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The 21 Centurian Constructive Geographical Thoughts Part – I


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The 21st Centurian Constructive


Geographical Thoughts

Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee


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The 21 Centurian Constructive Geographical Thoughts Part – I
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Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee


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The 21
Centurian
Constructive
Geographical
Thoughts
Part – I

Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee


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The 21 Centurian Constructive Geographical Thoughts Part – I
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Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee


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HEARTIEST GREETINGS

Dear Mrs/Mr/Miss/Master__________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
On this auspicious occasion of_______________________________

________________________________________________________

Kindly oblige me by accepting this book as an expression of my


gratitude, token of love and gift to your noble self.

Yours Well wisher,

________________

________________

Place:________________

Date:________________

Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee


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The 21 Centurian Constructive Geographical Thoughts Part – I
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1. Author: Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee


2. Copyright ©: Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee
3. First Web-Edition: Paushha, Vekramee Samwata 2067 [December, 2010]
4. Publishers: ASD Publications, Haryana, India
5. Price: US$ 10

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Dedicated

To

The Mother

Divine

Light

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The Preface

1. I have penned some of my own Geographical experiences, thoughts, ideas and


results in the form of the present book titled aptly “The 21st Centurian Constructive
Geographical Thoughts Part – I .” The articles included here have earlier been
published on the web, covering a period from 2002 to 2010, like www.trcb.com,
http://groups.msn.com/geography, www.current.com, www.orkut.com,
http://theworldpeace-globalthinktank.blogspot.com. A few of the articles included
in the present collection were published first as part of the first and the second
edition of my book “Geography, Economics and Economic Geography” published in
the year 2002 and 2003 respectively.
2. I have tried my level best to keep the vocabulary and the language as simple as
possible so that anyone with only a workable knowledge of the English language is
able to read and understand it easily.
3. It is hoped that the present geographical work shall prove useful to the geography-
lovers all over the world.

Bowing humbly at the Divine Lotus feet


of the DIVINE MOTHER LIGHT,

Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee

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The Index
The The Topic The
Serial Page
number Number
1 The Nature and Scope of the Organizational 11
Behavior
2 The Geography of the Finances 22
3 The Economic Blocs – the Trade Blocs – the Trade 26
Areas
4 The Nature and Scope of the Agricultural Geography 32
5 The Nature and the Scope of the Economic 41
Geography
6 The Nature and the Scope of the Political Geography 53
7 The Globalization - the Concept 63
8 The Dimensions of the Globalization 66
9 The Role of the Corporations as the Global Citizens 67
10 The 4 Stages in the Process of the Globalization 71
11 The Types of the Economic Landscape 73
12 B Tech or M Tech and not Ba/BSc or MA/MSc in the 89
Geography?
13 The Liberalization 95
14 The Integration of the Markets or the Trade Areas 97
15 The Trade Areas 101
16 The Free and the Restrictive Trade Areas 104
17 Is the Japanese Economy the Rise of the New 106
Economy?
18 The Khairkar Pie 111
19 The Relationship amongst the Economic 120
Globalization, Liberalization and Privatization?
20 The Dimensions of the Human Resources 122
21 The Relationship amongst the Trading, the 124
Marketing and the Business
22 Must Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi Not Be 126
Assessed Correctly?

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23 The Peace-for-All Prayer – the Yajurvaeda Verse! 131


24 The Formula of the Sustainable Economic 135
Development
25 The Three Laws - The Geography Of The Love 139
26 The Types of the Political Boundaries 141
27 The Dynamics of the Barchan formation 146

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1. The Nature and Scope of the Organizational

Behaviour
The Nature

Different leading authorities in the field of „the Organizational


Behaviour‟ have defined the nature and scope of this subject in
different terms. There is no unanimity of opinion in the matter.
However, students of an introductory course in the subject need not
be bogged down by this multiplicity of views. Following discussion is
enough to understand the basic nature and scope of this discipline.

The Organizational Behaviour personified has a nature, just as any


human being has a peculiar nature or the psychological tendency. It is
a science, art and philosophy by nature. So, it follows that the subject
of the Organizational Behaviour is a science, art and philosophy, too.

It is a science because it follows the scientific methods of the


observation, the collection of the data, the hypothesis, the theory and
the model building ever open to the scientific scrutiny in terms of the
relationship among variables under the study and the validity of such
a relationship.

It is an art, since it involves quite a subjective approach, too in terms


of the skilful organization of the field studies, the collection of the
data and the interpretation of the results by human beings who
generally are more subjective than objective in their approach.

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It’s a philosophy, too, in terms of ever trying to philosophize the


questions of human beings and the organization‟s relationship in the
behavioural terms. It tries to frame postulations as to what, why, how,
and where a particular kind of human behaviour takes place in an
organization in a particular corner of the globe or the universe along
with the other relevant aspects like its impact or effects?

Finally, it of course inter alia is interdisciplinary, flexible, dynamic,


friendly and far-reaching, too.

The Scope

The scope, ambit, sphere or area of the subject of „the Organizational


Behaviour‟ is quite vast both in the temporal and the spatial terms,
besides the applicability. The Universal Integrated Cubical Temporal
– Spatial – Applicability Scope model illustrates it aptly. The given
cube can easily be sliced into 90 pieces (3 Temporal faces x 6 Spatial
faces x 5 Applicability faces). Each slice represents one face each of
the Temporal – Spatial – Applicability Scope. Thus, we may elaborate
the scope of the subject in 90 different ways.

For example, let us cut the slice with 3 following faces: the Future,
the Philosophical and the Asthenospheric. This slice means that the
organizational behaviour can be studied from the point of view of the
philosophical questions related to the use of the Asthenospheric
resources at any given point of time in the future.

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A complete and detailed exposition of all the above mentioned 90


integrated slices is beyond the scope of this paper/article. So, we may
attempt the following brief description of the various facets of the
scope of this challenging dynamic subject.

The Temporal Aspect/Scope

With an emphasis on the current contemporary situation, it includes in


its ambit the scope of going back into the times.

For instance, the ills of many countries today have their roots in the
past organizational behaviours as reflected in the geographical
economic spatial patterns like during the great age of discovery, 30
million young people aged 15-35 years were removed from Africa by
the superior organized European human syndicates during the Slave
Trade Era which weakened the African human organizations and
depleted the human resources of that continent.

It caused a lack of the suitable human organizations like the


business/political, etc. in Africa whereas the slave trading nation-
States like the U.K., Spain, etc. flourished and built up the enormous
monetary and capital assets which helped them later to kick start and
sustain the economic/political development in their own countries.

This led to the spatial variation in the business/economic/political


development in that bygone era. But, its repercussions are still felt in
Africa where the business/economic/political development has quite
been low due to the bequeathing of no appropriate

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business/economic/political development by their preceding


generations.

Thus, one may divide the temporal aspect into the following broad
categories:

1. Ancient
2. Medieval
3. Great Age of discovery
4. 19th century
5. 20thcentury
6. Contemporary
7. Recent
8. Present

The Spatial Aspect/Scope

The organizational behaviour has enormous spatial scope which


includes the following aspects/points:
The Vertical
It includes the spatial locations right from the ocean bed to the
mountain top and the related organizational behaviour falls under this.
It includes the aspects like the asthenospheric, the lithospheric, the
atmospheric and the galactic.

For example, there is a lot of the extra-terrestrial scope. With the


opening up of the extra-terrestrial scope, the organizational behaviour
shall have to take into consideration the business/economic/ political

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organizational behaviour in the outer space like the Moon, the Mars,
etc.

The experiments carried out on the human beings in groups to study


their behaviour aboard the spacecrafts fall within the spatial scope of
the organizational behaviour.

The Horizontal
It includes a study of the organizational behavioural aspects in a
horizontal direction in terms of the phenomena like the lithosphere,
the hydrosphere, the biosphere, etc.

The Continental Scope


It includes the studies of the human beings of all the
continents/islands in the organizational behavioural terms and their
interactions.
The Hemispheric Scope
The organizational behaviour may be studied in terms of the
human beings in the eastern, the western, the northern and the
southern hemispheres.
The Organizational Behavioural Activities Scope

The Production
It includes the studies of the production of all kinds of the
organizational behaviour at all levels from the local to the
international.

The Exchange
It includes the value addition to each organizational product, good,
service created by the specialized behavioural services provided at

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each level of the handling, including the packaging, the promotion,


the financing, and the merchandizing of the organizational product.
The Consumption
It includes both the pattern of the organizational behaviour
consumption and the spatial aspects of the organizational consumer
behaviour.
The Developmental Scope
It includes a study of the spatial variation in terms of the
organizational behaviour development, i.e., the different categories of
countries like the more developed and the less developed countries.

The Other Aspects/Scope

The Integrative Scope


It includes a study of the spatial variation in the organizational
behaviour in terms of an integrated approach to all the spheres, i.e.,
the Lithosphere, the Atmosphere, the Hydrosphere and the Biosphere.
It includes the studies of the underground spatial aspects like the
asthenosphere, sial, sima, mantle, core so as to determine their
influence on the organizational behaviour.
The Global Scope
It has the global scope because of the variations in the level and
interdependencies that exist in the international organizational
behavioural development. The whole Earth has become a global
system with shrinking business/economic/political distance. So much
that even a person in the most remote

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business/geographical/economic/political areas of the world now


participates in an organizational behavioural system that is less the
local and the regional and more the national and the international in
scope.

The Theoretical Scope

It has enormous theoretical scope. The theories are used in so far as


possible to explain as to why the why organizational behaviour
happens, i.e., the classical conditioning theory, the operant
conditioning theory and the Abraham Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs
theory are the excellent examples.

It includes the concepts in the analytical work like the Total Quality
Management (TQM).

The Interdisciplinary Scope

It takes help of the other subjects like the sociology, the mathematics,
the economics, the agriculture, the climate, the mathematics, etc., to
gauge the effects on the variation in the organizational behaviour, of
the factors like the social influence in terms of the peer pressure, the
climate and the economy of a nation-State, macro forces associated
with the transition of the world polity from an authoritarian to a
democratic base, the international political system and the
multinational corporations, etc.

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The Methodological/ Approaches Scope


Broadly speaking, the following are the “15 Golden” or the main
methods of/ways of/approaches to the study of the “Organizational
Behaviour” and any other sub-discipline in the field of the
Management or any other subject:
The Descriptive, Analytical, Prescriptive
It can be studied by describing/analyzing/prescribing the human
behaviour in organizational settings.
The Empirical (inductive)/Normative (deductive)/Optimiser/Satificer

The organizational behaviour can be studied in terms of generalizing


the human behaviour in one setting to all the organizational settings or
in terms of deducing the general organizational behavioural from all
the organizational settings. The organizational behaviour can be
studied in terms of the optimizer-approach where all the human
behaviour in an organization is seen as organized to seek the
optimum/maximum possible output/desired objectives.
The organizational behaviour can be studied in the sense of a
satisficer-model where all the human behaviour in an organization is
seen as organized to seek the mere satisfaction of both the employee
and employer instead of the optimum/maximum output objectives.

The Deterministic (environmental/natural, human, nature-human)


The organizational behaviour can be seen as a product only
determined by the circumstances, only the nature/environment or the
human beings or a combination of both the nature and the nurture.

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The Subjective/Artistic, Objective/Scientific


The organizational behaviour can be studied in a subjective/artistic
way or the objective/scientific manner.

The Holistic, Whole or Homogeneitic/Isolationist, Parts, Heterogeneitic or


Choreal, Particularitic

The organizational behaviour can be studied in terms of the particular


parts or the whole homogeneity.

The Systems, Systematic


The organizational behaviour can be studied as a system consisting of
the sub-systems or a single systematic sequence.

The Political: Socialist, Capitalist, Communist, Democratic, Fascist, Liberal,


Neo-liberal, Neo-conservative
The organizational behaviour can be studied in terms of the various
political policies existing in an organization.
The Activity, Principle
The organizational behaviour can be studied as an activity like the
interaction amongst the organization members or in terms of some
principle like – „man is a social animal.‟
The Quantitative/Mathematical, Qualitative/Behavioural/Humanistic
The organizational behaviour can be studied in terms of the
statistical/mathematical results or simply in terms of the descriptive
qualitative behaviour.

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The Temporal , Spatial , Spatial-Temporal


The organizational behaviour can be studied temporally, spatially or
spatially-temporally.

The Philosophical, Theoretical, Practical/Applicability


The organizational behaviour can be studied in terms of the various
theories and the philosophical postulations. It can be studied in terms
of its use in the real-life organizational situations.

The Ecological/Environmental/Consequential, Interdisciplinary


The organizational behaviour can be studied in terms of its impact on
the ecology/environment. It can be studied in terms of its relations
with other subjects like the sociology, the geography, etc.
The Gender, Racial
The organizational behaviour can be studied in terms of the gender
and racial issues, i.e., how the male organizational behaviour is
different than the female organizational behaviour, etc.

The Civilian, Military


The organizational behaviour can be studied in terms of the civilian
and the military settings.

The Economics, Geographical , Economic-Geographical


The organizational behaviour can be studied in terms of the different
business, economics, geographical or economic-geographical settings,
too.

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2. The Geography of the Finances

The Introduction

What is the Geography of the Finances? What is its purpose? What


is the general observation regarding the geography of the finances
in India? What are the two theories showing the relationship
between the Finance Availability and the Spatial Distance?
It is interesting to observe as to how the finance is affected
geographically. Does the finance have any tangible or the intangible
relationship with the spatial aspects like the physical distance?
The Purpose
The express purpose of this paper is to explore a workable formula
showing the relationship of the finance availability with the physical
distance from the key finance centre.
The General Observation in India
It does not require much research work to observe the following
phenomena in India.
More finance is available in the urban areas than the rural pockets
despite setting up of the branches of the banks in the later.
The rate of interest on the financial loans is generally higher in the
rural spatial locations than the urban economic landscapes. May be
this is linked with the less supply of the money in the rural areas
compared to its demand which causes the money-lender to bargain the
higher rates on the rural financial loans.

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The Theories
The above-described two observations may be used to derive the
following two simple spatial-financial laws or the geographico-
financial laws:
The finance supply is inversely proportional to the increasing spatial
distance from the key finance centre.
For example, the key finance centre may be offering Rs. 100 to the
person based in its own location assuming the spatial distance
between the person and it to be the zero. A person at a physical
distance of 5 Km may be made available by this centre a loan of the
Rupees 20. Further, another person at a physical distance of 10 Km
from it may be offered only a further reduced loan of the Rupees 10
only. This may be represented by a diagram:

The interest rate is directly proportional to the spatial distance from


the key finance centre.
For example, in the above cited hypothetical example, the interest rate
may be assumed to be 1% in the heart of the finance centre. It is 5 %

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at an S D of 5 Km from the Key Finance Centre (KFC). Further, it


gets increased to 10 % at an S D of 10 Km from the KFC. The
following diagram shows it properly:

The Conclusion
The given description, explanation and theories are quite general in
nature and as such are fully open to the laboratory and the field trials.
I am quite aware of there being common rates of interests offered to
certain category of the loan takers by any given bank anywhere in a
given political structure, i.e., the rates of interests offered to the
farmers are quite different from those offered to the group of the
industrialists or the students, etc.
However, the traditional money- lenders both in the rural and the
urban Indian pockets still provide the tough competition to the
institutional money-lenders such as the government-owned banks and
the co-operatives due to numerous factors.

