made ia lach a maDner that ... b.t II .1,lurd .ad iao' onnil'nt it to be avoided •. ind .u tb.t tb. Jlldgmeat be aot

aug.tory. 1 Coke, 62. .

T .. l;. Hnn .. , .ad ••• , .... '" .. ullw. ,i",iu, .., 'd-.

Wbat i. like I. not tbe .. me, Cor aothlag aimllar II the IlUIIe. 0& Coke, 18.

T" .. ,,,,,, bUH" ral ... t '1'''''''.'' t:e"di 1"'_,,1, Tbiaga Are wortb what they will lell fur. Cob, 3d lalL 306.

T*"'JHI' •· .. i ..• od". I"lfnii obligali""., d ne.

Ii, .... , 'l"ia I ..... prt' eH,";1 .,,"'ra deeid .. et I.i jNr;, ,oll'_J.I"'H. For time I. a meaua of deatroyiag , bllgationl and action •. beeuu •• time runl agllinlt Ibe Ilothful and o""temuen of thdr Iown rights. IIleln, I. 4,0. 6, * 12.

7'" .. or •• 1 tJtIi ku- d"t /,,,rlo. It I. the lenor 01 the feud. I grant ... hich l'Il~u",tr. It I elfect and ex· t.nt. Cnoig, Joo I·n.d., Rd ed. 66. e •• Coke, Lltt. 1U a; 2 Sbarlwllnl. BI.cb,. Cllmm. 310; 2 C. ke, 71; BroolD, Mn.3d Lond. ed. 0&10; Wrigbt, Tca. 21,62,162.

Tent,ill'" a ... oMl.. ~rI... tI*beC e_ el d.'rNfli. nnt.... A term • f ,.raTl cugbt to be aerlall! aad d.tt'rmlnate. Coke, Litt. 46.

r~,,,.i,, •• at Cne} /."d" .. """ pMn., eon""" ,i., .. e ill .... a ,·adm''l''e ",,'·.OIIG. A lelm an.1 tbe fee oennllt both be in line ,ond the lOme pel.oa at ·tbe .. 10. time. Plewd, 29; II M .. L 10&1.

T,..,.", • .""".". rnC"(f '1C"""nnti rOftf:',dit"r. Lnnd lyta:; unoceul,l.d i8 gina tutbeoeeupant. 1 Sid. 347.

Tar. a tr« ... i, M('" "".re. Lnnd pu.es wiLb tho Inoumbrllace.. Cuke, Lltt. 231; llro"m, Mn. 3d Lllnd. "d. 0&37, 6:'0.

T •• tame"',, 1",i.oI.a.. ;"'''1'rel«li......... A .. b .... d.b.",. Wiltl oup:ht 10 I.a\'o tl.c broade.t iaterprotatlon. Jeak. (. nt. CIII. hi.

Te.tu",,.,,t"fII ell' ~,~/".t"t~. "HIm pu'a .""ot;(Jt

d. '0 'l"IId 9"i. 1''''' ""1'1 ..... a .. fl.'" r.lil. A te.tameat I. tbo jUlt ex("ro •• lon nf liar ... ill c,·n. cemiag tb.t wbich anyone ... I.hel done aner hi • d ... th: IIr, a. Black.tllne tranllak .... the IC,M deolaratlua oC a mlln'l intcnli'D. "bloh be ... illl to be p "'nrmed after bll death." 2 Ehanwood, BlHek~L Comm. 411U; Dig. 28. I. I; 211. 3. 2. I.

rt:.ta",~,,',,", "~"~It"~ mur'. r' .... H", .. nf""'. E,·cl'1 will i, clln'pleted b), death. Coke. Litt. 232.

T •• t"" ... ·, "IIi",,, rulN"'''' .. , ,_; .. "l • .,.d" It .... '" tlNRI rarnnl i"'''';u,, ...• IIn... ~rho I .. t will of a testator Ia to be fulllih d aooording Lo hi. real Intention. Coke, LilL 322.

Tel". 1"1Ntl..,·o.'"r. ."" ..... "om. Bee \ho m.lIlm POKDKRAIITU, TElnl.

Teolib ".po"",I;b,,, ill P',ri .... "". d(g .. ;I>ri6 ...

.., .r.d d,,"'. Wbrn tbe nllmb.r DC wlto ... el i.

equal oa.bnth lid., •• tbe more worthy are to 1.11 believed. Cuke, ~th IUBt. 2711.

'...,i. rI" "i .. "r"1"",t/,rrrl ""i.. Aa fy.-witaca outwelghl otben. Croke. 4th lult. 0&70.

T •• ,i •• _ .. in ."a .. "" ••.... I""HI. No I'D' e •• be • witn ... In hi. n ... n O·IU18. Otherwl.e in Bngland. by ftnt. I~ .. 16 "loL 911, ... d ...... y oC tb. Ita,,, uf tho United 8tateL

r •• t,·. _""," ....... pe ..... "/et fir"" «."·Ii irr-.

On. eyr.wllnes. I. wnrtb ten 8&r.wltn.'.... Cok .. 4th luat. 279. Bue 8 Bouvier, IDIt. D. 31Uo

MAXIM

160

MAXIM

'I'.'hlloiU'W" ae paetll t .. Hjlll ••• fIOli ... m .. r'n'·1 gaardian.bip i. _,.. wblob tralb &0 lbelr alou. flMl,utiu •• Wilnelle.ORnnutwitneH to a negatin; llob.340.

tbey muat witnes. '" aD aIIIrmative. Coke, 4tb T"ti., ~r .... "'" "'" parI. ",ili,,';. It I • ..rer to err

last. 2711. on tbe lidu of'mercy. Coke, 3d InR. 22U.

