Vincent Ho Period 4 12/21/10 Homework #17 : Chapter 17 (due Mon) ONE Concept Map: 10 points Gene to Proteins Objectives The

Connection Between Genes and Proteins 1. Explain why dwarf peas have shorter stems than tall varieties. Dwarf peas are shorter than tall varieties because they lack gibberellins, the growth hormones which normally stimulate the stem elongation. Their failure to make gibberellins is due their lack of the enzyme required for its synthesis. This protein is missing due to a malfunction of the gene coding for it.

2. Explain the reasoning that led Archibald Garrod to first suggest that genes dictate
phenotypes through enzymes. Archibald Garrod was the first to suggest that genes dictate phenotypes through the proteins that catalyze specific chemical reactions in the cell... enzymes. His ideas were based upon inherited diseases which caused an inability to produce certain enzymes, particularly alkaptonuria. This condition causes urine to turn black to due the presence of a chemical which turns dark when exposed to air. Garrod believed that most people have enzymes that break down alkapton. Many decades later, research was conducted that supported his hypothesis. It was confirmed that genes dictate specific enzyme production.

3. Describe Beadle and Tatum’s experiments with Neurospora and explain the contribution they
made to our understanding of how genes control metabolism. Beadle & Edward Tatum’s experiments involved assailing the bread mold, Neurospora with X-rays. Then, they searched among the survivors to find mutants whose nutritional needs differed from the norm. These mutants could not live on the minimal medium given to normal Neurospora. They couldn’t not synthesis important molecules from the nutrients given. Once given complete growth medium, however, the mutants could survive. Beadle & Tatum tried to characterize the specific metabolic defects by growing them on various complete mediums in different vials. The supplement added that allowed for growth would indicate the defect. Then, they went on to determine the mutants’ three classes based on genetic crosses. Each mutant was found to be defective in only 1 gene. Beadle & Tatum were thus able to demonstrate the relationship between enzymes and genes. In addition, their experiment was strong support for their hypothesis: one gene, one enzyme, which stated that a gene’s function is to dictate a specific enzyme’s production.

4. Distinguish between the “one gene–one enzyme” hypothesis and the “one gene–one
polypeptide” hypothesis and explain why the original hypothesis was changed. The “one gene—one enzyme” hypothesis was altered because genes code for proteins, and not all proteins are enzymes. The hypothesis of “one gene—one protein” was then altered again when it was discovered through later research that proteins are composed of several polypeptides, and that each polypeptide has it’s own gene. Thus, the hypothesis is now “one gene—one gene polypeptide.”

5. Explain how RNA differs from DNA.
While DNA and RNA are chemically similar, the former has deoxyribose and the latter ribose. In addition, for nitrogenous bases, thymine in DNA is replaced by uracil in RNA. RNA is the nucleic acid which links DNA and protein synthesis, as genes cannot build proteins directly. RNA molecules are always single stranded.

6. Briefly explain how information flows from gene to protein.
Information in DNA is in the form of specific sequences of nucleotides, or genes. Transcription occurs, synthesis a copy of the DNA, called messenger RNA (mRNA). DNA and mRNA contains the same information. Protein synthesis is then directed during translation, when polypeptides are produced using the direction from mRNA.