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As such, to my mind this paper seems presently more relevant in the


case of the rural loan takers dependent on the traditional individual
money-lenders like a sahukar or a neighbour who is known personally
and who charges a relatively higher rate of interest and provides a
generally more easy access to the loans compared to institutional
money-lenders which generally ask for the safeguards like the surety,
etc., which the rural folk may be lacking in and whose staff may have
no personal relations with the rural folk, thereby a reduced inclination
on their part to give suitable amounts of the loans required by the
rural populace.
It seems that in the case of the urban poor, it is the law of the
increased mental distance between the institutional money-lenders
and such poor people which forces these urban poor to rush to the
urban traditional individual loan givers with whom they have
relatively the decreased mental distance, i.e., there are poor vendors in
Mumbai who seek the small sums daily on an exorbitantly higher rate
of interest from the local individual money-lenders compared to the
lower rates of the interest charged by the institutional buyers.

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3. The Economic Blocs – the Trade Blocs – the

Trade Areas
The Introduction
Are the economic blocs different from the trade blocs and the trade
areas? What are the hierarchical perspective and the freedom of
the movement perspective as regards the concept of the trade
area? What are the main examples of the international trade
areas?
The Exposition
The Economic Blocs
The Economic blocs are the blocks or the groups of countries based
on the type of their economies. This classification is for the academic
purposes. The countries grouped in a particular economic block need
not necessarily have a commonly agreed upon agenda/treaties of the
international trade. This classification indeed is more of an
intellectual exercise rather than a clearly visible phenomenon. Of
course, at times, it may become an operational one such as the
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
For example, the communist countries like China and the North
Korea are categorized under the caption “the Centrally Planned
Economic Bloc, since these countries have the similar type of the
communist economy where the means of the production are as a rule
controlled by the State or the central government. This economic bloc

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is characterized by a general lack of the full free movement of the


international trade.
Similarly, the capitalist countries like the USA and the UK are
categorized under the caption “the Developed Economic Bloc”, since
these countries have the similar type of the capitalist economy where
the means of the production are as a rule controlled by the
individuals or the groups of individuals and not by the State or the
central government. This economic bloc is characterized by the
presence of the near-full and the free movement of international
trade. It is called the developed one because the countries of this
block have nearly achieved the desired level of the economic
development.
Likewise, the countries like India and Pakistan are categorized under
the caption “the Developing Economic Bloc”, since these countries
have the similar type of the developing economy where the desired
level of the economic development has still not been reached. The
economic development is going on in these countries.
Also, the countries rich in the oil like Iraq and Kuwait are categorized
under the caption “the OPEC Economic Bloc”, since these countries
have an altogether different type of the economy where the desired
level of the economic development has still not been reached despite
an extremely high level of the national income. The economic
development is going on in these countries. Sometimes, this bloc is not
treated separately and is taken to be a part of the “Developing
Economic bloc.”

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% Share of the World-Trade

Economic 1938 1972 1980 2000


Blocks

Developed 69.6 - 75.1 75.7

Developing 23.0 - 16.0

OPEC - 6.6 20.00

Centrally planned 7.4 - 8.9 4.3

World 100.00 100.00 100.00

The Trade Blocs


These are the blocs or the groups of the countries based upon the
mutually agreed upon agenda/treaties of the international trade for
the common benefit of the member countries. A trade bloc is
characterized by the presence of a common administrative structure
for supervision of its functioning, obligations of the membership like
the adherence to the certain stated aims of the trade bloc such as the
political, the economic and the monetary union.
For example, the European Union (EU) is a trade block. The EU had
15 countries as its members in the year 2002A.D.
The Trade Area
The term the „Trade Area‟ means any area or space where any kind of
the trade activity takes place.

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A trade area can variously be perceived as under:


1. The Hierarchical Perspective
2. The Freedom of the Movement Perspective

The Hierarchical Perspective


The Local Trade Area
This is the trade area at the lowest level. It may include a village, city
or district.
The Regional Trade Area
This is the trade area above the local trade area. It consists of a
combination of several local trade areas.
The National Trade Area
This is the trade area above the regional trade area. It consists of a
combination of several regional trade areas.
The International Trade Area
This is a trade area above the national trade area. It consists of a
combination of several national trade areas.
The Freedom of the Movement Perspective
The Free Trade Area
A trade area at any level characterized by the near-full and the free
movement of the trade.
The Restrictive Trade Area
A trade area at any level characterized by the restrictive movement of
the trade.

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The Examples
The International Trade Areas
These are formed through the regional trade agreements amongst
several countries. These represent a kind of the regional international
economic integration where a group of countries removes the barriers
to the international trade/competition on the regional scale and not
on the global scale.
The following are the main international Trade Areas/Blocs:
The Common Market for Eastern and South Africa (COMESA)
It was established in 1994 replacing a former preferential trade area
operative since 1981. It had 20 members and a population of 385
million people in the year 2001. It is executing a Free Trade Area. It
was to have the common external tariffs for the non-members by 2004
A.D. Its main aim is the promotion of the peace, the security and the
economic prosperity of the members.
The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
It was established in 1967 by 5 countries. It had 10 members with a
population of 500 million in 2001. It had decided in 1992 to form the
ASEAN Free Trade Area by 2004.
The Regional International Trade Agreements/Areas in America
Central American Common Market (CACM - 5 members), Caribbean
Community (CARICOM - 13 members), Andean Pact (ANDEAN - 5
members), Mercado Commun Del Sur (MERCOSUR - 4 members),
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA – 3 members) were
the regional international trade agreements/areas in America in the

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year 2002. These were formed to increase the size of the local market
which was too small and inefficient for the production.
The Regional International Trade Agreements/Areas in the Europe
European Union (EU – 15 members) established in 1993, European
Free Trade Association (EFTA – 3 members) established in 1960 and
Central European Free Trade Area (CEFTA – 7 members)
established in 1993. The members of the EU have a common currency
the Euro except the UK, Denmark and Sweden. The EU is the most
powerful/successful economic integration scheme till now in the
world.

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4. The Nature and Scope of the Agricultural

Geography
The Introduction

What is the nature and scope of the agricultural geography? What


are its temporal and spatial aspects? What is the Universal
Integrated Cubical Temporal – Spatial – Applicability Scope model
of the agricultural geography?

The Exposition

The Nature

Different leading authorities in the field of the agricultural geography


have defined the nature and scope of this subject in the different
terms. There is no unanimity of the opinion in the matter. However,
the students of an introductory course in the subject need not be
bogged down by this multiplicity of the views. Following discussion
is enough to understand the basic nature and scope of this discipline.

Agricultural geography personified has a nature, just as any human


being has a peculiar nature or the psychological tendency. As says
H.J. Mackinder, the geography is a science, arts and philosophy by
nature. So, it follows that the agricultural geography is a science, arts
and philosophy, too.

It is a science because it follows the scientific methods of the


observation, the collection of the data, the hypothesis, the theory and

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the model building ever open to the scientific scrutiny in terms of the
relationship among variables under the study and the validity of such
a relationship.

It is an art, since it involves quite a subjective approach, too in terms


of the skilful organization of the field studies, the collection of the
data, the map drawing and the interpretation of the results.

It‟s a philosophy, too, in terms of ever trying to philosophize the


questions of the human beings and the environment relationship in the
agricultural terms. It tries to frame the postulations as to what, why,
how and where an agricultural activity takes place in a particular
corner or the spatial point of the globe or the universe?

Finally, it of course inter alia is interdisciplinary, flexible, dynamic,


friendly and far-reaching, too.

The Scope

The scope, the ambit or the area of the agricultural geography is quite
vast both in the temporal and the spatial terms, besides the
applicability. The Universal Integrated Cubical Temporal – Spatial –
Applicability Scope model of the scope illustrates it aptly. The given
cube can easily be sliced into 90 pieces (3 Temporal faces x 6 Spatial
faces x 5 Applicability faces).

Each slice represents one face each of the Temporal – Spatial –


Applicability Scope. Thus, we may elaborate the scope of the subject
in the 90 different ways. For example, let us cut the slice with the 3

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following faces: the Future, the Philosophical and the Asthenospheric.


This slice means that the agricultural geography can be studied from
the point of view of the philosophical questions related to the use of
the asthenospheric resources at any given point of the time in the
future.

Although Hartshorne and Alexander opine that “the geographer is


concerned primarily with variations from place to place rather than
from time to time” yet a geographer can‟t escape studying the
temporal aspects, too in terms of studying the varied geographical
patterns of the phenomena prevailing at any given point of the time on
the Earth.

A complete and detailed exposition of all the above mentioned 90


integrated slices is beyond the scope of this article. So, I have
attempted the following brief description of the various facets of the
scope of this challenging dynamic subject:

The Temporal Aspect/Scope

With the emphasis on the current contemporary situation, it includes


in its ambit the scope of going back into the times, since the ills of
many countries today have their roots in the past geographical
economic spatial patterns like during the great age of discovery, 30
million young people aged 15-35 years were removed from the Africa
during the Slave Trade Era which depleted human resources of that
continent.

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The 21 Centurian Constructive Geographical Thoughts Part – I
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It caused a lack of the agricultural development in the Africa whereas


the slave trading nations like the U.K., Spain, etc., flourished and built
up the enormous monetary and capital assets which helped them later
to kick tart and sustain the economic/political development in their
own countries.

This led to the spatial variation in the agricultural and other


economic/political development in that bygone era. But, its
repercussions are still felt in the Africa, where agricultural and other
economic/political development has quite been low due to the
bequeathing of no significant agricultural and other
economic/political development by their preceding generations.

Thus, one may divide the temporal aspect into the following broad
categories:

1. Ancient

2. Medieval

3. Great Age of discovery

4. 19th century

5. 20th century

6. Contemporary

7. Recent

8. Present

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The Spatial Aspect/Scope

The agricultural geography has the enormous spatial scope which


includes the following aspects/points:
The Vertical
It means the spatial locations right from the ocean bed to the
mountain top and the related agricultural phenomena. It includes the
aspects like the asthenospheric, the lithospheric, the atmospheric and
the galactic. For example, there is a lot of the extra-terrestrial scope.
With the opening up of the extra-terrestrial scope, the agricultural
geography shall have to take into consideration the availability of the
agricultural activities/possibilities in the outer space like the Moon,
the Mars, etc.

The Horizontal
It includes a study of the agro-geographic aspects in the horizontal
direction in terms of the phenomena like the lithosphere, the
hydrosphere, the biosphere, etc.

The Continental Scope


It includes the studies of all the continents/islands in the agricultural
terms and their interactions.

The Hemispheric Scope


The agricultural geography may be studied in terms of the eastern,
the western, the northern and the southern hemispheres.

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The Political-Activities Scope


The Production
It includes the studies of the production of all kinds of the agricultural
activities like the crops and the livestock at all levels from the local to
the international.

The Exchange
It includes the value addition to the agricultural products, the goods
and the services created by the specialized services provided at each
level of the handling, including the packaging, the promotion, the
financing and the merchandizing of the agricultural products.
The Consumption
It includes both the pattern of the agricultural consumption and the
spatial aspects of the agricultural consumer behaviour.
The Developmental Scope
It includes the study of the spatial variation in terms of the
agricultural development, i.e., the different categories of the countries
like the more developed and the less developed countries.

The Other Aspect/Scope

The Integrative Scope


It includes the study of the spatial variation in the agricultural
activities in terms of an integrated approach to all the spheres, i.e., the
Lithosphere, the Atmosphere, the Hydrosphere and the Biosphere. It
includes the studies of the underground spatial aspects like the
asthenosphere, the sial, the sima, the mantle and the core so as to

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determine their influence on the agricultural activities of the human


beings.
The Global Scope
It has the global scope because of the variations in the level and the
interdependencies that exist in the international agricultural
development. The whole Earth has become a global system with
shrinking agricultural/economic/political distance. So much that even
a person in the most remote geographical, agricultural, economic or
political areas of the world now participates in an agricultural system
that is less the local and the regional and more the national and the
international in scope.
The Theoretical Scope
It has enormous theoretical scope. Theories are used in so far as
possible to explain as to why the agricultural activities happen
spatially as they are, i.e., Whittlesay’s and Baker’s theories are the
excellent examples.
It includes the concepts in the analytical work.

The Interdisciplinary Scope


It takes help of the other subjects like the economics, the climate, the
math, etc., to gauge the effects on the spatial variation in the
agricultural activities, of the factors like the climate and the economy
of a nation, the macro forces associated with the transition of the
world agriculture from the subsistence to the modern commercial
base, the international agricultural system and the multinational
corporations.

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The Methodological/Approaches Scope


Broadly speaking, the following are the “15 Golden” or the main
methods of/ways of/approaches to the study of “the Agricultural
Geography” and any other sub-discipline in the field of the geography
or any other subject:
The Descriptive, Analytical, Prescriptive.

The Deterministic (environmental/natural, human, nature-human)

The Subjective/Artistic, Objective/Scientific.

The Holistic, Whole or Homogeneitic/Isolationist, Parts, Heterogeneitic or


Choreal, Particularitic

The Systems, Systematic.

The Political: The Socialist, Capitalist, Communist, Democratic, Fascist,


Liberal, Neo-liberal, Neo-conservative.

The Activity, Principle.

The Quantitative/Mathematical, Qualitative/Behavioural/Humanistic


The Temporal, Spatial, Spatio-Temporal.

The Philosophical, Theoretical, Practical/Applicability.

The Ecological/Environmental/Consequential, Interdisciplinary.

The Gender, Racial.

The Civilian, Military.

The Economics, Geographical, Econo-Geographical.

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5. The Nature and the Scope of the Economic


Geography

The Introduction

What is the nature and scope of the economic geography? What


are its temporal and spatial aspects? What is the Universal
Integrated Cubical Temporal – Spatial – Applicability Scope model
of the economic geography?

The Exposition

The Nature

Different leading authorities in the field of the economic geography


have defined the nature and the scope of this subject in the different
terms. There is no unanimity of the opinion in the matter. However,
the students of an introductory course in the subject need not be
bogged down by this multiplicity of the views. The following
discussion is enough to understand the basic nature and the scope of
this discipline.

The economic geography personified has a nature, just as any human


being has a peculiar nature or the psychological tendency. As says
H.J. Mackinder, the geography is a science, arts and philosophy by
nature. So, it follows that “the economic geography” being a sub-
discipline in the subject of the geography is a science, arts and
philosophy, too.

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It is a science because it follows the scientific methods of the


observation, the collection of the data, the hypothesis, the theory and
the model building ever open to the scientific scrutiny in terms of the
relationship among the variables under the study and the validity of
such a relationship.

It is an art, since it involves quite a subjective approach, too in terms


of the skilful organization of the field studies, the collection of the
data, the map drawing and the interpretation of the results.

It‟s a philosophy, too, in terms of ever trying to philosophize the


questions of the human beings and the environment relationship in the
economic terms. It tries to frame the postulations as to what, why,
how and where an economic activity takes place in a particular corner
of the globe or the spatial point in the universe?

Finally, it of course inter alia is inter-disciplinary, flexible, dynamic,


friendly and far-reaching, too.

The Scope

The scope, ambit or area of the economic geography is quite vast both
in the temporal and the spatial terms, besides the applicability. The
Universal Integrated Cubical Temporal – Spatial – Applicability
Scope model of the Scope illustrates it aptly. The given cube can
easily be sliced into 90 pieces (3 Temporal faces x 6 Spatial faces x 5
Applicability faces). Each slice represents one face each of the

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Temporal – Spatial – Applicability Scope. Thus, we may elaborate the


scope of the subject in 90 different ways.

For example, let us cut the slice with 3 following faces: the Future,
the Philosophical and the Asthenospheric. This slice means that the
economic geography can be studied from the point of view of the
philosophical questions related to the use of the Asthenospheric
resources at any given point of time in the future.

Although Hartshorne and Alexander opine that “the geographer is


concerned primarily with variations from place to place rather than
from time to time” yet a geographer can‟t escape studying the
temporal aspects, too in terms of studying the varied geographical
patterns of the phenomena prevailing at any given point of the time on
the Earth.