1'4f11 U"li~A r _y d~ ... t by my etlI" I ",aec Tull·". '''''1''' .11 erra,·. ac,.i"a_lI.J, ""'. ,.

good 6y.,y coNjlNllacioH. Coke, Litt. 300. pu .. ieffdo I • .., p"rl ... i .. ";cordi4 "'". u par'.

7"Ir. /" .. d ",Aic4 Aa. ",c.i •• d Ih. ~Ntjll .loald I julilia. It i8 al.ays safer t., err in .cquitting

.. ak. lit •• ali./uclioN. 4 Bouvier, Inst, n, :1730. tbAn puni8bIDg, on the lido of mercy tbau on til.

'/''''NI/' a"" ... arl .. re 0/ th •.. "r.,.. "/ III p"Nci. .ide of JUltioe. Brunob, Prino.; 2 Hale, PI. Cr. 2110. "..1. Fincb, Law, b. I, e. 3, a, 26. . '/'''''NII' "'. co,u,,...d "eeordillU to Iltal ... li." tIIa. ,l, ....... IMreo/. Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 4.

TltiNII, .. re d,·.olced a. cA., h. coldrac,.d. Finch, La., b. 1,0. 3, n. 7.

TAiNII' 1J"O".d.d upon ". ill ond ""id b.gi.ni .. u eanHO' Aaw. ° good per/~Iion. Finoh, Law, b. 1,

c. 3, n. 8.

Thi.g. U. .. m .... , ~I", ar ....... try eo .... e b. gt"fJ1l1ed ower. 111 N. Y. lUO, 103.

TAi"9' ineidml .allno' b ••• u_d. Finch, Law,

b. 3, c. 1, n, 12.

Thill!!. ; .... den' fHN' by lAe gra.I a/ Il.p"N"'pal. 26 Barb. N. Y. 284, 310.

TA;IIU' i .... d.", .ltull 1'0", bl 11M gra .. ' ,,/ Ih. p,;"e;pal, 6., ,,,,, IA. p";,w;p,,1 by IAe !lra,,' 0/ ". ' .. eid ... t. Coke, Lilt. 162 0,161 hI Droom, Max. 3d Lond. ed, 433.

T1i"!I' .loll .0C b. "oid ... faiell .. ay poNibly b. good.

Ti .. orc. Mlli .... t ... ,i",,,,,di 'l"i .... n cadult' i .. • 000.Canl_ .iru... Fearl which do lIot alfeet .. bran man are vain. '1 Cuke, 17.

Ti".I ...•• , jll.'a .011." p_idondi id '1"O«IIOIIrulll .. t. Title I. a JUlt CIIU18 uf pONe.alng that whioh b Dun. 8 Coke, 163 (:iOfl); Cuke, Litt. 346 b.

Tolle ",,1""'0'''''' " fir;' om.i. ad ... i"diJ~re" •• Take a"ay the will, and every acti~n will be indif. ferent. Bracton. 2.

Tuc". p,_/.r, .. r ""i".;'1". parI ••. The whole II preferable to any lingle part. S Coke, 41 a.

Tou' •• "Ie 10 lui .e d./ ... d P'" rot permi,.

Every thiDg ill permitted whloh i. not forbidden by 1 ....

To,,'c ~iotI .............. 111e 'rlld d p""dr. Irs place do P,';II"'PC. Every exception not watobed tendl &0 unme the pl_ of the principle.

Tracl.II' /ah";li" /abri. Let Imithl perform the work 0' Imithl. 3 Cuko, Bpilt.

Tradilio lo'1ui /aci' ,h",.'a... Delivery make. the deed .pe.k. 6 Coke, 1.

Traditio lliAil a .. pliik 'ro .. "",re d.bc' ... l Jlot .. t ad ...... '1l1i ae"'pi', 'Iud .... t ap.d .... , ,vi c",dit. D.Uvery caunot and ought 1I0t to tranafer to him who noeivel mon th.n .... In pouellion ut him who made the delinry. DI,; 41. 1. ~O.

Tratlll(Jre •• i" •• Mulliplioa,a, cree.al par.a i",,;oIio.

Wben transgrellioll il multiplied, let the Inlliotlol1 of PUllilhwent be inoreued. Coke.2d In.t. 4711.

'1"0 .... ' iN r ... jNdi.alom. It p ..... Into a judgment. Broom, Max. 3d Lond. cd. 298; 11 Pet. 100. 8..e •• 110.18 Juhn •• N. Y. 463; 2 Sumn. C. C. 436; 6 B ... t, 261.

T,_eil 1.1Tft CII," 0....... The land palle. with lte burden. Coke, Litt. 281 a; Sheppard, Touoh~t. 178; 6 Barno.. .I: C. 607; 7 Moe.. .I; W. Escb. 630; 8 Barn".. .I; Ald. 68'1; 18 C. B. 846; 24 Barb. N. Y.SSli; Broom, Mall. 3d Lond. ed.4S'1, 1130.

'/'reo 10.;, ... , coll.gium. Three form a corpora· tlon. Die. 60. 16.86; 1 8harlwood, Blacksl. COlum. 4611.

TriG'; .. i6i _per d."", fleri, .. bi j.m""",,, .. eli". r.1II 1'''''''''' lober. "ocilialll. Trial oDght alw"YI &0 be had wbere tbe jury can b.n the beat knowledge. 'T Coke, 1.

Trite" ."""iN. Turpi. e.' par. '1"- ..... ~""tI .. i' e".. "'" ,..t".

That part i. bad wliloll aODord. not witb itl whole. Plowd.161. 1'''0 .. , ~ .. fDCIiG f'UI ri6i." flretlitar. Tha&

Ubi aU'lu{1l "" ... etliltlr, """".dil"r.' id "'tIC "... re. ;1"" .... 11 .... p",..e.. Wben ally thing i. gnnted, th"t allO II grantod witbout wbich the thing granted eannot e:li.t. Broom, Max. 3d Lond. eeL 4211; 13 Mees • .I; \V. Exch. 706.

