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THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS

OF JESUS

“Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father,
but by me.” John 14:6

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Table of Contents
THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS OF JESUS ........................................................................................................................................... i
Table of Contents................................................................................................................................................................. ii
History of Salvation in the Old Testament: Preparing the Way for Christ................................................... 1
Genesis ................................................................................................................................................................................ 1
Exodus ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Leviticus............................................................................................................................................................................ 11
Numbers ........................................................................................................................................................................... 13
Deuteronomy.................................................................................................................................................................. 15
Joshua ................................................................................................................................................................................ 17
Judges................................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Ruth .................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
1 Samuel ........................................................................................................................................................................... 21
2 Samuel ........................................................................................................................................................................... 23
1 Kings ............................................................................................................................................................................... 25
2 Kings ............................................................................................................................................................................... 28
1 Chronicles..................................................................................................................................................................... 30
2 Chronicles..................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Ezra ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
Nehemiah ......................................................................................................................................................................... 38
Esther................................................................................................................................................................................. 40
Job ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
Psalms................................................................................................................................................................................ 45
Proverbs ........................................................................................................................................................................... 60
Ecclesiastes...................................................................................................................................................................... 64
Song of Solomon ............................................................................................................................................................ 65
Isaiah .................................................................................................................................................................................. 66
Jeremiah............................................................................................................................................................................ 74
Lamentations .................................................................................................................................................................. 80
Ezekiel ............................................................................................................................................................................... 81
Daniel ................................................................................................................................................................................. 86
Hosea.................................................................................................................................................................................. 89
Joel ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 90
Amos................................................................................................................................................................................... 91
Obadiah ............................................................................................................................................................................. 92
Jonah .................................................................................................................................................................................. 92
Micah .................................................................................................................................................................................. 93
Nahum ............................................................................................................................................................................... 94
Habakkuk ......................................................................................................................................................................... 94
Zephaniah ........................................................................................................................................................................ 95
Haggai ................................................................................................................................................................................ 95
Zechariah .......................................................................................................................................................................... 95
Malachi .............................................................................................................................................................................. 97
Course Overview ............................................................................................................................................................... 98
Timeline of the Life of Jesus (2nd) ........................................................................................................................... 98
Historical Background (1st) ...................................................................................................................................... 98
Harmony of the Gospels ............................................................................................................................................. 98
The Life and teachings of Jesus (Birth to transfiguration) .......................................................................... 98
Reading the Gospels ......................................................................................................................................................... 98

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Genre .................................................................................................................................................................................. 98
Perspectives .................................................................................................................................................................... 99
Distinctive of Matthew................................................................................................................................................ 99
Distinctive of Mark .................................................................................................................................................... 100
Distinctives of Luke................................................................................................................................................... 101
Distinctive of John ..................................................................................................................................................... 103
Distinctives of Acts .................................................................................................................................................... 104
The Four Gospels ............................................................................................................................................................ 105
Timeline of the Life of Jesus................................................................................................................................... 105
Summary of Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................................. 107
Summary of Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................................................. 107
Summary of Chapter 3 ............................................................................................................................................. 108
Matthew.................................................................................................................................................................................. 110
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 110
Author and Title ......................................................................................................................................................... 110
Date.................................................................................................................................................................................. 110
Theme ............................................................................................................................................................................. 110
Key Themes .................................................................................................................................................................. 110
Purpose, Occasion, and Background .................................................................................................................. 111
History of Salvation Summary – Matthew & the Kingdom of God......................................................... 112
The Setting of Matthew ........................................................................................................................................... 120
Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................ 120
Chapter 1 – Genealogy of Jesus ................................................................................................................................. 123
The Genealogy of Jesus ............................................................................................................................................ 124
Chapter 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 126
Chapter 3 – Anointing | Baptism of Christ ........................................................................................................... 129
Chapter 4 – Temptations of Christ .......................................................................................................................... 131
Chapter 5 – Law of the Kingdom of God ............................................................................................................... 138
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 139
Chapter 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 183
Chapter 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 192
Chapter 8 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 203
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 203
Chapter 9 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 207
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 207
Chapter 10 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 212
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 212
Chapter 11 – Prophet’s of God Rejected ............................................................................................................... 216
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 216
Chapter 12 – The Blind, Dumb Demoniac ............................................................................................................ 222
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 222
Chapter 13 – Parables on the Kingdom................................................................................................................. 228
Chapter 14 – Feeding of the Five thousand ......................................................................................................... 247
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 247
Chapter 15 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 252
Chapter 16 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 256
Chapter 17 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 259
Chapter 18 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 262
Child Training .............................................................................................................................................................. 262
Chapter 19 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 267

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Chapter 20 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 270
Chapter 21 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 275
The Lord’s Vineyard (33-44) ................................................................................................................................ 279
Chapter 22 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 285
Chapter 23 – Warning to the Scribes and Pharisees........................................................................................ 291
Position of the Scribes and Pharisees (1-12) ................................................................................................. 291
Condition of the Scribes and Pharisees (13-31) ........................................................................................... 293
Solution, Warning, and Final Judgment (32-39) ........................................................................................... 294
Chapter 24 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 296
Chapter 25 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 305
Chapter 26 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 312
Chapter 27 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 321
Chapter 28 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 326
Mark - Jesus Christ as a Servant ................................................................................................................................... 327
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 327
Author and Title ......................................................................................................................................................... 327
Date and Location ...................................................................................................................................................... 327
Theme ............................................................................................................................................................................. 327
Key Themes .................................................................................................................................................................. 328
Purpose, Occasion, and Background .................................................................................................................. 328
Distinctive Features .................................................................................................................................................. 328
History of Salvation Summary.............................................................................................................................. 328
Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................ 328
Chapter 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 330
John prepares the way through Baptism (1-8).............................................................................................. 330
Baptism & Temptation of Jesus in the wilderness (9-13) ......................................................................... 331
Call of Peter, Andrew, James and John (14-20) ............................................................................................. 332
Christ's authority over all diseases and demons (21-34) ......................................................................... 332
Healing of the leper and Christ's fame spreads abroad (35-45) ............................................................ 333
Chapter 2 – Healing of Man with Palsy.................................................................................................................. 336
Healing of the man sick with palsy (1-12)....................................................................................................... 336
The call and feast of Levi Matthew (13-17) .................................................................................................... 338
The question on fasting (18-22) .......................................................................................................................... 339
Plucking corn on the Sabbath (23-28) .............................................................................................................. 339
Chapter 3 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 340
Healing of the withered hand on the Sabbath (1-6) .................................................................................... 340
Multitude from seven regions gathers at the sea of Capernaum (7-12) ............................................. 340
Ordination of the twelve disciples (13-19) ..................................................................................................... 340
Who are my brethren? & Warning against the sin of blasphemy (20-35) ......................................... 341
Chapter 4 – Disciples in the Storm .......................................................................................................................... 342
Parable of the four grounds (1-23) .................................................................................................................... 342
Parables of the full corn in the ear and the mustard seed (24-34) ....................................................... 343
Let us pass over to the other side (35-41) ...................................................................................................... 343
Chapter 5 - Demoniacs of the Gadarenes | Women with Issue of Blood ................................................. 347
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 347
Christ casts out legion into the swine (1-20) ................................................................................................. 347
Resurrection of Jairus daughter and the Issue of Blood (21-43) ........................................................... 350
Chapter 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 356
Is this the carpenters Son? (1-6) ......................................................................................................................... 356
Disciples receive power over sicknesses and demons (7-13)................................................................. 356

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Herod kills John the Baptist (14-29).................................................................................................................. 356
Feeding the 5,000 (30-44) ..................................................................................................................................... 357
Christ’s walks on water and heals in Gennsaret (45-56) .......................................................................... 358
Chapter 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 360
Commandents of God vs. Tradition of men (1-23) ...................................................................................... 360
Demon casts out of Syrophenecian woman (24-30) ................................................................................... 361
Ephatha (Blind and deaf man healed) (31-37).............................................................................................. 361
Chapter 8 – Blind Man near Bethsaida .................................................................................................................. 363
Feeding of the 4,000 (1-9)...................................................................................................................................... 363
Pharisees seek a sign (10-13) ............................................................................................................................... 363
Beware of the leaven of Herod and Pharisees (14-21) .............................................................................. 363
Healing of the blind man with saliva (22-26) ................................................................................................ 364
Who am I? (Confession of Peter) (27-38) ........................................................................................................ 366
Chapter 9 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 368
The coming Kingdom of God (Transfiguration of Christ) (1-13) ........................................................... 368
Cast out through Fasting and Prayer (14-29) ................................................................................................ 368
Who is the greatest? (30-37) ................................................................................................................................ 369
How to enter the kingdom of God (38-50) ...................................................................................................... 370
Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................... 370
Chapter 10 – Conditions of the Kingdom of God ............................................................................................... 371
Is it lawful to put away your wife? (1-12) ....................................................................................................... 371
Little children and the kingdom of God (13-16) ........................................................................................... 371
Rich young ruler (kingdom of God) (17-31)................................................................................................... 372
Let us sit on your right and left hand (32-45) ............................................................................................... 375
Blind Bartimaeus (Son of David) (46-52) ........................................................................................................ 375
Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................... 376
Chapter 11 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 377
Christ’s entry into Jerusalem (1-11) .................................................................................................................. 377
Curse of the fig tree (12-14) .................................................................................................................................. 377
Cleansing the temple (15-18) ............................................................................................................................... 378
Curse fig tree and have faith in God (19-26) .................................................................................................. 378
By what authority do you do these things? (27-33).................................................................................... 378
Chapter 12 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 380
Parable of the vineyard and the heir (1-12) ................................................................................................... 380
Render unto Caesar (Question by Pharisees and Herodians) (13-17) ................................................ 380
Question on marriage and resurrection (Sadducee's) (18-27) .............................................................. 381
Question on first commandment (Scribe) (28-34) ...................................................................................... 381
Son of David, Beware of scribes, Two mites (35-45) .................................................................................. 382
Chapter 13 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 383
Not one stone left for the temple (1-4) ............................................................................................................. 383
Signs of Christ's coming (5-13) ............................................................................................................................ 383
Abomination of Desolation (14-23) ................................................................................................................... 384
Time frame, manner, and purpose of Coming (24-31) .............................................................................. 384
Warning to watch and be ready for Coming (32-37) .................................................................................. 385
Chapter 14 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 386
Chapter 15 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 391
Chapter 16 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 394
Mary, Mary, and Salome tell Peter the Christ is risen (1-8) ..................................................................... 394
Disciples don't believe Mary and the two disciples (9-13) ...................................................................... 395
Gospel commission to believe and cast out demons (14-20) .................................................................. 397

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Luke - Humanity of Jesus Christ ................................................................................................................................... 398
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 398
Author............................................................................................................................................................................. 398
Date.................................................................................................................................................................................. 398
Theme ............................................................................................................................................................................. 399
Key Themes .................................................................................................................................................................. 399
Purpose, Occasion, and Background .................................................................................................................. 400
Location ......................................................................................................................................................................... 401
Distinctive Features .................................................................................................................................................. 401
History of Salvation Summary.............................................................................................................................. 401
Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................ 401
Chapter 1 - Gabriel's glad tidings of the birth of John & Jesus ..................................................................... 404
Ordered declaration of things believed among us (1-4) ........................................................................... 407
Gabriel sent to tell Zacharias that Elisabeth will have a son, John (5-25) .......................................... 408
Gabriel sent to tell Mary she will have a son, Jesus (26-38) .................................................................... 411
Elisabeth gives birth to John (57-66) ................................................................................................................ 412
Zachariah's prophecy concerning Jesus & John (67-80) ........................................................................... 413
Chapter 2 - Jesus' birth & visit to Jerusalem ....................................................................................................... 414
Jesus born in Bethlehem during the days of taxing (1-7) ......................................................................... 414
Angels and Shepard's tell good tidings of His birth to many (8-20)..................................................... 415
Jesus circumcised and seen by Simeon and Anna (21-39) ....................................................................... 418
Jesus' growth and visit to Jerusalem (39-52) ................................................................................................. 420
Chapter 3 - Jesus' Baptism & Genealogy ............................................................................................................... 424
John preaches the baptism of repentance | Ministry of John Baptist (1-20) .................................... 424
Jesus' baptism (21-23)............................................................................................................................................. 425
The biological genealogy of Jesus (23-38)....................................................................................................... 426
Chapter 4 - Jesus' temptation and ministry in Galilee .................................................................................... 428
The 3 temptations of Jesus (1-13) ...................................................................................................................... 428
Jesus returns to Galilee & Nazareth (14-30) .................................................................................................. 429
Jesus in Capernaum and departure to the rest of Galilee (31-44) ......................................................... 431
Chapter 5 - Jesus came to call sinners to repentance (Jesus' ministry) ................................................... 433
The call of Peter, James, and John by Gennesaret (1-11) .......................................................................... 433
Jesus heals the leper and His fame goes abroad (12-16) .......................................................................... 437
Jesus heals the man with palsy before Pharisees (17-26) ........................................................................ 437
Call and feast of Levi-Matthew & Parable of new wine and old bottles (27-39) ............................. 437
Chapter 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 439
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 439
Disciples of Jesus eat corn on the Sabbath (1-5)........................................................................................... 439
Jesus heals on the Sabbath (Withered hand) (6-12) ................................................................................... 440
Jesus chooses 12 disciples (13-16)..................................................................................................................... 440
Sermon on the mount (Blessings, woes, parable) (17-49) ....................................................................... 442
Chapter 7 – The Centurion | Jesus a Prophet of God........................................................................................ 445
Centurion's faith (1-10) .......................................................................................................................................... 445
Resurrection of widow's son in Nain (11-17) ................................................................................................ 447
John questions Jesus (John more than a prophet) (18-35) ...................................................................... 448
Simon's feast (Mary Magdalene's faith) (36-50) .......................................................................................... 449
Chapter 8 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 450
Parable of the sower (1-21) .................................................................................................................................. 450
Jesus rebukes the sea and the legions of devils (22-40)............................................................................ 451
Jesus heals the issue of blood and raises Jairus' daughter (41-56)....................................................... 452