A complete and detailed exposition of all the above mentioned 90


integrated slices is beyond the scope of this article. So, I have
attempted the following brief description of the various facets of the
scope of this challenging dynamic subject:

The Temporal Aspect/Scope

With the emphasis on the current contemporary situation, it includes


in its ambit the scope of going back into the times, since the ills of
many countries today have their roots in the past geographical
economic spatial patterns like during the great age of discovery, 30
million young people aged 15-35 years were removed from the Africa

Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee


44
The 21 Centurian Constructive Geographical Thoughts Part – I
st

during the Slave Trade Era which depleted the human resources of
that continent.

It caused a lack of the significant economic development in the Africa


whereas the slave trading nations like the U.K., Spain, etc., flourished
and built up the enormous monetary and capital assets which helped
them later to kick start and sustain economic development in their
own countries.

This led to the spatial variation in the economic development in that


bygone era. But, its repercussions are still felt in the Africa where the
economic development has quite been low due to the bequeathing of
no significant economic development by their preceding generations.

Thus, one may divide temporal aspect into following broad


categories:

1. Ancient

2. Medieval

3. Great Age of discovery

4. 19th century

5. 20thcentury

6. Contemporary

7. Recent

8. Present

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The Spatial Aspect/Scope

The economic geography has enormous spatial scope which includes


the following aspects/points:
The Vertical
It includes the spatial locations right from the ocean bed to the
mountain top and the related economic phenomena. It includes the
aspects like the geocentric, the asthenospheric, the lithospheric, the
atmospheric and the galactic. For example, there is a lot of the extra-
terrestrial scope.

With the opening up of the extra-terrestrial scope, the economic


geography shall have to take into the consideration the availability of
the economic activities/possibilities in the outer space like the Moon,
the Mars, etc.

The experiments carried out to produce the special kinds of the


minerals aboard the spacecrafts fall within the spatial scope of the
economic geography.

The Horizontal

It includes the study of the econo-geographic aspects in the horizontal


direction in terms of the phenomena like the lithosphere, the
hydrosphere and the biosphere, etc.

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The Continental Scope

It includes the studies of all the continents/islands in the economic


terms and their interactions.
The Hemispheric Scope
The economic geography may be studied in terms of the eastern, the
western, the northern and the southern hemispheres.
The Global Scope
It has the global scope because of the variations in the level and the
interdependencies that exist in the international economic
development. The whole Earth has become a global system with the
shrinking economic distance. So much that even a person in the most
remote geographical/economic areas of the world now participates in
an economic system that is less the local and the regional and more
the national and the international in the scope.

The Applicability scope


This type of the scope includes the scope for application to the
economic geography of the 5 main phenomena created by the human
beings like the philosophies, the theories, the academic disciplines,
the uses/practical application and the methodologies. As such, we
have the scope for studying in depth the diverse philosophies, the
theories and the academic disciplines because we in the economic
geography profusely draw upon these aforesaid three phenomena.

We can study the subjects like the economics, the psychology, the
sociology and the math, etc. Also, we can peruse various economic,

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political, social and cultural philosophies like the Marxism,


Capitalism, Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, etc., and see the extent of
their influence on the economic geography. Further, we have the
scope for studying the various theories used in the economic
geography.

In addition, we may study the economic geography in terms of the


practical application to the human life, i.e., how it solves our
problems of the economic underdevelopment or say the development
of the effective transport network.

Finally, we have the scope for adopting the different approaches. In


other words, we have numerous ways of studying the economic
geography. For example, we can follow an isolationist approach to
study the economic geography of a given area, say in terms of the
transportation network only or else we may pursue an
integrated/holistic approach to do the same in terms of studying
everything in the given area.

In sharp contrast to the above mentioned 5 principle phenomena, the


elements of the space and time have not entirely been created by the
humans. These two have already been in the existence even before the
evolution of the humans on this earth. The humans have at the best
simply classified these two dimensions into numerous categories, i.e.,
the time into the past, the present and the future categories.

It must be noted here that the 4 phenomena – the philosophies, the


theories, the practical application and the different academic

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disciplines – may be studied as individual phenomena as such in their


own right.

Simultaneously, these can very well be studied as a part of different


methodologies applied. For example, one may study the different
subjects separately, since their subject matter is relied upon in the
economic geography. At the same time, one can use such a study as
aforesaid as a special methodology of sort to see how these subjects
are interrelated with each other and the economic geography.

Accordingly, one can draw upon the relevant material from these
subjects instead of reinventing the wheel or redoing the whole thing
all over again to draw the valid conclusions in the field of the
economic geography.

The Philosophical Scope

The Theoretical Scope


It has the enormous theoretical scope. Hartshorne & Alexander say,”
Locational analysis in economic geography involves not only an
explanation of activities already present on the landscape but may
also involve the selection of a future location for an activity such as a
restaurant or shopping mall.”

The theories are used in so far as possible to explain as to why the


activities are located as they are, i.e., Von Thunen’s Model
(Agriculture), Weber’s Model (Manufacturing) and Christaller’s

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Central Place theory (tertiary, quaternary, quinary activities


including the retail location) are the excellent examples.

It includes the concepts in the analytical work like the distance, the
interaction and the region.

The Practical Application/Uses Scope

The Interdisciplinary Scope


It studies the other subjects like the economics, the political economy,
etc., to gauge the effects on the spatial variation in the economic
activities, of the factors like the political economy of a nation, the
macro forces associated with the transition of the world economy
from a manufacturing to a post-industrial base, the international
monetary system and the multinational corporations.

The Methodological/Approaches Scope


Broadly speaking, following are “the 15 Golden” or the main methods
of/ways of/approaches to the study of “the economic geography” or
any other sub-discipline in the field of the geography and for all
practical purposes any other subject under the Sun:
The Descriptive, Analytical, Prescriptive

The Empirical (inductive)/Normative (deductive)/Optimiser/Satificer

The Deterministic (environmental, natural, human, nature-human)

The Subjective/Artistic, Objective/Scientific

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The Holistic, Whole or Homogeneitic/Isolationist, Parts, Heterogeneitic or


Choreal, Particularitic

It includes the study of the spatial variation in the economic activities


in terms of an integrated approach to all the spheres, i.e., the
Lithosphere, the Atmosphere, the Hydrosphere and the Biosphere. It
includes the studies of the underground spatial aspects like the
asthenosphere, the sial, the sima, the mantle and the core so as to
determine their influence on the economic activities of the human
beings.

The Systems, Systematic


The Political: The Socialist, Capitalist, Communist, Democratic, Fascist,
Liberal, Neo-liberal, Neo-conservative
The Activity, Principle, Interdisciplinary
The Quantitative/Mathematical, Qualitative/Behavioural/Humanistic
The Temporal, Spatial, Spatio-Temporal
The Philosophical, Theoretical, Practical
The Ecological/Environmental/Consequential
The Gender, Racial.
The Civilian, Military.
The Economic, Geographical, Econo-Geographical
It includes the following Economic Activities Scope:
The Production
It includes the studies of all kinds of the economic activities, i.e., the
primary, the secondary, the tertiary, the quaternary and the quinary.

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The Exchange
It includes the value addition to each product, goods, services created
by the specialized services provided at each level of the handling,
including the packaging, the promotion, the financing and the
merchandizing of the product.
The Consumption
It includes both the pattern of the consumption and the spatial aspects
of the consumer behaviour.
The Developmental Scope
It includes the study of the spatial variation in terms of the economic
development, i.e., the different categories of the countries like the
more developed and the less developed countries.

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6. The Nature and the Scope of the Political

Geography

The Introduction

What is the nature and scope of the political geography? What are
its temporal and spatial aspects? What is the Universal Integrated
Cubical Temporal – Spatial – Applicability Scope model of the
political geography?

The Exposition

The Nature

Different leading authorities in the field of the political geography


have defined the nature and the scope of this subject in the different
terms. There is no unanimity of the opinion in the matter. However,
the students of an introductory course in the subject need not be
bogged down by this multiplicity of the views. Following discussion
is enough to understand the basic nature and the scope of this sub-
discipline.

Political geography personified has a nature, just as any human being


has a peculiar nature or the psychological tendency. As says H.J.
Mackinder, the geography is a science, the arts and the philosophy
by nature. So, it follows that the political geography is a science, arts
and philosophy, too.

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It is a science because it follows the scientific methods of the


observation, the collection of the data, the hypothesis, the theory and
the model building ever open to the scientific scrutiny in terms of the
relationship among variables under the study and the validity of such
a relationship.

It is an art, since it involves quite a subjective approach, too in terms


of the skilful organization of the field studies, the collection of the
data, the map drawing and the interpretation of the results.

It‟s a philosophy, too, in terms of ever trying to philosophize the


questions of the human beings and the environment relationship in the
political terms. It tries to frame the postulations as to what, why, how
and where a political activity takes place in a particular corner of the
globe or the spatial point in the universe?

Finally, it of course inter alia is interdisciplinary, flexible, dynamic,


friendly and far-reaching, too.

The Scope
The scope, ambit or area of the political geography is quite vast both
in the temporal and the spatial terms, besides the applicability. The
Universal Integrated Cubical Temporal – Spatial – Applicability
Scope model of the Scope illustrates it aptly. The given cube can
easily be sliced into 90 pieces (3 Temporal faces x 6 Spatial faces x 5
Applicability faces). Each slice represents one face each of the
Temporal – Spatial – Applicability Scope. Thus, we may elaborate the

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scope of the subject in 90 different ways. For example, let us cut the
slice with the 3 following faces: the Future, the Philosophical and the
Asthenospheric. This slice means that the political geography can be
studied from the point of view of the philosophical questions related
to the use of the Asthenospheric resources at any given point of time
in the future.

Although Hartshorne and Alexander opine that “the geographer is


concerned primarily with variations from place to place rather than
from time to time” yet a geographer can‟t escape studying the
temporal aspects, too in terms of studying the varied geographical
patterns of the phenomena prevailing at any given point of time on the
Earth.

A complete and detailed exposition of all the above mentioned 90


integrated slices is beyond the scope of this article. So, I have
attempted the following brief description of the various facets of the
scope of this challenging dynamic subject:

The Temporal Aspect/Scope


With the emphasis on the current contemporary situation, it includes
in its ambit the scope of going back into the times, since the ills of
many countries today have their roots in the past geographical
economic spatial patterns like during the great age of discovery, 30
million young people aged 15-35 years were removed from the Africa
during the Slave Trade Era which depleted the human resources of
that continent.

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The 21 Centurian Constructive Geographical Thoughts Part – I
st

It caused a lack of the significant political development in the Africa


whereas the slave trading nations like the U.K., Spain, etc., flourished
and built up the enormous monetary and the capital assets which
helped them later to kick start and sustain economic/political
development in their own countries.

This led to the spatial variation in the economic/political development


in that bygone era. But, its repercussions are still felt in the Africa
where the economic/political development has quite been low due to
the bequeathing of no significant economic/political development by
their preceding generations.

Thus, one may divide the temporal aspect into the following broad
categories:

1. Ancient,

2. Medieval,

3. Great Age of discovery

4. 19th century

5. 20th century

6. Contemporary

7. Recent

8. Present

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The Spatial Aspect/Scope


Political geography has enormous spatial scope which includes the
following aspects/points:
The Vertical
It includes the spatial locations right from the ocean bed to the
mountain top and the related economic/political phenomena. It
includes the aspects like the asthenospheric, the lithospheric, the
atmospheric and the galactic.
For example, there is a lot of extra-terrestrial scope. With the opening
up of the extra-terrestrial scope, the political geography shall have to
take into consideration the availability of the economic/political
activities/possibilities in the outer space like the Moon, the Mars, etc.
The experiments carried out to produce the special kinds of the
minerals aboard the spacecrafts to score the political points over the
rival nation-State fall within the spatial scope of the political
geography.

The Horizontal
It includes a study of the politico-geographic aspects in the horizontal
direction in terms of the phenomena like the lithosphere, the
hydrosphere and the biosphere, etc.
The Continental Scope
It includes the studies of all the continents/islands in the political
terms and their interactions.

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The Hemispheric Scope


The political geography may be studied in terms of the eastern, the
western, the northern and the southern hemispheres.

The Political Activities Scope


The Production
It includes the studies of the production of all kinds of the political
activities at all the levels from the local to the international.

The Exchange
It includes the value addition to each political product, goods, services
created by the specialized services provided at each level of the
handling, including the packaging, the promotion, the financing and
merchandizing of the political product.
The Consumption
It includes both the pattern of the political consumption and the
spatial aspects of the political consumer behaviour.

The Developmental Scope


It includes the study of the spatial variation in terms of the political
development, i.e., the different categories of the countries like the
more developed and the less developed countries.

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The Other Aspects/Scope

The Integrative Scope


It includes the study of the spatial variation in the political activities
in terms of an integrated approach to all the spheres, i.e., the
lithosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere. It
includes the studies of the underground spatial aspects like the
asthenosphere, the sial, the sima, the mantle and the core so as to
determine their influence on the political activities of the human
beings.
The Global Scope
It has the global scope because of the variations in the level and the
interdependencies that exist in the international political development.
The whole Earth has become a global system with the shrinking
economic/political distance. So much that even a person in the most
remote geographical/economic/political areas of the world now
participates in a political system that is less the local and the regional
and more the national and the international in the scope.

The Theoretical Scope


It has enormous theoretical scope. The theories are used in so far as
possible to explain as to why the political activities happen spatially,
i.e., the Heartland, the Rimland and the Libensraum are the excellent
examples.
It includes the concepts in the analytical work like the
neighbourhood effect.

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The Interdisciplinary Scope


It takes the help of the other subjects like the economics, the
agriculture, the climate, the math, etc., to gauge the effects on the
spatial variation in the political activities, of the factors like the
climate and the economy of a nation, the macro forces associated with
the transition of the world polity from an authoritarian to a democratic
base, the international political system and the multinational
corporations.
The Methodological/Approaches Scope
Broadly speaking, the following are the “15 Golden” or the main
methods of/ways of/approaches to the study of “the political
geography” and any other sub-discipline in the field of the geography
or any other subject:
The Descriptive, Analytical, Prescriptive.
The Empirical (inductive)/Normative (deductive)/Optimiser/Satificer
The Deterministic (environmental/natural, human, nature-human)
The Subjective/Artistic, Objective/Scientific.
The Holistic, Whole or Homogeneitic/Isolationist, Parts, Heterogeneitic or
Choreal, Particularitic
The Systems, Systematic.
The Political: The Socialist, Capitalist, Communist, Democratic, Fascist,
Liberal, Neo-liberal, Neo-conservative.
The Activity, Principle.
The Quantitative/Mathematical, Qualitative/Behavioural/Humanistic
The Temporal, Spatial, Spatio-Temporal.
The Philosophical, Theoretical, Practical/Applicability.

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The Ecological/Environmental/Consequential, Inter-disciplinary.


The Gender, Racial.
The Civilian, Military.
The Economics, Geographical, Econo-Geographical.

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7. The Globalization - the Concept


The Introduction

What is the concept of the globalization? What do we mean by the


physical and non-physical/human globalization? What are the
forces affecting the globalization?