Ubi aliquid i"'p.dil .. r propler """ .. , eo ...... oto, I"ll;I,,' fRl/"d;", ... ,u",. When any thing il iml,odt'd by ono linglo ea.Ule, if th.t bo removed the impediment il removed. 11 Coke 77 a.

Ubi "".01 r.m.diu", ordillarl"", ibi d.""rritwr ad ufraordi"a ... ·"".. When a common remeci;y __ to be of ICnice, reouul'lle mUttt be had to aD extra.ordinary one. 4 Coke, 93.

Ubi ... 11''' •• t, ibi JIm,a ."b .... d.bel. When th" crime I, committed. tbere tbe I'uni.hment .bould be indicted. Jenk. Cent. CII8. 326.

Ubi d"M .. a da"tur. "iclu. ,,;nlo,; ift e:qwtl.i ...... - d.mHa" d.b.,. Wbere damagel are given, th" 101lng ".rty .bould be adjudged &0 ray the ouatll of tho "iotor. Cuke, 2d lnll. 289; 3 Sh&l'lwood, . D1aakat. Comm. 31111 •

Ubi Nd .... ralio, ,'bi ide,n lez. Wbere tbere il the lame reason, then I. the ~nme law. 7 Coke, }S; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed, 146 •

Ubi ., d"nli •• , a.';}li.",;. cu'p;tado ... ,..tJttc', 11011 po ... ,.f1teti diei",,,. ,. qllotiera. tfU't!", arc.piftlti. 1 .. .";IHd,, ... roa"'" rep.'; p...... Wbere tbere is turpitude on tbe part of ·butb gl.,er and reeeiY"r, we lay it cannut be recovered back, but ... oflen •• the turpitude il on tbe lide of tbe ~eeh'er (alone) it can be recovered back. 17 M .... 662.

Ubi /oe",,,. ,,"(lum, ibi /orli" .. vila. Wb_ there I. no eet, tbero can bc no fOrM. 4 Ccke, 43- Ubi JUI, ibi re.ediu.. Wbere thero II " right, there il "remedy. 1 Term, 612; Cuke. Litt. 1117 bl 3 Boavler, In.t. n. 2411; 4 id. 3728.

Ubi Jill i'I<''''''''', 'b; j'" 1I1I1l... Wbere the la,..

I. uncertain, tbere I. no law.

(fbi lnt ali", .... cogi' "" .. d"., COHN.. .. ........ .. t q""d call'" .. , ju.'" el ''''.fili .. a. Where the 1a. compell " man to Ihow caul •• it ia 1I_"ry that the c.use be ju.t alld legal. Coke, 2d Inll. :l1l9.

Ubi I ...•• , '1'"eiali., .1 ralio ':i.' ,raeroli., 9"".,aliter ac"'pi."da .ft. Wbere the law i. rpeeir..l and the realOIl of it I. ,.eneral, it ougbt to be taken ... being general. Coke, 2d In at. 43.

Ubi I..., 11011 di.ti"guil,.ee .'" di",· .. !flle .... d,H....... Where the lRw doe. Dot dilltlngui.h, we ought 1I0t &0 diatinguilli. 7 Coke, 6.

lIbi major par. ",, ,bi I"rK"'. Where II tb. greater part, tbore i. th. whole. F. Moore, 678.

Ubi ",,'rimON'·u., ibi do.. Where there i. m.,.. riage, there i. dower. Brae&On, 112.

Ubi """ ad." liD_a legi., 0111.;11 ",,,.i pm _ peeli. "ab.mna .u .. '. When the law , .. ill to .er\"" a. " rule, almoat ."ery thill, oaght &0 be IDlIJMOted. Bacon, Aph. 26.

Ubi 11011 e.' ,'andetldi .... oIoMI., i6i .011'" pa~," .e .... ila.. Wbero there II no authority to utabliah, tbera is no necuIUy to obey. Day. 011.

Ubi NOli .d dir.cta I "a.d ...• ft arbi,,;o ,.dl-

..... r.r pro •• tt •• llu", ad ilia. Where there i. no

direct I ••• the Judgment 0' tbe Judge mUlt be dopended Upoll, or nference made &0 limn., cun.

Ubi ..... e.' ,,,It, ibi II".. .. , c .... ...". .... o '1""ad mull"..... Wbere then Ie no law, there I. no trall8- gre .. ioll, .1 It regllrdl the world. 4 Coke, 1 6.

Ubi '''''' .. , n,ani/",,. i"j",,'i';n, jalli ... j,,6 .. , ... pro ....... tri ..... , ., jtMlio_ II" "",_. When

MAXIM

161

MAXIM

!lim i. no .. anif .. , injaltloe, the jadg .. are to be "garded u honr.t men. and their judgment &I InIlb. 1 Joh ••. Cas. N. Y. UI, 346.

/;'6i ..... , I'ritteip,Jli., "0" poCH' ... e G<!c"ooriue.

Wbere the... i. DO prilloipd, t.bere O&D be no .0- _". 4 Coke, 43.

Ubi ...ua _, eonj.atwa ,.. dueal aliD, "er""

illl.,Iignd4 , I'l"OI'ri"al. "OIl gr .. ",,,,aRco .ed

,.".,... .. -Where thore ia no inrerenoe

• biob .oald l-.d in any otber direction, word. are b be andontood _ording to their proper .. eanID" DOn gnua .. atlelll, bat _rdlng to popaiar 1Iaage. Grotilll, de Jar. B.lli, l, 2, o. 16, f 2.

lJ6i ... ll •• _ .. eri",o"iUJlO, fbi .. "II ..... ao,. Where tbe" ill DO marriage thore ie ao dow.. Coke, Litt. '2 ...

ilW periea"" iM ., 1,,_ eolloeatur. He at .,,_ risk a thing I., Mould r_tvo the prollta WiDg rrom it.