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Chapter 9 - The Kingdom of God?............................................................................................................................ 454
Jesus sends 12 disciples to preach the kingdom of God (1-10) .............................................................. 455
Feeding the 5,000 (11-17) ..................................................................................................................................... 455
Jesus asks Peter who He is (Jesus explains His kingdom) (18-27) ....................................................... 456
Jesus is transfigured (28-36) ................................................................................................................................ 456
Casting out of devil/Jesus to be delivered up/Who is the greatest? (37-50) ................................... 457
Jesus goes to Jerusalem (through Samaria, others want to follow) (51-62) ..................................... 457
Chapter 10 – ..................................................................................................................................................................... 460
Jesus sends out 70 disciples (1-24) .................................................................................................................... 460
How to inherit eternal life (Good Samaritan) (25-37) ............................................................................... 461
Mary and Martha receive Jesus (38-42) ........................................................................................................... 466
Chapter 11 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 470
Pray that God's kingdom comes (Unity) (1-13) ............................................................................................ 470
Satan’s kingdom is divided (14-28) ................................................................................................................... 475
Sign of Jonas the Prophet & Judgment (29-36) ............................................................................................. 476
Woes to Pharisees, Scribes, and Lawyers (37-54) ....................................................................................... 476
Chapter 12 - Jesus as the Judge! ............................................................................................................................... 478
Who Jesus will confess before the angels (1-12) .......................................................................................... 478
Jesus as judge or divider (warning against coveting) (13-21)................................................................ 479
Father's pleasure to give the kingdom (22-40)............................................................................................. 481
Faithful and evil servant (portions divided) (41-53) ................................................................................. 482
Judge among yourselves what is right (54-59) ............................................................................................. 483
Chapter 13 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 484
Repent or perish (Pilate mingled blood-fig tree) (1-10) ........................................................................... 484
Woman healed who had infirmity 18 years (On Sabbath) (10-17) ...................................................... 486
Kingdom of God (Mustard Seed, Leaven, Strait gate) (18-30) ................................................................ 486
Jerusalem left desolate (31-35) ........................................................................................................................... 487
Chapter 14 – Jesus' Great Supper ............................................................................................................................ 488
Jesus heals man with dropsy on the Sabbath (1-6) ..................................................................................... 488
Parable of where to sit at the wedding feast (7-11) .................................................................................... 488
Who to invite to a supper (12-14) ...................................................................................................................... 488
The great supper (15-24) ....................................................................................................................................... 489
Who is worthy to be Christ disciple (25-35) .................................................................................................. 490
Chapter 15 – 3 Parables of the lost ......................................................................................................................... 492
Parable of one lost sheep (1-7) ............................................................................................................................ 493
Parable of the one lost coin (8-10) ..................................................................................................................... 494
Parable of the prodigal son (11-32) ................................................................................................................... 496
Chapter 16 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 500
Parable of the unjust steward (1-13) ................................................................................................................ 500
The law will not fail (14-18).................................................................................................................................. 504
Parable of the Rich man and Lazarus (19-31) ............................................................................................... 504
Chapter 17 – Salvation through faith not sight | Redemption through obedience ............................. 508
Woe to whom offences come (1-4)..................................................................................................................... 508
Increase our faith (5-10) ........................................................................................................................................ 508
Cleansing of the 10 lepers (Faith is increased by obeying) (11-19) ..................................................... 509
Signs of His return (20-37) .................................................................................................................................... 511
Chapter 18 – Prayer & Faith? .................................................................................................................................... 513
Pray continually (regarding your adversaries) (1-8) ................................................................................. 513
Prayer of justification (Pharisee and the Publican, be humble) (9-17) .............................................. 516
How to inherit eternal life (18-30) ..................................................................................................................... 519

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Blind man asks for mercy (35-43) ...................................................................................................................... 520
Chapter 19 – Conditions of being a part of God’s house ................................................................................ 524
Story of Zacchaeus (a child of Abraham) (1-10) ........................................................................................... 524
Parable of the Nobleman receiving a kingdom (occupy till I come) (11-27) .................................... 526
Jesus' entry into Jerusalem (28-44) ................................................................................................................... 527
Jesus cleanses the temple the second time (45-48) .................................................................................... 528
Chapter 20 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 529
Pharisees ask what authority (parable of vineyard given to others) (1-19) .................................... 529
Spies question Tribute to Caesar (19-26)........................................................................................................ 530
Sadducees question resurrection and marriage (27-39) .......................................................................... 530
How is Christ David's Son, and beware of scribes (40-47)....................................................................... 531
Chapter 21 - The Second Coming of Jesus ............................................................................................................ 532
Applications ................................................................................................................................................................. 532
Widow with the two mites (1-4) ......................................................................................................................... 532
Persecution & Betrayal of God's people (5-19) ............................................................................................. 532
Days of Vengeance on Jerusalem (20-24) ........................................................................................................ 534
The Second Coming (signs and seasons) (25-33) ........................................................................................ 534
Preparation to be ready for the Second Coming (34-38) .......................................................................... 535
Chapter 22 - Betrayal and Denial of the Son of Man ........................................................................................ 536
Judas makes a covenant to betray Jesus (1-6) ............................................................................................... 537
The Passover supper & who is the greatest (7-30) ..................................................................................... 537
Peter pledges not to deny Christ (31-38) ........................................................................................................ 538
Gethsemane (39-53)................................................................................................................................................. 538
Trial of Jesus and the denial of Peter (54-71) ................................................................................................ 539
Chapter 23 - Jesus before Pilate and Herod ........................................................................................................ 541
Jesus before Pilate the first time (1-7) .............................................................................................................. 541
Jesus before Herod (8-12) ...................................................................................................................................... 542
Jesus before Pilate the second time (13-26)................................................................................................... 542
Jesus goes to Calvary (27-34) ............................................................................................................................... 543
Death and burial of Jesus (35-56) ....................................................................................................................... 544
Chapter 24 - The Resurrection of Jesus................................................................................................................. 548
Mary and others tell disciples Jesus has risen (1-12) ................................................................................. 548
Walk to Emmaus (13-35) ....................................................................................................................................... 548
Jesus in the upper room with His disciples (36-49) .................................................................................... 552
Jesus returns to heaven (50-53) .......................................................................................................................... 552
John........................................................................................................................................................................................... 553
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 553
Author and Title ......................................................................................................................................................... 553
Date and Place of Writing ....................................................................................................................................... 554
Theme ............................................................................................................................................................................. 554
Purpose, Occasion, and Background .................................................................................................................. 554
Key Themes .................................................................................................................................................................. 554
Distinctive Features .................................................................................................................................................. 555
History of Salvation Summary.............................................................................................................................. 555
Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................ 556
Chapter 1 – Identity of the Prophet of God .......................................................................................................... 557
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 557
The Word, Life and Light (1-5)............................................................................................................................. 557
John the Baptist to bear witness (6-36) ........................................................................................................... 559
John's two disciples abide with Jesus (37-42) ............................................................................................... 562

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The calling of Philip (43-45) ................................................................................................................................. 563
Nathanael (46-51) ..................................................................................................................................................... 563
Chapter 2 – The Miracle at Cana | Cleansing of the Temple ......................................................................... 564
Jesus’ first miracle – the marriage at Cana (1-11)........................................................................................ 564
Jesus, His mother, brethren and disciples go down to Capernaum (12-13) ..................................... 567
The beginning of Jesus’ ministry (14-17) ........................................................................................................ 567
The Jews asks for a sign and Jesus speaks of the temple of His body (18-22) ................................. 568
Jesus knows what is in man (23-25).................................................................................................................. 569
Chapter 3 – Nicodemus | Ministry of John (Conditions of Salvation-In reach) .................................... 570
Jesus’ interview with Nicodemus (1-21).......................................................................................................... 570
Jesus and His disciples go into the land of Judea and baptize (22) ....................................................... 577
John the Baptist is baptizing in Aenon (23-24) ............................................................................................. 577
John testifies of Jesus again – He must increase, I must decrease (25-36) ........................................ 577
Chapter 4 – Women at the Well | the Nobleman (Message to the Gentiles-Outreach)...................... 579
Jesus departs because of the issue of baptism between Himself and John (1-3) ............................ 579
Jesus and the Samaritan woman (4-30) ........................................................................................................... 579
The meat of Jesus – to do the will of the Father and to finish His work (31-38) ............................. 583
Jesus abides two days with the Samaritans and many more believe (39-42) .................................. 584
Jesus’ second miracle in Galilee – He heals the son of a noble man by speaking (43-54) ........... 585
Chapter 5 – Healing at Bethesda .............................................................................................................................. 588
Jesus heals the cripple man at Bethesda (1-9) .............................................................................................. 588
The cripple man knows not who healed him so he cannot tell the Jews (10-13) ........................... 590
The Jews find out it is Jesus and seek to persecute and slay Him for healing on the Sabbath (14-
16) .................................................................................................................................................................................... 591
Jews seek to kill Jesus more because He calls God His Father (17-18) ............................................... 591
Jesus explains His relationship between Himself and the Father (19-47)......................................... 591
Chapter 6 – The True Bread ....................................................................................................................................... 594
Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 594
Jesus feeds the multitude and they testify that He is a prophet (1-14)............................................... 594
Jesus walks on the sea and brings the disciples boat over to Capernaum (15-21) ........................ 595
Jesus exhorts the multitude to labour for the meat that does not perish (22-29) ......................... 595
Jesus introduces Himself as the bread of life, the living bread (30-52) .............................................. 596
Jesus exhorts them to eat his flesh and drink his blood (53-65) ........................................................... 597
Separation of true and false disciples (66-71) .............................................................................................. 598
Chapter 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 600
Chapter 8 – Women taken in Adultery .................................................................................................................. 604
Chapter 9 – The Man Born Blind .............................................................................................................................. 611
Chapter 10 – The true Shepard ................................................................................................................................ 617
Chapter 11 – The Ressurection and the Life ....................................................................................................... 624
Chapter 12 - ...................................................................................................................................................................... 627
Chapter 13 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 633
Chapter 14 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 638
Chapter 15 – The true Vine ........................................................................................................................................ 641
Chapter 16 – Coming of the Comforter ................................................................................................................. 644
Chapter 17 – Prayer of Unity ..................................................................................................................................... 646
Chapter 18 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 648
Chapter 19 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 652
Chapter 20 - Resurrection of Jesus ......................................................................................................................... 655
Chapter 21 – Peter at the Sea of Tiberias ............................................................................................................. 657

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History of Salvation in the Old Testament: Preparing the Way
for Christ
(The notes in this feature are identified by single verses only, for easy cross-reference with the
main study notes on Bible-text pages. However, many of these notes apply to more than just the one
verse by which they are identified. Directions for the reader to “see note on” another verse refer
only to notes within this feature, not to the main study notes on Bible-text pages.)

Genesis
After God creates a world of fruitfulness and blessing, Adam's fall disrupts the harmony. God
purposes to renew fruitfulness and blessing through the offspring of the woman (3:15). Christ is the
ultimate offspring (Gal. 3:16) who brings climactic victory (Heb. 2:14–15). Genesis traces the
beginning of a line of godly offspring, through Seth, Enoch, Noah, and then God's choice of Abraham
and his offspring (Gen. 12:2–3, 7; 13:14–17; 15:4–5; 17:1–14; 18:18; 22:16–18; 26:2–5; 28:13–15).

1:1 God's act of creation is the foundation for the entire biblical history. A considerable number of
passages refer back to creation (e.g., Psalms 8; 104; 148; John 1:1–3; 1 Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:15–17; Heb.
1:2; 11:3; 1 John 1:5–7). All the rest of the Bible depends indirectly on it.

1:3 God speaks, and it is done. The centrality of the word of God in the acts of creation anticipates
the deeper truth given in John 1:1, that the second person of the Trinity is the Word.

1:3 God created physical light. The Bible also says that God is light in a moral and spiritual sense (1
John 1:5). By God's design, the physical aspects of creation can serve as vehicles for developing
themes about God and his salvation. Jesus is “the light of the world” (John 8:12).

1:26 The divine Son is “the image of the invisible God” (Col. 1:15). Man was created in a way that
reflects the imaging relation among the Persons of the Trinity. The redemption of man from the fall
and sin includes re-creation (2 Cor. 5:17), his being “created after the likeness of God in true
righteousness and holiness,” in the image of Christ (Eph. 4:24).

1:28 God created a permanent order of creation. But he also intended a development in which man
would play a central role. Because Adam failed and fell into sin, Christ came as the last Adam to
achieve dominion (see 1 Cor. 15:22, 45–49; Eph. 1:21–22).

1:31 Sin is a later intrusion into an originally good creation. It is not inherent in the world, and so it
can be completely removed when God achieves his purposes in the consummation (Rev. 22:3–5).

2:2 God rested from his works of creation. But he continues to work in providence and (after sin
enters) in redemption. See John 5:17. As human beings we look forward to entering into God's rest
(Heb. 4:4, 9–11).

2:3 Man imitates the pattern of God's work and rest in the sabbath cycle of days (Ex. 20:8–11) and
years (Leviticus 25).

2:7 God has life in himself and imparts life to his creatures. The impartation of physical life
anticipates the impartation of spiritual life (John 1:4; see 1 Cor. 15:45). Life is in the Son (John 5:21,
26; 1 John 5:12) and comes to us through the Spirit (John 3:5).

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2:8 The garden of Eden and paradise reminds us of what we have lost (Joel 2:3) but also of what
will yet be renewed in the world to come (Isa. 51:3; Rev. 22:1–3).

2:9 After the fall, the tree of life was barred to man (3:24). But God promises fruitfulness to those
who know him (Ps. 1:3) and to those who obtain wisdom (Prov. 3:18). Eternal life is obtained in
Christ (John 5:24), and free access to the tree of life reappears in the consummation (Rev. 22:2).

2:24 Divorce is a deviation from God's design in creation (Matt. 19:4). The marriage relationship
anticipates the relation of Christ to the church (Eph. 5:22–33). See Overview of the Bible,
concerning Christ as the last Adam.

3:1 Later Scripture indicates that Satan worked through the serpent (Isa. 27:1; Rev. 12:9). He was
defeated by Christ's work on the cross (Heb. 2:14–15), and will be utterly destroyed in the events
leading to the consummation (Rev. 20:7–10).

3:4 Throughout history Satan is engaged in deceiving (2 Thess. 2:9–12; Rev. 12:9) and casting
doubt on the word of God. When tempted by Satan, Christ rejected his lies (Matt. 4:1–11). In spite of
Satan's attacks, the word of God will stand forever (Ps. 119:89; Matt. 24:35).

3:8 God appears and judges Adam and Eve, anticipating the final day of judgment in Christ (John
5:22). Because of the sacrificial work of Christ, judgment can be tempered with mercy on those who
belong to Christ.

3:15 The offspring of the woman who inflicts decisive defeat on the serpent is Christ (Heb. 2:14).
But earlier in time, within the OT, there are partial defeats through people who prefigure Christ and
foreshadow the final conflict.

3:24 When Christ opens the way to eternal life, the barring of the way to life is removed (John 14:6;
Heb. 10:19–22; Rev. 22:2).

4:26 The line of Seth appears to be a more godly line, corresponding to the promise of the offspring
of the woman (3:15), while Cain and his descendants correspond more to the offspring of the
serpent. The line of Seth ultimately leads to Christ (Luke 3:38).

5:5 Death is a repeated, grim occurrence, reminding us of the reality of the curse (2:17; 3:19) and
the need for God in mercy to provide a final remedy for death through Christ (John 11:25–26; Rev.
1:18; 21:4).

5:24 Enoch's walk with God makes him an early example of faith (Heb. 11:5–6), and his being taken
by God without dying anticipates the eternal resurrection life that Christ gives (Rom. 8:11).

6:9 For Noah's faith, see Heb. 11:7. Noah by his righteousness saved not only himself but his family,
prefiguring the righteousness of Christ by which Christ saved his spiritual family.

6:18 God promises in a covenant (see Overview of the Bible) to save Noah, prefiguring the new
covenant in Christ by which we receive eternal salvation (1 Cor. 11:25; Heb. 10:15–18).

7:23 The flood brought a whole world to an end (2 Pet. 2:5; 3:6). It prefigures the final judgment,
which ends the present heavens and earth and brings a new world (Rev. 21:1). God preserves those

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who belong to Christ, the final Noah.

8:13 The emerging of a new world prefigures the creation of the new heaven and the new earth
(Rev. 21:1–4; see 2 Pet. 3:5–7).

9:7 God repeats the command given to man in 1:28. Noah is a new head or representative for
humanity, prefiguring Christ, who will be the final head of the new humanity (1 Cor. 15:45–48). All
those descending from Noah are privileged for his sake.

9:11 In a covenant God guarantees to all mankind blessings that come through Noah. He shows
mercy, based on sacrifice (8:21), pointing forward ultimately to the mercy that comes through the
sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 10:12).

10:32 All the nations of the world are encompassed in the plan of God. He chooses Abram alone
(12:1–3), but eventually “all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him” (18:18; see 12:3; Rev.
5:9).