The word “globalization” simply means anything becoming the


global. It can further be defined as the process involved in any local
phenomenon metamorphosing into a global one. There is a
progression either sequential or abrupt of a movement from the local
space to the global space.
The Exposition

The Meaning

The integration of any aspect of the local human lives like the
economies into the greater global lives like the global economy may
safely be called the globalization.
The Description
From the geographical perspective, the process, the phenomenon or
the movement of the globalization can broadly be divided into the
following two types:
1. The Physical
2. The Non-physical/Human

The Physical Globalization


This involves the movement of the physical entities from one space
point across to another space point on the globe. In other words, it is a
spatial spread over the earth of such physical entities as the continent,
etc. It can take place on, above or beneath the surface of the earth. It
has been continuing since aeons. For example, the Pangae broke into

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numerous parts which in turn became global in movement and started


moving towards different global space points.
The Non-Physical/Human Globalization
This simply means the globalization of any human phenomenon like
the social, the economic, the political, etc.
The Forces

The External

The external forces may cause the globalization to be accepted by any


political area such as a nation-State. For example, in the case of the
economic globalization, the international pressure put by more
developing countries through numerous international instruments like
the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Asian
Development Bank and other various forms of the international
assistance. This forces a country to restructure its economy and jump
into the international mainstream of the globalization.
The Internal
The Internal forces may compel a political area to agree to the
globalization. For example, in the case of the economic globalization,
these forces include the deteriorating internal economic situation and
the Balance-Of-Payment (BOP) crisis on account of the huge
international trade deficit.
For example, India initiated the economic reforms in 1991 leading to
its being a part of the globalization.
Some economists opined that the external pressure from the
GATT/WTO was responsible for it.
A second group contended that it was not the GATT/WTO pressure,
but the desire to increase the consumer welfare and reduce the

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inefficiency of the home producers that actually made India embrace


globalism.
However, to my mind the harsh truth is that India had an unfavourable
Balance-Of-Payment (BOP) situation in 1991 reflected in the
Chandrashekhar government mortgaging to the Bank of London many
tons of the gold that in reality had encouraged, convinced, persuaded
and forced India to accept the globalization so as to earn the sufficient
foreign exchange through an increased access to the world markets in
return for opening to the foreigners the Indian markets.
This third line of thinking was pointed out probably for the first time
in the second edition of my book titled “Geography, Economics and
Economic Geography” published in the year 2003.

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8. The Dimensions of the Globalization

The globalization shows numerous spatial/temporal


dimensions/aspects/faces like economic, political, social, cultural and
ethical.
The economic dimension is seen in increased international trade
amongst countries.
The social dimension is reflected in increased people-to-people
contact due to lowered border barriers and increased Internet access.
The political dimension is witnessed in increased co-operation
amongst countries which was absent earlier due to a difference in
political ideologies. For example, globalization has forced communist
China to interact in a friendly manner with the capitalist USA.
The cultural/ethical dimension is visible in MNCs showing a much
greater respect for local cultural/ethical practices in foreign markets
so as to maintain and increase their share in these foreign markets.
It has both positive and negative dimensions in terms of its benefits
and harms to the world citizens.
The world trade bodies like the WTO and the EU best represent the
process of globalization and its dimensions. Some economic
journalists like Swaminathan S Anklesaria Aiyar were of the firm
view that 8 rounds of global tariff cuts under the WTO/GATT have
caused the emergence of the fastest economic growth in human
history.

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9. The Role of the Corporations as the Global


Citizens

The Introduction

Are the multinational companies going to replace the traditional


governments all over the world? Do the multinational corporations
really act as the global citizens?
Corporations or to be more specific the MNCs/Enterprises as an
organized organic entities appear to be fast emerging as Global
Citizens (GCs) in their own right. These GCs don‟t seem to be
hundred per cent loyal to any particular political ideology or
government authority of any single and particular nation-State.
Rather, these GCs are more loyal to their Monetary Benefits (MBs)
accruing from their Transnational Transactions (TTs). Therefore, this
peculiar MBs approach compels these GCs to think globally so as to
plough back to their mother countries (MCs) the fruits of their Global
Commercial Operations (GCOs). In this whole MBs game, these GCs
wittingly or unwittingly cater to some extent at least to the needs and
aspirations of the people of the Host Political Regions (HPRs) in
which these operate. Without some perceptible aforesaid catering and
sensitization to the issues prevalent in HPRs, these GCs can never
hope to gain a solid foothold or local favours/permission to operate
therein. The net result is that these Corporations with the passage of
time are likely to display a propensity to become GCs cutting across
the broad spectrum of all political barriers (PBs) like political
boundaries, etc.

The Background
Corporations have since ancient times been playing the vital role of
GCs, though not as all pervasive, all embracing and more powerful as
in the present times. For example, in a restricted sense of the term
GCs, the various Guilds of merchants acted as a binding factor across
the length and breadth of the Indian Subcontinent during ancient and
medieval era. Such Guilds operated in the then numerous small

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principalities and states of the region. But, these could not have a
profound and a long lasting impact on the contemporary political
events and the scene. Later, we see the British East India Company, a
giant MNC, overrunning the Indian subcontinent with equanimity and
impunity, and facilitating the transfer of political power from Indian
hands into the then hands of the British Monarchy. It is only during
and after the world wars I &II that we witness these Corporations
acquiring a cumulatively increasing role as GCs with both the positive
and negative implications to both the HPRs and the MCs. For
example, IBM, the international computer giant based in USA had
been accused a few years ago of having connived with Hitler by
providing statistics on Jews which ultimately helped him exterminate
Jews in Germany. Of course, it on a more positive note did help
Allied Forces during the World War II by furnishing information on
Germany that had been collected by it during its operations in
Germany. In a way, IBM seems to have double-crossed with
protection of its MBs being its only sole goal.

The Process
An individual all by oneself is helpless and does not have enough
political power to influence the political process in the world today.
But, a group of individuals in the shape of a Corporation can manage
to exert tremendous pressure and influence both in the MCs and
HPRs. The HPR reconciles to the Global Outlook (GO) of a
Corporation, since a Corporation brings in through international trade
the necessary fresh doses of monetary, technical, managerial and
other numerous forms of assistance to the HPR. The HPR acquiesces
in the presence of these GCs in its territory because of the perceived
benefits as mentioned above, whether rightly or wrongly. These GCs
are able to influence the policies of the HPR in exchange for above
mentioned benefits doled out by them to the HPR. In fact,
consciously, subconsciously or unconsciously these GCs come to be
viewed as its own citizens by an HPR with unwritten mutual
understanding on this score between these GCs and the HPR.

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The Importance
With cold war era having been a thing of past history and an
emergence of the Internet and other fast means of communications,
the present world has become a witness to the ever shrinking
influence of the political boundaries (PBs), notwithstanding the
intentions to the contrary of the Political Authorities in a given
Political Region(PAPR). People residing in all Political Regions
(PRs) suddenly seem to have come into fast contact with each other to
the surprising extent never seen earlier in history.

It is being increasingly realized by all people all over the globe that it
is futile to live in self-imposed isolation and narrow shells called
nation- States or the PRs. Further, it is becoming obvious that there is
a glaring gap between the perceptions of those wielding political
power and the ruled ones in any PR. Thus, the PBs in a sense are
crumbling each passing day.

Still, these ruled ones as individual entities are too feeble to force
their ruling classes to go in for integration of all PRs into one single
Global Political Region (GPR). Also, it is crystal clear that survival of
any PR is mainly a function of its Economic Strengths (ESs). But, it
requires favourable International Commercial Transactions (ICTs) to
achieve ESs. These ICTs are now in the powerful control of GCs. As
such, these GCs as the representative of numerous groups of
individual people have come to have a solid bargaining power
vis-a-vis the political instrument of the PAPRs.

It indeed is ironic that the visible and well structured edifice called the
UNO has frankly speaking failed in accomplishing the task of the
global integration of disparate PRs. In future, it shall be the
perceptibly invisible winds of change blown by GCs that shall cause
the strengthening of the people to people contact on a global scale and
weakening of the parochial narrow PBs such as loyalty to one‟s
nation- State or the PR. These GCs shall become instrumental in
accomplishing the objectives of a truly Globally Balanced Economic
Landscape both in terms of regions and sectors of the economy.

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I had been to able to submit this paper online to one of the


participants of the AAG‟s Philadelphia Conference in the year 2003
instantly sitting in India simply because of the greater freedom of the
communication showered on us by the GCs like the Microsoft.

Finally, Although utopian an idea it may seem at this point of history


yet these GCs in times to come are likely to supplant the role of the
PAPRs which shall ultimately culminate into a truly integrated Global
World or the “Vasudhaeeva Kutumbakama” (the concept of the whole
world being a family as propounded in the Sanskrit texts)where
human mind and spirit shall be without fear of any political
retributions from any parochial PR.

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10. The 4 Stages in the Process of the


Globalization

To my mind, there are mainly 4 stages in the process of


globalization as under:

Isolation

Resistance

Introspection

Acceptance

The Isolation
In the first stage, a country is partially or completely isolated from the
mainstream of Globalization. It may be due to numerous factors like
differences in political ideologies. For example, Communist countries
during cold war era hardly had any trade/business relations with
western capitalist countries because of sworn enmity with the later.
The Resistance
In the second stage, a country is under external/internal pressures to
revaluate its partial or complete isolation from the mainstream of
Globalization. But, it still resists it due to old mindsets. This stage is
replete with agitations from different quarters such as labour unions
and environmentalists, etc.
The Introspection
In the third stage, a country tries to overcome resistance through
effective and fruitful introspection so as to end its partial or complete
isolation from the mainstream of Globalization. This stage witnesses
national debates.

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The Acceptance
In the fourth stage, a country partially or completely overcomes
resistance through effective and fruitful introspection so as to end its
near or total isolation from the mainstream of globalization. This
stage bears all the signs of acceptance by the country of the dynamic
process of the globalization.

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11. The Types of the Economic Landscape

The Introduction
The economic landscape on any given point of the time at any scale
whether the local, the regional, the national or the international may
be viewed from numerous perspectives. One perspective is to see
whether it is a balanced or an imbalanced type of the economic
landscape. Accordingly, I propose to introduce through the present
textbook [Geography, Economics and Economic Geography] the two
types of the economic landscapes:-
The Idealized perfectly balanced pentagonal Model/type.
The Realistic Isostasically balanced Amorphous Model/type.

The Types

The Idealized Perfectly Balanced Pentagonal Economic Landscape

An economic landscape may be said to be perfectly balanced if the


people employed therein are proportionally distributed over all the 5
kinds of the economic activities: primary, secondary, tertiary,
quaternary and quinary. In other words, each type of activities must
engage 1/5ths of the productive population. It has to be proportional
because a balanced economic scenario requires that all natural and
human resources be fully utilized. The full utilization of all resources
in a given space is possible only if all the above mentioned 5 types of
economic activities are undertaken. For example, the mineral
resources falling under primary activities may remain unutilized, if
the whole population of the given area engages only in tertiary

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activities (services) like clerical works and the secretarial jobs, etc.
This shall naturally lead to lop sided existence of the resultant
economic landscape characterized by dependence on outside areas for
mineral based needs! In fact, the idealized perfectly balanced
economic landscape denotes a totally self – dependent economic
landscape with little or no dependence on the outside areas. Such an
idealized landscape is likely to lead to a growth of the favorable terms
of trade to the people of the region contained in it. In its idealized
form, the whole world is a perfectly balanced economic landscape.

A pentagon represents perfectly this idealized state of the balanced


economic landscape. All triangles P, S, T, Qa, Qu have equal area and
represent equal number of productive population engaged in
economic activities in the Pentagonal Economic Landscape
represented by the area contained in the Pentagon a b c d e.

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P = Primary Activities.

S = Secondary Activities.

b P S e T = Tertiary Activities.

Qa = Quaternary Activities.
.
Qu T Qu = Quinary Activities.

abcde = The Pentagon


Qa
representing the given
economic Landscape.

c d

The Realistic Isostasically balanced Amorphous Model/Type

However, the real world is quite different from the idealized one,
especially in the social sciences. Likewise, one does not find in
existence in the real world the idealized perfectly balanced pentagonal
economic landscape. On the contrary, deviations from the idealized
model are noticed more as a rule rather than an exception.

Why are the deviations noticed? Well, the human beings on different
parts of the earth‟s surface have different wants, desires, needs,
choices and different abilities to realize the same. Thus, the economic
landscape of a typical village in India shows primacy of agricultural
activities, whereas a highly developed metropolitan region like that of
Mumbai reflects an economic landscape consisting primarily of
tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary economic activities both
representing economic landscapes in a rural and urban setting

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respectively. Neither is self – sufficient. The rural economic


landscape provides food grains and vegetables to the urban one, while
the typical urban landscape provides to the rural one the quinary
products like finances and health services.

The Measurement of the Deviation from the Idealized Model

An economic landscape in the real world exhibits amorphous


tendencies with all the 5 activities forming differing proportions of
the total economic landscape unit. However, the economic landscape
itself remains in an isostasically balanced state, i.e., the increase of
workers in one sector leads to decrease in other sectors.
One may measure the deviation by applying the following method.
First of all, divide total productive population according to 5
activities. Add the grand total.

Divide the grand total by 5 (representing the total number of


activities). This figure be taken as the expected proportional
population in any given economic activity. Then, find the difference
between this expected productive population with actually observed
productive population in a given activity. This gives the deviation
against each category of economic activity.

Add all the deviations, if any, ignoring the minus (-) signs. Divide the
total of deviations by the grand total of productive population.

The resultant final deviation, co-efficient or the degree of imbalance


shall range from 0 to 5 indicating varying co-efficient of imbalance in

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the given economic landscape as per following table of co-efficient of


the imbalance:

Co-efficient of Imbalance Kind of Imbalance

(20%-0%)1 and > 0 Slight

(40%-21%)2 and > 1 Moderate

(60%-41%) High

3 AND >2

(80%-61-%)4and
Very High
>3

(99.9%-81%)Less than 5 and > 4 Near Perfect

(100%) 5 Perfect

Note: The ideal to any country should be to keep the co – efficient 0


to 1 and see that it does not increase beyond 1. The values are
applicable universally at all levels, i.e., local, regional, national,
international (global).

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Example of Co–efficient of Imbalance in a Hypothetical


Economic Landscape “X”

Sr Econom Total Expected Deviatio Note:


N ic Working Proportionate ns (D) = D is
o Activity Population Population (O – E) calculated
(O) (E) by

1. Primary 500 720 -220 ignoring


minus (-)
2. Seconda 600 720 -120
sign
ry

3. Tertiary 720 720 0

4. Quatern 780 720 +60


ary

5. Quinary 1000 720 +280

N O = 3600 D=680

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E = O = 3600 = 720

― = ―
N 5

Coefficient of Imbalance = D 680

― = ―
O= 3600

= 0.188 = 0.188 x 100 = 18.800 %

The Interpretation
The given economic landscape shows only slight imbalance (18.8%)
as per table of co-efficient of imbalance. In other words, the given
region is fairly economically self – dependent.

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5 4
Qui
P A Qua
5 3
S T
1 2
4

1
B
X
0

Figure (i)

The Idealised Hypothetical Example of a Quantitatively Perfectly


Balanced Economic Landscape

Where
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (circular feature) = Economic Landscape

P = Primary activity

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S = Secondary activity
T = Tertiary activity
Qua = Quaternary activity

Qui = Quinary activity

AB = Height of the economic landscape from base

A = Centre of the Economic Landscape Model (representing same


height for all sectors of economic activity)

(Note: In the above graphical figure, AB is equal to 5. In other words,


all the economic activities have 5 workers each. Thus, it is a perfectly
balanced economic landscape).

