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A Comparative Analysis on Consumption Pattern of

Cold Drink and Fruit Juice

Introduction

Consumption may be defined as use of final goods by a consumer until disposal. final
goods are goods that are ultimately consumed rather than used in the production of
another good.A pattern is the repeated or regular way in which something happens or is
done.The research is regarding consumption pattern of cold drink and fruit juice.In cold
drink specially Coca cola is taken into consideration and in fruit juice specially Tropicana
of mango flavour is taken into consideration.A far as beverages is concerned
consumption pattern of Indian people are changing day by day .In spite of awareness by
different groups that consuming cold drink is not good for health,people specially
youngesters prefer cold drink to fruit juice.There are many youngesters and middle and
old age group person give importance to fruit juice because of rising level of health
consciousness.The purpose of writing this literature review is to make comparision
between coca cola and tropica of mango flavour as far as consumption is concerned.

Literature Review

Fruit drinks are popularly used in most urban households.If we go in history then we see
the use of fruit juices began with consumption of orange juice, as a source of vitamin C to
prevent scurvy disease. However, today markets are flooded with a large variety of juices
e.g., mango, apple, guava, litchi, grape, pineapple, etc. The main reason for increased
consumption of fruit juices is changing lifestyles and rising level of health consciousness
among consumers and parents. They believe that these drinks provide superior nutrition
because of their fortified status and high beverage cost. Child preference, easy
availability, convenience, naturalness and marketing strategies have given fruit drink
industry a booming growth. Few months before it was in news that cold drinks possesses
pesticides which further augmented sales of fruit drinks.Indian Pediatrics 2008; 45: 215-
217.Fruit drinks, if consumed in appropriate quantity, can be a part of balanced diet for
children, and are not always harmful. Studies have shown that vitamin C and flavinoids
in juices have beneficial long term health effects like decreasing the risk of cancer and
heart disease.Vitamin C by increasing iron absorption to almost double can reduce the
incidence of anemia in population consuming diet with low iron content and
bioavailability. However, the awareness and education of these details is lacking among
general population.Brand persona is most effective factor that affects brand preference.
Brand persona deals with personality aspects or the external attributes of brand. Many
people think only cold drink quenches thirst fruit juice is just for health.When we talk
about taste and preferences people normally prefer cold drink to fruit juice. Consumers
prefer any beverage by looking at external attributes of a product. (Journal of IMS,Vol 5,
No.1,Jan-June 2008) The intensity of colour (43%) and the flavour (32%) are the key
drivers behind consumer acceptance of beverages. As far as cold drink is concerned
people give first preference to brand ambassador then taste and finally give importance to
health. Various sources it has been proved that cold drink is not good for health inspite of
that people especially young generation prefer cold drinks first then fruit juice especially
mango in flavor. (Food quality & preference, Volume 19,Issue 8,Pages 719-726 By
Stephen Daniells,07-Oct-2010)Consumer gave first preference to degree of liking,
saltiness, drinks flavour and greasiness. Consumer gave second preference to health.

References

1. American Academy of Pediatrics. The use and misuses of fruit juices in


Pediatrics. Pediatrics 2001; 107: 1210-1213.

2. Pompkin BM, Armstrong LE, Bray GM, Caballero B, Frei B, Willett WC. A new
proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States. Am J
Clin Nut 2006; 83: 529-542.

