Vincent Ho Period 4 12/21/10 Homework #17 : Chapter 17 (due Mon) ONE Concept Map: 10 points Gene to Proteins Objectives The

Connection Between Genes and Proteins 1. Explain why dwarf peas have shorter stems than tall varieties. Dwarf peas are shorter than tall varieties because they lack gibberellins, the growth hormones which normally stimulate the stem elongation. Their failure to make gibberellins is due their lack of the enzyme required for its synthesis. This protein is missing due to a malfunction of the gene coding for it.

2. Explain the reasoning that led Archibald Garrod to first suggest that genes dictate
phenotypes through enzymes. Archibald Garrod was the first to suggest that genes dictate phenotypes through the proteins that catalyze specific chemical reactions in the cell... enzymes. His ideas were based upon inherited diseases which caused an inability to produce certain enzymes, particularly alkaptonuria. This condition causes urine to turn black to due the presence of a chemical which turns dark when exposed to air. Garrod believed that most people have enzymes that break down alkapton. Many decades later, research was conducted that supported his hypothesis. It was confirmed that genes dictate specific enzyme production.

3. Describe Beadle and Tatum’s experiments with Neurospora and explain the contribution they
made to our understanding of how genes control metabolism. Beadle & Edward Tatum’s experiments involved assailing the bread mold, Neurospora with X-rays. Then, they searched among the survivors to find mutants whose nutritional needs differed from the norm. These mutants could not live on the minimal medium given to normal Neurospora. They couldn’t not synthesis important molecules from the nutrients given. Once given complete growth medium, however, the mutants could survive. Beadle & Tatum tried to characterize the specific metabolic defects by growing them on various complete mediums in different vials. The supplement added that allowed for growth would indicate the defect. Then, they went on to determine the mutants’ three classes based on genetic crosses. Each mutant was found to be defective in only 1 gene. Beadle & Tatum were thus able to demonstrate the relationship between enzymes and genes. In addition, their experiment was strong support for their hypothesis: one gene, one enzyme, which stated that a gene’s function is to dictate a specific enzyme’s production.

4. Distinguish between the “one gene–one enzyme” hypothesis and the “one gene–one
polypeptide” hypothesis and explain why the original hypothesis was changed. The “one gene—one enzyme” hypothesis was altered because genes code for proteins, and not all proteins are enzymes. The hypothesis of “one gene—one protein” was then altered again when it was discovered through later research that proteins are composed of several polypeptides, and that each polypeptide has it’s own gene. Thus, the hypothesis is now “one gene—one gene polypeptide.”

5. Explain how RNA differs from DNA.
While DNA and RNA are chemically similar, the former has deoxyribose and the latter ribose. In addition, for nitrogenous bases, thymine in DNA is replaced by uracil in RNA. RNA is the nucleic acid which links DNA and protein synthesis, as genes cannot build proteins directly. RNA molecules are always single stranded.

6. Briefly explain how information flows from gene to protein.
Information in DNA is in the form of specific sequences of nucleotides, or genes. Transcription occurs, synthesis a copy of the DNA, called messenger RNA (mRNA). DNA and mRNA contains the same information. Protein synthesis is then directed during translation, when polypeptides are produced using the direction from mRNA.