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The Isostasically Balanced Economic


Landscape

OX = Base level
AB = Original height = 5 workers
CB = New height = 6 workers

DB = New Height = 4 workers

Workers in secondary, quaternary and Quinary activities = 5 workers


each.
Workers in Primary activity after Isostasic adjustment = 6 Numbers.
Workers in tertiary activity after Isostasic adjustment = 4 Numbers.
(Note: It is clear the total Number of workers in figure (i) is 25 which
remain the same in figure (ii). However, in figure (ii), One worker is
reduced or the tertiary portion has sunk beneath the base level OX to
–1. This one worker lost to tertiary activity (T) has flown into the
Primary activity block which gets pushed up to level 6 from 5 on Y
axis. This means that Primary activity has now a larger number of
workers. Although the present resultant economic landscape is
activity wise imbalanced yet it is isostasically balanced because the
original total number of workers remain unchanged in the whole
landscape, i.e., 25).

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The Model of the Economic Landscape Balance

The Objections
The above model of the balance of Economic Landscape may be
found highly objectionable in view of its emphasis only on the
quantitative aspects of different activities, i.e., number of human
population employed in each. It may be pointed out that it ignores the
qualitative aspects like scientific and technological advancements and
their impact on development of a particular economic activity. For
example, it is generally observed that a proportionally large number
of population engages in primary activity of agriculture in developing
and underdeveloped countries compared to other activities. Yet,
contribution in productivity per head in agriculture measured in terms
of market value of primary products is less compared to the
productivity per head in secondary or tertiary activities. On the other
hand, a very small population takes to agriculture in developed
countries as compared to other activities. Still, this small population is
able to give substantial higher contribution per head in terms of
agricultural productivity. This difference can easily be explained in
terms of various factors like advanced technology, agricultural
methods, etc., employed in developed countries. So, one may argue
that the model of the balance of economic landscape is invalid, as it
ignores qualitative aspects as mentioned above.

However, a further look into the model reveals that it still is valid, if
we consider qualitative aspects associated with each economic
activity in addition to the quantitative aspects of human labour force.
Therefore, we may further refine the above explained model by
stating that an economic landscape is perfectly balanced, if
contribution by each economic activity is perfectly balanced, if
contribution by each economic activity is proportional in terms of

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equal output by each worker irrespective of the type of activity


undertaken. For example, in a hypothetical case, 5 workers each may
be employed in secondary, quaternary, quinery activities, 6 workers in
primary and 4 in tertiary activities. Now, if each worker contributes
equally a product of the same worth/monetary value, the resultant
economic landscape may be said to be an ideally balanced one.

The Importance of the Concept of the Balance of Economic


Landscape

In an idealized situation of a perfectly balanced economic landscape,


each worker contributes products of equal value. Or alternatively put,
each one‟s work is considered of equal importance in society. This
leads to the concept of the dignity of labour both in social and
economic terms.

Any economic landscape gets imbalanced because of either


disproportionate quantitative deployment of workforce in different
economic activities or the disproportionate cornering of economic
benefits in terms of price of products produced by workers in certain
economic activities. For example, both a doctor and a mine worker
may be putting same hours of work daily. Still, a doctor earns more
than a mine worker. Why? The common sense would like to explain it
away in terms of the varying degree of complexity involved in both
the activities, besides the operation of law of demand and supply in
terms of excess supply of mine workers and less supply of doctors

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which gives doctors a higher bargaining power for their products in


the market as compared to the so called unskilled mine worker.
However, a further analysis shall reveal that this difference is more
than simply a case of law of demand and supply dictated by market
forces. Rather, it is the “degree of dignity” attached to the jobs that
causes this wide variation. One may ask how could it be? Well, a
doctor no doubt is required on the economic landscape to take care of
health problems of the human population. But, so is required the
services of other so-called unskilled low paid workers like plumbers,
electricians, scavengers. All workers, irrespective of specialization of
their jobs are a cog in the big machinery of interdependent society,
whether big or small. You take one part out however small it may be
and the whole machinery shall come to a grinding halt. For example,
if scavengers or plumbers stop work when required to do so in a
doctor‟s house, the doctor shall loose precious time in trying to do the
cleaning or plumbing work all by herself or himself! What does it
show? It shows that all types of economic activities are of equal
importance on any given economic landscape. It further shows that
the dignity of labour has to be restored to encourage workers to
participate fully in exploiting economic potential in all economic
activities of the economic landscape instead of the present tendency
of the people to rush to the economic activities which provide better
monetary and other benefits.
The present concept of the balance of Economic Landscape clearly
shows as outlined above that it is the dignity of the labour which is

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more important than the simple play of market forces of demand and
supply on any given economic landscape. Therefore, it follows as a
natural corollary that we don‟t need any isms like socialism,
capitalism, etc., to usher in a balanced development of an economic
landscape. Rather, it is the change in human attitude restoring the
dignity of labour which is the most important factor.

Many of contemporary and past world political problems have their


genesis in the imbalance of economic landscape on a global scale.
Several examples may be cited in support of this proposition.

Babur, the ruler of Kabul attacked the Gangetic plains of India during
medieval periods due to this factor only. Kabul was steeped in
poverty, whereas the economic landscape of the then Gangetic plains
was highly developed. This difference stimulated the less developed
economic landscape of Kabul symbolized by Babur to attack the
highly developed economic landscape of Gangetic plains represented
by Ibrahim Lodhi. Conversely, the highly developed economic
landscape of Europe prompted subjugation by Europeans of the less
developed economic landscape of Africa which caused a drain of
African resources during the evil slave era. Likewise, the capitalist
economic landscape represented by the highly developed U.S.A.
pulled down the lesser developed economic landscape of the erstwhile
communist U.S.S.R. The U.S.S.R. itself disintegrated because of the
disenchantment with the central command structure in Moscow and
because of the constituent states finding themselves floating on an

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imbalanced Russian economic landscape with certain areas highly


developed as compared to others! Even as recent as 11 th September,
2001, this phenomenon expressed itself ghastly when the two jet
airliners hijacked by international terrorists pulled down the North
and South Towers of „the World Trade Centre‟ in New York, sending
the world economy into a slide.

The highly developed economic landscape of the U.S.A. is perceived


by the Islami Jehadists as a threat to the culture and economies of the
lesser developed economic landscapes of the Muslim states of the
African Sahara and Middle East. In all probability, these attacks
might not have taken place had both the U.S.A. and the Islamic world

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economic landscapes been developed to the same degree. In fact, the


World Wars I and II were fought as a fall out of this imbalance of
economic landscapes.

As the above brief discussion shows clearly, even a slight imbalance


in economic landscapes at any level is sufficient enough to engineer
political and other problems.

The world peace may be achieved if the whole globe is developed


into a perfectly balanced economic landscape. Such an ideal
landscape shall discourage wars simply because of the equitable
distribution of fruits of human progress and consequent disincentive
for wars besides the realization by each part on the economic
landscape of other constituent parts being equally developed. The
concept of the dignity of labour may play a vital role in this direction.
Therefore, the integration of the world economy in a perfectly
balanced state shall cause development of the perfectly balanced
economic landscape. Thus, the world peace and the economic
prosperity may ideally speaking be accomplished.
The Globalization
The globalization can become an accepted phenomenon by all people,
provided players at the WTO negotiations adhere to creating a
perfectly balanced economic landscape all over the globe both in
terms of economic sectors and regions/countries.

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12. B Tech or M Tech and not BA/BSc or MA/MSc in


the Geography?

Must not the BA/MA and BSc/MSc courses in the subject of the
geography be re-designated as the B Tech/M Tech in the
geography?

"As a young man, my fondest dream was to become a geographer.


However, while working at the customs office, I thought deeply
about the matter and concluded it was far too difficult a subject. I
then turned to Physics as a substitute." - Albert Einstein

The above-quoted master statement attributed to the great scientist


Albert Einstein must be enough to silence the innocent critics of the
geography. Still, it would only be fitting to point out the following
vital inherent strengths of the subject of the geography:
1. It is the only subject displaying the unprecedented breadth and
depth of the knowledge. For example, a student specializing in the
subject of the economics generally knows only about the economics
and the other student specializing in the meteorology possesses only
the meteorological information and so on. In sharp contrast, a
geography student pioneering in the economic geography or the
climatology masters unwittingly not only the subjects of the
economics or the climatology but all the other branches of learning
under the sun!
In fact, any high-quality student of the geography has perforce to
study everything right from the basic sciences to the humanities.
2. It indeed is true that the geography is a combination of the diverse
fields of the learning like the economics, the political science, the
meteorology, the statistics, the agricultural science, the remote
sensing, etc. However, this so-called “khichhadde”or the hotch-potch
is in reality the holistic integrated assimilation of the diverse
branches of the human knowledge which sculptures any ideal model
geography student into a master of the Universal Science with a well
polished all round scintillating personality!

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3. It is the most difficult and challenging subject accepted as such


even by the great scientist Albert Einstein! The reason is that a
geography student must study everything in the world and still
specialize in one of these within the same time period in which the
students of the other subjects do the restricted job of specializing in
one subject only. Thus, due to the time constraint, the geography
student really finds it challenging and difficult to decide the depth to
which each constituent subject must be studied.
However, any efficient ideal geography student acquires the full in-
depth knowledge of one‟s specialization. For example, any excellent
student of the climatology can compete with ease with any student of
the meteorology.
I would love citing my own experiences. I have specialized in the
economic geography. There was a subject called “the Trade and
Transport Geography” in the semester fourth having 8 main topics
prescribed by the University of Pune for the students undergoing an
MA course in the economic geography.
One of the main topics is “the Trade Theories” which is further
subdivided into: the geographical factors influencing the international
trade, the theory of the comparative advantage, the neo-classical
theory, the modern theory.
You may find it hard to believe that I had to refer in entirety the three
numbers of the standard international texts just to grasp the essentials
of this particular main topic. I had to do the in-depth study of the
books on the economics like “International Trade and the World
Economy” by Charles van Marrewijk (containing 386 AR-4 size
pages, priced at Rs.750, 2002 edition), “Economic Development” by
Michael P Todaro and Stephen C Smith (containing AR-4 size 829
pages, priced at Rs. 350, 2003 edition) and “Economics” by
Samuelson Nordhaus (containing AR-4 size 781 pages, 1998 edition).
A student who had earned from the internationally renowned
Symbiosis Institute of Management, Pune the Post Graduate Diploma
in Management was really surprised to see me refer the above
mentioned books. His reaction was “Oh, my goodness! You
geographers study the international trade and economics, also! You
don‟t need a post graduate diploma in Foreign Trade!”

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Unfortunately, it seems the general public has interacted with only the
qualitatively Below-The –Mark- Students (BTMSs) of the geography
which seems to have created a bad and wrong impression of the
geography students being good for nothing. But, then, these BTMSs
are there in every other subject, too. Why single out only the subject
of the geography?
4. The prejudice against the geography students and the existence of
an old hot mindset unwilling to be soothed by the bouts of the cool
fresh refreshing breeze has created the unnecessary and the avoidable
barriers in the path of the geography students. For example, a friend
of mine possessing a BA degree in the geography was denied
admission to a course in the MSc in the environmental science,
University of Pune (U.O.P.) purely on the ground that he had an arts
degree.
On the other hand, shockingly enough, his own classmate who had
done similar graduation in the geography and had been awarded a
BSC in the geography was readily admitted to the above course
merely on the strength of his being a science degree holder!
5. To my mind, the graduation or the post-graduation in the
geography need not be designated either as BA/BSc or MA/MSc.
Rather, the need of the hour is to repackage the same as the B Tech or
the M Tech (Bachelor of Technology or Master of Technology) in the
geography due to 4 important reasons.
Firstly, it shall end the unhealthy debate between the BA/MA and the
BSc/MSc in the geography.
Secondly, the graduation/post-graduation in the geography involves
studying and handling in the field numerous scientific and technical
instruments like the Theodolite and the Dumpy Level, etc.
Thirdly, the geography students have compulsorily to study and keep
refreshing their knowledge of the basic science subjects like the
physics, the chemistry, the biology and the math of at least the higher
secondary/12th standard level irrespective of whether they did their
higher secondary with the science or the arts/humanities subjects.
Finally, it shall help redeem the lost honour of this mother of all
subjects, the geography and place it on par with any other university
disciplines. In fact, it shall help the geography students in enhancing
their job prospects.

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Thus, one has only rightly to conclude that the geography students
must not be denied an opportunity to compete at various exams meant
only for the science students like the Indian Forest Services Exam, the
Indian Geological Services Exam and so on. No one can deny the
unassailable quintessential truth that an ideal geography student is “a
jack of all the trades and the master of one” instead of being “a jack of
all the trades and master of none”!
6. It is high time the higher education authorities of the University Of
Pune and other universities appreciated the fundamental geographical
truths and accorded the due respect to the geography by re-
designating the courses in the geography at the university level as the
B Tech or the M Tech (Bachelor of Technology or Master of
Technology) in the geography!

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13. The Liberalization

What do we mean by the term the liberalization in the context of


the economic geography?
The term ‘the Liberalization’ means the free movement of all the
forces in various fields without any restrictions like the economic,
the political, the social and the cultural. However, we in the economic
geography restrict ourselves to the free movement/flow of the goods,
the services and the information in an economic or the commercial
spatial sense within, outside and across a Given Political Region
(GPR) like a nation-State.
The economic liberalization includes inter alia the component of the
privatization. But, the privatization need not necessarily mean the
liberalization because there may be the privatization and still there
may not be any 100% liberalization at all. For example, the
enlightened-capitalist economies like the USA and the UK display a
near total privatization in all the sectors of the economy. Still, one
can‟t say firmly that these two nation-States are the fully liberalized
ones. The reason is that there still exist the barriers and the restrictions
on the movement of the free trade across their political boundaries
like the high customs duties/tariffs and the quotas, etc.
To my mind, the ideal model of the economic liberalization
essentially includes an absolutely free flow of the goods, the services
and the information within, outside and across the political boundaries
of a GPR. It stands in sharp contrast to the process of the
restrictization which entails the restrictions on the free flow of the
goods, the services and the information.

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The following Economic Liberalization Model (ELM) aptly illustrates


the whole gist of the discussion we have had so far:

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14. The Integration of the Markets or the Trade


Areas

The Introduction

What is meant by the integration of the markets or the trade


areas? What are its different levels? What are its different types?
What are its advantages and disadvantages?
The economic integration or the integration of the markets including
both or either of the final products‟ market and the factors of
production market in which a group of spatial entities eliminates the
artificially created barriers to the trade and the competition may
safely be termed the integration of the markets or the trade areas. It
may be an intra-national or an international phenomenon.
The international economic integration has become a popular feature
since the world war two, i.e., the Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA),
the Free Trade Area (FTA), the Customs Union (CU), the Common
Market (CM) and the Economic Union (EU).
The following are the main levels of the market or the trade area:
The Intra-National
The Local
The Regional
The National

The International
The Local
The Regional
The Global

For example, the WTO

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The integration of the markets or the trade areas may be of the


following two main types:
1. The Formal Integration
2. The Informal Integration

The Formal Integration


This type of the market gets integrated through some commonly
developed and accepted institutional/administrative
structure/framework, i.e., a large number of countries has come
together to form the WTO which has its own headquarter and full-
fledged administrative machinery. This body frames the rules on how
to best integrate the global market through various measures.
The Informal Integration
This type of the market means the integration of a market that takes
place informally without any interference from any
institutional/administrative structure. This is simply a people to
people informal contact for the trade purposes. It has been going on
since long. The differentiating point in this case is that unlike the
formal integration, there may be no partial or full removal of the tariff
and the non-tariff barriers to the trade. The example of such an
integration of market is the triad formed by the markets of the North
America, the Europe and Japan.
In this type of the market integration, the traders belonging to the
different political entities import and export the goods, the services
and the information. There is no commonly developed and accepted
institutional framework to guide this trade. Slowly, the traders
develop the linkages of the interdependence, i.e., in the good olden
days the Arabian merchants would land on the Indian sea shores to
purchase the condiments, etc., to be further sold to the Europe.