3. Journal of IMS, Vol 5, No.1,Jan-June 2008

4. Food quality & preference, Volume 19,Issue 8,Pages 719-726 By Stephen Daniells,07-
Oct-2010

A dissatisfied customer will tell seven to 20 people about their


negative experience. A satisfied customer will only tell three
to five people about their positive experience (Kan 1995).
It has been recognised that eco-efficiency improvements at production and product
design level can be significantly reduced by ever increasing consumption levels
(Khazzoom 1980),(Brookes 2000; Binswanger 2001; Haake and Jolivet 2001; OCSC
2001). While companies are struggling to reduce material intensity of each production
unit and each product, the total environmental impact of the economy is growing. In
order to address this problem, some authors suggest that for long-term sustainability, we
need a factor of 10 or even 20 in materials and energy efficiency use improvements
(Factor 10 Club 1994; Schmidt-Bleek 1996; Bolund, Johansson et al. 1998; Ryan 1998).
As a potential solution to the factor 10/20 vision, some authors propose that system level
improvements have to be made, instead of just having products redesigned (Weterings
and Opschoor 1992; Vergragt and Jansen 1993; Weizsäcker, Lovins et al. 1997; Ryan
1998; Manzini 1999; Brezet, Bijma et al. 2001;Ehrenfeld and Brezet 2001).
Sustainable consumption has been highlighted as an important constituent of sustainable
development in Rio de Janeiro, 1992 at the United Nation Conference for Environment
and Development and by the World Summit on Sustainable Development in
Johannesburg, ten years later in 2002. One of the generally accepted definitions of
sustainable consumption is the following: “sustainable consumption is the use of goods
and services that satisfy basic needs and improve quality of life while minimizing the
usage of irreplaceable natural resources and the by-products of toxic materials, waste, and
pollution” (Sierra Club 2002). It highlights the need to provide value to people, while
reducing the environmental impact associated with producing and delivering this value.
In other words, there is a need to de-link consumption of goods and services from
material consumption. Many authors call for simplifying lifestyles and reducing
consumption, associating the management of consumption with the so-called sufficiency
revolution, which considers how much is enough for a good life. Our comprehension of
this approach is still in its initial stage (Sachs 1999), but what is clear already is that it is a
challenging task to reduce consumption levels, as the entire economic system is based on
presumption of economic growth linked to the increased use of material resources and
products. What is needed instead is consumption that is based on economic growth,
which is decoupled from material resources. We propose the following definition of
sustainable consumption: sustainable consumption is consumption that provides value by
decoupling material-based growth from economic growth and environmental
impact. Following this definition, more value needs to be provided with fewer materials
involved and less environmental impact associated with the production and total delivery
of that value.
The product service system (PSS) concept has been suggested as a way to contribute to
the system level improvement that tries to de-link economic and environmental growth
(Goedkoop, van Halen et al. 1999; Mont 2000). The concept proposes that the
environmental impacts of products and associated services should be addressed already at
the product and service design stage, with special focus on the use phase by providing
alternative system solutions to owning products.
A number of examples (mainly from the business-to-business area) exist that confirm the
potential of PSS for reducing life cycle environmental impact. It is, however, increasingly
evident that these examples are difficult to directly apply to the market of private
consumers, mainly because business customers often prefer services to product
ownership (Alexander1997), while according to some studies it is a formidable challenge
for private customers to adopt “ownerless consumption” (Schrader 1996; Littig 1998). In
addition, the environmental impacts of such offers depend to a large extent on user
behaviour. To address this problem, changes are needed in consumption behaviour;
consumption patterns and levels; and ultimately a change in lifestyles towards more
sustainable patterns. Many authors recognize that “the health of our planet is inextricably
dependent upon human behaviour” (Geller 1995), and therefore changing human
behaviour may foster and maintain sustainability (Gudgion and Thomas 1991;
McKenzie-Mohr, Nemiroff et al. 1995; Oskamp 2000). An increasing number of studies
have been conducted in search for instruments that can potentially help facilitate the shift
toward more sustainable patterns of consumption, e.g., (Goodwin,Ackerman et al. 1997);
(OECD 1997); (Stern, Dietz et al. 1997); (Thøgersen and Ölander 2002).
In order to initiate the change process, it is necessary to understand how consumer
acceptance of more sustainable solutions is formed, influenced, or changed, what the
influencing factors are and what the leverage points for best results with lowest costs are.
A considerable body of literature exists on consumption, consumer behaviour, and
consumer decision-making process. The range of disciplines that address these questions
from different points of view is quite broad - economics, business and marketing, social,
and psychological studies of consumer behaviour, to name just the major ones.
According to Fine (1997), “for economists,consumption is used to produce utility;
for sociologists, it is a means of stratification; for anthropologists, it is a matter of
ritual and symbol; for psychologists, it is the means by which to satisfy or express
physiological and emotional needs; and for business, it is a way of making
money”(Fine 1997).
There is a range of studies that address consumer acceptance and attitudes towards more
environmentally sound consumer behaviour, mostly coming from studies of car use,
waste sorting and minimisation practices, recycling and other similar industries, see for
example Steg, et al (1995), Aragón-Correa and Llorens-Montes (1996), and Guerin
(2001) (Steg, Vlek et al. 1995; Aragón-Correa and Llorens-Montes 1996; Guerin 2001).
For more than a decade now, this wealth of literature has also been applied to studies of
consumer acceptance of environmentally sound products and services, e.g. Gatersleben
(2001) and Rowlands, et al (2002) (Gatersleben 2001), (Rowlands, Parker et al. 2002).
However, very few studies evaluated consumer acceptance of the concept of product
service systems, i.e. consumption that is not based on ownership of goods, see, for
example, studies that investigated consumer acceptance of car sharing schemes (Schrader
1999; Meijkamp 2000), ski rental and washing services (Hirschl, Konrad et al. 2001).
The lack of studies that measure customer acceptance of PSS depends on two main
reasons. First, there are still not many PSS schemes being developed that could serve as
test grounds. Second, some of the research that studied consumer acceptance, focused on
adopter categories, habits, attitudes and intentions, rather than on actually measuring the
satisfaction level with the service. The reason is probably that eco-services and PSS ideas
have been promoted by environmental management researchers, engineers and designers,
environmental marketing researchers, and to a lesser extent by sociologists, who hold the
banner of research in customer satisfaction.
This report is a result of the feasibility study that is a part of the project on Life-Cycle
Approach to Sustainable Consumption, initiated and funded by the National Institute for
Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Japan (AIST) and supported by UNEP,
Sustainable Consumption Unit.

Literature Review 2

Fruits are important components of a healthy diet, since they have low energy
density and are sources of micronutrients, fiber, and other components with
functional properties,Van Duyn MA, Pivonka E. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and
vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature. J Am Diet Assoc.
2000;100:1511–21.
The estimated levels of current fruit intake vary considerably from less than 100
grams per day in less developed countries to about 450 grams in Western Europe
(4). Lock K, Pomerleau J, Causer L, Altmann DR, McKee M. The global burden of disease
attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables: implications for the global strategy on diet.
Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83:100–8
The fruit and vegetable intake among the population in India is about 100 gram per
capita per day or less, compared to 300 grams consumed in Australia, several
European countries, and the USA. Even so, the fruit and consumption in these high
income countries are still less than the WHO/FAO recommended level of 400 grams.
Pollack SL. Consumer demand for fruits and vegetables:Washington DC: Economic Research
Service, US Department of Agriculture; 2001.