11:4 Babel, and later Babylon (Revelation 17–18), is the quintessential worldly city, where man
tries to exalt himself to the position of a god. It contrasts with the holy city of God's people, whose
name is made great not through their prideful self-exaltation but by the power of God (Gen. 12:2;
Rev. 21:2).

12:1 God will give Abram a great name, in contrast to the self-exalting desire in Babel (11:4). The
choice of Abram narrows down the line of the offspring of the woman (3:15) to Abram's offspring.
Ultimately, Abraham is great as a progenitor of Christ (Rom. 9:5).

12:2 God's promise is reiterated and expanded as time passes (13:14–17; 15:4–5; 17:1–14; 18:18;
22:16–18; 26:2–5; 28:13–15; 35:10–12).

12:3 The inclusion of all the families of the earth anticipates the spread of the gospel and salvation
in Christ to the ends of the earth (Matt. 28:18–20; Acts 1:8; Gal. 3:8).

12:7 God's promise has a short-range fulfillment when the nation of Israel conquers Canaan under
Joshua (Josh. 21:43; see 1 Kings 4:21). Ultimately the offspring narrows down to Christ (Gal. 3:16),
whose dominion extends not only over the land of Canaan but over all the world (Matt. 28:18). The
land of Canaan prefigures the eternal inheritance of the world in Christ (Heb. 4:1–11; 11:10, 13–
16). In Christ believers are the offspring of Abraham (Gal. 3:7, 29).

13:15 God confirms and expands his promise to Abram (see notes on 12:1; 12:2; and 12:7).

14:18 Melchizedek, a priest and king, prefigures Christ's priesthood (Heb. 7:1–8:6).

15:6 Abram's trust in God is the model for Christians' trust in God's promises in Christ (Gal. 3:6–9).
Righteousness is “counted” or reckoned, not on the basis of our achievement, but because in faith
we look to God who supplies righteousness in Christ (Rom. 4:5–9; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:6).

15:17 The flame, symbolizing God, passes between the pieces, symbolizing that God himself will
bear the penalty if the promise is broken. Ultimately, Christ bears the penalty for our disobedience.

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16:10 Because of the line of chosen offspring, leading to Christ (Gal. 3:16), some blessings overflow
and extend even to collateral descendants like Ishmael.

16:13 Hagar perceives that the Lord has spoken to her, which implies that “the angel of the Lord” is
divine. Some think that this is a pre-incarnate appearance of Christ. Christ is the final, divine
messenger of the covenant (Mal. 3:1) who is anticipated in this scene.

17:4 The multiplication of the nation of Israel represents the proximate fulfillment of God's
promise (Ex. 1:7). Those who place their trust in Christ, the offspring of Abraham (Gal. 3:16), now
become sons of Abraham (Gal. 3:6–9), so that ultimately all the multitude of the saved (Rev. 5:9)
have Abraham as father (Rom. 4:17–18).

17:10 Circumcision symbolizes the covenant relation to God, which demands holiness. It is fulfilled
in Christ's purification of believers (Col. 2:11).

18:2 Two of the “men” turn out to be angels (19:1), while the third is the Lord (18:22). The
appearance of God in human form anticipates the incarnation of the Son (John 1:1–18).

18:10 The miraculous birth of a son according to the power of God's word anticipates later
instances where God's word overcomes a “dead” womb and brings new life: 25:21; 30:22; 1 Sam.
1:20; Isa. 54:1. The pattern culminates in the virgin birth of Christ (Luke 1:35), and has relevance
for understanding God's sovereignty in election (Rom. 9:8–9).

18:24 Abraham's limited intercession fails to spare Sodom. Christ's perfect intercession always
succeeds (Heb. 7:23–25).

19:16 Though Lot is a mixed character who makes compromises, God saves him and his family,
prefiguring his mercy in eternal salvation (2 Pet. 2:7–9).

19:24 The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah prefigures eternal judgment (2 Pet. 2:6, 9–10; Rev.
14:10–11).

20:6 Even though Abraham misuses her, God in mercy preserves Sarah, who embodies the line of
holy offspring leading to Christ.

21:2 The miraculous birth of Isaac, the special offspring of promise, prefigures the coming birth of
Christ, in accordance with all the promises of God.

21:4 Circumcision represents purification and holiness, anticipating the purity of Christ (Luke 2:21;
3:22; Col. 2:11; see Gen. 17:10).

21:10 The distinction between the miraculous son of promise and the son from human planning
prefigures the distinction between the church and natural descendants of Abraham (Gal. 4:30).

22:3 Abraham demonstrates the reality of his faith in action, serving as a model for how our good
works demonstrate our faith (James 2:18–24).

22:8 Isaac comes near to being sacrificed, but God provides a substitute. Ultimately God will
sacrifice his only Son, who dies in our place (Gal. 3:13, 16). The ram prefigures the sacrifice of

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Christ.

22:16 Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son leads to great blessing to his offspring. God's
sacrifice of his only Son leads to even greater blessings to Christ's spiritual offspring (Rom. 5:8–11;
Heb. 6:13–14).

23:19 Abraham takes care about Sarah's burial, expressing thereby his faith in God's promise that
he will possess the land. The fact that the land is not theirs during Sarah's or Abraham's earthly life
points forward to the resurrection of the dead (Heb. 11:13–16).

24:4 The marriage of Isaac is important, because he is the offspring of promise through whose
offspring the world will be blessed. The special provision of a wife for Isaac prefigures God's
offspring of promise, Christ, receiving a bride, the church (Rev. 19:7).

25:23 Jacob the chosen one and Esau the one not chosen prefigure the age-long struggle between
the chosen people and their adversaries (Mal. 1:2–3; Rom. 9:10–13). The principle applies in the OT
to Israel and in the NT to the church.

26:28 Abimelech's respect for Isaac prefigures the salvation of the nations through Abraham's
offspring in Christ (18:18).

27:35 God carries out his sovereign purpose of confirming Jacob as the chosen line of the offspring
of Abraham (12:7; 25:23), in spite of Isaac's intent to bless Esau and in spite of the sinfulness in
Jacob's deceit.

28:12 The opening of access to heaven anticipates Christ, who opens access permanently (John
1:51; Heb. 10:19–20).

29:25 Even in the midst of trickery God sovereignly works to give Jacob wives, through whom he
will fulfill the promise to multiply Abraham's offspring (15:5).

30:1 In the midst of sordid competition between Leah and Rachel, God sovereignly fulfills the first
stage of his promise to multiply Abraham's offspring (12:2; 15:5; 17:5; 26:4; 28:14).

31:24 God protects Jacob, fulfilling his earlier promise (28:13–15) and protecting the line of chosen
offspring leading to Christ (Gal. 3:16).

32:24 God appears in human form, anticipating the incarnation of Christ.

33:4 God delivers Jacob and his family from a feared attack by Esau, fulfilling his promise to Jacob
and his offspring (28:14–15) and protecting the offspring leading to Christ.

34:9 Though Simeon and Levi are later criticized for their deceit and violence (49:5–7), God uses
them in preserving the line of holy offspring from intermarriage (see Deut. 7:3), thus protecting the
line until the coming of Christ the final offspring (Gal. 3:16).

35:10 God confirms earlier promises to Abraham and his offspring (see note on 12:2).

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36:1 The record of collateral, rejected offspring (25:23) is given before continuing with the record
of the line leading to Christ (Gal. 3:16).

37:7 Prophetic dreams concerning God's plan for the offspring of promise foreshadow the final
prophetic unveiling of God's purposes through Christ.

37:20 Joseph, who is to be the key deliverer of God's people, has a scrape with death, and is finally
glorified (41:41), foreshadowing the suffering and glorification of Christ the final deliverer.

38:29 In spite of unrighteous sexual behavior by several males, God brings about his own purpose
of continuing the offspring leading to Christ (Matt. 1:3).

39:9 Joseph, in contrast to Adam and Eve, firmly rejected temptation, anticipating Christ's rejection
of temptation (Matt. 4:1–11; 16:23).

40:23 The trials of Joseph, testing his faith, anticipate the trials that come to Christ as man (Matt.
4:1–11), and that come to disciples of Christ (Acts 14:22; 1 Thess. 3:4).

41:36 Through prophetic gifts given by God, Joseph is able to save from famine not only Jacob and
his family, but Egypt. He foreshadows Christ, whose prophetic teaching and suffering bring eternal
salvation both to Jews and to Gentiles. (See 18:18.)

42:9 God works according to his plan, which was already revealed in Joseph's dreams (37:5–9). God
cares for the line of offspring leading to Christ (3:15; Gal. 3:16).

43:9 Judah offers himself as a substitute, prefiguring the substitution of Christ the offspring of
Judah.

44:33 See note on 43:9.

44:29 Salvation through Joseph includes not only rescue from famine, but a change of heart in the
brothers, compared to their earlier envy and violence toward Joseph. The change prefigures the
change of heart that Christ works through the Spirit (John 3:3–8).

45:15 Reconciliation springs from forgiveness, prefiguring God's reconciliation and forgiveness in
Christ.

46:4 God delivers the entire family from famine and promises permanent care, anticipating both
the exodus from Egypt (Exodus 1–14) and the subsequent generations leading to Christ.

47:6 Through Joseph's deliverance abundant blessings come to his family, prefiguring the blessings
of deliverance in Christ.

48:5 The transformation of one tribe (Joseph) into two further illustrates the fruitfulness of
blessing to the line of offspring that God has chosen and blessed.

49:10 At this early point God already reveals that through Judah will come a line of kings, leading
finally to Christ the great, eternal king (Matt. 1:1–16).

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50:20 God uses even evil to work out his good purposes, foreshadowing the time when he will
bring the supreme good, namely, eternal salvation, out of the wicked actions of the men who
condemned and crucified Jesus (Acts 2:23; 4:25–28).

50:24 God's promises stand firm through generations (12:7; 15:13–14). His faithfulness is
expressed climactically in Christ (2 Cor. 1:20).

Exodus
Through Moses God redeems his people from slavery in Egypt, prefiguring Christ's eternal
redemption of his people from slavery to sin.

1:7 The multiplication of the people fulfills God's promise to multiply Abraham's descendants (Gen.
15:5) and to bless the world through them (Gen. 18:18), specifically through Christ (Gal. 3:8).

1:13 Bitter suffering precedes release, symbolizing that suffering under sin precedes the
deliverance from sin in Christ.

2:10 Moses, the special agent for God's deliverance, has his life preserved, anticipating the rescue of
baby Jesus from Herod's murders (Matt. 2:13).

2:15 God brings deliverance through his power and in his way, through the weakness of the cross,
not through merely human impulses for justice (1 Cor. 1:25).

3:5 The overwhelming holiness of the presence of God anticipates the presence of God in Christ's
incarnation.

3:12 The commissioning of Moses by God's word and God's power prefigures the commissioning of
Christ for his work (Matt. 3:17).

3:14 The name “I am” anticipates the “I am” sayings of Jesus (see John 8:58), which show his deity.

4:13 Moses' reluctance points forward ultimately to the need for a divine deliverer, Jesus Christ.

5:2 Pharaoh's refusal to recognize the true God prefigures the resistance of people to Christ's
claims, even though miracles supported his claims.

6:8 The mention of the patriarchs (see Gen. 12:7) shows the faithfulness of God and the continuity
of his purposes over time. This faithfulness comes to ultimate fruition with the sending of the Son.

7:17 The plagues on Egypt foreshadow the plagues preceding the second coming (Rev. 11:6).

9:16 God uses even those who resist his will, prefiguring his use of Herod and Pilate (Acts 2:23).

10:4 The locusts prefigure the judgments associated with the day of the Lord (Joel 1–2; Rev. 9:1–
11).

11:5 The plague of death reminds us that the wages of sin is death (Rom. 6:23). Only through the

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death of God's Son are we delivered.

12:6 Deliverance through the blood of a lamb prefigures the coming of the Lamb of God to obtain
final salvation through his death (John 1:29).

12:46 Because Jesus is the fulfillment of the Passover lamb (1 Cor. 5:7), it is fitting that none of
Jesus' bones were broken (John 19:36).

13:3 We now look back to the final Passover in which Christ brought eternal salvation from sin (1
Cor. 5:7), and we remember it in the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 11:23–26).

14:19 God's special presence in the cloud prefigures his presence in Christ, who is our protection
and refuge against all the attacks of Satan.

14:22 The people go down symbolically into death and come up alive, prefiguring the reception of
resurrection life through Christ (see Rom. 6:4; 1 Cor. 10:2).

15:2 Praise for God's salvation anticipates the songs of praise for Christ's final work of salvation
(Rev. 5:9–14; 15:3).

15:17 The conquest of Canaan prefigures the entrance into the final sanctuary of God's presence,
mediated by Christ (Heb. 10:19–20; Rev. 21:22).

16:4 Manna prefigures Christ the bread of heaven, who gives eternal life (John 6:31–35).

16:18 The sufficiency of the manna prefigures the sufficiency of Christ to meet every need of his
people (Phil. 4:19).

17:6 God providing water after striking the rock prefigures Christ, who is stricken to provide the
water of eternal life (John 4:14; 19:34).

18:18 The limitations of Moses prefigure the need for Christ, the divine judge, and Christ's
appointment of shepherds under him (elders) to carry out his will (1 Pet. 5:1–4).

19:6 The privileges of Israel prefigure the higher privileges of the NT church (1 Pet. 2:9–10), won
through Christ's redemption (Heb. 10:10).

19:12 The threat of death illustrates the impossibility of sinful people approaching a holy God. The
impossibility is overcome only through the sacrifice and mediation of Christ (Heb. 10:19–20).

20:2 Christians now obey God's commandments because he has brought us out of sin and death
(Rom. 13:9; Col. 1:13; Rev. 1:5–6).

20:11 The celebration of the Sabbath looks back to creation (see notes on Gen. 2:2 and 2:3), back to
redemption from Egyptian slavery (Deut. 5:15), and forward to final rest through faith in Christ
(Heb. 4:1–11).

20:13 The Ten Commandments are deepened through Jesus' teaching (Matt. 5:17–48) and fulfilled

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in Jesus' perfect righteousness (Heb. 4:15; 5:9).

21:2 The ordinances concerning slavery anticipate our being freed from slavery to sin and
becoming slaves to Christ (Rom. 6:20–22; 1 Cor. 7:22).

21:12 The principles of retribution and restitution, though they hedge in sin and give partial
remedies, do not bring a perfect kingdom, but look forward to the perfection of the kingdom of
Christ (Isa. 9:6–7; Matt. 5:38–48).

23:1 The truthfulness of God, coming to its climax in Christ, is to be reflected in truthfulness
displayed to fellow human beings, and the compassion and justice of God is to be reflected in
treatment of fellow humans.

24:8 Consecration through blood prefigures consecration through the blood of Christ (Heb. 9:18–
26).

24:11 Fellowship with God prefigures our seeing God in the face of Jesus Christ (John 14:9).
Christians enjoy fellowship with God in Christ, who is the food of eternal life (John 6:53–58),
symbolized in the Lord's Supper and consummated in the final feast (Rev. 19:9; 22:4).

25:8 The making of a dwelling place anticipates Solomon's temple (1 Kings 6) and prefigures God's
dwelling with humanity in Christ (Matt. 1:23; John 2:19–21; Rev. 21:22), in the church (1 Cor. 3:16;
Eph. 2:19–22), in the individual Christian (1 Cor. 6:19), and in the consummation (Rev. 21:3, 22–
27). The actual construction of the tabernacle is described in Exodus 36–39.

25:22 God's meeting with and speaking to his people prefigures his intimacy and communion with
believers in Christ (John 15:4).

25:30 Bread expressing fellowship with God prefigures Jesus feeding us as the bread of life (John
6:35, 52–58).