U6i p.,_i .. i .... " ill ""'m""o Ju"_tur, 1tIIlrII • ....- .. ,. When two direction. oonfllot· ba, "II" ea. other are given in a will, neither ia Hid .. lid. Dig. 60. 17. 188 pro

Ubi pill ~liter ooltcecli",,., ." ., "- "",ceplie, Ii _" alipitl ft' l!01Oera j.,. /a~. Where a lllia! ill oonoeded gonerally, this exception arile., Ihat there lball be nothing oontrary to law aad rI,bL 10 Coke, 78-

lJ6i pit dali."...' i"i p"" •• tu,.. Let a man be pulabed .ben h. oomlllita the oll"enoe. 6 Coke,

'7.

l7&; _k eottju"cta NOlI "',,,, ... fftcil oller .. "'", _1",,_ Wbere wordl an used di.junotively, It bailment that either one of the tbing. enumerated be perf'ormed. Dig. 60. 17. 110. 3.

U~ ... 'lIjw";a, .bi da"'''.... Hqui,"r.

W~.,.nr then iI • wroag, there damage folio",. 10 Cok., lUI.

Ulti.a tJOl .. ., ... ,utelo"" eel peri"'r.'etltla ne.ntI •• "'.... i._iON.'" ' .. a.... The ... t will of a. Iutator iI to be f'allilled acoording to hil true i.teJItlon •. Coku, LIt&. 322; Broom, Mas. 8d Lond. ed. 685.

UlIi_ ..,."Uei ... _ ",ort"" .. 14", ;lIterp,."a•• r. The e:dremeat puuishment we conlider to he deatb .10... Dig. 48. 111.21.

Ullra ~ _ po"'" ... e, eI n~e ee...... WhAt II beTond pelilhility cann"t e:lilt, &Dd th. n".rae, .. bat II&1Inot esilt II not pOllibl.. Wingate, Mu. 100.

u •.. doil p"''' ad"""'ag' tU '011 tort d ..... .,. •.

O.e "'elat not to take adnnt&ge of hili OWD wrong. 2 .beL 88, .a.

U .. ,,__ oiz pel'" "'P1'''''' nee. "till"'''', 0.. perIIOD a&Il 1O_IYIUPpl, the place of two. 4Ook.,118.

U.i .. _i"., ,..,;, rapouio ..... a.tliatur. Let Bot the .... Ideaoe of one witnul be laeard at alL CocI .. '- 20. 9; 3 SharlWood, BlackBt. ~mm. 370.

u.n ...... "'e _Irnctu i,,'lillm op.eIRNdN'N "', ct ."..... Th. bepning &lid oanlO or every ooa-

tralit be oonlidered. Dig. 17. 1. 8; Story,

Bail f 68.

U UG _, lIO'i_ .,'lgll14 ... 6u,. Thin"

1UII~enal are better knowlI than thin" partioular. 2 Rolle, 2H; I C. Rob. Adm. 294.

U.iNnit... ..I """POr'GRO liD" dieilur a"",{d /-_, "'" id etl eoll.,tali'.r tUl,'hera""" .,i ...... i • lIjor "..,., id jlllli4,. An aniv."lty or corporaIi<>. II not Did to do any thing anl8l' it be deliberated upon aoUaglatell, although tha majority lIIoald do IL D ..... 48.

ft ..... ....."" dalo, illfi"lIdI ."""lteu,.. One abnl"lUtJ beiD.g allowed, anlnllnlty follow. 1 Coke, 102.

. U~ IIw..,le,,"'r et>d_ liO"",ill' quo l',G"". B"Ary thing iI dhulved by the 8ame mode .. "biola It .. hOllad tolether. Broom, Mas. Sd Load. ad.. 7111.

VOL. IL-ll

V .. umquodque eod"" modo quo colliunl.n. ..f di"oleilur. In the same manner In l' hleh anI thing la bouud it II leosened. 2 Rolle, 39.

U"UrNqv<><iql" .. t id quotl •• , p";"cipaUu i" ;p.o.

That whioh il the priaoipal part of a thing II tha thing ltaolf. Hob. 123.

U"."'quotlque liga",en d'"ol.""r .otUm liga",;ne quod I'gal,.,.. Every obligation I. dl880lved in tho lame manDer in whioh It il oontracted. 12 Barb •

N. Y. 366, 375.

VII"""1uodque pri .. cipo,."". eat .i"imttfpn jld", tI pe""PicI.a .. r .. ,,<>II ... ", proband". E"ery prinolple II Ita own evidenoe, and plAin truths are aot to be proved. Coke, Lltt. 11; Branch, Prine.

U'lI.copio coneliluta .. , .. t aliqui. lilium filII', .... t, Pl'08oription Wal instituted that there might be aa end to litigation. Dig. 41. 10. 5; Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 801, n.; Wood, Ci". Law, 3d ed. 123.

U •• ,., it odiou. in late.

U • .,. ,,,, "_i .. i.", jldou:ioriu"," A nae III a IIdaoiaryownership. Bacon, UI ...

UI pa!fto .. d paueo., m.'", ad _II .. peM'.Rial.

That panilhment may happen to a few, the fear of It afl"eota all, Cuke, 4th lnll. 83.

VI r .. ",agi' tlal.R' qua", pereat. That the thing may rather han all"oot than be d8ltroled.

Ulile per i .... ,il. flO" .ilial",.. Wbat II nl8(ull. not "itlated by the a.elell. 8 Bouvier, InsL nn. 2949, 3293; 2 Wheat. 221; 2 Sergo .t R. Peon. 298; 17 ;d. 2117; 6 MII8I. 803; 12 id • .a8 j 9 Ired. No.

