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Modifiable Factors Non-Modifiable Factors

Power Passageway
Psyche Small pelvis
Fetal Size
Non-gynecoid pelvic
• Gestational age
• Gestational Diabetes
Fetal Position
• Sex
• Multiparity
• Excessive Maternal Pelvic Exostosis
Weight Gain Spondylolisthesis

Release of contractile hormones, major

electrolytes, contractile proteins, Oxytocin
and Prostaglandins

Onset of involuntary uterine


Abnormal contractions Normal regular

Hypotonic Uncoordinated Uterus is able to

But If there is
apply downward
(+) implication Dysfunctional labor
Hypertonic pressure to push
of pelvic occurs
the presenting part
against the cervix.
relative to fetal
Constant lack of presenting part
relaxation and
Arrest in Cervical
resultant anoxia to
Dilatation and/or
uterine cells

Pain out of proportion Mother becoming

Relaxation of Uterine
to the quality of exhausted from
contractions labor