25:37 The provision of light in the presence of God prefigures Jesus as the light of the world (John
1:4–9; 3:19–21; 8:12; 9:5).

25:40 The tabernacle is a shadow or copy of the heavenly, final dwelling of God, as indicated in Heb.
8:5. The symbolism in the tabernacle therefore consistently prefigures Christ and the church (see
note on Ex. 25:8).

26:33 The curtain bars access to all except the specially qualified high priest (Leviticus 16),
prefiguring that only Christ can open the way to God (Heb. 9:7–14; 10:20).

27:1 Access to God is only through sacrifice on the altar (Lev. 4:10), prefiguring the necessity of the
sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 9:12–14).

27:9 The hangings of the court erect one more barrier to approaching God, thereby emphasizing his
holiness. See note on 26:33.

28:2 The external holiness and beauty of the priest prefigures the perfect holiness of Christ (Heb.
7:23–8:6).

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29:1 The priests, being sinful, need atoning sacrifice for themselves, contrasting with the perfection
of Christ's priesthood (Heb. 7:26–28).

30:1 Burning incense represents intercessory prayer (Rev. 5:8), prefiguring Christ's intercession
(Heb. 7:25).

30:16 Atonement money prefigures Christ's buying us at the price of his own blood (1 Pet. 1:18–
19).

30:20 Washing prefigures cleansing from sin in Christ (Zech. 13:1; 1 Cor. 6:11).

31:3 The giving of the Spirit prefigures Christ's building the church through the Spirit (Matt. 16:18;
1 Cor. 14:12; Eph. 2:20–22). The building of the church is based on Christ's resurrection through
the Spirit (John 2:19–21; Rom. 8:11). See note on 1 Kings 7:14.

32:12 Moses' intercession prefigures the intercessory prayers of Christ (Heb. 7:25).

32:32 Moses offers himself as a substitute, prefiguring Christ's substitutionary death (Heb. 10:10).

33:19 God as sovereign works his will in election (Rom. 9:15).

33:22 Moses as sinful must be shielded from the full weight of God's holiness, prefiguring Christ's
shielding us from the wrath of God (Rom. 5:9–11).

34:9 God's mercy prefigures the mercy given in Christ (Rom. 4:8).

35:21 The willingness of the people prefigures the willingness of Christ's self-giving sacrifice (John
10:18), and then the willingness that he works in us to be used by God (Rom. 12:1; 2 Cor. 8:9–15;
9:7, 13–15).

36:10 The construction exactly according to God's design (26:1–6; see 39:42) prefigures the
construction of the church according to God's design (Eph. 4:11–16) and the construction of the
new world (Rev. 21:2).

37:1 The construction matches 25:10–22. See note on 25:22.

37:10 The construction matches 25:23–30. See note on 25:30.

37:17 The construction matches 25:31–39. See note on 25:37.

37:25 The construction matches 30:1–10. See note on 30:1.

38:1 The construction matches 27:1–8. See note on 27:1.

38:8 The construction matches 30:17–21. See note on 30:20.

38:9 The construction matches 27:9–19. See note on 27:9.

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39:1 The garments match 28:1–43. See note on 28:2.

40:34 See the parallel in 1 Kings 8:10–11. The filling of the tent with God's glory prefigures the
fullness of the Spirit in Christ (Matt. 3:16–17; John 1:14; 3:34–35) and in the church (Acts 2:3–4; 1
Cor. 3:16).

Leviticus
The requirement of holiness points to the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26–28). The sacrifices prefigure
the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 10:1–10).

1:9 The offering of the whole sacrifice to God prefigures Christ's giving of his whole self (Heb. 10:5–
10). The whole sacrifice ascends in smoke, prefiguring the ascension of Christ (Heb. 9:24).

2:1 The offering of the fruitfulness of the land prefigures the honor given to God through the
fruitfulness of Christ (John 13:31–32; 1 Cor. 15:23).

3:1 Most of the peace offering is eaten by the worshiper (7:15–16), signifying fellowship with and
blessing from God. It is fulfilled in Christ's reconciliation and giving himself as food (John 6:52–57;
Rom. 5:9–11).

4:2 The promise of forgiveness is fulfilled in Christ's giving himself as a sacrifice for sin (Rom. 8:3;
Heb. 10:1–10).

4:12 The position outside the camp prefigures Christ's crucifixion outside Jerusalem (Heb. 13:11–
14).

5:1 Sins of falsehood and sins against holiness are forgiven in anticipation of Christ's work in
holiness (Heb. 9:23–26; 10:11–20).

6:13 The continuation of the altar fire indicates the insufficiency of repeated sacrifices (Heb. 10:1–
4), in contrast to the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice (Heb. 10:10) and intercession (Heb. 7:25).

7:20 Fellowship with God and with the things of God requires holiness, prefiguring the holiness of
Christ purifying us (Heb. 10:10; 12:14).

8:1 For the instructions for consecration, see Exodus 29.

8:30 Consecration through oil and blood prefigures purification from sin through the Spirit and the
blood of Christ (Heb. 9:19–26; 1 Pet. 1:2).

9:24 God's acceptance of the offering prefigures his acceptance of the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 9:13–
14).

10:2 The rejection of human inventions prefigures the fact that Christ is the only way to God (John
14:6; Acts 4:12).

11:45 Separation from uncleanness symbolizes separation from sin in order to be intimate with

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God. It prefigures Christ's work bringing holiness (Heb. 7:26; 10:10).

12:7 Human birth is contaminated with sin ever since Adam. The remedy is in new birth (John 3:3–
8) through Christ (Rom. 5:15–21).

14:2 Cleansing prefigures Christ's work of cleansing from sin (Luke 5:12–14; Heb. 9:9–14).

15:1 Disorders of the body symbolize the disorder of sin, to be cleansed by Christ (Heb. 9:9–14).

16:16 Symbolical atonement prefigures Christ's final atonement (Heb. 9:7–14).

17:11 The blood symbolizing life prefigures the blood of Christ, whose poured-out life brings
atonement for sin (Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:12–14, 18–26).

17:14 In the superior blessing of the new covenant we partake of the blood of Christ as the source
of spiritual life (John 6:53–56).

18:3 Separation from pagan practices is part of holiness with God, prefiguring the holiness of Christ
(Heb. 7:26) and his people (2 Cor. 6:14–18).

18:5 Ultimately, the holiness of God requires perfect obedience, which is found in Christ (2 Cor.
5:21). Sinful man cannot keep the law (Rom. 10:5; Gal. 3:12–14).

19:2 Loyalty to God requires a life of holiness (1 Pet. 1:15–22).

19:18 The love commandment finds fulfillment in Christ and in those who are his (Matt. 22:39;
Rom. 13:9; Gal. 5:14; James 2:8; 1 John 3:11–18; 4:7–21).

20:2 Sin has consequences in curse and death, prefiguring both the death of Christ as sin-bearer (1
Pet. 2:24) and eternal death in hell (Rev. 20:14–15).

21:1 Holiness requires separation from death, which symbolizes sin. The priests prefigure the
priesthood of Christ (Heb. 7:26–28) and of his redeemed people (1 Pet. 2:5, 9; Rev. 1:6; 5:10).

22:3 Sin, symbolized by uncleanness, disqualifies us from heavenly things and must be cleansed by
Christ (Heb. 9:8–13).

23:5 See Deut. 16:1–8. The Passover prefigures the Last Supper and Christ's death (Matt. 26:19, 26–
28; 1 Cor. 5:7).

23:16 See Deut. 16:9–12. This is the feast of “Pentecost,” fulfilled in Acts when the firstfruits from
the nations are gathered into the church (Acts 2:1–11).

23:28 The day of atonement, an annual day described in chapter 16, prefigures the once-for-all
atonement of Christ (Heb. 9:7–14; 10:3–5).

24:2 Continual light prefigures Jesus as the light of the world (John 1:4–9; 3:19–21; 8:12; 9:5).

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24:8 Continual bread prefigures Jesus as the bread of life (John 6:35, 48–51).

25:4 The rest given to the land prefigures the final rest given in the consummation (Heb. 4:9–11;
Rev. 21:1–22:5). See notes on Gen. 2:2 and 2:3.

26:14 Sin leads to a curse, anticipating Christ's sin-bearing (Gal. 3:13–14), and sin ultimately leads
to hell (Rev. 20:14–15).

27:10 The permanence of holiness prefigures the permanence of redemption (John 10:28–29) and
of the new world (Rev. 22:5).

Numbers
The journey through the wilderness prefigures the Christian journey through this world to the new
world (1 Cor. 10:1–11; Heb. 4:3–10).

1:3 Readiness for war prefigures spiritual war (Eph. 6:13).

2:17 The people of God are to be organized with God at the center (Eph. 4:4–6).

3:12 The Levites as a holy substitute prefigure Christ as priest, representative, and substitute (Heb.
7:23–28).

4:15 The penalty of death for approaching God's holiness indicates the need for perfect mediation
through Christ (Heb. 9:23–26).

5:20 The need for faithfulness in marriage prefigures the faithfulness of the church to Christ (2 Cor.
11:2–4; Eph. 5:25–27).

6:5 The special holiness of the Nazirite prefigures the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26).

7:5 Holy service prefigures the service of Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:2) and his people (Rom. 12:1–2).

8:16 Christ substitutes for us and represents us before God (Heb. 7:23–28).

9:10 Being clean for the Passover prefigures moral purity in the church (1 Cor. 5:7–8).

10:2 Summoning prefigures God's instruction to the church (Eph. 4:1; 1 Thess. 4:1–3).

11:17 The distribution of the Spirit foreshadows the wider distribution at Pentecost (11:29; Joel
2:28; Acts 2:4, 16–18).

12:8 Rejection of Moses prefigures the seriousness of rejecting Christ's unique prophetic ministry
(John 3:32–36; 5:23).

13:31 The unbelief of Israel contrasts both with the faithfulness of Christ (Matt. 4:1–10) and the
faith of Christians (Heb. 3:7–4:3).

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14:35 Death indicates judgment on unbelief (Heb. 3:16–19).

15:30 Cutting off prefigures apostasy from Christ (Heb. 10:26–31).

16:2 Rebellion prefigures false teaching in the church (Jude 10–13).

17:5 The choice of Aaron alone prefigures Christ as the one way (John 14:6).

18:5 The priests turn away wrath, prefiguring Christ's propitiation (Rom. 3:23–25).

19:9 Purification prefigures the purification of Christ's work (Heb. 9:13–14).

20:24 The failures in the priests point to the need for the greater priesthood of Christ (Heb. 7:23–
25).

21:9 Looking at the serpent prefigures faith in Christ who is lifted up (John 3:14–16).

22:12 God overrules all plots against his purposes (Acts 2:23; Eph. 1:11–12).

24:17 Partial fulfillments in David's and Solomon's rule anticipate Christ's rule over his enemies (1
Cor. 15:24–27; Eph. 1:20–22).

25:3 Idolatry leads to chastisement and death (1 Cor. 10:20; Rev. 14:9–11).

27:4 Inheritance of the land anticipates eternal inheritance of the new world (Heb. 11:13–16).

28:3 Repeated, scheduled offerings anticipate one final offering by Christ (Heb. 10:1–10).

30:3 The authority of a man anticipates the authority of Christ over the church (Eph. 5:21–24).

31:16 The war prefigures holy war against sin (Eph. 6:11; 1 Pet. 2:11).

32:17 The 2 1/2 tribes receive their inheritance in Josh. 13:8–33. The tribes' commitment to the
whole nation prefigures cooperative work in the church (1 Corinthians 12).

33:2 The names of the locations record God's faithfulness to his promise to bring his people to the
land (Gen. 12:7; Ex. 6:4), prefiguring his faithfulness to believers in Christ (2 Cor. 1:20).

34:13 The inheritance is distributed in Joshua 14–19. The allotment of this land prefigures
allotment to each of Christ's people of an eternal inheritance (Eph. 1:11; Col. 1:12).

35:11 See Joshua 20. Deliverance from death prefigures Christ becoming a refuge from death for
his people (John 8:51; Heb. 2:14; 6:18).

36:2 See note on 27:4.

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Deuteronomy
The righteousness and wisdom of the law of God prefigure the righteousness of Christ, which is
given to his people. The anticipation of entering the Promised Land prefigures Christians' hope for
the new heaven and the new earth (Rev. 21:1–22:5).

1:32 The people's unbelief (see Numbers 14) contrasts with faith for entering God's rest (Heb. 3:7–
4:11).

2:24 God, not human strength, gives victory (3:22), prefiguring victory in Christ (Heb. 2:14–15).

3:12 Moses recalls Numbers 32; see note on Num. 32:17.

3:26 The insufficiency of Moses contrasts with the sufficiency of Christ, who has entered the eternal
inheritance on our behalf (Heb. 9:23–26; 10:19–22).

4:6 Israel by obeying would have been a light to the nations. Christ in his obedience is the light that
Israel failed to be (Isa. 42:6; John 1:4–9).

5:2 The covenant at Horeb (Sinai) anticipates the new covenant, where obedience will spring from
the heart (Heb. 8:8–13), because of Christ's purification (Heb. 10:14).

6:5 Love for God is the greatest commandment (Matt. 22:37–38). One's relation to God himself is
central to life, and true love for God and reconciliation to God are possible only in Christ (John 14:6;
Rom. 5:1–10).

6:14 Holiness before God avoids compromise with evil, prefiguring the holiness of Christ (Heb.
7:26) and his people (1 Pet. 1:15–16; 2:11).

8:18 Gratitude rather than pride characterizes the people of God (1 Cor. 1:28–31; 2 Cor. 9:15).

9:19 Moses' intercession prefigures Christ's intercession (Heb. 7:23–25).

10:16 Circumcision of the heart comes from renewal through the Spirit of Christ (Rom. 8:9–13; Col.
2:11; Heb. 8:8–13).

11:9 Obedience is the basis for life, prefiguring Christ's resurrection life as the reward for his
obedience (Phil. 2:8–11).

12:5 Access to God at a single location (Jerusalem, 1 Kings 8:16; Ps. 122:4) prefigures access
through Christ alone (John 14:6).

13:2 False prophets prefigure the danger of false teachings drawing people away from serving God
through Christ (2 Pet. 2:1).

14:2 Refraining from unclean foods symbolizes separation from sin (2 Cor. 6:17).

15:2 Release of debtors anticipates the great release from sin through Christ (Luke 4:18–19).

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16:1 The great feasts (see Leviticus 23) prefigure the celebration of Christ's deliverance (1 Cor.
5:7).

17:7 The purging of evil prefigures the purging of evil from the church (1 Cor. 5:13) and from the
consummation (Rev. 21:8).

17:15 Kings prefigure the righteousness of Christ the perfect king (Isa. 9:6–7; Matt. 27:37; Rev.
19:16).

18:18 Prophets anticipate Christ, the final prophet (Acts 3:22–26).

19:4 The provision for justice prefigures the justice of Christ's rule (Isa. 9:6–7).

20:4 God fights in anticipation of Christ's fight against evil during his earthly life (Matt. 12:28–29),
in his death (Heb. 2:14–15), and in his second coming (Rev. 19:15–21).

21:9 Provisions for purity and justice anticipate final purification and justice in Christ (Heb. 9:23–
28).

21:23 The curse anticipates Christ bearing the curse of God on our behalf when he is crucified
(“hanged on a tree”) (Gal. 3:13).

22:22 Provisions for sexual purity anticipate the purity of the church as Christ's bride (Eph. 5:25–
27; Rev. 19:7–8).