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It was a clear case of the interdependent linkages with the Arabians


having been dependent on the Indians and the Europeans on the
Arabians. Thus, it was a kind of the integration of the international
market. But, it was an informal one susceptible to the forces of the
politico-economic changes on the world stage and could easily get
broken unlike the present day formal integration represented by the
WTO.
The advantages of the market integration
1. The free movement of the finished goods, the services and the
information.
2. The free movement of the factors of the production.
3. The decreased cost of the transportation of both the factors of
the production and the final products.
4. The increased access to a wider market for the consumers.
5. Increased consumer welfare.
6. The increased choice for the consumers.
7. The wider market for the finished products.
8. The lowered cost of the production.
9. The cheaply priced finished products.
10. The elimination of the inefficient producers since the more
efficient producers in the widened market are likely to outcompete
the former.
11. It is a stepping stone to the greater levels of the union like the
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) of the European Union (EU)
with a common currency.
12. In the long run, it is likely to integrate the constituent
participant entities (CPEs) into a single political entity, thereby
eliminating probably all the present day problems like the border
skirmishes and the full fledged military wars, etc.
13. If the CPEs now offered the low cost market products compared
to the relatively high cost products that had to be purchased before
the integration from the non-members, it would result into the
economic gains/benefits.

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The disadvantages of the market integration


1. The elimination of the inefficient producers causes a temporary
loss of the jobs to the employees in a constituent participant
entity.
2. The partial or the full loss of the political sovereignty in the
CPEs.
3. The price distortion may take place with respect to the non-
integrated members because with the increased access to the
increased resources of the integrated market, the members of the
integrated market due to the decreased dependency on the
outside products/support may feel emboldened to install the
higher tariff and the non-tariff barriers to the trade with the non-
members compared to the present Barrier Regime (BR). This
might otherwise not have happened due to the earlier near total
dependency of the CPEs on the non-members for certain
products in which they themselves are inefficient producers.

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15. The Trade Areas

What are the different types of the trade areas?


In terms of the geographical spread, the trade areas may broadly be
classified into following two main categories:
1. The Intra-national trade area
2. The International trade area

The word “Intra” means “within” and the word “Inter” means
“between or amongst”. Therefore, the intra-national trade area
includes the trade areas existing within a given nation-State and the
international trade area includes the trade areas formed by two or
more number of nation-States.
These can further be subdivided as under:

The Intra-national Trade Area


The Local
The Regional
The National

The Local

This is a trade area formed by two or more of the constituent sub-


units comprising a given state or unit within a nation-State or the
political entity. For example, the trade area formed by two towns in
a federal state.

The Regional

This is a trade area formed by two or more, but not all the
constituent states or the units comprising a given nation-State or a
political entity.

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The National

This is a trade area formed by all the constituent states or the units
comprising a given nation-State or a political entity.

The International Trade Area

The Bilateral Trade Area


This is formed by the trade areas of any given two nation-States. This
can further be subdivided as follows:
The Local
The Regional
The Global
The Local
This is formed by two adjacent nation-States, i.e., Bangladesh and
India.
The Regional
This is formed by two nation-States not located in juxtaposition with
each other. Rather, these nation-States are located far away from each
other. Still, these nation-States give the impression of being located in
a relatively contiguous geographical region, i.e., Bangladesh and
Pakistan.
The Global
This is formed by two nation-States located distinctly in the
perceptibly different geographical entities, i.e., Japan and India or
India and USA.

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The Multilateral Trade Area


This is formed by a combination of trade areas of more than two
nation-States .This can further be subdivided as follows:
The Local
The Regional
The Global

The Local
This is formed by more than two nation-States located in immediate
vicinity to each other, i.e., India, Bhutan and Nepal.
The Regional
This is formed by more than two nation-States not located in
immediate vicinity to each other. Although these nation-States are
located far away from each other yet these give the impression of
being located in a clear cut and well defined geographical region, i.e.,
Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
The Global
This is formed by more than two nation-States located in two or more
than two distinct geographical regions, i.e., India, USA and Japan or
USA, UK and Japan.

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16. The Free and the Restrictive Trade Areas

What are the free and the restrictive trade areas?


Any given trade area may variously be classified. One of the ways is
to see if it is a free one or a restricted one. Accordingly, we may
identify the following types of the trade areas in the world:
The Free Trade Area
It can further be subdivided as under:
The Fully Free Trade Area (FFTA)
This is a trade area where there are no restrictions on the trade
movement within or across it.
The Partially Free Trade Area (PFTA)
This is a trade area where there is no full free movement of the trade
within or across it. But, the trade movement is partially free, i.e., in
the so-called Free Trade Areas (FTAs) like the LAFTA, NAFTA, etc.,
there is no tariff or non- tariff barrier to the trade amongst the member
nation-States. Still, each member is free to decide the own barriers
against the non-members.
In the case of the customs unions, too, there is free movement only
internally. The member of such customs unions may impose on non-
members a commonly decided external barrier.
Therefore, the so-called Free Trade Areas like the LAFTA, NAFTA
and the customs unions like the EU are all essentially the Partially
Free Trade Areas (PFTAs) only.

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The Restrictive Trade Area


It can further be subdivided as under:

The Fully Restrictive Trade Area (FRTA)


This is a trade area where there is no degree of freedom for the trade
movement. There is full restriction on the trade movement.
The Partially Restrictive Trade Area (PRTA)
This is a trade area where there is no full restriction on the trade
movement. There is a certain degree of the freedom of the movement
for the trade. This is nothing but a partially free trade area only.
A proper understanding of the concept of the free and restrictive trade
areas inter alia is immensely helpful in understanding as to how the
different types of markets work.

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17. Is the Japanese Economy the Rise of the New


Economy?

Can one really speak of the Japanese economy in terms of it being a


new economy? Is it proper to say – “The Rise of New Economies –
Japan?”
A cursory glance at the present literature available on the economics,
the geography, the management or any other related subject clearly
shows that the resurgence of the Japanese economy post-World War
II has wrongly been labeled its rise. Then, what could have been the
reasons leading a large number of intellectuals to dub the resurgence
of the Japanese economy as the rise of Japanese economy?
One can think of the numerous reasons as follows.
The inferiority or the superiority complex of the victorious Allied
Powers in a post World War II scenario which made them overlook
the highly developed state of the economy of Japan pre-World War I.
May be this complex was meant to make the Japanese forget their
economic might and the military glory of the pre-World War I era.
The desire to encourage other economically undeveloped or slowly
developing political entities to speed up their economic development
by following the Japanese example (with the intellectuals having
camouflaged the resurgence of the Japanese economy as the rise of
the Japanese economy) with the simple logic that they could rise too
if a new economy like the Japan could rise. It could simply well have
been a scintillating case of the intellectual ignorance.
At the best, the rise of the Japanese economy the post-World War II
can be described as the re-emergence and the resurgence of the
Japanese economy because it again became economically powerful
despite her having been totally destroyed economically in the World
War I and II in terms of the industrial strength, the transportation
system and the vast resource base in the overseas empire.

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For example, Japan lost a large resource base in the World war II: 2
million people, 2 million buildings (700,000 in Tokyo itself), the two-
thirds of its production compared to its production in 1932 (i.e., the
crude steel production declined from 2,398,000 tons in 1932 to
557,000 metric tonne in 1946), all the islands except the islands of
Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu and a few adjacent smaller
islands as per the terms and conditions of the Potsdam Declaration
on the 14th August, 1945 and the Cairo Conference in December,
1943 (Russia snatched the Kuriles and the Southern Sakhalin, China
regained all her territories including Taiwan – the Pescadores and a
part of Manchuria, the Phillipines became independent, Korea was
divided between Russia and the USA , the Mongolian People‟s
Republic went under the Russian control, India and Burma became
independent, the islands of the Pacific mandated to Japan after the
World War I went to the USA‟s “Strategic Trusteeship” under the
U.N.O.‟ mandate. The USA retained control of the Carolines, the
Marshalles, the Marianas, the Bonin and the Ryuku islands. Japan was
left with just 17 ocean-worthy ships in 1947!
The use of the word „the New‟ indicates the present existence of
something which was not there earlier. But, the strong Japanese
economy was already there in place before its decline during the two
World Wars. So, there is no question of Japan having developed or
raised a new economy and as such the use of the phrase “The Rise of
New Economies – Japan” is clearly a misnomer.
The facts speak for themselves. Japan ranked the 3rd among the
maritime powers when it attacked Pearl Harbour on the 7 th December,
1941. At that point of time, its merchant fleet had 2,700 vessels with a
gross tonnage of 6,500,00 approximately and smaller vessels had a
total of 1,000,000 tons. The literacy was almost universal in Japan
during the period 1894-1930. The census figures for the education
indicate that Japan had 733 kindergartens, 25562 elementary, 385

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middle and 597 high schools, 23 universities and 723 technical


schools in 1925.
Near the end of the1930s, Japan had 900 newspapers. By 1937 end,
the 1/4ths of the Japanese families owned radio sets. The Japanese
exports increased from 1,436 million yen in 1930 to 2,641 million yen
in 1936 with 60% being the finished products as against 29% in1913-
14. Japan emerged as the foremost exporter of rayon in 1936.
Japanese exports gave tough competition to the British exports. Japan
imported 50% of all the US exports to Asia in 1936.
The competitive edge of the Japanese products in the foreign markets
after 1931 forced the West to use the tariff barriers and the quotas
against the Japanese products, especially in the colonial markets of
Asia and Africa. Japan‟s net national product increased from 10.2
billion yen in 1930 to 15.8 billion in 1936 at 1930 prices. The net
national income increased by 4.5 billion yen in 1936 at 1930 prices.
The total value of the industrial production rose from 5,178million
yen in 1931 to 10,837 million yen in 1935.
To quote MD David in the “Rise And Growth Of Modern
Japan”(2001 reprint, page 209) , “…The index for consumption
goods rose from 100 in 1929 to 154 in 1937-8 and that of capital
goods from 100 to 264 in the same period. The number of persons
employed in manufacturing rose from 5 million in 1929 to 8 million
in 1937-8. The contribution of manufacturing industry to national
income at the end of 1930s was twice that of agriculture. Japan had
become one of the most highly industrialized countries of the world.
This industrialization was achieved without increased dependence on
the import of food from her colonies or from other parts of the world,
although her population rose by more than 9 million in that decade…”
The Japanese silk production was the two-thirds of the total world
production in 1928.

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Despite the severe setback to its economy during the World War II,
Japan recovered very fast. This recovery was so fast and amazing that
it seemed to be a miracle. This fast recovery merits the title
“Resurgence” or emerging as strong-once-again the same that it was
earlier pre-World War II.
For example, the production of the mining and the manufacturing
surpassed the pre-War level in 1951 with it becoming 4 times in
1960s. It had dropped to 27.6% of the pre-war level of 1934-36 in
1946. The Japanese foreign exchange reserves increased from $ 250
million in 1950 to $ 1,200 million in 1952 primarily because of the
military orders worth $ 4 billion procured during the Korean War and
the use of its territory as a base by the U.N.O.‟s forces then. Japan
earned the foreign exchange worth $ 3.4 billion in the period 1952-56
despite recession of 1953-54. Japan had an export boom in 1955-57.
Helped by the factors like a hardworking labour force, “the Open
Door to the Japanese exports” policy of the USA, the policy of the no
non-productive military expenditure adopted by Japan with less than
1% of her GNP spent on the defence, the Japanese economy had by
1954 largely recovered and in the 1960s Japan emerged once again as
one of the leading economic powers in the world by jumping into the
mass production and the automation fields like the steel, the ships, the
automobiles, the television sets, the radios, the motorcycles, the
cameras and the tape recorders.
There are numerous indicators of this resurgence of the Japanese
economy, viz., the production of the crude steel increased from
4,839,000 tonne in 1950 to 1,05,279,000 tonne in 1985.
She is a leading shipbuilding country since 1956 with her share in the
Gross World Tonnage having increased from 21.5% in1960 to 48.2%
in 1969 to 53.1% in 1984, her share in the world exports increased
from 3.6% in 1960 to 6.8% in 1970 to 7.1% in 1980 to 9.1% in 1984

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and in the world imports for the same period from 3.8% to 5.9% to
7.6% with decrease to 7.3%.
The per capita income increased from pound sterling 51 in 1950 to
148 in 1960 to 537 in 1969, the GNP increased from the pound
sterling (million) 4,500 in 1950 to 17,900 in 1960 to 69,300 in 1969,
the annual percentage growth in the GNP increased from 8.6% in
1951-55 to 9.7% in 1960-65 to 13.1% in 1965-70.
The decrease of the workers in the agriculture from 8,990,000 in 1969
to 5,120,000 in 1980, the increase of the workers in the manufacturing
from 3,710,000 in 1969 to 5,270,000 in 1980, the increase of the
workers in the services from 7,220,000 in 1969 to 11,540,000 in
1980, the increase in the all industries index with 1965 as base (100)
from 61.1 in 1960 to 162.8 in 1968. The progression of the Japanese
consumer from the traditional three sacred “treasures” – the mirror,
the jewels and the sword to the television set, the refrigerator and the
washing machine in the late 1950s to the “three Cs – the car, the
colour television and the room cooler” in the beginning of the 1960s
to the “three Vs – the villa, the vacation and the visit to a foreign
country in the beginning of 1970s, etc.
The reader is advised to look up the latest figures on the various
indicators of the Japanese economy by referring to the latest WTO
report on the Japanese economy.

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18. The Khairkar Pie

Generally, we use the simple method of the "pie" diagram to show


spatial or temporal variations in the distribution of various physical-
cultural phenomena. This method involves dividing a circle into
sectors with each sector representing proportionally the given data for
a region or a year, etc., from amongst the total given for regions or
years, etc., under consideration.

It is generally felt that this method of pie diagram fails to show


simultaneously the spatial and temporal variations in the given data.
However, if we employ “the Khairkar Method of the Concentric Pie
Diagram", we can overcome this difficulty. The method is simple.
First, draw the required number of equidistant concentric circles
representing various time units or spatial units. Then, draw
proportionate sectors in each circle. Thus, one can easily compare the
given data both spatially and temporally.

I have given to this method the name “the Khairkar Pie" to honour my
Cartography teacher Mrs Khairkar who was instrumental in helping
me get this idea. It so happened during a lecture that she drew two
concentric circles while explaining the concept of pie chart. The
whole class was of the view that spatial-temporal variation can't be
shown by a pie chat. But, her very act of drawing two circles gave me
the above insight.

I immediately pointed out to her this method. She approved this


creative method of overcoming one of the shortcomings of the
traditional pie chart.

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The Example

The representation of the following data in the form of traditional pie


diagram and the VP Khairkar Pie diagram:

Production of food grains in Kg,


year wise
Crop 1970 1980 2000

Rice 100 150 200

Wheat 200 200 300

Bajra 200 150 100

Total 500 500 600

The Traditional Pie Method

For the year 1970


Crop Kg Sectoral Degrees1980

Rice 100 72

Wheat 200 144

Bajra 200 144

Grand Total 500 360

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For the year 1980


Crop Kg Sectoral Degrees1980

Rice 150 108

Wheat 200 144

Bajra 150 108

Grand Total 500 360

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For the year 2000


Crop Kg Sectoral Degrees1980

Rice 200 120

Wheat 300 180

Bajra 100 60

Grand Total 600 360

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The Khairkar Pie Method:


Circle A represents production for the year 1970
Circle B represents production for the year 1980
Circle C represents production for the year 2000

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19. The Relationship amongst the Economic


Globalization, Liberalization and Privatization?

What is the relationship amongst the economic globalization, the


economic liberalization and the economic privatization?

