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Training is…

 The achievement of pre-determined learning objectives


through planned instructional techniques
 The transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude (KSA)
• Imparts knowledge, teaches skills, influences attitudes
• Focuses on What, Why and How to do something (and
sometimes, When and Where to do it)
 Developed through a systematic process known as
instructional design or instructional systems design.
 The process of analyzing learning needs and designing
training to meet those needs
• ISD models specify a method, that if followed, will transfer the right
knowledge, skills and attitude to the student

Some Names to Know and Resources:


• Robert Mager
• Robert Gagne
• Benjamin Bloom
• Walter Dick, Lou and James Carey (Dick & Carey)
• Ruth Clark
• M. David Merrill
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_design
http://www.afc-ispi.org/Repository/hptprimer.html
Analyze
ADDIE

Determine needs and


Analyze
performance gap

Write learning objectives


Evaluate Design Design Plan the training
Develop evaluation plan

Develop Build the course

Implement Teach or make available

Implement Develop Measure effectiveness or


Evaluate
impact
A learning objective is a statement that defines the learning outcome. Good
learning objectives describe student performance and answer the question:
• "What will the student be able to do after training?"
Objective Part Description Example
Statement describing circumstances under Given 5 case examples where a clear need is
Condition which behavior is to be performed presented…
The agent will determine and explain why
Behavior What the student will say or do term or whole life insurance is a better
choice…
Statement that specifies how well the Within 5 minutes per case, with 100%
Criterion student must perform the behavior accuracy (5 of 5 cases).

At the end of this lesson, given <a set of conditions>, you will be able to <action verb and
behavior> to <criterion – level of accuracy>.

Thank you, Robert Mager, creator of Criteria-Referenced Instruction (CRI): http://www.cepworldwide.com/Bios/mager.htm


Knowledge • Remembering
Literacy
Acquisition • Understanding

Knowledge • Applying
Fluency
Deepening • Analyzing

Knowledge • Evaluating
Mastery
Creation • Creating

http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm
Literacy | Fluency | Mastery concept courtesy of Charles Fred, The Breakaway Group
http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html
A Simple Method That Works:
 Tell: Provide the information, knowledge, expectations.
• Include “What, Why, and How” (and sometimes, “When and Where”)
• Have them verbally summarize their understanding to your satisfaction
 Show: Demonstrate how to do it
• Have them demonstrate it back to you, to your satisfaction
 Do: Set expectations and have them do it
• Observe them do it
 Review:
• Provide feedback and shape their behavior appropriately
• Have them do it again, using the feedback
• Cycle between Do and Review until they master it
• Monitor results after that, coaching as required.
Chunk Sequence

1 2 3 4 5

Layer
C. Then This

B. Then This
6
4 A. This First
5 3 1 2

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id/elaboration_theory.html
Engage * Filter
The brain can only
absorb what the butt can
endure! (“Cup Runneth
Over” syndrome.)
Go for Need to Know
versus Nice to Know.

Assess
Linked to engagement – takes many forms:
• Questions
• Discussions
* Note: This research is often misrepresented, so please • Exercises/Activities
ignore the percentages and focus on the concept. • Tests (Level 2 Evaluation)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assessment_for_Learning
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning
http://eet.sdsu.edu/eetwiki/index.php/SMEs_and_learning_objectives
http://info.alleninteractions.com/bid/45998/e-Learning-Design-Less-is-More
http://blog.integratedlearningservices.com/2009/07/pointing-to-five-moments-of-learning.html
Advice From Two Highly-Respected eLearning Developers:
Cathy Moore *
Dump the Drone Presentation on Slideshare & PDF
Tom Kuhlmann *
Tom turns Cathy's advice into an elearning course with commentary

* Used with permission


Adults:
 Want to know why they should invest the time
 Need to feel responsible for their learning
 Bring valuable experiences to learning
 Learn best when they “need to know”
 Learn by doing (hands-on, active training).

Thank you, Malcolm Knowles (and others): http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Learning_Theories/Adult_Learning_Theories


 When trainees use what they’ve learned, we say training has “transferred”
 Transfer happens by strategy or luck
• Strategy is better! (Hope is not a good business strategy :-)
 Transfer is a purposeful, shared responsibility

How can we help students use what they learned?


Stakeholder Before During After
Learner
Trainer
Learner’s Supervisor
While not often listed openly as an influencer, organizational processes, policies,
The Organization practices (culture), tools, resources and systems either support or deter transfer.

Before| During| After concept is courtesy of Broad & Newstrom in Transfer of Training.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_of_training for more detail.
Example: Recommended Learning System for Appointment Setting
Centralized
Reporting

Post-Learning Assessment and Reinforcement


• Give periodic assessments on previous content
• Distribute “Sales Meeting in a Box” materials
• Hold ongoing Call Clinics with review sessions
Reaction

Learning
Names to Know
 Donald, Jim and Wendy Kirkpatrick
of Kirkpatrick Partners
Application
 Jack and Patti Phillips of the ROI
Institute
 Jac Fitz-enz of Success Factors and
Results original founder of the pwc
Saratoga Institute

ROI / ROE (Expectations)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Kirkpatrick
 Stolovitch & Keeps: Telling Ain’t Training
 Mager: The New Mager Six-Pack
 Hodell: ISD From the Ground Up
 Swanson: Analysis for Improving Performance

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Questions or Feedback?

mike_kunkle@mindspring.com
http://www.linkedin.com/in/mikekunkle