and CCC were discovered by Marshall Nirenberg. no codons can specify two amino acids. eukaryotes much process the mRNA before translation can occur. The end product is messenger RNA. By creating an artificial mRNA molecule made only of the specific repeated base. On the other hand. Transcription is RNA synthesis under DNA’s direction. which is generally referred to as mRNA. genes can be transcribed and translated from one species to another. The genetic code is redundant. The series of codons. and termination. The Synthesis and Processing of RNA 15. Elongation is when the codons of a gene are copied. the genetic code shows that all living things arose from a common ancestor. 16. Explain the evolutionary significance of a nearly universal genetic code. meaning that while several codons can be for the same amino acid. At the terminator. Compare where transcription and translation occur in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. polymerase eventually falls off DNA. must be read in the correct frame for the correct linear sequence of amino acids. prokaryotes have sequences that signal the end of transcription. mRNA produced by transcription is immediately translated. initiating transcription. Describe the promoter. 13. GGG. 14. Bacteria can thus synthesize specific human proteins after the appropriate genes are inserted. In terms of evolutionary significance. Methionine indicates the start of translation. RNA polymerase recognizes a promoter which begins the process. 9. 11. however. Explain how RNA polymerase recognizes where transcription should begin. Explain the general process of transcription. 17. where transcription actually begins. 12. and CCC. Explain the early techniques used to identify what amino acids are specified by the triplets UUU. With eukaryotes. This means that in lab research. Nirenberg knew that the one amino acid produced would have been coded by the codon containing the base repeated three times. from the start. including the three major steps of initiation. The mRNA transcribed from DNA forms triplets called codons. The genetic code is almost universal. GGG. all codons must be read in groups of three nucleotides. Codons specify the placement of amino acids along a polypeptide. Explain the significance of the reading frame during translation. elongation. meaning it is shared by organisms ranging from bacteria to plants to animals. Distinguish between transcription and translation. RNA polymerase then attaches to the promoter. but unambiguous. . Polypeptides begin with methionine when they are synthesized because that amino acid is a promoter. The codons that do code for the same amino acid tend to differ only in their third base. 10. The transcription process is then ended through termination. The early technique for identifying the amino acids synthesized by the base triplets UUU. the terminator. 8. The reading frame is significant during translation because the genetic code’s message will not be correct if the starting point is not right. the signal is given to end transcription. a special sequence. The general process of transcription includes initiation. Explain what it means to say that the genetic code is redundant and unambiguous. RNA polymerase recognizes where transcription begins by detecting the promoter’s location. Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide under the direction of the mRNA from transcription. In addition.7. Transcribing produces the transcription unit. Then. Define codon and explain the relationship between the linear sequence of codons on mRNA and the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. AAA. or codon that initiates the process. The nuclear envelope separates the two steps. and the transcription unit. In prokaryotes. Explain how RNA is modified after transcription in eukaryotic cells. It is a reminder of the kinship of all life on Earth. Explain why polypeptides begin with methionine when they are synthesized. AAA.