but unambiguous. The codons that do code for the same amino acid tend to differ only in their third base. 9. Describe the promoter. 14. which is generally referred to as mRNA. elongation. including the three major steps of initiation. prokaryotes have sequences that signal the end of transcription. In addition. and CCC. It is a reminder of the kinship of all life on Earth. 16. 10. Then. Bacteria can thus synthesize specific human proteins after the appropriate genes are inserted. The series of codons. the signal is given to end transcription. GGG. Explain why polypeptides begin with methionine when they are synthesized. a special sequence. In prokaryotes. eukaryotes much process the mRNA before translation can occur. Methionine indicates the start of translation. In terms of evolutionary significance. AAA. Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide under the direction of the mRNA from transcription. and CCC were discovered by Marshall Nirenberg. With eukaryotes. where transcription actually begins. all codons must be read in groups of three nucleotides. Elongation is when the codons of a gene are copied. The end product is messenger RNA. no codons can specify two amino acids. Compare where transcription and translation occur in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. polymerase eventually falls off DNA. Explain what it means to say that the genetic code is redundant and unambiguous. must be read in the correct frame for the correct linear sequence of amino acids. Explain the significance of the reading frame during translation. Codons specify the placement of amino acids along a polypeptide. The transcription process is then ended through termination. Explain the evolutionary significance of a nearly universal genetic code. At the terminator. 13. 12. Transcription is RNA synthesis under DNA’s direction. however. The reading frame is significant during translation because the genetic code’s message will not be correct if the starting point is not right. The genetic code is almost universal. Explain the early techniques used to identify what amino acids are specified by the triplets UUU. RNA polymerase recognizes a promoter which begins the process.7. the terminator. The nuclear envelope separates the two steps. The mRNA transcribed from DNA forms triplets called codons. 8. The Synthesis and Processing of RNA 15. . 11. and termination. AAA. RNA polymerase then attaches to the promoter. or codon that initiates the process. The general process of transcription includes initiation. Transcribing produces the transcription unit. On the other hand. The genetic code is redundant. 17. meaning it is shared by organisms ranging from bacteria to plants to animals. meaning that while several codons can be for the same amino acid. genes can be transcribed and translated from one species to another. Explain how RNA is modified after transcription in eukaryotic cells. Distinguish between transcription and translation. Nirenberg knew that the one amino acid produced would have been coded by the codon containing the base repeated three times. Explain how RNA polymerase recognizes where transcription should begin. the genetic code shows that all living things arose from a common ancestor. and the transcription unit. Define codon and explain the relationship between the linear sequence of codons on mRNA and the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. Explain the general process of transcription. from the start. RNA polymerase recognizes where transcription begins by detecting the promoter’s location. By creating an artificial mRNA molecule made only of the specific repeated base. GGG. initiating transcription. mRNA produced by transcription is immediately translated. The early technique for identifying the amino acids synthesized by the base triplets UUU. This means that in lab research. Polypeptides begin with methionine when they are synthesized because that amino acid is a promoter.