In a generalized situation, the process of the privatization precedes the


process of the liberalization as seen in the USA. The process of the
liberalization precedes the process of the globalization. In other
words, the Privatization (P) is followed by the liberalization (L) which
in turn is followed by the Globalization (G). The globalization is
necessarily the all inclusive of both the liberalization and the
privatization. But, the liberalization and the privatization as the single
entities all by themselves may directly engineer the process of
globalization, also.

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To my mind, the tri-cellular LPG model quite clearly shows the


complicated combinations of the relationships amongst the processes
of the globalization, the privatization and the liberalization.

However, a more realistic situation shows a slightly complicated


game of these relationships. The globalization may appear under the
single influence of the privatization and it may be a cause of the later,
also. Likewise, the liberalization may lead to the globalization and
may itself be produced by the later process. Similarly, the
privatization may produce the liberalization and may get produced by
it, also.

The globalization may lead to both the privatization and the


liberalization. In sharp contrast, both these processes may
simultaneously cause the appearance of the globalization. Same way,
both the globalization and privatization acting at the same time may
give birth to the liberalization. The liberalization may be the producer
of both the privatization and the globalization. The privatization alone
can cause the arrival of both the liberalization and the globalization.
Both the liberalization and the globalization as a team can produce the
privatization. For example, the erstwhile communist countries like the
Russia, etc., are being swept by the winds of the globalization which
has seen the appearance of the privatization and the liberalization
there. In sharp contrast, it is primarily the forces of the privatization
and the liberalization which have encouraged the USA and the UK to
jump headlong into the mainstream of the globalization.

Numerous examples may be given of the above mentioned


complicated combinations of the relationships amongst the processes
of the globalization, the privatization and the liberalization.

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20. The Dimensions of the Human Resources

What are the different dimensions of the human resources?


The human resources have numerous dimensions or aspects. The two
prominent dimensions that come to one‟s mind are the quantitative
dimension and the qualitative dimension.
The Quantitative Dimension
The quantitative dimension means the total number of human
population in any given spatial unit like the total number of males,
females, young and old, etc. It can further be subdivided into more
parts:
1. Constructive

2. Destructive
The constructive aspect includes features like the availability of
labour force for exploitation of spatial resources, etc.
The destructive aspect includes features like pressure of human
population on carrying capacity of resources like land, etc.
The Qualitative Dimension
The qualitative dimension of human resources means the quality of
human population in any given spatial unit in terms of features like
the human wisdom, intelligence, skill, knowledge, health, education,
etc. It can further be subdivided into two more parts:
1. Constructive

2. Destructive
The constructive aspect includes features like wise use of available
resources both permanent and non-permanent for sustainable
economic development, etc.

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The destructive aspect includes the features like the human greed,
deceit, killings, wars, etc. that ultimately destroy/deplets/degrades the
resources or upgrades/enhances their quality.

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21. The Relationship amongst the Trading, the


Marketing and the Business

The Trading
It simply means an exchange or sale/purchase of products
(finshed/factors).When talked in terms of the international trade, it
means the international imports (purchase) and exports (sale).
The Marketing

It simply means the identification or creation of a market for the


purposes of trading (the sale or purchase) followed by exploitation of
the market. Thus, Marketing is a relatively broader concept than the
concept of Trading.
The Business
The concept of the Business includes both the Concepts of the
Trading and the Marketing. The Business means the economic
operation involving activities of the production, the marketing/
exchange/sale/purchase of goods, services and information
(factors/finished).

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22. Must Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi Not Be


Assessed Correctly?

Is it really possible to have a correct assessment about any


historical figure by that historical figure’s own contemporaries
especially if the figure happens to be Mohan Das Karamachand
Gandhi whom the coveted Nobel Prize for the Peace eluded during
and even after his own lifetime?
The correct assessment about any historical figure is generally
possible only by the posterity and not their contemporaries. The
contemporaries are more likely to be biased or prejudiced in their
judgments owing to superfluous factors like a sense of awe and deep
respect for the contemporary historical figures or a sense of animosity
towards them. But, the succeeding generations generally tend to be
free from such emotional or sentimental hangovers and as such are in
a much better position to see the plus and minus points of a gone-by-
era-personality.
The above passage applies aptly to all those who had fought to gain
India the freedom from the British yoke. In the period following
India‟s Independence in 1947, Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi was
viewed in a preferential mode of assessment and made larger than life
by his contemporaries and followers. But, now more than 60 years
down the line, most Indians are in a more informed position to make
an unbiased and dispassionate opinion on the Indian freedom fighters
in the light of the cold facts and not any other superfluous
considerations.
The factual reality is that any textbook history could easily have
accommodated diverse strands of Indian history. But, the emotional or
sentimental hangovers favouring Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi
coupled with the ruling Indian National Congress‟ anxiety to
perpetuate its own rule in India, trying to imprint the impressionable

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young minds by eulogizing only Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi‟s


role, ensured that Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi was given the
status of a cult figure in the text-book history in India.
Bhagat Singh has been derided as having been wildly optimistic in
believing that a few violent protests would cause revolution in India.
But, Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi was no better on this count
either! Despite all his pretensions of non-violence, Mohan Das
Karamachand Gandhi launched the “Do or Die”, “British Quit India”
movement of 1942 which did not succeed in dislodging the British
from India immediately.
So, Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi too could be said to have been
too wildly optimistic in believing that a “Do or Die” kind of
movement would ignite Indians to send the British quickly out of
India. India had to wait for the freedom till 1947 when the British had
to quit India mainly on their own due to the weakening of the British
Empire by the World War II.
Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi is praised for having created
awareness instead of making grand proclamations. Bhagat Singh had
precisely only tried to create awareness amongst Indians about their
mass passivity and fatalism by throwing the bomb in the Assembly
Hall. Despite Bhagat Singh knowing full well that he [Bhagat Singh]
might be finished by the British, he [Bhagat Singh] did not run away!
If he [Bhagat Singh] wished, he [Bhagat Singh] could have run away.
Morever, his [Bhagat Singh‟s] intention was not to kill any one, rather
it was to make the deaf British rulers hear the Indian aspirations for
the freedom.
Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi could not turn the adversity into
advantage. He failed miserably. The net result was that he [Mohan
Das Karamachand Gandhi] could not prevent the partition of India
which in turn resulted into the killings of millions of innocents in the
ensuing Hindu-Muslim religious riots in 1947. Thus, Mohan Das

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Karamachand Gandhi could be said to have given the Indian


subcontinent long-term instability in terms of the two independent
nation-States of India and Pakistan who have fought three bitter wars
worse than the civil war!
Also, he [Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi] could not handle
Mohammed Ali Jinnah who saw to it that an independent Muslim-
dominated nation-State of Pakistan was created to assuage his
[Mohammed Ali Jinnah‟s] hurt ego that had been caused by Mohan
Das Karamachand Gandhi himself only by giving undue attention to
Jawaharlal Nehru as compared with Mohammed Ali Jinnah. This
despite the stark fact that Gopal Krishna Gokhale, the Political Guru
of Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi himself had earlier declared
Mohammed Ali Jinnah to be the ambassador of the Hindu-Muslim
unity!
So, it‟s fully clear that Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi had created
successfully the incentives for Mohammed Ali Jinnah for the later to
call for a separate independent Pakistan!
The above discussed historical facts prove wrong the assumption that
Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi was perhaps the only visionary.
Subhash Chander Bose was perhaps the biggest of all these
visionaries. He understood and internalized well the British rulers‟
contemporary international strengths and weaknesses. Although the
killings of the innocent Jews by Hitler is unjustified yet realizing that
“a foe‟s enemy is a friend”, Subhash Chander Bose took Hitler‟s help
against the British and almost had knocked out the British through the
North-East India, militarily.
Despite having been denied the presidency of the Indian National
Congress by Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi, Subhash Chander
Bose proved to be a visionary in the sense that he [Subhash Chander
Bose] perhaps realized the shaky/tricky superfluously non-violence
oriented Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi to be the only main

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obstacle to his military advance against the British and understood


excellently Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi‟s “inflated unsatiable
ego” to appease whom only he [Subhash Chander Bose] addressed
him [Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi] as “the father of the nation.”
Expectedly, like all true narcissistic individuals, Mohan Das
Karamachand Gandhi mellowed on listening to these flattering words
from Subhash Chander Bose, his political arch-foe.
Karanjia, the well-known editor of the Blitz, is once said to have
termed Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi to be a confused person.
Aurobindo Ghosh, one of the great saints of India, once had expressed
his exasperation with Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi‟s confused
personality by asking sarcastically what Mohan Das Karamachand
Gandhi actually was trying to achieve!
It is a mockery of the process of the logical and healthy discussion to
deride those [being able to assess Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi
correctly] as being those accepting the celluloid and comic book
versions of the past as the hidden reality or as lacking in patience with
the historical rigor.
The factual reality is that the people/interests used-to having seen
Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi as the only visionary among many
patriots seem to be unable to come to terms with the today‟s Indians
being able to deconstruct and demystify the myth constructed around
Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi.
Finally, to be fair to the dictates of a healthy and logical discussion, it
is certainly true to say that Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi does not
deserve to be mocked, but a healthy debate about Mohan Das
Karamachand Gandhi need not be misconstrued as a plain gross
mockery of Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi. The undeniable truth
is Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi remains one of the greatest
political sons and daughters ever produced by the Indian

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subcontinent. He [Mohan Das Karamachand Gandhi] did his best in


his own ways whatever he thought fit and best to serve India.

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23. The Peace-for-All Prayer – the Yajurvaeda


Verse!

What is the peace-for-all-prayer in the yajurvaeda?

The Introduction

Today, we get dismayed when we notice the mindless killing of the


fellow human by a fellow human. The mass media is busy screaming
daily the stories of the killings of scores of innocents in the different
parts of the globe. People are having mental and other kinds of the
tensions everywhere right from the home to the work place. Everyone
seems to be looking for the peaceful inter-personal relationships.

Then, we read and see reports about the thousands of the innocent
people, the animals, the birds and other creatures being killed by the
non-human disasters like the earthquake in different parts of the
Earth. Your heart gets disturbed on seeing the visuals of the helpless
people being drown in the flood-waters or the mangled bits of a
crashed-airplane with the body parts of the dead human-passengers
strewn all around and so on.

It seems the whole world has become restless and consequently the

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peace-less place. Then, we quietly switch off our TV sets, Laptops,


PCs, Transistors, FMs and put the newspaper away so as not to get
our blood pressure increased due to all these tension-giving media
reports about the seemingly a lack of the peace in our otherwise
beautiful serene world.

Being persons with a conscience, we start praying for the peace for
our human race on this planet Earth. But, should we stop at praying
for the peace for the humans only?

The Discussion

Thousands of years back, the Indian spiritual-scientists called the


Reshhes taught the human race to pray for the peace not only for the
human race but all the other entities in our world. This is shown
amply by the following verse number 36/17 in the Yajurvaeda,
through which the Reshhes prayed for the peace for all the entities in
the whole cosmos:

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“Dhouuha ShanteRaAntreksham Shanteha Prthevee Shanteraapha


Shanteroshhadhayha Shanteha I

Vanaspatayha ShanteRaVeshvae Daevaaha ShanteRaBrhma


Shanteha Sarvm Shanteha Shanteraeva Shanteha Saa Maa
Shanteraedhe II”

The meaning of the above-stated Verse

“The peace for the Dhuloka [Heavens], the peace for the Antreksha
[Universe], the peace for the Prthevee [Earth], the peace for the Jala
[Water], the peace for the Auushhadhee [Herbal Medicines], the
peace for the Vanaspate [Plants], the peace for the Daevataa
[Gods/Goddesses/Deities], the peace for the Brhma [Absolute], the
peace for the Sarva [Everything/Everyone], the peace for the Shaante
[Peace] and my this peace may exist forever.”

The Brief Explanation

1. If the peace for the Heavens [the abode of the divine entities]
exists, we humans are benefitted, too because then these divine
entities could help us much better instead of rather being busy solving
their own peace-less state of the affairs.
2. If the peace for the Universe exists, we humans stand to gain
because then it would mean no need to worry about things like the
meteors or the asteroids hitting our Earth and harming us or the Sun
losing its heat, thereby causing loss of the precious insolation on the
Earth and so on.
3. If the peace for the Earth exists, we would be spared of the
calamities like the earthquake, etc.
4. If the peace for the Water exists, we would without doubt remain
peaceful because this would mean surety of the drinking-water for
everyone, the rainwater for our crops and consequently no peace-less
problems like the Famine caused by a shortage of the food-grains,
etc., and we would further be spared of the terrible problems like the
furious floods.
5. If the peace for the Herbal Medicines exists, the herbal medicines

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would not die out and always would remain effective in wiping out
the diseases from our life.
6. If the peace for the Plants exists, the plants always would live a
normal life. The Plants would give us the plenty of useful products
and the greenery to enrich our life.
7. If the peace for the Gods/Goddesses/Deities exists, the world shall
be ridden of the harmful bad astral entities and the negative energy
around because then the Gods/Goddesses/Deities would be able to
focus their whole energy in fighting out these aforesaid evil forces.
8. If the peace for the Brhma [Absolute] exists, it would still be more
beneficial for the whole world.
9. If the peace for Everyone in this world exists, there would be no
humans-induced conflicts, skirmishes, battles, wars, killings, lootings
or the non-human calamities like the earthquake, etc.
10. If the peace for the concept of „the Peace‟ exists, this concept of
the Peace always shall remain the prime in our life and the world.
This would ensure that each and every particle or bit of the energy
emitted the peace only in the world.

The Conclusion
Dear Readers, you are requested earnestly to display the above-
mentioned peace-verse in your drawing room, dining hall, kitchen,
study room, bed room, halls, classrooms, conference-rooms, office
and public places prominently if you are a true student of the Indian
tradition and the Indian way of the life. Your this big noble gesture
may help usher in the positive vibrations for the peace on this
beautiful planet earth and in rest of the world around!

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24. The Formula of the Sustainable Economic

Development
The Introduction
What is the formula of the sustainable development? What are
Concepts of the short term and the long term highest possible
sustainable development? What is the formula of the depletion or
the resource-availability on a particular given point of the time in
the future?

The Exposition

The Formula of the Sustainable Economic Development

Degeneration of resources (dr) = Regeneration of resources (rr)


Or dr = rr
------- (i)

Now, rr = Discovery of new sources of particular resource(N),


Discovery of more efficient way of utilization of present
resources (E), working out alternative substitute resource (W)

Or rr = (N, E, W)

-------- (ii)

From (i) & (ii) we get

dr = (NEW)

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The Concepts of short term and long term highest possible sustainable
development:
SDPH1 = Short term equilibrium curve of sustainable economic development

SDPH2 = Long term equilibrium curve of sustainable economic development

4
Consumption of A
Resources 3 SD
PH2
2 B
SD
1 A
PH1
B
X
0 1 2 3 4 5

Levels of Sustainable Development

The Explanation

1. In the short run, the maximum possible sustainable development


level is at 5 on the X –axis, since the resources are not fully utilized
yet as in the primitive tribal societies. However, with the progressive
advance of the civilization, the resources are used increasingly,
leading to a situation where a given level of the development is found
unsustainable in view of the increasing utilization/rapid

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depletion/non-availability of the resources. Hence, the point of the


SDPH shifts from B to A.

However, since the human beings desire not to lose what is gained
through the development processes already, it leads to an acceptance
of the decline of the known resources. At the same time, there is a
worry that they may actually lose this developmental state if not
sustained adequately. This in turn leads to a search for the NEW. In
due course of the time, the NEW is acquired. Thus, now more
resources are available to sustain the development.