23:9 God's presence in the camp for war (20:4) requires holiness, prefiguring holy war in Christ
(Rev. 19:14–16).

24:1 Provisions for divorce are due to hardness of heart and are inferior to God's design (Matt.
19:3–9), which is to be fulfilled in Christ (Eph. 5:22–33).

25:4 Provision for the ox is an illustration of a larger principle of provision for labor in the church
(1 Cor. 9:9–11; 1 Tim. 5:18).

25:5 Provision for a continuing name and inheritance prefigures God's promise and provision for
our name (Rev. 2:17) and our inheritance (Eph. 1:13–14; 1 Pet. 1:4–5). It also prefigures Christ, who
as younger “brother” to Adam raises up spiritually alive children (Heb. 2:13).

26:8 Thanksgiving for redemption prefigures Christian thanksgiving for redemption in Christ (Heb.
13:15–16).

27:26 All are subject to the curse, and can escape only through Christ's taking the curse on himself
(Gal. 3:10–14).

28:1 Eternal blessings of salvation come in Christ (Gal. 3:14), who removed the curse we deserved
(Gal. 3:13).

29:4 Renewal of the heart is to come in Christ (Rom. 11:8; Heb. 8:8–13).

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30:12 Christ brings power to obey God from the heart (Rom. 10:6–8).

31:26 God makes provision for the preservation of the law for future generations, including us
(Rom. 15:4; 1 Cor. 10:11).

32:5 Israel's rebellion contrasts with the faithfulness that is to characterize God's children (Phil.
2:15).

32:6 God's care for Israel prefigures his care for Christ's people (Rom. 8:15–17).

32:21 The apostasy of Israel anticipates the rejection of the gospel (Rom. 10:19).

34:10 The uniqueness of Moses anticipates the uniqueness of Christ (Acts 3:22–26).

Joshua
The conquest through Joshua prefigures Christ conquering his enemies, both Satan (Heb. 2:14–15)
and rebellious human beings. The conquest takes place both through the gospel (Matt. 28:18–20)
and in the destruction at the second coming (Rev. 19:11–21).

1:6 Joshua's role prefigures Jesus empowering his disciples (Matt. 28:18–20; Acts 1:8).

2:9 Rahab in her faith anticipates the salvation of Gentiles through faith (Gal. 3:6–9; Heb. 11:31;
James 2:25).

3:11 God's presence brings the people through the waters of death into the land, prefiguring Christ
leading us to eternal life (John 11:25–26).

4:6 Memorials of God's faithfulness look forward to the message of Christ's salvation.

5:14 The divine commander anticipates Christ, who is the commander in climactic spiritual war
(Matt. 28:18; Heb. 2:14–15; Rev. 17:14; 19:11–21).

6:2 The fall of Jericho prefigures the fall of Babylon and the end of the world (Rev. 18:2).

7:11 Israel's suffering because of unholiness prefigures the need for holiness in the church (1 Cor.
5:1–13).

8:32 A permanent record and a recital of the covenant fulfill the instructions given under Moses
(Deut. 27:2–8). Intimacy with God through the covenant looks forward to the new covenant in
Christ (Heb. 8:8–13).

9:3 Though Israel fails in not consulting the Lord (9:14), the result prefigures the time when
through the gospel people from many nations will come to recognize the God of Israel (Luke 24:47;
Acts 1:8; Rev. 5:9–10).

10:14 The great display of God's power on behalf of his people prefigures the power of Christ's
resurrection and God's commitment to save those who belong to Christ (Eph. 1:19–23).

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11:23 The whole conquest takes place according to the plan and promise of God (Deuteronomy 7,
etc.), illustrating God's commitment to Israel in love and anticipating his commitment to believers
in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14).

12:1 The list of defeated kings prefigures the triumph of Christ over all nations (Eph. 1:22; Rev.
5:9–10; 19:11–21; 20:8–9).

13:8 Inheritance takes place according to plan (Numbers 32), prefiguring God's faithfulness with
respect to the eternal inheritance in the new heaven and the new earth (Eph. 1:11, 14; 2:18; 1 Pet.
1:4; 2 Pet. 3:13).

14:2 See Numbers 32–35, especially 32:33; 33:54; 34:17; 35:2. Inheritance takes place according to
the plan of God, anticipating eternal inheritance.

14:6 See Num. 14:6–8. Caleb is a special example showing that inheritance comes to those who
have faith in God and his promises. He prefigures eternal inheritance by faith (Rom. 4:13–16; Gal.
3:7, 18).

15:1 Detailed specification of boundaries underlines for future generations their participation in
the promise. It prefigures the detailed care and provision that God makes for each of us,
anticipating the full inheritance in the new heaven and the new earth (1 Pet. 1:4; 2 Pet. 3:13; Rev.
21:1).

16:1 Each of the tribes is provided for (Num. 33:54), and with it each of the members of the tribes,
prefiguring God's provision for each follower of Christ (John 10:3, 14; see also John 6:35).

18:4 The situation is reminiscent of the spying of the land in Numbers 13. But this time the result is
more favorable, prefiguring the even greater blessings that God has in store through the new
covenant (Heb. 8:8–13).

19:1 See note on 15:1.

20:1 The selection of cities of refuge fulfills the instructions through Moses (Num. 35:9–29; Deut.
19:1–13). It makes provision for refuge from death, prefiguring the coming of Christ as final refuge
and solution to death (Heb. 2:14–15; Rev. 1:18).

21:2 The distribution of the Levites among the tribes fulfills Gen. 49:7 and Num. 35:1–8, and
provides all the tribes with people to teach the law (Lev. 10:11; Mal. 2:4–9). Their teaching
prefigures the knowledge of God from the heart in the new covenant (Heb. 8:8–13).

22:26 The altar confirming participation in God's promises prefigures the Holy Spirit sealing
participation in Christ (2 Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13).

23:6 The call to loyalty to the Mosaic covenant prefigures the call to faith in Christ (Matt. 28:18–20;
Heb. 3:12–14).

24:15 God must be served with exclusive loyalty (Deut. 5:7), prefiguring the exclusivity of
commitment to Christ as the one way of salvation (Matt. 6:24; 10:34–39; John 14:6; Acts 4:12; 1 Cor.
10:21–22).

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Judges
The judges save Israel, thus prefiguring Christ. But the judges have flaws and failures, and Israel
repeatedly slips back into idolatry (2:19), spiraling downward to chaos. They need a king (21:25),
and not only a king but a perfect king, the Messiah (Isa. 9:6–7).

1:2 The leading role of Judah anticipates the rise of kings from the line of Judah (Gen. 49:10),
beginning with King David and culminating in Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:1–16).

2:18 God raises judges to save the people, prefiguring the sending of Christ (Matt. 1:21). But the
judges' help is only temporary (Judg. 2:19).

3:20 The surprise prefigures the surprising character of salvation in Christ, which seems to the
world to be weakness (1 Cor. 1:25).

4:9 The glory goes ultimately to God, not to human strength or courage, prefiguring the divine glory
through human weakness in the cross of Christ (1 Cor. 1:25).

5:4 God's power and glory at Seir (Deut. 33:2) prefigure his present and future triumphs (Rev.
19:6).

6:15 God again chooses to save Israel through a weak and timid person (cf. 4:9), prefiguring the
triumph of divine glory through human weakness in Christ (1 Cor. 1:25; 2 Cor. 13:4).

7:3 God reduces the number of troops, prefiguring his work of eternal salvation through a single
person, Jesus Christ.

8:16 Those who despise the work of God through a small number prefigure those who despise the
work of God in Christ (1 Cor. 1:18–31).

9:56 The horrors due to Abimelech give evidence for the need for a king, thus looking forward to
the coming of David and his descendants, above all Jesus Christ the son of David and final king.

10:6 Disobedience and idolatry further multiply (see 2:19), giving further evidence for the need of
permanent salvation through the coming line of King David.

11:2 Jephthah is a flawed judge because of his ancestry, because of his appointment by the elders
rather than a direct call from God, and because of his foolish vow. He makes evident the need for
permanent salvation through the coming line of King David.

12:4 The fighting among the Israelites shows the need for a king in the coming line of David who
will bring unity to the people.

13:5 Samson is to be a Nazirite (see Numbers 6) and especially holy. He shows great promise as a
savior of Israel prefiguring Christ.

13:8 The “man of God,” “the angel of the Lord” (v. 15) is God himself (v. 22), anticipating the
incarnation of Christ.

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14:3 Israel is told not to intermarry with the Canaanites (Deut. 7:3). In Samson's case the Lord uses
it for good (Judg. 14:4), but it ultimately becomes Samson's downfall (ch. 16), indicating the need
for a perfect savior to deliver people from their spiritual “marriage” to idolatry.

15:14 Samson triumphs after being delivered as a captive over to the enemies, prefiguring Christ's
victory after being delivered to his enemies.

16:30 Samson, though sinful, delivers Israel through his death, prefiguring Christ the sinless one
delivering his people.

17:2 Sin is compounded, in stealing, making an idol, partly backing down from a vow (v. 4), and
making a false priesthood (v. 5). This shows further descent into sinfulness and the need for the
coming king in the line of David.

18:19 The multiplication of sin shows the need for salvation through the coming king in the line of
David.

19:30 Gibeah has become like Sodom (Genesis 19), showing the depths of sin and the need for
salvation.

20:14 Division and war, rather than unity in righteousness, show the need for salvation through the
coming king in the line of David.

21:10 The tribe of Benjamin is saved from utter annihilation, but only through further disunity,
slaughter, and disorder. The disaster shows the need for permanent salvation through the king.

Ruth
The line of offspring leading to Christ goes through Judah to Boaz to David (4:18–22; Matt. 1:5–6).
Boaz the redeemer (Ruth 2:20), prefiguring Christ, enables Naomi's disgrace to be removed and
Ruth, a foreigner, to be included in God's people (prefiguring the inclusion of the Gentiles, Gal. 3:7–
9, 14–18, 29).

1:16 Ruth expresses faith in the God of Israel, as well as love for Naomi, anticipating the role of faith
when Christ comes to bring salvation.

1:20 Naomi's transition from bitterness to blessedness prefigures the participation of God's people
in Christ's death and resurrection (Phil. 3:10).

2:20 The kindness and protection of Boaz, the kinsman-redeemer, prefigure the work of Christ the
redeemer.

3:9 Christ spreads his protection over the church, his bride (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25–27).

4:11 The blessing of fruitfulness has a near fulfillment in the birth of Obed (v. 13), but points
ultimately to Christ and his fruitfulness (Heb. 2:10).

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1 Samuel
David, the king after God's heart (16:7; Acts 13:22), prefigures Christ, in contrast to Saul, who is the
kind of king that the people want (1 Sam. 8:5, 19–20). Saul's persecution of David prefigures
worldly people's persecution of Christ and of Christ's people.

1:11 By his power to bring life out of barrenness God raises up Samuel as his representative,
prefiguring the virgin birth of Christ (Matt. 1:25).

2:7 The raising of the downtrodden that Hannah experiences prefigures the reversal in Christ (Luke
1:48–53).

3:19 Samuel's calling at an early age prefigures the intimacy with God that Christ as the Son enjoys
with the Father from all eternity.

4:11 The capture of the ark, which symbolizes God himself, and the death of the priests is a kind of
“humiliation” of God's name, prefiguring the humiliation of Christ in his crucifixion. But it all takes
place in accordance with God's sovereign purpose (2:34–35; Acts 2:23; 4:25–28).

5:4 God executes judgment on Dagon, prefiguring the judgment in Christ against all idols and idol
worship (Rev. 2:20).

6:12 By miraculous power God delivers the ark, the symbol of his name, prefiguring the miraculous
deliverance of Christ from death.

7:8 Samuel acts as a faithful judge (v. 15; cf. Judg. 13:5), prophet (1 Sam. 3:19–20), and priest (7:8–
9), prefiguring the work of Christ as king, prophet, and priest (Heb. 1:1–3).

8:5 A king like the nations contrasts with God's kingship (v. 7). God intends Israel to have a king
(Deut. 17:14–20), but the people's desires and the kings themselves fall short. Saul's failure
contrasts with David's success. But eventually David too fails (2 Samuel 11). The failure of merely
human kings points to the need for the perfect king, Christ, who will be divine and human (Isa. 9:6–
7).

8:7 The people's rejection of God's ways prefigures the rejection of Christ (Acts 3:13–15; 7:51–53).

9:16 God indicates his sovereignty over the appointment of kings, prefiguring the appointment of
Christ as king over all (Ps. 2:6; Eph. 1:20–22; Phil. 2:9–11).

10:1 The oil prefigures the coming of the Holy Spirit to empower. Saul's later failures show that he
is only a shadow of the greater anointing that comes to David (16:13) and climactically to Christ
(Luke 4:18; John 3:34), and then to those who belong to Christ (2 Cor. 1:21–22).

11:15 Saul is initially successful, receiving the benefits of God's favor. This temporary favor
contrasts with the lasting favor on David and his offspring, supremely on Christ (Matt. 3:17).

12:14 As the king goes, so go the people. Their failures show the need for the coming of Christ the
perfect king, who is able to change the hearts of his people.

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13:12 Saul knew that sacrifice was supposed to be offered only by the priests (Num. 18:7). Saul's
sins lead to his replacement by David (1 Sam. 13:14; 16:7), prefiguring the need for Christ the
perfect king.

14:6 The Lord saved Israel through Jonathan that day (v. 23). Ultimate salvation comes through one
man, Christ Jesus (1 Tim. 2:5).

15:22 Sinners replace real obedience with outward tokens (see Mic. 6:6–8). Full obedience from
the heart is found in Christ (Heb. 10:5–10).

16:7 The choice of David contrasts with people's looking on outward appearance (10:23–24). The
contrast prefigures people's rejection of Christ's humiliation and suffering (Isa. 53:3; 1 Cor. 1:18–
31).

17:47 God's working national deliverance through David prefigures international salvation through
Christ, who defeats Satan (Heb. 2:14–15).

18:3 Despite Saul's antagonism, Saul's son Jonathan and daughter Michal go over to David's side.
David prefigures the spiritual attraction of Jesus Christ, who is the final David (Matt. 4:18–22; 8:9–
13).

19:10 Saul's repeated persecution of David in his innocence prefigures the repeated persecution of
Christ (John 8:44–47).

20:33 The conflict with Jonathan prefigures the conflict within households over loyalty to Christ
(Matt. 10:34–39).

21:5 The exception made for David as God's anointed prefigures the role of Christ, God's anointed,
in relation to the law (Matt. 12:3–4, 8).

22:16 As Saul continues to pursue David, Saul's sins multiply, prefiguring the progressive
enslavement to sin on the part of those who refuse to come to Christ.

23:2 Directions from God repeatedly help David to choose a path forward, prefiguring the direction
from God through Christ to the road to eternal life (Matt. 7:24–27; John 5:24).

24:6 David respects Saul's position as God's anointed king, unlike Pilate, who failed to recognize
Jesus' position as God's anointed King (John 19:10).

24:17 David shows mercy to Saul, prefiguring the mercy of Christ even toward those who have
opposed him (1 Tim. 1:13–16).

25:24 Abigail offers herself as a guilt-bearer for her worthless husband, prefiguring the gracious
guilt-bearing of Christ (1 Pet. 2:23–25).

25:29 Vengeance belongs to the Lord (Rom. 12:19). In recalling this, David prefigures Christ's
willingness to leave vengeance in God's hands (1 Pet. 2:23).

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26:9 See the note on 24:6.

27:1 Though David loses heart, God continues to protect David in fulfillment of his purpose to make
David king (16:1). God's faithfulness even to an imperfect man magnifies his faithfulness in the case
of Christ, the perfect king.