it is able to bind with A or G. like other RNA molecules. 28. Some interior parts are also removed and the rest are spliced together. and two ribosomal sub-units. Explain how tRNA is joined to the appropriate amino acid. AminoacyltRNA synthase has an active site for a specific tRNA and amino acid combination. is transcribed from DNA templates. Ribozymes are RNA that works like enzymes. 27. leaving an end with a head and another with a tail. The ability of RNA to form hydrogen bonds contributes to its many functions. elongation. Elongation consists of a series of three step cycles as each amino acid is added. Ribosomes require less than minutes to convert an averaged sized mRNA into a polypeptide. or etc. 25. Both ends are altered. protein factors. Explain the significance of wobble. This may involve adding sugars. Compare protein synthesis in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. and termination. A ribosome is composed of a large and small sub-unit. Free and bound ribosomes have the same structure. Polyribosomes are multiple ribosomes that may trail along mRNA. It can bond with the nucleic acids of both DNA and RNA 29. resulting with the new protein to be able to diffuse to its operating site . Termination occurs when one of the three stop codons reaches the A site. and termination) and explain which enzymes. lipids. 21. 26. 23. which is the most abundant RNA in the cell. two or more polypeptides may unite to form one protein. Describe what determines whether a ribosome will be free in the cytosol or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Describe the process of translation (including initiation. Introns are non-coded segments of nucleotides. Certain animo acids may be removed. elongation. 22. This in turn determines the secondary & tertiary structure. It is used repeatedly in the cytoplasm as it picks up its designated amino acid in the cytosol. The wobble is the third position at the base of an anti-codon. Then. 19. Describe two properties of RNA that allow it to perform so many different functions. Polypeptides must be modified with posttranslational modifications before becoming fully functional proteins. Describe the structure and functions of tRNA. Each tRNA is connected to the correct amino acid by aminoacyl-tRNA synthase. Define and explain the role of ribozymes. Describe the significance of polyribosomes. Describe the functional and evolutionary significance of introns. The discovery of ribozymes rendered the statement that “All biological catalysts are proteins” obsolete. Ribosomes help with the specific pairing of anti-codons in tRNA with mRNA codons during protein synthesis. translation can also be separated into the same three stages: initiation. 24. tRNA with the first amino acid.When RNA is processed after transcription. If U on the anti-codon is in this position. Describe the structure and functions of ribosomes. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes have different ribosomes and how transcription is terminated. TRNA is consisted of about 80 nucleotides that folds back on itself to create a three dimensional figure. The Synthesis of Protein 20. but synthesize different kinds of proteins. and are evolutionary significance as they protect the mRNA from hydrolyzing agents in the cytoplasm. It deposits the amino acid at the ribosome and returns to the cytosol to pick up another amino acid. The primary structure of a protein is determined by its coiling and folding into 3-D shape during/after synthesis. and energy sources are needed for each stage. The sub-units are made up of proteins and rRNA. Initiation takes an mRNA. 18. Explain what determines the primary structure of a protein and describe how a polypeptide must be modified before it becomes fully functional. tRNA. Like transcription. A major difference is that prokaryotes can transcribe and translate the same gene simultaneously.

Physical mutagens may be high-energy radiation. 32. Concept Map Words: 59 cap A site alternative RNA splicing aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase anticodon base-pair substitution codon deletion domain E site exon frameshift mutation insertion intron messenger RNA (mRNA) missense mutation mutagen mutation nonsense mutation one gene–one polypeptide hypothesis P site point mutation poly-A tail polyribosome (polysome) primary transcript promoter reading frame ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ribosome ribozyme RNA polymerase RNA processing RNA splicing signal peptide signal-recognition particle (SRP) spliceosome TATA box template strand terminator transcription transcription factor transcription initiation complex transcription unit transfer RNA (tRNA) translation triplet code wobble Memorize the Word Roots anti.5 opposite (anticodon: a specialized base triplet on one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule) exo. Define point mutations. Give examples of each and note the significance of such changes. Describe several examples of mutagens and explain how they cause mutations. 31. without (exon: a coding region of a eukaryotic gene that is expressed) intro. which then forms a frameshift mutation.quickly.5 many (polyA tail: the modified end of the 39 end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides) trans. some change the bases to change their pairing properties. unless it occurs in a multiple of three. 30.5 out. such as X-rays and ultraviolet light. This may have little or no impact on protein function. Distinguish between base-pair substitutions and base-pair insertions. This evolved into the one gene – one polypeptide definition. which is useful in certain context. -script 5 write (transcription: the synthesis of RNA on a DNA template) . intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene) muta.5 change. Describe the historical evolution of the concept of a gene. Mutagens are chemical or physical agents that interact with DNA to cause a mutation. Base-pair substitution is when the nucleotide pair is replaced with a pair of complimentary nucleotides. -gen 5 producing (mutagen: a physical or chemical agent that causes mutations) poly. but pair incorrectly. interfere with DNA replication by going in DNA and distorting the double helix shape. outside. Point mutation is a chemical change in a single base pair of a gene. Insertions are additions the nucleotide pairs.5 across. This however has further evolved into the current definition of a gene: A gene is a region of DNA whose final product is either a polypeptide or an RNA molecule. This has a disastrous effect on the protein. Chemical mutagens may be base analogues that substitute DNA. The Mendelian view of a gene sees it as a unit of inheritance that affects phenotype.5 within (intron: a noncoding.