(J. 26'- See 18 Johnl. N. Y. 93,9'- .

Uzor ,,' jlU.,. ."'" "_' .. a IIaeur.. Wife and Ion are namea of Dature. 4 Bacon, Work., 850.

VflJor fIOn .. , ... i Ju";" ,.tl .. " pol •• ,ate "i";. A wife is Dot her own mlltre .. , but ia undor th. power of her has band. Coke, 3d !nIt. 108.

Yogabu"du. lI_pamu •• _ qui ".mb.IIOMIciliu". COII"azic ""'''il,,''oll''. We oaU him a vagabond who hal aequlred nowhere a domicile or relldenoe. Phlllimore, Dom. 28, note.

Yole", quanlu", ",dere pOI .. t. It Ihall have .1I"00t aa far &I it can haTe ell"oot. Cowp. 600; • Kent, Comm. 493; Sheppard, ToaohlL 87 •

Ya_ eel illa polelllia '1""" .. "nqua", .enit i. acc.... Vain I, that power whloh i. olver brought into action. I Coke, 51.

Ya,,' «m_ "',,' llUli",omdi, qui "". cad"., ill 0010""111_ 'IIi"... Vain are tholO lean which afl"ool not a linn man. 'I Coke, 27.

Yani Ii_";. j""<1 "",,,,,,,olio _ .eI. A fri"olona fear II not a legal 8:lOUa8. Dig. 60. 17. 184; Coke, 2d Inlt. 488 j Broom, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 2611, n,

Yelle "0" .redilur qNi ,,6I.quitur imp''';" paIN', .,., d_i.... He la not presumed to oonl8at who obey. the orden of hie fathar or hie master. Die. 60.17 •••

Y.,.tl_ .antl"", reM d'lOb .. /aletrri," .. t, ne

I. t'l"aadulont who lell. the _me thing twioe. Jank. Cent. Cu. 107.

Yelli./aMlilae ;11"",';""'" ",, d.UII,,_di. FaoUity of pardon II au inoentive to orlme. Coke, 3d !nIt. 288.

Y,r60 aecipietlda ..... , .. " .. ndN'" ... bj •• 'llm "'Rleria.... WOrdl are to be interpreted aooording to the .abject.,atter. 6 Coke, II, D.

Verba aceipw..d ..• , ... rli ... ftlr .Ire",,,,. Wordl are to he taken .0 that they lDay have lome ell"act. 4 Bacon, W orkl, 268 •

Yerbo .gu1·fJOCt1. "" i" d.""o ....... pMla, illt.lli. g""'Ur d':O"io"; ., polenlion....... Equivocal word. and thOle In a doabtful lenlO an to be taken la their but and mOlt ell"eetl.,. aenle. 6 Coke, 20.

Y.".ha aliqnid opemri d.6 ... t-tl.6e,,' illl.lligi ", aliquid op.r"",,r. Wordl oaght to have 10IDe ell"eot-word. ought to be interpreted 10 aI to gl"a tbem lome effect. 8 Coke, 94 .

Y.,..b .. aU'l"itl op,,·n"; d.6tnt, tie,."" eu ..• If •• ,. """ aeeipieNd... Worela are to be lakeD 10 &I to

MAXIM

162

MAXIM

have erred. Dacon, Mu. Reg. 3, p. 4.7. Bee 1 from thole rather than trom tho word&. Cah·inu ..

Duer; lUI 210, 211, 21G. Lex.

Ver"n arti» e", arle. Terml of art Ihoald be ex· Verba 0ffendl pM ... "', im/) ab oi, reuaer. lieel •• ,

plalned from the art. 2 Kent, Comm. 666, n, ".rb .. arl .aN ..... iNI.lle.IIt", r..a...,a"lUr. You ma,.

Verb ..• 4t"'a,,. .. a/orliu. a •• ipiunl.r .onl .... 7"'0- dilagree with word., nay, yoa may recede from /,,·.nl..... The words of deeds &re to be takea them, in order that th~y may be reduoed to a Hnlimost strongly again It the person olfering them. ble meaning. Calvinu., Lex.

Cuke, Litt.:lG tI; Baoon, Max. Reg. 3; Noy, Malt. Verb .. ordinaliOtli. 9"ando ".rijiea'" pM'''"' i. 9th ed. p. 48; 3 BUI. '" P. 399, .0:1; 1 Crumpt. '" IUQ "rn .ioniji.uliot,., traM ad ... lra" ..... iNlelWeM. Exch. 667; 8 Term, 605; 16 EBBt, 6.0; 1 Ball "" .. '''' .. d.bml. When the wordl of an ordinance '" ll. 335; :I Paraon., Contr. 22; Broom, Mu. 3d ean be made true In their true liguiJIcation, the,. Luad. ed. 72 (n.), 629. ought not to be warped to a foreign meaning.

V,,·ba CHili .ff •• 'u ac";pl.ndQ 11,"1. Wordl !lore to Calvinal, Lex.

be interpreted 80 BB to give them e«cot. Buoon, VerbQ po.terior .. prnpler eerlil.di .... addll..., atl

Mllx. Reg. 3. pM'"ra 9". .erlilfldine {"digenl, .H.' re/erelld ...

Verb ... «r .. nll. IIIOn.tIr, lemp'" .nl",i""i. d.. 8ub~equent word. added for the purpole of eer,iona .. t, The words "ourrent money" refer to the tainty are to be referred to preceding wordl ia timo of paymeut. Dav. 20. which certainty il wuting. Wingate, Malt. 167; Ve,.ba deb ... t ;",.11;0; e .. 111 ,ffe.'N. Words shoald 6 Ooke, 238.

be understood .ffectively. 2 John •• Cal. N. Y. 97, Verba pro re .1 Rbj •• '" fIIaler;Q a"';pi d.lln'.