28:7 By consulting a medium, Saul makes a further step into wickedness, further contrasting his life
with the righteousness of David, and the climactic righteousness of the Messiah.

29:11 God continues faithfulness to David by removing him from involvement in the death of Saul
and Jonathan (31:2) and enabling him to return to Ziklag in time to rescue the wives and children
(30:1–31). See note on 27:1.

30:6 David through the strength of God acts as deliverer, prefiguring Christ the deliverer of
captives (Luke 4:18–19).

31:6 God fulfills his word against Saul (28:19), showing that sin in a ruler brings suffering and
death not only on himself but on others under his care. The failure of Saul shows the need for a
perfect ruler in the line of David (Isa. 9:6–7).

2 Samuel
David as a model king brings blessing to the nation until he falls into sin with Bathsheba (ch. 11).
Though he repents, the remainder of his reign is flawed, pointing to the need for the coming of
Christ the perfect messianic king.

1:23 David mentions nothing of Saul's failures and sins, prefiguring the grace and forgiveness of
Christ.

2:10 Judah and Israel are eventually united under David and Solomon (5:1–5; 1 Kings 4:20), but
division reappears under Rehoboam and his successors (1 Kings 11:11–13; 12:16–24). The strife
points to the need for permanent union, which will be achieved only through Christ the king.

3:37 David's graciousness and respect for Abner, in contrast to Joab's vengeance, display the
qualities of a godly king, prefiguring the graciousness of Christ.

4:11 David's respect for Ish-bosheth, like his respect for Abner, shows the desire for reconciliation
and forgiveness, prefiguring Christ's reconciliation.

5:2 David unites Israel and Judah under one head, fulfilling God's prophetic purpose (1 Sam. 16:1)
and prefiguring the greater unity of God's people to be accomplished in Christ (1 Corinthians 12;
Eph. 4:1–16).

6:7 Only the Levites were to carry the ark, touching only its poles (Ex. 25:14; Num. 4:15). God in his
holiness destroys sinners who approach him unauthorized, but his presence can also bring blessing
(2 Sam. 6:12). The tension is resolved only when the way to approach God is opened through
Christ's work of purification (Heb. 10:19–22).

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7:12 God's covenant with David has a proximate fulfillment with Solomon (1 Kings 1:46; 8:15–21).
But Solomon fails (1 Kings 11:1–10). God preserves the line of offspring (1 Kings 11:12, 36; 15:4; 2
Kings 8:19) until Christ the everlasting king comes (Matt. 1:1–16).

7:14 God promises David that he will be a father to Solomon. As God's son, Solomon prefigures
Christ the eternal Son (Heb. 1:5).

8:15 David as model king subdues enemies and brings justice, prefiguring the work of Christ the
king (Isa. 9:6–7).

9:1 David's graciousness toward the house of Saul fulfills his earlier promise to Saul (1 Sam. 24:21–
22) and Jonathan (1 Sam. 20:15–17), and it prefigures the graciousness of Christ the king.

10:2 Willingly or unwillingly Ammon comes to acknowledge David's rule, prefiguring the willing or
unwilling submission of all nations to Christ's rule (Psalm 2).

11:4 David later repents (12:13). But David and his house and his rule over the whole nation suffer
various consequences for the rest of his life. The devastation from one sin points to the need for
Christ the perfect, sinless king (Isa. 42:1–4).

12:13 God is gracious to forgive, ultimately for the sake of Christ (1 John 1:9). But sin still brings
consequences (2 Sam. 12:10–12, 14). See note on 11:4.

13:22 The sin of Amnon, in its similarity to David's sin (11:4), begins a series of devastating
consequences for David's house (12:10–12), including not only Absalom's actions but David's
neglect of discipline and justice toward Amnon and Absalom. See note on 11:4.

14:1 David's love for Absalom prefigures Christ's love for sinners. But David falls short of Christ by
neglecting justice: murder deserves death (Num. 35:31–34).

15:1 Absalom's betrayal of his father prefigures Judas's betrayal of Jesus (John 13:18), and more
broadly the treachery of all who rebel against God the Father and Christ.

15:30 David's sorrow prefigures the sorrow of Christ as he leaves Jerusalem and prays in
Gethsemane (Matt. 26:30, 36–46).

16:12 David leaves vengeance to God, prefiguring the patience of Christ before his enemies (1 Pet.
2:23).

16:22 Absalom's sordid behavior fulfills God's prophecy in 12:11–12, further illustrating the
devastation of sin and the need for a perfect redeemer king.

17:5 Through Hushai and other circumstances, God shows mercy to David and answers David's
need expressed in 15:31–37. The turning back of the effects of sin, and David's rescue from death,
look forward to final redemption in Christ.

18:33 David's grief, though flawed (19:2, 5–7), prefigures the willingness of the Son of God to die in
place of sinners (Rom. 5:8).

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19:22 Forgiveness under the reestablished kingship prefigures forgiveness for former rebels under
Christ's kingship (1 Tim. 1:12–16).

20:1 Divisiveness continues to rear its head after Absalom's death, partly because of David's
preference for Judah in 19:11–15, leading to the anger in 19:43. The kingdom continues to suffer
indirect consequences from David's sin with Bathsheba, underlining the need for Christ the perfect
king. See note on 11:4.

20:10 Though David is reconciled to Amasa (v. 4), Joab kills him, probably because of his role in
Absalom's rebellion (17:25). See note on 20:1.

21:3 Atonement and blessing are needed, but David's solution (v. 6) does not give ultimate
satisfaction (Deut. 24:16). Full resolution of justice requires Christ the divine king with infinite
wisdom, and the coming of resurrection from the dead (Rev. 20:11–15).

22:1 This song is included in the Psalter in Psalm 18, indicating that it is to be sung by the people of
God as well as David. See note on 1 Chron. 15:16.

22:50 The spread of praise among the nations anticipates the spread of the gospel (Acts 1:8; Rom.
15:9).

22:51 God's salvation for David prefigures his salvation through Christ the king.

23:8 The list of mighty men prefigures the might in the army of God under Christ the king (Rev.
19:11–14).

24:1 Out of the need for atonement comes the designation of the site for the temple of Solomon (1
Chron. 21:28–22:1), which prefigures Christ as the final temple where atonement is accomplished
(John 2:19–21). See note on 1 Chron. 22:1.

24:17 The suffering of the sheep for the sin of their king is reversed when Christ suffers for the sins
of the sheep (John 10:15). Christ's suffering answers David's request that God's hand would be
against “my father's house,” the line leading to Christ.

1 Kings
The reign of Solomon fulfills the first stage of God's promise to David to establish the kingdom of his
offspring (2 Sam. 7:12). Solomon in some ways is a model king, prefiguring Christ. But his decline
into sin (1 Kings 11), the sins of his offspring, the division and strife between Israel and Judah, and
the continual problems with false worship indicate the need for a perfect king and an everlasting
kingdom (Isa. 9:6–7) surpassing the entire period of the monarchy. Many passages in 1 Kings have
parallels in 2 Chronicles.

1:13 David's purpose prefigures the purpose of God to establish Christ as king, when many prefer
alternatives (Psalm 2; Acts 13:33).

2:6 Solomon's wisdom is tested in dealing with unfinished business from the reign of David.
Solomon's wisdom prefigures the wisdom of Christ (Matt. 12:42; Col. 2:3). The combination of

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mercy and justice characterizes David and Solomon in anticipation of Christ.

3:9 See note on 2:6. God promises wisdom in 3:12, and fulfillment is seen in 3:28 and 4:29–34.

4:1 The blessings of order, peace, justice, and prosperity in Solomon's reign prefigure the blessings
of Christ's reign.

4:34 The attraction of Solomon's wisdom prefigures all nations hearing the wisdom of Christ (Acts
1:8).

5:5 Solomon's building of the temple fulfills God's promise in 2 Sam. 7:13 (cf. 1 Chron. 17:12) and
prefigures the building of an everlasting temple. Christ's resurrection body is an everlasting temple
(John 2:19–22), and then Christ builds the church as a temple (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 3:16).

5:8 The aid in building from Hiram, a Gentile, prefigures the inclusion of the Gentiles in the building
of the church as a temple (Eph. 2:19–22).

6:2 The temple is like the tabernacle of Moses (Exodus 25–27; see note on Ex. 25:8), but it is larger
and more magnificent, symbolizing an expansion and a further stage in God's purpose to dwell with
his people. Still further development takes place with Ezekiel's vision of a new temple (Ezekiel 40–
43), with the church (Eph. 2:19–22), and with the new Jerusalem in the consummation (Rev. 21:3,
10–22:5).

7:14 See note on 5:8. Hiram's God-given wisdom is like that of Bezalel and Oholiab, who supervised
the construction of the tabernacle (Ex. 31:1–6). It prefigures the wisdom of Christ and of his
servants in the building of the church (Eph. 2:19–22).

7:23 The sea greatly enlarges the basin for washing that was in the tabernacle (Ex. 30:17–21). See
note on Ex. 30:20.

7:27 The stands with their basins (v. 38) represent small, mobile versions of the sea (vv. 23–26),
further underlining the abundance of water (see note on v. 23). The multiplication of water,
compared with the single basin for washing in Ex. 30:17–21, anticipates the even greater
abundance when the water provided by God becomes a river of life (Ezek. 47:1–12; John 4:10–14;
19:34; Rev. 22:1–2).

8:11 See Ex. 40:34–35. The glory of the Lord later departs, because of the apostasy of the people
(Ezekiel 10). The coming of God's presence prefigures the fullness of the Spirit in Christ (Matt.
3:16–17; John 3:34–35; 1:14) and within the church (Acts 2:3–4; 1 Cor. 3:16).

8:24 The promise to David is in 2 Sam. 7:13. The temple anticipates the greater fulfillment in the
dwelling of God with man through Christ. See notes on 1 Kings 5:5 and 6:2.

8:30 The key role of the temple in prayer prefigures the role of Christ, through whose name we
have access to God (John 14:13–14; Heb. 10:19–22).

9:8 The desolation comes to pass in 2 Kings 25:9–11, indicating the need for true obedience and a
greater temple that is to come in Christ (John 2:19–21).

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10:1 The queen of Sheba's coming to hear wisdom, mentioned also in Matt. 12:42, prefigures the
coming of the nations to Christ (Acts 1:8; Col. 2:3).

11:2 Solomon's disobedience leads to disastrous judgment (vv. 9–11), anticipating the judgments
on later idolatries among God's people. Solomon's failure indicates the need for Christ the perfect
king in the line of David (Matt. 1:1–16).

12:15 God's prophecy in 11:29–39 begins to be fulfilled, and God's people split into two kingdoms.
Both Rehoboam's failure and the resulting disunity and strife among God's people show the need
for Christ the perfect king as the unifier of his people (1 Corinthians 12; Eph. 4:1–6).

13:2 A striking prophecy, fulfilled in 2 Kings 23:15–17, shows the power of God's word even in the
midst of sin, corruption of worship, and chaos. The power of the prophetic word prefigures the
power of Christ, the final prophet (Acts 3:22–26; Heb. 1:1–2).

13:34 See the description of Jeroboam's sin in 12:26–33. Judgment for sin is prophesied in 14:9–12,
and falls in 14:17–18, 15:29–30. Jeroboam's sin continues with his successors (15:34; 16:2, 7, 19,
26; 22:53; 2 Kings 3:3; 10:29, 31; 13:2, 11; 14:24; 15:9, 18, 24, 28), ultimately leading to the exile of
the northern kingdom (2 Kings 17:21–23). The judgments on false worship show the need for true
worship, prefiguring Christ as the one way to God (John 14:6).

14:10 See note on 13:34. The power of God's word is seen when the judgment falls in 14:17–18 and
15:29–30.

14:22 Just as in the northern kingdom (v. 9), false worship in the southern kingdom eventually
leads to exile (2 Kings 23:26–27; 25:1–21; see note on 1 Kings 13:34).

15:4 In spite of sin God is faithful to the promise to David (2 Sam. 7:5–17), and maintains the line of
David (1 Kings 11:12, 32, 34, 36; 2 Kings 8:19; 19:34) down through a list of kings of Judah leading
to Christ (Matt. 1:1–16).

15:18 In contrast to the kings of Israel (vv. 26, 34), Asa is a good king (v. 11), prefiguring the
righteousness of Christ his descendant. Yet in this case he fails to rely on God (see 2 Chron. 16:7–
12), underlining the need for perfect righteousness in the king.

15:29–30 The killing fulfills the prophecy in 14:9–11 (see note on 13:34). The wiping out of the
king's line of descent contrasts with God's faithfulness in maintaining the line of David leading to
Christ (see note on 15:4).

16:3 See 15:29–30. Judgments on the northern kingdom show the consistency of God's word and
his holiness (see note on 13:34).

17:1 The power of the prophetic word prefigures the power of Christ's word (Heb. 1:1–3).

17:14 The miraculous supply of food through the power of God's word prefigures the power of
Christ to multiply bread (Matt. 14:13–21; Mark 8:1–9) and to himself be the bread of heaven (John
6:26–51).

17:21 Impartation of life prefigures Christ's resurrection of Jairus's daughter (Matt. 9:18–25), his

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resurrection of Lazarus (John 11:38–44), his own resurrection (John 10:18), and his role as “the
resurrection and the life” (John 11:25–26) who gives spiritual life to us in anticipation of the
resurrection of the body (John 5:28–29).

18:39 Miraculous power anticipates the resurrection of Christ, which displays the power of God
and draws the nations to acknowledge him (John 12:32).

19:2 Jezebel's opposition undermines Elijah's previous work, seeming to lead to failure (v. 4). But
God's purpose through his prophetic word stands (vv. 12, 15–18), prefiguring the victory when
Christ fulfills prophecy.

19:16 See v. 19. Elijah is not the end, but one of a succession of prophets leading to Christ, the final
prophet (Heb. 1:1–2).

19:18 The 7,000 illustrate the concept of a remnant, to be fulfilled by the Jews who believe in Christ
(Rom. 11:3–10; see note on Isa. 6:13).

20:28 God's desire to magnify his glory enables Ahab to defeat Ben-hadad twice (see vv. 19–21).
The victory in battle prefigures the final victory of Christ and his army (Rev. 19:11–21).

20:42 Ahab's failure contrasts with the complete elimination of enemies in the final battle led by
Christ (Rev. 19:11–21).

21:19 The prophecy is fulfilled in 2 Kings 9:25–26, 36–37; 10:10–11, 17, showing the power of
God's word in judgment. This power prefigures the power of Christ's word (Heb. 1:1–2; 4:12–13;
Rev. 19:15, 21).

22:19 The superiority of God to all earthly thrones is shown when Micaiah's prophecy (vv. 23, 28)
is fulfilled (vv. 34–36). The power of God and of his word anticipates the power shown in the
resurrection of Christ (Eph. 1:20–22) and in the spread of the gospel, which confounds worldly
authorities (1 Cor. 2:6–9).

2 Kings
Following the history in 1 Kings, Israel and Judah continue to decline through their false worship
and disobedience, leading to exile (2 Kings 17; 25). Some good kings (notably Hezekiah and Josiah,
chs. 18–20; 22:1–23:30) prefigure the need for Christ the perfect king, while Elisha prefigures the
need for Christ the final prophet (Heb. 1:1–3). Many passages in 2 Kings have parallels in 2
Chronicles.

1:4 The prophecy is fulfilled in v. 17. The triumph of God's word over all opposition prefigures the
triumph of Christ and of the gospel.

2:11 Elijah's ascent prefigures the triumph of Christ over death and his ascension (Luke 24:51; Acts
1:9).