However, since the rate of the depletion of the resources shifts to a


higher level, the curve of the sustainable development shifts to the
higher side too as the SDPH2. Curiously enough, having learnt from
the pitfalls of the short-term run of the development, the mankind
becomes wiser in the new situation and therefore makes more
efficient and in a much efficient way the use of the NEW resources,
thereby prolonging the life of the resources. This leads to the point of
the maximum possible sustainable development shifting from „A‟ to
„B!‟

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2. The Formula of the depletion or the resource-availability on a


particular given point of the time in the future

1. Total depletion in future =


Present Depletion (1 + rate of depletion) time

-----------------------------------------------------

100

2. Resource Availability = OR – Total depletion.

Where OR = Total reserves of exploitable resources

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25. The Three Laws - The Geography of the Love

The quantity, quality, direction, nature and impact of the love between
two persons or amongst more than two persons is greatly influenced
by the terrestrial or the so-called geographical factors.

I intend initiating creation of conceptual framework in the field of


geography of the love so as it to encourage further meaningful and
fruitful research in this nascent field of academic interest. The
quantity, quality, direction, nature and impact of the love between two
persons or amongst more than two persons is greatly influenced by
the terrestrial or the so-called geographical factors.

The First Law

The quantity, quality, direction, nature and impact of the love between
two persons or amongst more than two persons is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between or amongst them
respectively. For example, when two persons in love like a husband a
wife have zero geographical distance then their love is infinite.
Mathematically speaking, 1 divided by 0 is infinite only. Now, if
geographical distance becomes 1, love is 1 unit. Then, if geographical
distance becomes 2, the love gets reduced to being the fourths part of
the original quantity of love between them.

The Second Law

Chances of infidelity, treachery, adultery or dislike are directly


proportional to the square of the distance between two persons or
amongst more than two persons who are in love with each other or
amongst them respectively.

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For example, peruse the following hypothetical table:

Adultery, Dislike Chances of infidelity, treachery

[In Unit Distance]

0 0
1 1
2 4
3 9
4 16
5 25
6 36
7 49
8 64
9 81
10 100
11 121
: :
: :
: :
Nth Nth x Nth

The Third Law


Ever increasing plethora of communication processes and technology
is hardly an effective remedy to decrease the negative effects flowing
out from the second law of geography of the love.

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26. The Types of the Political Boundaries

The political boundary can be viewed variously. It can be viewed as


the Cyclonic or the Anti-cyclonic, the Perennial or the Seasonal one.

The political boundaries have variously been classified. I would like


to add further fruitful classifications based on the element of
permanence and consistency as enumerated below:

The Perennial Boundary

Such boundary as is relatively permanent and fixed whether on land,


water or in air may be called a perennial boundary.

Now, the very concept of "relativity" differs person to person. It may


be 100 years', 200 years' or even 1000 years' period and so on. I take
it to mean 100 years' period at least. Any boundary which does not
remain stable as it is for 100 years minimum may not be entitled to be
called a perennial boundary. Just as a perennial river is supposed to be
carrying water throughout the year reflecting the permanence of the
element of water so does a perennial political boundary shows the
permanence of the element of the Boundary Line. Relatively
speaking, even the so-called perennial rivers may be termed seasonal
when viewed from the perspective of a long geological period of time.
Like, the long lost river Saraswati must have been a perennial river of
the Indian subcontinent thousands of years back. But, it does not exist
anymore. However, a line of reference has to be drawn somewhere.
Hence, I have taken a period of 100 years as the crucial deciding
factor to differentiate political boundaries into perennial and seasonal
ones.

The Seasonal Boundary

The boundary which is seasonal and does not possess the permanence
of the element of boundary line for at least a period of 100 years may

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be termed seasonal boundary. Just as a seasonal river brims with


water during a certain season and remains dry during the rest of the
year so does a seasonal boundary remains fixed during a certain short
period of time and remains perturbed during the rest of the period of
time in a given span of 100 years. Therefore, we as political
geographers must necessarily take into account the behavior of a
political boundary in the preceding 100 years' time.

The Examples

The political boundary of the U.S.A. may safely be called a perennial


boundary. On the other hand, political boundaries of many a nation
states in Africa in 20th century A.D. may be labeled seasonal political
boundaries, since these altered several times from 1900 A.D. to 2000
A.D.

The Cyclonic Boundary

In a typical cyclone, air rushes into low pressure center from high
pressure surrounding areas. A similar or near similar phenomenon can
be observed at work in case of political boundaries, too. The Political
Capital cities of the two adjacent and neighbouring nation-States may
act as high pressure areas from where political desires/ambitions flow
towards the low pressure centre of the common political boundary.
The Low pressure is created on a given political boundary when it is
not defined clearly and displays elements of ambiguity. Consequently,
the high pressure -flows from both the political capitals converge on
such a low pressure area as this political boundary. The Intensity and
magnitude of such flows may vary from time to time due to various
reasons. However, this cyclonic phenomenon in politico-geographical
terms may not clear out as fast as a climatic cyclonic phenomenon. It
may take years and even decades to peter out. Once a convergence
takes place n such a low pressure centre, there is heavy precipitation
in terms of border disputes, clashes, skirmishes and may even be a
full-fledged or proxy military warfare. This precipitation may take

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several years before the political weather on geographical-political


surface becomes clear which may happen only if one of the two sides
inflicts a crushing defeat on the other, through amicable negotiations
and mediations or an imposition of a solution by an outside agency.
The net result is that either the political boundary maintains a status
quo or gets perceptibly changed. It may either lead to cooling down of
the frayed political nerves in both the political capitals or may leave
enough scope for future political troubles.

The Example

Both India and Pakistan don't have a clear cut political boundary line
in Jammu and Kashmir region. The so-called Actual L-O-C (line of
control) separating the two neighbours here is in fact a cyclonic
political boundary. As such, it has witnessed enactment by both
countries of several rounds of hostile acts, skirmishes, battles and
wars in the politico-military operation theatre. Despite defeat of
Pakistan in 1971 Indo-Pak war and subsequent Shimla Declaration
accepting the L-O-C as the permanent political boundary line (PBL),
the said PBL is ill defined/delineated on the actual ground and not
clearly marked on political maps besides the factor of its non-
acceptance by both the nation states.

Many such more examples may be found in the past and present
times.

The Cyclonic political boundaries (CPB) are potential trouble spots.


As such, precautions must be taken to prevent emergence of such
CPBs either through pre-emptive measures of defusing the high
pressure in both the political capitals or else at a later stage managing
a peaceful "precipitation" on the CPB.

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The Anti-cyclonic Boundary

The Anti-cyclonic political boundary (APB) is exactly the opposite of


a CPB in many respects, if not in all.

Here, the high pressure centre develops on the political boundary per
se and proceeds towards the comparatively low pressure areas of both
the political capitals. The people living on either side of the political
boundary are so enmeshed with each other that they hardly see any
rationale in the existing political boundary. They come to view it as
something artificially and superficially superimposed upon them.
They don't see each other as parts of altogether separate political
entities. Rather, this "nation" sprawling on either side of the existing
political boundary line (EPBL) and including the EPBL itself
becomes so powerful that it generates outflow of political ambitions
towards the political capitals. These ambitions entail dismantling of
the EPBL. Since the political capitals become low pressure systems,
these are overwhelmed by high pressure system forces. In other
words, political authorities in both the political capitals become so
weak that they are unable to resist the political demands of the nation
transcending their EPBL! Consequently, by the time such a
precipitation is over and the political sky becomes clear, one finds
that the EPBL has simply withered away!

The Example

The Great Berlin Wall signified an APB which ultimately led to the
collapse of the EPBL that had once separated artificially the Great
German Nation into East Germany and West Germany.

The APBs by their very nature are harbingers of Geographico-politico


unity of two separately existing political sovereign nation-States. In a
way, these are initiators of Peace and Unification of disparate nation
states.

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Viewed from a larger global perspective, we find ourselves in the


midst of the dynamic process of conversion of existing CPBLs into
APB lines albeit on quite a subtle level. For example, regional
economic groupings like European Union (EU) with a common
currency called Euro has subtly modified CPBLs of its constituent
nation states into effective APB lines. No longer do the citizens of
these nation states see themselves as fragmented parts of different
political entities. Rather, they think of themselves as part of a greater
politico-economic union called EU. Thus, we see emergence of the
APB lines.

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27. The Dynamics of the Barchan formation

The introduction

While reading the book "Geomorphology" authored by Savindra


Singh during my first year of the two years' masters degree course in
the Economic Geography, my attention was drawn to the comments
therein that the aero-dynamics involved in the formation of the
barchan is still not clearly understood. It led me to thinking about it.
Consequently, I could visualize the probable process of its formation.

I would like to add here that I am unaware of any other similar


possible attempts elsewhere in the world as regards understanding the
aero-dynamics involved in the formation of the barchan.

Further, I am not aware of as to whether this attempt of mine is a


novel one or simply a case of reinventing the wheel! Also, I have not
carried out any field studies in this regard. I leave it to other field-
oriented geomorphologists and geologists to test my following theory
on the barchan formation.

The Explanation for the probable aero- dynamics

We see that the water-current in the middle course of a river is


stronger and faster than on both the left and the right sides. Somewhat
a similar process seems to be involved in the flow of the wind-current,
before a barchan is formed.

The middle wind-channel (MWC) of the forward moving wind-


current (FMWC) must be the stronger than the right flank wind-
channel (RFWC)and the left flank wind-channel (LEWC).

So, it lifts and carries more sand particles than the air currents on
either flanks.

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However, in each of these three wind- channels, the lower layer (LL),
the middle layer/upper layer (ML/UL), only the lighter particles [that
is, the light, loose and fine sand material only] exist as shown in the
vertical cross-section of a typical wind-channel in the following
figure:

Now, the following two interesting probable events follow:

The Obstruction

With some obstruction on the way, the LL material of the MWC starts
getting stuck and deposited on the ground. This goes on piling up.
Simultaneously, this pile itself obstructs the free flow of the whole
wind-channel itself. Consequently, the FMWC trifurcates and its right
flank and the left flank starts flowing/drifting in both the left and the
right forward directions respectively in a crescent/curve like manner.
These two wind flanks are not strong enough to blow in a straight
forward direction.

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The outer weak wind-channels carry lesser amount of the sand


particles. Also, these are weaker than the MWC. The force of the
FMOFSWF (forward moving outward flowing side wind flanks)
becomes almost nil or zero on the two end points of the barchan (the
force of the FMOFSWF probably becomes progressively lesser from
the center towards the outer margins causing the crescent
shape/curved features) as shown in the figure below:

Had it been a case of the same force being both in the centre and the
outer margins then we would in all probability have witnessed the
formation of a sand dune directly perpendicular to the flow of the air
as shown in the figure below:

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The lessening of the Original Driving /Pushing Force

Finally, with the lessening or ending of the original driving/pushing


force for whatsoever reasons, the above explained formation of the
barchan takes place.

The Two Main Issues

The following two main issues are involved in the special feature
called the barchan:

1. The Crescent/Curve-like Shape

2. The Leeward-Side Slip-Face/Slide-Face

The Crescent/Curve-like Shape

The process of the trifurcation of the FMWC leads to the


crescent/curve-like shape. The convex shaped bulge on the back of a
barchans, rising from the back end to the top middle facing the wind,
happens due to the deposition of the material by the MWC along a
straight line with its LL offering resistance to its ml and UL.

The RFWC and the LFWC taking a curvaceous direction cause the
convex shape (facing the wind) along the ground.

The probable process of the formation of the tapering horns is as


follows: With the MWC facing some obstacle on its way, it gets
divided into two branches. Its left and the right branches turn left and
right, in a centrifugal tendency and try furiously to dislodge the
LFWC and RFWC respectively. The LFWC and the RFWC try to
resist the forces of these two branches of the MWC, in a centripetal
tendency. For example, the LFWC tries to resist the left branch. But,
it gets pushed towards the left. Still, the LFWC keeps moving in the
forward direction.

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Initially, the left branch is strong, which with the progressive distance
from the front center of the barchan becomes weak. This ensuing
tussle weakens both the left branch and the LFWC, both of which lose
all their force progressively and this force becomes zero at the point
where one observes the tip of the left horn.

At this tip point, both the left branch and the LFWC meet and cancel
out each other. This tussle creates a corridor between the left branch
and the LFWC, which contains the pile of the sand material.

The width of this corridor decreases progressively from the initial


point of tussle and becomes almost zero on the tip of the left horn.
This material is dragged up to the tip-point. Also, the material-
carrying and dragging capacity of both the left branch and the LFWC
decreases with the increasing distance from their initial point of tussle
due to the lessened energy, lessened force and lessened momentum.

This causes the progressive decreasing of the quantity of the material


dragged and deposited along the corridor, resulting into the visible
sloping of this deposited material from the left-top near the center of
the barchan to the bottom point where the tip of the left horn touches
the ground. On the end point of the left horn, there is no material
carried and deposited. Same happens with the right branch and the
RFWC.

The Leeward Side Slip-Face/Slide-Face

This leeward side slip-face/slide-face with a nearly 35 degree


inclination to the horizontal, results due to a peculiar process. Let us
imagine that there exists a very high wall in a crescent/curve-like
manner. Now, further, imagine that the trifurcated wind-channel is
unable to cross this wall and as such with the lessening of its speed, it
is forced to deposit all its material along this wall.

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The bottom of this grand deposit and the upper layers of this deposit
consist of fairly lighter sand particles which rest on this bottom stuff.

Further, these sand particles are so light and fine that they cannot
stand on their own without the support of this wall and the bottom
stuff. Then, let us say we remove the wall. With the removal of the
wall, the support against which this finer material was resting is gone.

The net result is that the top layers of this deposit forced by their own
weight and unable to hold without any supporting side wall start
slipping or sliding down in a forward direction all along the
crescent/curve. This would cause the leeward side slip-face/slide-face
that we see associated with the barchan.

Of course, there doesn't exist in reality any such tangible and visible
high wall. What really happening is that once the crescent/curve-like
shape is acquired, then the lighter finer material of the middle and
upper layers keeps depositing on the equally lighter bottom stuff of
the lower wind- channel and immediately sliding down in a forward
direction in view of the inability of this finer loose sand material to
stand on its own and the non-existence of any wall against which this
finer loose sand material could rest.

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About Author

Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee is an award-winning Author, Geographer,


Commentator on the International Relations, Promoter of the Human
Rights-Democracy-World Peace, and the Yoga/Kundalenee Expert. He
teaches 'The SATYAA PARAMAA TATVA JYOTEE BHAKTE YOGA', but
only to the really DESERVING SEEKERS. It is taught absolutely free of the
cost, financial or otherwise, in keeping with the GREAT TRUE TRADITION
OF THE INDIAN TRUE SAINTS/SEERS WHO ALWAYS HAVE IMPARTED
SPIRITUAL KNOW-HOW FREE TO THE MAANAVATAA[humanity]. He is a
former intelligence official, the government of India. He is an MA in
Economic Geography, having Topped the BA in Geography [major] from
the University of Pune. He is presently leading a spiritual life.

Books

[a] Paper-Print

Kyaa Waqta Gujara Gayaa?

[b] Paper-Print and E-Publications

Geography, Economics and Economic Geography

[c] E-Publications

The 21st Centurian Constructive Geographical Thoughts - Part I

The 21st Centurian Constructive Geographical Thoughts - Part II

Aprtema Aanda Upaneshhada - Part I

Aprtema Aanda Upaneshhada - Part II

Free Download of E-Publications Authored by Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee

http://www.scribd.com/Swaamee_Aprtemaanandaa_Jee

Links

http://twitter.com/Aprtemaanandaa

http://theworldpeace-globalthinktank.blogspot.com

http://my.yoga-vidya.org/profile/SwaameeAprtemaanandaaJee

Swaamee Aprtemaanandaa Jee