The primary structure of a protein is determined by its coiling and folding into 3-D shape during/after synthesis. 19. like other RNA molecules. lipids. resulting with the new protein to be able to diffuse to its operating site . Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes have different ribosomes and how transcription is terminated.When RNA is processed after transcription. Certain animo acids may be removed. A major difference is that prokaryotes can transcribe and translate the same gene simultaneously. which is the most abundant RNA in the cell. It is used repeatedly in the cytoplasm as it picks up its designated amino acid in the cytosol. 18. Describe the structure and functions of tRNA. elongation. 23. elongation. Ribozymes are RNA that works like enzymes. The discovery of ribozymes rendered the statement that “All biological catalysts are proteins” obsolete. translation can also be separated into the same three stages: initiation. and two ribosomal sub-units. or etc. tRNA with the first amino acid. Free and bound ribosomes have the same structure. AminoacyltRNA synthase has an active site for a specific tRNA and amino acid combination. It can bond with the nucleic acids of both DNA and RNA 29. protein factors. TRNA is consisted of about 80 nucleotides that folds back on itself to create a three dimensional figure. but synthesize different kinds of proteins. and termination) and explain which enzymes. and termination. Define and explain the role of ribozymes. If U on the anti-codon is in this position. The ability of RNA to form hydrogen bonds contributes to its many functions. Like transcription. The sub-units are made up of proteins and rRNA. Some interior parts are also removed and the rest are spliced together. it is able to bind with A or G. two or more polypeptides may unite to form one protein. Explain what determines the primary structure of a protein and describe how a polypeptide must be modified before it becomes fully functional. Describe the process of translation (including initiation. 25. 21. Describe the structure and functions of ribosomes. This may involve adding sugars. Explain the significance of wobble. Polypeptides must be modified with posttranslational modifications before becoming fully functional proteins. A ribosome is composed of a large and small sub-unit. Ribosomes help with the specific pairing of anti-codons in tRNA with mRNA codons during protein synthesis. Polyribosomes are multiple ribosomes that may trail along mRNA. Describe two properties of RNA that allow it to perform so many different functions. Both ends are altered. Compare protein synthesis in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. Describe what determines whether a ribosome will be free in the cytosol or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. and energy sources are needed for each stage. It deposits the amino acid at the ribosome and returns to the cytosol to pick up another amino acid. is transcribed from DNA templates. leaving an end with a head and another with a tail. Then. tRNA. 27. The wobble is the third position at the base of an anti-codon. Ribosomes require less than minutes to convert an averaged sized mRNA into a polypeptide. Each tRNA is connected to the correct amino acid by aminoacyl-tRNA synthase. Describe the significance of polyribosomes. Termination occurs when one of the three stop codons reaches the A site. 22. 28. 26. Describe the functional and evolutionary significance of introns. Initiation takes an mRNA. Explain how tRNA is joined to the appropriate amino acid. and are evolutionary significance as they protect the mRNA from hydrolyzing agents in the cytoplasm. The Synthesis of Protein 20. Introns are non-coded segments of nucleotides. Elongation consists of a series of three step cycles as each amino acid is added. 24. This in turn determines the secondary & tertiary structure.

some change the bases to change their pairing properties. This may have little or no impact on protein function. Distinguish between base-pair substitutions and base-pair insertions. -gen 5 producing (mutagen: a physical or chemical agent that causes mutations) poly.5 opposite (anticodon: a specialized base triplet on one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule) exo. -script 5 write (transcription: the synthesis of RNA on a DNA template) . outside. Give examples of each and note the significance of such changes.quickly.5 within (intron: a noncoding. interfere with DNA replication by going in DNA and distorting the double helix shape. The Mendelian view of a gene sees it as a unit of inheritance that affects phenotype. Base-pair substitution is when the nucleotide pair is replaced with a pair of complimentary nucleotides.5 change. 31. This has a disastrous effect on the protein. Mutagens are chemical or physical agents that interact with DNA to cause a mutation.5 across. without (exon: a coding region of a eukaryotic gene that is expressed) intro. Insertions are additions the nucleotide pairs. Point mutation is a chemical change in a single base pair of a gene. but pair incorrectly. 32. This evolved into the one gene – one polypeptide definition. unless it occurs in a multiple of three. This however has further evolved into the current definition of a gene: A gene is a region of DNA whose final product is either a polypeptide or an RNA molecule. Chemical mutagens may be base analogues that substitute DNA. Define point mutations. which then forms a frameshift mutation. Describe several examples of mutagens and explain how they cause mutations. Describe the historical evolution of the concept of a gene.5 many (polyA tail: the modified end of the 39 end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides) trans. Concept Map Words: 59 cap A site alternative RNA splicing aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase anticodon base-pair substitution codon deletion domain E site exon frameshift mutation insertion intron messenger RNA (mRNA) missense mutation mutagen mutation nonsense mutation one gene–one polypeptide hypothesis P site point mutation poly-A tail polyribosome (polysome) primary transcript promoter reading frame ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ribosome ribozyme RNA polymerase RNA processing RNA splicing signal peptide signal-recognition particle (SRP) spliceosome TATA box template strand terminator transcription transcription factor transcription initiation complex transcription unit transfer RNA (tRNA) translation triplet code wobble Memorize the Word Roots anti. such as X-rays and ultraviolet light.5 out. 30. intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene) muta. Physical mutagens may be high-energy radiation. which is useful in certain context.

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