2:14 The dividing of the waters, reminiscent of Moses at the Red Sea (Ex. 14:21–22), Joshua at the
Jordan (Josh. 3:7–17), and Elijah at the Jordan (2 Kings 2:8), confirms that Elisha has received the

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prophetic succession from Elijah (v. 9). The power over the waters (which are a symbol of death
and chaos) prefigures the resurrection of Christ.

3:17 The provision of water, like the provision under Moses (Ex. 17:6; 20:8–11), prefigures Christ
as the giver of the water of eternal life (John 4:10, 13–14; Rev. 22:1).

4:34 The giving of life, like the instance with Elijah (1 Kings 17:17–24), prefigures the resurrection
of Christ and the life he gives to us through union with him (Rom. 6:4, 8–11; 8:10–11; Col. 3:1–4).

5:14 Cleansing from leprosy (Leviticus 14) prefigures cleansing from sin through the power of
Christ (Luke 5:12–14). The inclusion of Naaman, a Syrian, prefigures the inclusion of the Gentiles in
God's salvation (Luke 24:47).

6:17 The vision of God's angelic army indicates dimensions of spiritual warfare. It anticipates the
spiritual war with the coming of Christ (Matt. 12:28–29; Luke 10:18–19; John 12:31; Rev. 19:11–
21).

7:1 The provision of food in spite of unbelief (see Ex. 16:1–21) prefigures Christ giving himself as
the bread of heaven (John 6:35, 47–51).

8:15 Hazael's fulfillment of earlier prophetic words (1 Kings 19:15; 2 Kings 8:10) shows the power
of God's word in judgment. (See 10:32.) This power anticipates the power of Christ's words (John
12:48; Heb. 1:1–2; 4:12–13; Rev. 1:16).

9:25 This fulfillment of earlier prophecy (1 Kings 19:16–17; 21:19–24) emphasizes the power of
God's word in bringing judgment. See notes on 1 Kings 21:19 and 2 Kings 8:15.

10:10 Jehu fulfills God's prophetic words of judgment against Ahab's house and wipes out the
worship of Baal introduced by Jezebel (1 Kings 16:31–33), showing God's power in judgment and
anticipating the day of judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). See note on 1 Kings 21:19.

11:2 The rescue of Joash prefigures the rescue of Jesus from Herod (Matt. 2:13–15). God preserves
the line of David for the sake of his promise (2 Sam. 7:16) and to carry out his purpose of salvation
through the work of Christ (Rev. 12:4–5).

12:9 The attention to the temple prefigures the importance of building the church (Matt. 16:18; 1
Cor. 14:12; Eph. 2:20–22).

13:23 God's compassion even toward a sinful people prefigures his compassion in Christ toward
sinners (Matt. 9:13; Luke 5:32).

14:10 A single act of pride from Amaziah brings disaster on the people, indicating the need for
Christ as the perfect, humble king (Zech. 9:9).

15:9 See note on 1 Kings 13:34. The northern kingdom goes downhill toward eventual exile in 2
Kings 17:6–23. The degeneration points to the need for perfect kingship and redemption from the
heart, both of which await the coming of Christ.

16:3 Under Ahaz the southern kingdom also suffers serious spiritual degeneration, pointing to the

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need for perfect kingship in Christ.

17:7 The exile is God's judgment on sin (see note on 1 Kings 13:34), prefiguring the judgment on
sin that Christ bore as a substitute (1 Pet. 2:21–24) and the final judgment at the consummation
(Rev. 20:11–15).

18:5 Hezekiah as a faithful king prefigures the faithfulness and righteousness of Christ (Isa. 9:6–7;
42:1–4) and its fruits in the lives of Christ's people. See the parallel passages in 2 Chronicles 32 and
Isaiah 36–38.

18:30 Rabshakeh symbolizes the voice of Satan, who deceives and attacks the faith of God's people
(Gen. 3:4–5; Matt. 4:1–10; Eph. 6:16; Rev. 12:9).

19:22 God vindicates his name against all slanders, prefiguring the vindication of his name in the
resurrection of Christ (John 12:28).

20:5 God mercifully hears prayer, anticipating his mercy in Christ, through whom he hears our
prayers (John 14:13–14; 15:16; 16:26–27).

21:8 Manasseh directly affronts God's command and his holiness, which leads to a prophecy of
judgment (vv. 12–15) and illustrates the pattern of rebellion leading to exile (24:2–4). By contrast,
Manasseh's evil points to the need for Christ as the perfect king.

22:2 Josiah as a righteous king prefigures Christ.

22:13 Words of prophecy, not only from Elijah and Elisha but from Moses (Deut. 11:26–28), show
that God judges in accordance with his purpose and his righteousness. This righteousness is
supremely manifested in Christ, both when in his innocence he bears sin (2 Cor. 5:21) and when he
comes to judge the world (Acts 17:31).

22:20 See 23:30. Because of his righteousness and humility, Josiah receives a blessing. But unlike
Christ (Gal. 3:13–14), he is unable to reverse the impending curse and punishment that will come to
his people (see 2 Kings 23:26–27).

24:2 See notes on 21:8 and 22:13.

25:9 God's righteous judgment falls because of accumulated sins (23:26–27; 24:2–4). The judgment
also destroys God's own house, prefiguring the judgment that will fall on Christ, whose body is the
temple (John 2:19–21; Gal. 3:13–14).

25:27 The provision for the king of Judah, in the line of David, indicates that God still remembers
his promise to David (2 Sam. 7:16) and anticipates the eventual coming of Jesus the Messiah
through the line of Jehoiachin (also called Jeconiah, 1 Chron. 3:16; Matt. 1:11–12).

1 Chronicles
David as the righteous leader and king prefigures Christ the king, not only in his rule over the
people of God but in his role in preparing to build the temple. First Chronicles looks back on the

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faithfulness of God to his people in the entire period from Adam (1:1) to David (3:1) and even
beyond (3:10–24; 9:1–34), indicating the steadfastness of God's purpose in preparing for the
coming of the Messiah as the offspring of Adam (1:1; Gen. 3:15; Luke 3:38), offspring of Abraham (1
Chron. 1:28; Gal. 3:16), and offspring of David (1 Chron. 3:1; 17:11, 14; Luke 3:23–38; Acts 13:23).

1:1 God promises victory over Satan by the offspring of the woman (Gen. 3:15) and of Abraham
(Gen. 17:7; see notes on Gen. 3:15 and 12:1). The line of chosen offspring goes from Adam through
Seth and Noah (1 Chron. 1:4) to Abraham (vv. 27–28), Isaac (v. 34), and Israel (v. 34; 2:1), earlier
called Jacob (Gen. 32:27–28). It will culminate in Christ (Matt. 1:1–16; Gal. 3:16).

2:1 The line of chosen offspring goes from Israel to David and includes the blessing of
multiplication of offspring in the form of the 12 tribes (see Gen. 13:16; 15:5). See note on 1 Chron.
1:1.

3:1 The line of the Messiah comes through King David (2 Sam. 7:16; Matt. 1:1, 6; see note on 1
Chron. 1:1).

3:10 Solomon and his offspring are a stage in the fulfillment of the promise to David for his
offspring (2 Sam. 7:16). The offspring ultimately lead to Christ (Matt. 1:1–16; see note on 1 Chron.
1:1).

4:1 After recording the Messianic line of David, which will lead to Christ (see note on 3:10),
Chronicles gives the record for Judah, the tribe of David. The recording of individual names and
families underlines their inclusion in the promise to Abraham concerning blessing, land, and
fellowship with God (Gen. 17:4–8). It prefigures the blessing (Gal. 3:14), land (Rom. 4:13; Heb.
11:16; 12:22; Rev. 21:1), and fellowship with God (Rom. 5:1; Gal. 3:26–29) that come from union
with Christ the greater David. God has enrolled our names in his book of life (Rev. 13:8; 17:8; 20:15;
see John 10:3, 14; Eph. 1:4).

5:1 The record of Reuben, Gad (v. 11), and Manasseh (v. 23) indicates their continued inclusion
among God's people as offspring of Abraham and Israel (2:1–2). It answers doubts that might arise
because of the location of their land east of the Jordan (Numbers 32; Josh. 13:8–32; 22:24–29). The
reassurance prefigures the guarantee give to Christians (2 Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13–14). See note on 1
Chron. 4:1.

6:49 The special list for Aaron the priest and for the tribe of Levi, which indicates some of their
priestly privileges before God, prefigures the priestly privileges given to Christians through Christ
the final high priest (Heb. 7:23–8:2; 10:19–22).

7:1 Other tribes descending from Israel (2:1–2) are briefly listed. See note on 4:1.

8:33 Special focus is given to Saul, because he was king of Israel (10:14; 1 Sam. 10:1). But he was
superseded by David (1 Sam. 16:1, 12; 2 Sam. 7:15; 1 Chron. 10:13–14; 17:13), whose line of kings
leads forward to Christ the king (Matt. 1:6–16).

9:2 The enrollment of names of returned exiles indicates God's continued faithfulness to the
offspring of Israel. It prefigures God's enrollment and faithfulness to those who belong to Christ the
Israelite (Gal. 3:14, 16, 28–29; see note on 1 Chron. 4:1).

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10:14 The movement of kingship to David is the beginning of the line of kingly offspring leading to
Christ (17:11, 14; Matt. 1:6–16).

11:3 David is established as king in fulfillment of God's purpose (v. 2), prefiguring the
establishment of Christ the son of David as the final king (Ps. 2:6–12; Acts 13:33; Eph. 1:20–22).

12:23 The unification of God's people under David, and their strength for war, prefigures the
unification and spiritual strength under Christ the king (Eph. 4:1–16; 6:10–20).

13:10 See note on 2 Sam. 6:7. When the Levites take the appropriate role (Ex. 25:14; Num. 4:15; 1
Chron. 15:2, 13–15), the ark is brought up safely (1 Chron. 15:26).

13:12 The supreme holiness of God and his reaction to the approach of sinners, produces fear. The
resolution comes through Christ's propitiation, which permanently answers God's wrath (Rom.
3:20–26; 5:1).

14:15 God fights with David against Israel's enemies, prefiguring Christ defeating Satan and his
hosts (Matt. 12:28–29; Luke 10:18–19; John 12:31; Rev. 19:11–21; 20:7–10).

15:2 Unlike Uzzah (13:10), the Levites bring up the ark safely, because they are following God's
instructions (Ex. 25:14; Num. 4:15). The importance of following God's way prefigures the one way
to God opened through Christ (John 14:6; Heb. 10:19–22).

15:16 David and the singers are involved in writing and singing many of the Psalms (see 1 Chron.
16:8–36 and parallels in the Psalms: Ps. 96:1–13; 105:1–15; 106:47–48). They prefigure the role of
Christ in leading his people in singing praise to God for climactic salvation (Heb. 2:12; 13:15; Rev.
19:6–8).

16:4 See note on 15:16.

16:8 See Ps. 105:1–15. Songs of praise are to be sung repeatedly, not only to give praise to God, but
to remind people of his excellence and to anticipate the surpassing display of his excellence when
Christ comes. See note on 1 Chron. 15:16.

16:23 See Ps. 96:1–13 and note on 1 Chron. 16:8.

16:35 See Ps. 106:47–48 and note on 1 Chron. 16:8.

17:4 To underline the importance of Davidic kingship as leading to Christ, Chronicles records the
all-important covenant with David given in 2 Sam. 7:5–16. See note on 2 Sam. 7:12.

17:16 David's marveling over God's grace prefigures the marveling over the grace that has come in
Christ (John 1:16; Eph. 2:7–9).

18:6 The subduing of Israel's enemies prefigures Christ winning victory over Satan and his hosts
(see note on 14:15).

18:14 The coming of justice prefigures the justice of the Messiah (Isa. 9:6–7; 42:1–4; 2 Cor. 5:10;

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Rev. 20:11–15).

19:2 See note on 2 Sam. 10:2.

20:1 Chronicles, unlike the parallel in 2 Sam. 11, omits mention of David's sin with Bathsheba,
which more effectively highlights ways in which David's kingship points positively forward to the
triumphs of Christ as final king.

20:8 David's victory over Goliath in 1 Samuel 17 is one of a series of victories that destroy terrifying
enemies of God's people. The victories prefigure the victory of Christ and his people (Matt. 12:28–
29; Luke 10:18–19; John 12:31; Rev. 2:7, 11, 17, 26; 12:11; 19:11–21; 20:7–10).

21:7 See note on 2 Sam. 24:1.

21:17 See note on 2 Sam. 24:17.

22:1 The selection of the site for Solomon's temple takes place according to God's word through
Gad the prophet (21:18). Once the temple is built, it will be the exclusive place for atonement and
approach to God (Deuteronomy 12), prefiguring Christ as the final one who brings atonement and
opens the way to God (John 14:6; Heb. 10:19–22).

22:9 Solomon prefigures Christ as prince of peace, who opens the way to peace with God (Rom.
5:1–10).

23:26 See Num. 4:5–15. God inspires David to make a change in the duties of the Levites,
corresponding to the change in the house of God. The service of the Levites prefigures the service of
Christ as high priest to God (Heb. 7:23–8:6) and subordinately the service of Christians (Rom. 12:1;
Eph. 4:1–16; Heb. 13:15).

24:7 The priests are a special group within the tribe of Levi, chosen to minister in the sanctuary
(Numbers 18). The priesthood prefigures Christ the great high priest (Heb. 7:23–8:6). The duties
rotate to the different divisions (see Luke 1:5, 8), indicating that no one priest is permanent, until
the coming of Christ the everlasting priest (Heb. 7:23–24).

25:1 See note on 15:16. The attention to arrangements for singing prefigures the ordering of the
church's worship through the power of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12; Eph. 2:22; 5:18–21).

26:1 The gatekeepers protect access to the presence of God in the temple (Num. 18:7, 22),
prefiguring the one way of access to God through Christ (John 10:7; 14:6). Church discipline,
exercised under the authority of Christ (1 Cor. 5:4–5), warns the unrepentant of their danger.

26:20 The care for God's gifts prefigures the guarantee of the inheritance of eternal life in Christ (1
Pet. 1:4–5) and the advice to lay up treasure in heaven (Matt. 6:19–34; see 2 Cor. 9:6–15). Money
given for the needs of God's people is to be carefully handled (2 Cor. 8:20–21).

27:1 Arrangements for the military prefigure the spiritual war fought under Christ's command
(Eph. 6:10–20; see note on 1 Chron. 14:15).

28:6 See the promise to David in 17:11–14, now being fulfilled. See note on 2 Sam. 7:12.

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28:19 The temple is built in accordance with God's instructions, just as the tabernacle was (see
note on Ex. 36:10).

28:20 The empowering of God is essential, prefiguring the centrality of God's power in building the
church, the new temple (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22).

28:21 The previous arrangements of various divisions of the Levites and the people (chs. 23–27)
have all been for the purpose of aiding in the service of the house of God. They prefigure God's
planning for the building of the church as temple (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22) and the new Jerusalem
as final temple (Rev. 21:22–27).

29:6 The generous offering is like that for the tabernacle (Ex. 35:4–36:7). It prefigures the
generosity of Christ (see note on Ex. 35:21).

29:18 Wholehearted commitment comes ultimately with the perfection of Christ (Heb. 10:7–10)
and the change of the heart that he works in us in the new covenant (Heb. 10:16–17).