101. Wurdt should be reoei .. d mOlt favorably to the

VerbQ deb ... , ;nl.lligi.t aliquid ""e, ... tur. Words thing and the lubject.matter. Calvina., Lex.

ought to be 10 understood that they may havo lome V.rb.. 9". aliquid oper,,'" poo ... nl "011 d e beltc

efl'eot. 8 Coke, II. a. • ••• "'perjt"Q -, WQrdl whioh e.n have Dnyefrect

I'erba di.'Q d. per."nll, o'n"lligi d.b"", d. eo"d,·· onght not to b. treated BB lurplul&ge. Calvinu., lion. 1""0"". Worda apoken of the person are to Lex.

be anderstood of the oondition of the person, 2 Verba q,".nlll'.,,'. g .... ralia, ttd aplilltd,',,_ .....

Rolle, 72. ""·"9"nl .. r, .';am.i ... llalll alia ... pa_'"r re,'r;c-

V,,.b.. o,n"al;1I oen.raUler ,"nl i",.l/;f/enda. Ii""... Worde, howlocver general, are rel'trained General worde are to be generally understood. Coke, to IItne .. (i .e, to harmonize with the labject-mat.- 3d J08t. 76. ter) though they would bear no oth.r r •• triotiOD.

ttl'ba g.neraliQ r .. ,ringunl .. r ad A .. bili'a' ..... Nli Spiegeliul.

".1 "plil"dill'III peroo..... General wordl mUlt be V"'ba relala Aoc ",a",,· .. e opero,,"" per re/",,",. reatrioted to the nature of the subject.matter or lialll III ;. el. inc ... "idn'ur. Word. to which the aptitudo of tbe penon. Baoon, Max. Reg. 10; reference il made in an inltrument have the .. me 11 C. B. 254, 356. effect ud operation u if they were inlerted in

Verb .. gtileralin re.,rlngunlllr ad Aabililal'III rei tbeclaulereferringtothem. Coke,Litt.8611; Broom, "el p.rfOllle. General WOrdl mUlt be ooaftned or Max. ad Loud, ed. 69U; 14. Ea.t, 568.

reatrained to the nature of the lubjeot or the apti. Verba .eClAnd"fII fIIal .... alll ,,,bjecla .. i .. "lligi " .... 0 tude of the penon. Bacon, MAlt. Reg. 10; Broom, ,., 9"i ",oell. There. i. no one who I. ignorant Max. 3d Lond. ed, 676. tbat worda ahould be understood aooording to the

Verba iIl"'a (r.lala) in.' .. 'fIld.nlllr. Wordl aubjeot.matter. CalvinuI, Lex.

referred to are to be considered al if inoorporated. Verb" .. ".per a ee ipi,nd ..• unl ; .... ilinri _.". Broom, Mnll. 3d Lond. eeL 600, 603; 11 Meea. '" Wordl are AlwaYI to be tuken in their milder IIDIe.

W. Exoh. IS3, ISS; 10 C. B. 261, 263, 268. , Coke, 17.

Verba in differ.nli n.al.,.i" per priN', nnn p.r V.rba .'ricl ... i!l"ijica,io,,;, ad lal.... ulendi

pOlller;"., i .. ,.lli!I."da ."",. Wordl referring to a. p" ...... " ..• "bli, ralio. Wordl of a Itriet .iguilic ..... dilferent subject a.re to be interpreted by what goel tion Oln be given " wide eignifteation if re.BOD

before, not by wbat fullllwi. Calvinus, Lex. require. Call'lnul, Lex; Bpiegelial.

Verb" inl.lliyo"d ..• uIII ;" ca ... po .. ibili. Worda Verba ."., ... dic .. allimi. Wordl are indio.tionl

are to be undentood in reference to a pOllible cue. of tbo iatention. 'Latoh, 106.

Calvinu., Lex. Verbum imp ... / .. ,i lempo ..... r_ adAu. 'Illper/ee.

".rba i"""'iOl"', ., "0" • "".'M, d,benl o'noer'flir.. lam ,l!l"i/i'·al. The imperfect ten!e of the verb indio Word. ongbt to wait upon the intentton, not tho oates an Incomplete matter. II Wend. N. Y.I03, 120.

reveree. 8 Coke, 114 i 2 Sharawood, Blacketo Comm. Vertdielun" 9ua" diet"111 "''''tali.; ", iHdiri .... ,

S711. q"tt,; /u,·i. diet".... A verdict i. III it were the '''y.

V.rba illl'."·on;, no. ~ ~ontra, deb,., ;..,e",lre. ing of ,,,. 1"1.,10, in the aame manner that a judg.

Wordl ougbt to be Dlade lab •• rvient to the intont, ment II the .oy;no Q/lh. laID. Coke, Litt. 226.

not oontrary to it. 8 Coke, 114.; 1 S~co, Eq. Jur. V"jl'" #"""",'raliorai, lol/il .rror .... n_;"ie.

627. Tho troth ~f the dcecripUon remonl tbe error of

Verba ilQ ",,,, iHlelli9ft1tia, ", r .. fII"!I". ""lotll tbe name. 1 Ld. Raym. 308. See Lr.o.l.TE ••

'Ilium per.".I. Words are to be 10 understood tbat l'eM·In. "ttb.nda .. , ;n jUl'alor,; ,;...';1;" el e;". the subjeot.matter may be preserved rather than d'·.;"111 ill i"di... Trnth ia the delideratulD io a destrllyed. Blcon, Malt. Reg. 3; Plo.d. 156; 2 juror; jUltioe and judgmeDt, in a jadge. BraotoD,

Uiaokotone, Cnmm. 3110; 2 Kent, Comm. 666. 18$ b.

V,,·b.. lRe,.~ "q"i_u, .. per COlll"''''' ....... ''' Yerila. nilil r.rellt .. ",'" ableolldt. Truth fcan

I09Kend. ill i",.ll.ol" .erlo ."IIIu,,'ur, lali. "nlel. nothing bat ooncealment. 9 Coke, 20.

1 •• , ... p,·8I/tr.nllu. e.l. Whea words are merely V.r;la. ,,;m;"111 tllle .. calldo amiUitwr. By too

equivocal, it by common uaago of I~ecoh they maoh alteroation truth la IOIt. Hob. 34 •.

aoquire a oertain meaning, Ilioh meanlDg ia to be V.riln. ,,_;ni. I"l/il errore'" dem .. n'~o.' ••

preferred. Calvina., Lex. The truth or the nomo tlke. away the el1"lli or

Verba nllil npe"ari ""lill' ul 'INa... abourd.. delcription. Bleon, Max. Reg. 26; Broom. Xu.

It II better tbat word. ahould have nO operatloa, 3d Lund. ed. 671; 8 Taunt. 813; 2 Jonel, Eq. No.

taan to operate absardly. CalvinQs, Lex. C. '72.

Verba nOli lam i,,'"ellda, 9"alll ca •• Q eI "alUrRI Verillll.", qNi non liber' prOll."",·QI, prodilnr e" rei, ., IIIe.... .0lllrn"'"I,·"III r.r: ft, poti •• qflam a " .... ,tlli.. He who dOlta Dot lpeak the tralh freel,. ""'/'M app"renl. Wordl are aot to be looked at 10 II a traitor to the troth. Cok., .th Inll.. Epil.

maoh BB tho caal. IIoDd natnre of the thing. sinoe Via anliqN4 'fIi .... , IHla. The old way II the

the intention of the contraotiDg partiel may appeilr l&I'e way. 1 JOhnl. Ch. N. Y. 62'7,630. .

MA... .. UM

163

MAYHEM

Yi .. 1';1 .. .., tKti •• i.a. :rhe beaten road il the Vol"",,.. reptda6atur pro faelo. The will ill to be

.feat. 10 Cuke, 142; " Maule .t I:l. 168. taken for the deed. Coke, 3d Inat, 69.

V.a trita, ~i .. lilla. The old way il the lare way. Yulunla. te.,,,lori. an,b .. latori.. e.' .. ,.,,,r. ad

6 Pet. 223. mortem. The will of a testatur il ambula.tory !Intil

Yi~"ri ... "Oil hbd ,,;onri...... A deputy caunot his death: that is, hc m&y aha.nge it at any tim .. appuint & deputy. BrlUlch, Ma~. 88; Broom, Ma~. See 1 Bouvier, rnot. n. 83; , Coke, 61.

Id LoneL eel. 768; 2 Bonvier, lust. n. 1300. Volullla. le,'alo,;, habet ;III'rpretalw.. ... lolam ..

"i"ni ";ci .. ioM pra".IInlur ,cir.. Nei,hbora benig'"lm. The will of "testator hal a broad and an! presumed to know thingl of the neighborhood. liberal interpretation. Jenk. Cent. Cu. 260; Dig.

Coke •• th Inlt. 173. 60. 17. 12.

l"idcbi' rn _pe co .... ;lfi, '1u .. '''p' riudicantllr. Volunla. "llima 1.00alon·' .. , p.rimpl ... d .. Hc" ....

y"u "ill _ tbole thingl frequently oommitted du", .. era .. illl.nlio"eno ."am. The last will of a whicb are frequently pUDilhed. Coke, 3d lnst. testator il to be fulftlled according to hil true int8D-

Epilog. tlon, Coke, Litt. 322.

Vitklur 'lui ".rd". et ..... , ...... poel fuire ali."a- V"", .milOa tlolal,-liter ..• cripla ma ... 1. Wordl

Iio". It lecml thlLI a dea' and dumb mlLll Oa.Dnot .Jloken vanilh, wurdl written remaiD. A written alieuate. 4 .Johnl. Ch. N. Y. «1, 444. contract cannot be varied by parol proof. Broom,

Vigi/ .... tib ... eI "0" dor.i.ntib". jura ... 6 •• ,.,i" .. t; J(a~. 3d Lond. ed. ,694 j 1 John .. N. Y. 671, 672.

The 10.". fern the vigilant. Dat thOle who sleep,

% Boa"ier, Inst, D. 2327. See LAcHBs; Broom, WAIlI a .~ .. e ...... ol Ira"/er, A ....... 1101 6illd by

)fax. 3d Lond. ed. 7119. artiolee •

...... ri rryellere lied, mod" flat modeMmi ... illftll- WA .. many joi .. i .. 011. act, 1M 10'" .ay. it i, Ih.

p.'" I.t.u., flO. ad ... metada ... indielam, .ed atl acl of laim .. M rould b •• , do il; atad IAinD' ,Aoilid p"p.IItI .. da. i"jaM",1&. It i. la"f u 1 to repel fol't'e be done by /aim ",lao /la. Ih. be.,.1tiIl. Noy, JoIaz,

by force j but let it be dono "ith the lelf-control of WA ... no '.·m. i. limiled, 1M la", appoi .. " tie ..... t

hla .. eleu deronoe,-Dut to take revenge, but to cOIIt'enietlt.

repel injnrl. Coke, Litt. 162. ' WAe .. Ilr. co ..... " la", and .tatul. I .. ", OOMtP', tie

V.perinll elf Up".ilio q"" cnrrndil "i.c.ra t • .%III.. eo ... mon I"", i. 10 be ["if.rr.d. "Coke, 71.

Tbt i. & vipero"s expo.ition which gnawl or eats Wlrtn Ihe fou"dal;o" fail., "II fail •.

Ollt the b""et. of the text. 11 Coke, 3'. Wlrell 1M l .. u> gi ... nno 14i"9, illl;." a ,...04, for

Vi,. d K.Z'O,. eo".,.,ltur i. I'Ve tiNt! p,,'.mrft.. Hu.~ tAe .ame.

lIand and "ife are con.ldered ODe penon in law. Wh ... 1M WIC prr".m •• tla. nffi""a'i~., IA. rt~ati ...

Coke, Litt. 112; Jenk. Cent. CU8. 27. i. 10 be pro".4. 1 Rolle, 83; 8 Bouder, IDlt. nn, Vi .... oC'luirit .... du.. It gains Itreagth by con- 30113, 3090.

tinaance. 1 John8. Ch. N. Y. 231, 237. Wlu"'UIOft·I/HCOrt""r,tMb •• ,i'prt/'err.d. Finch,

Vi. legi6N' .. , jNimica. Force il inimical to tho, Law, b. 1, o. 4, D. 82.

la".. Coke, 3d IDIt. 178. Whet. ,lur. i. equal ''1uity, IA. la ... tRufff prftXliL

Viti ... el.ric; Noeere non d.b". Clerical orron 'BoDvier, In.t. n, 8727.

oagbt Dot tu prejudice. Jenk. Cent. Ca •. 23; Dig.' WAer. 1Il10 rigAI. eoncur, lAs .. or. a .. ci ... , lAaU b.

U. 6. 3. prtifcrred.

Viti •• ." '1""d fllfli deb." ... , ,i ratio ....... on MAY. Ie permitted to·, hal liberty to.

'.rt1liat, tIIIO.Z' le~ ..• in. t'G'iofte e .. e dame,,_ It Is

a '.nlt "hich ouglat to be avoided; that if you can- ~. Whenever a statute directs the doing of' Dot discover the r8lUlon you should presently u- a thing for the ~ake of justice or the publio elaim that the 1&w II withOD~ reuon. Ellesmere, good, the word may is the same as shaU. For Porta. SII. example, the 23 H. VI. SRyS the Iherift' ma,

Vi.r ul/ .. lu fieri pole.' 'I .... "", .. ib .. __ da .il, take bail j that is construed he shall, for be II .. Il .i IIInjori parti pro'pie;,,', ,IIili. ".1. ae.roely oompellable to do 80. Carth. 293', Salk. 609 " Inyla" can be mlLde which i. beneficial to 0.11; but

if it beneftt the majority It i8 uloeul. PI"wd. 369. SkiDn. 370.

Vocal.HI,. nrli"", ezplicIIJ,dtl IU'" "~I",d",. d,ji. 3. The wordA shaU and may, in general .ilj",u, prude,,'inm. Terml of art should be ex- acts of the legislature or in private constituplainad .o~rdlag to the de8nitionf of thOle who tions, are to be construed imperath'ely, 3 Atk. aN mOlt experienced in tbat art. PufTondtrrfl'. de Off. Ch. 166 j but the eoustruetion of those worda n ..... l, I, e, 17, , 8; Grotiul, Jar. d. B.Il.1. 2, c. in a deed depends on cireumstancee, 3 Atk.

la'Juld i .. ,.nrl, ';"id .... '010. 15 N. Y. II, 98. Ch. 282. See 1 Vern. Ch. 162, case 142 j

Void IliHg. are ,.. 11011 • ..,.. 9 CO". N. Y. 778, 18 Ala. 390.

7S4. MAYBEM. In Crlmloal Law. The

V.,l".'i ...... fit •• .. juri... He who eonfents cannot I d I

recei .. e an Injury. 2 Bou .. ier. IDlt. on. 22711,,2327; act oJ' unlawful yan vio ent1y depriving an-

Bronm, Max. 3d Lond. ed. 245; Shelford, Marr. cI: other of the use of such of hiS members &8 D. «II; Wing&tc, Ku. "82; " Term, 667; Plowcl. may render him les8 able, in fighting, either 601. to defend himself or annoy hil adversary. 8

1"<>1.,'1 oed 11011 dizil. He willed bat did not 10.1. Carr. &; P. 167. The cutting or disabling, or

( Kent, Camlll. 638. weakening, a man's hand or finger, or strik-

.·''',,"t,.. doNatorio, i .. c1tartd dorti ,"i ... anifto" ing out his eye or foretooth, or depriving him

upr_ ob"",.'lIr. Tho will of the donor, ol8&rl, h'

e:rl.reued In the deed, Ihould bo ohlervad. Coke, of those part8 the lOll of which abates I' Liu. 21 a. courage, are held to be mayhem.. 7 Humphr.

1'01"",,.. .. praptM;I ..... dioti"fIII"'" ... "r,jIri'J. The Tenn. But cutting oft' the ear or DOle, or the will and tbe propoeed ond di.tinguilh orimes. Brae- like, are not held to be mayhemll at common

"'n. 2 b, 13G 6. law. 4 Blackstone, Comm. 205.

Vol ... ,,.. fa cit '1Hod ill le.t .. ",ento .Driplum " .. /~nc. 2. These and other 8evere personal injuries The will of the te.,ator give. validity to what II are punished :I the Coventry Act, which hal

written in the will Dig. 30. 1. 12. 3. '

I·o/",'a. ill d.ri~li. no .. nila. opeeenl.r. In been re-enact in 8everal of the I!ltates, Ryan, oft'rDces, the will aDd nut tbe CODl8quen_ are to Med. Jur. 191, Phil. ed. 1832 j and by conbe looked to. Coke, 2d IUIt. n. grells. See Act of' April 30, 1790, I. 13, 1