2 Chronicles
Solomon as a wise king and temple builder prefigures Christ the king and temple builder. After
Solomon the line of Davidic kings continues, leading forward to Christ the great descendant of
David (Matt. 1:6–16). But many of the later kings go astray from God, and they and the people suffer
for it, showing the need for Christ as the perfect king. Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29–32) and Josiah
(chs. 34–35) as righteous kings prefigure Christ. Second Chronicles has parallels in 1–2 Kings but
focuses on the southern kingdom (Judah) and the line of David, and it shows focused concern for
the temple and its worship, anticipating the fulfillment of temple and worship with the coming of
Christ (John 2:19–21; 4:20–26; Eph. 2:20–22; Rev. 21:22–22:5).

1:10 See note on 1 Kings 3:9. Wisdom is needed to build the temple (1 Chron. 29:1; 2 Chron. 2:6,
12).

2:3 See note on 1 Kings 5:8.

2:13 See note on 1 Kings 7:14.

3:1 See note on 1 Kings 6:2. The location for the temple was appointed in 1 Chron. 22:1 (see note on
1 Chron. 22:1).

4:1 The altar is twice as large as the one for the tabernacle (Ex. 27:1–8), indicating the more
abundant provision for atonement. See note on Ex. 27:1.

4:7 There are ten lampstands instead of the one in the tabernacle (Ex. 25:31–39), indicating the
more abundant provision of light. See notes on Ex. 25:37 and 1 Kings 6:2.

5:14 See note on 1 Kings 8:11.

6:6 The selection of Jerusalem fulfills the plan given through Moses in Deuteronomy 12. It
prefigures the appointment of Christ as the one way of salvation (John 14:6; Heb. 5:5–10).

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6:15 See note on 1 Kings 8:24.

6:21 See note on 1 Kings 8:30.

7:1 The miraculous approval by God is like what happens with Elijah in 1 Kings 18:39 (see note).

7:2 The glory of the Lord signifies the magnificence of his presence, prefiguring Christ's presence.
See 5:14 and note on 1 Kings 8:11.

7:20 See note on 1 Kings 9:8.

8:5 Solomon takes care to provide security against foreign enemies, performing one of the
important duties of ancient kings and prefiguring the spiritual security given through Christ the
king (John 10:28–29; see Rev. 21:24–27; 22:3).

8:14 David's instructions are found in 1 Chronicles 23–27. See the note on 1 Chron. 28:21.

9:1 See note on 1 Kings 10:1.

9:22 Solomon's riches and wisdom prefigure the riches and wisdom of Christ the king (Eph. 1:18;
Col. 2:3; 1 Cor. 1:30).

10:15 See note on 1 Kings 12:15.

11:14 The Levites were distributed among the tribes (Joshua 20–21; see note on Josh. 21:2). But
Jeroboam's false worship (see 1 Kings 12:25–13:5) forces them and others who follow God to join
Judah. The conflict over worship prefigures the conflict over the exclusive claims of Christ (see note
on 1 Kings 13:34).

12:6 Rebellion against the Lord leads to disaster, but repentance brings relief. The pattern
anticipates God's final judgment on rebellion (Rev. 20:11–15) and relief through repentance and
faith in Christ (John 5:24; Rev. 20:15).

13:9 For Jeroboam's promotion of false worship, see 1 Kings 12:25–33 and note on 1 Kings 13:34.
The blessing on true worshipers prefigures the blessing on worship in spirit and truth that Christ
brings (John 4:20–24).

14:7 Blessings come from following God's way, prefiguring the blessings through Christ the final
way (John 14:6; Eph. 1:3–14).

15:8 Asa continues to work for true worship according to the law (Ex. 27:1–8; Deut. 11:28; 12:1),
prefiguring Christ's establishment of true worship (Matt. 21:12–16; John 4:20–24).

16:9 God's judgment takes place within history, as well as at the consummation (Rev. 20:11–15).
Judgment comes climactically when Christ as a substitute takes judgment on himself, and then in
his resurrection receives the reward for his blamelessness (Phil. 2:10–11). See note on 1 Kings
15:18.

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17:5 See note on 14:7.

18:18 See note on 1 Kings 22:19.

19:7 Mosaic instructions for judgeship are in Ex. 23:8; Deut. 16:18–20. Promoting justice is one of
the duties of the king, prefiguring the justice of Christ the king (Isa. 9:6–7; 42:1–4).

20:22 God honors those who trust in him, anticipating the giving of honor to Christ in his
resurrection (Phil. 2:10–11) and the blessing to Christians who trust in Christ (Galatians 3).

21:7 The line of David is nearly, but not quite, wiped out, prefiguring the attack by Herod (Matt.
2:13–18) and God's faithfulness to Christ the offspring of David. See note on 1 Kings 15:4.

22:11 See note on 2 Kings 11:2.

23:11 The establishment of the true king, in spite of all opposition, prefigures the establishment of
Christ as king (Ps. 2:7–12; Acts 13:33).

24:4 See note on 2 Kings 12:9.

24:20 See note on 12:6.

25:16 Prophetic warning gives opportunity for repentance, but Amaziah hardens himself instead.
Amaziah's failure points to the need for a perfect king (Matt. 21:5). The call to repentance
prefigures the call to repentance and faith in the NT. See note on 2 Chron. 12:6.

25:19 See note on 2 Kings 14:10.

26:16 Uzziah's sin and its consequences point to the need for a perfect king (Matt. 21:5).

27:6 See note on 14:7.

28:3 See note on 2 Kings 16:3.

28:15 The unusual kindness shows God's mercy (v. 9) and anticipates the love that Jesus embodies
(Matt. 8:14–17; Luke 7:21–22; 1 John 3:16; 4:7–12), that he teaches (Luke 10:25–37), and that he
creates in his followers (John 13:34–35; 1 John 4:17–21).

29:8 Judgments against false worship (predicted in Deut. 11:28) are reversed by Hezekiah,
prefiguring Christ the king coming to remove the curse on sin (Gal. 3:13–14).

30:9 The theme of mercy and repentance looks forward to God's mercy in Christ to those who
repent and turn to him (Luke 18:13). See notes on 2 Chron. 12:6 and 25:16.

30:19 The desire of the heart is of greater importance than mere external conformity (1 Sam.
15:22; Hos. 6:6; Mic. 6:6–8; Matt. 9:13; 25:25–28), anticipating the centrality of renewal of the heart
in Christ's work (Heb. 8:10).

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30:26 The contrast between Hezekiah and the past shows the difference that a good leader can
make, prefiguring the climactic renewal with the coming of Christ (Heb. 8:8–12).

31:2 Hezekiah restores the temple service as specified by Moses (Numbers 18) and David (1
Chronicles 23–26). His obedience prefigures Christ's obedience and the obedience of those who
follow Christ (Eph. 4:1–16). See note on 2 Kings 18:5.

32:8 Trusting the Lord to fight prefigures trust in Christ as the victor against the kingdom of evil
(Col. 1:13; 2:15; Heb. 2:14–15).

32:15 See note on 2 Kings 18:30.

32:17 See note on 2 Kings 19:22.

33:7 See note on 2 Kings 21:8.

33:12 See note on 12:6.

34:2 Josiah as a righteous king prefigures Christ.

34:21 See note on 2 Kings 22:13.

35:1 The keeping of the Passover is another high point in serving God (see note on 30:26).

35:4 See note on 31:2.

36:16 God shows his righteous judgment against sin, prefiguring the even greater manifestations of
righteousness in the death and resurrection of Christ and in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). See
notes on 2 Chron. 12:6; 16:9; and 2 Kings 25:9.

36:21 The judgment confirms God's faithfulness to his word, anticipating his faithfulness in Christ.
It also gives the land rest in accordance with Leviticus 25, prefiguring final rest (see note on Lev.
25:4).

36:23 Cyrus's proclamation, prophesied in Isa. 44:28 and recorded in Ezra 1:1–4, shows that God
has not forgotten his people (Rom. 11:1). His continued faithfulness and repeated acts of mercy and
salvation look forward to the coming of Christ as the climax of faithfulness and mercy.

Ezra
The restoration and rebuilding after the exile, in fulfillment of prophecy (1:1), prefigure Christ's
salvation (Col. 1:13) and the building of the church (Matt. 16:18; Eph. 2:20–22). They also look
forward to the consummation of salvation in the new heaven and new earth (Rev. 21:1).

1:1 God's raising of Cyrus prefigures his raising of Christ, who in the gospel sends out the
proclamation to build the new people of God (Isa. 44:28–45:1).

1:5 It is God who empowers the restoration in the people as well as in Cyrus, prefiguring the

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empowering of his people through the Spirit (Acts 1:8; 2:1–4; Rom. 8:10–11).

2:1 The detailed record of people shows God's knowledge of individuals and families, symbolizing
his detailed knowledge of those chosen for salvation (Eph. 1:4; Rev. 13:8; 17:8; see note on 1 Chron.
4:1).

3:2 Restoration of true worship of God is central to the restoration as a whole. Sacrificial worship
prefigures the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 10:1–10).

3:10 Temple building, analogous to what Solomon did (2 Chronicles 3), prefigures Christ's body as
a temple (John 2:19–21), the church as a temple (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22), and the
new Jerusalem as a temple (Rev. 21:9–22:5). See Haggai and Zechariah for prophecy relating to the
restoration.

3:11 The singing, using the refrain of 1 Chron. 16:34 and Psalm 136, follows the pattern in 1
Chronicles 25 and looks forward to the praise offered by Christ (Heb. 2:12) and his people (Heb.
13:15).

4:1 The adversaries, incited ultimately by Satan, symbolize opposition to God's purposes for his
people and prefigure opposition to Christ and his people (Matt. 4:1–11; Rev. 12:3–4, 7–17).

5:1 Directives both from prophets and from Cyrus (1:1–4) have a key role in the restoration,
prefiguring the role of God's word in building the church (Eph. 2:20–22; 4:6–16).

6:6 God reverses the plans of the opponents and uses Darius to favor the restoration, prefiguring
God's work in blessing the church (Rom. 8:28; Acts 4:29–31; 8:4).

7:27 Through Ezra and Artaxerxes, God shows his providential blessing on the restoration,
prefiguring his willingness to supply our needs (2 Cor. 9:6–12).

8:31 God provides protection, prefiguring his protection to those in Christ (John 10:27–29).

9:1 Intermarriage was forbidden in Deut. 7:3–4 because it led to idolatry (see Ezra 9:11–14).
Separation prefigures the need for uncompromising allegiance to Christ (Matt. 10:34–39; Luke
14:26–33; 2 Cor. 6:14–7:1).

10:2 See note on 2 Chron. 12:6.

10:3 Families are put away for the sake of holiness, to eliminate compromise with idolatry (Deut.
7:3–4; see note on Ezra 9:1). The superior power of Christ's holiness is such that, in the NT, a
Christian may remain in an unbelieving family with the hope that others may come to know Christ
(1 Cor. 7:12–16).

Nehemiah
The restoration and rebuilding after the exile prefigure Christ's salvation (Col. 1:13) and the
building of the church (Matt. 16:18; Eph. 2:20–22).

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1:11 Nehemiah's intercession for the people prefigures Christ's intercession for us before God the
Father (Heb. 7:25).

2:18 Rebuilding Jerusalem prefigures building the church (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 14:4–5, 12; Gal. 4:26;
Eph. 2:20–22).

3:1 God records the names of the builders, indicating his knowledge of each contribution. The
division of labor prefigures the cooperation in the body of Christ (Rom. 12:3–8; 1 Corinthians 12;
Eph. 4:1–16).

4:1 Opposition to building prefigures opposition to the church and to Christians (John 15:18–20).

5:7 God's law through Moses forbids exacting interest from a fellow Israelite (Ex. 22:25; Lev.
25:36). The help to the poor anticipates the church's helping the poor (Acts 2:44–45; 4:32–37; 2
Cor. 9:6–15) on the basis of God's generosity in Christ (2 Cor. 8:9; 9:15).

6:2 Opposition includes deceit as well as mocking and threats (see note on 4:1). This deceit
manifests the deceitfulness of Satan the great enemy (John 8:44; 2 Thess. 2:9–10; Rev. 12:9; 20:3).

7:6 See note on Ezra 2:1.

8:3 Instruction from God's Word plays a key role in building up the people of God. It prefigures the
role of Christ as the Word of God (John 1:1; Rev. 19:13), the role of the gospel (Rom. 1:16–17; 1
Thess. 2:13; 1 Pet. 1:23), and the role of Scripture (1 Tim. 3:13; 2 Tim. 3:16–17; see Psalm 119).

9:8 God's faithfulness is displayed in fulfilling the promise to Abraham (Gen. 12:1–3, 7; 13:14–17;
15:4, 13–21; 17:1–14). His faithfulness to his promises is supremely manifested in Christ (2 Cor.
1:20–22), who has brought everlasting blessings to God's people (Eph. 1:3–14).

9:38 The names indicate the personal commitment of individuals and families, prefiguring personal
commitment to Christ (Acts 2:38–41; see note on Ezra 2:1).

10:29 Obedience to the law anticipates the obligation of disciples of Christ to follow him in
everything (Matt. 10:37–39; Luke 14:25–33; John 14:15, 23). Christ alone is perfectly obedient to
God (Heb. 4:15).

11:1 Jerusalem has a key role as the holy city. In the NT all of God's people are citizens in the
heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26–28; Phil. 3:20; Heb. 12:22–24).

11:4 The list of names and numbers indicates God's knowledge of the details of individuals and
families. See note on Ezra 2:1.

12:27 The Levites' role in singing was established in 1 Chronicles 25. The celebration anticipates
the celebration and praise to God for the resurrection of Christ (Eph. 5:19–20; Heb. 13:15) and for
the consummation (Rev. 19:1–8).

13:3 See note on Ezra 9:1.

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13:15 The people promised to keep the Sabbath in 10:31. The Sabbath is a sign of the covenant
with God (Ex. 20:8–11; 31:12–17), celebrating creation (Ex. 20:11) and redemption (Deut. 5:15). It
points forward to Christ, who is Creator (Col. 1:15–16) and Redeemer (Col. 1:18–20), and who has
prepared our place of rest (John 14:2–3). See notes on Gen. 2:2 and 2:3.

13:23 See note on Ezra 9:1.

Esther
God providentially brings deliverance to his people through Esther, prefiguring final deliverance
through Christ.

1:12 The rejection of Vashti is one step in God's providential acts to deliver the Jews (see note on
2:15). It introduces the key theme of rejection and selection, by which God prepares the way for
salvation.

2:15 God causes Esther the Jew to be chosen, which will later play a key role in delivering the Jews.
Esther in her beauty prefigures the church as the bride of Christ (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:26–27; Rev.
19:7–8; see note on Est. 1:12).

2:22 God's hand of providence leads to key action from Mordecai, which will later prove important
(6:2). God's providential control illustrates his continual care for his people (John 10:27–29; Rom.
8:28; Eph. 1:22).

3:1 The conflict between Mordecai and Haman is explained 1 Sam. 15:2–3, 32–33. Haman is an
Agagite, an Amalekite, an opponent of Israel and a descendant of the people whom Saul should have
wiped out.

3:6 Haman exemplifies all who oppose God's people, and especially Satan (see Rev. 12:10–12).

4:16 Esther is willing to sacrifice her own life, prefiguring the willingness of Christ to die for us
(Rom. 5:6–11).

5:2 The king's favor toward Esther prefigures the favor resting on Christ as the obedient son of God
who redeems us (Matt. 3:17; 2 Pet. 1:17). It is the turning point in the story, prefiguring the
resurrection as the turning point in redemption.

5:11 Pride goes before destruction (Prov. 16:18). Haman typifies the false confidence of those
belonging to the kingdom of Satan.

6:1 A number of seemingly “chance” events show God's providential control and his power to act
secretly on behalf of his people (see note on 2:22).

7:10 Fitting retribution comes as Haman receives what he would have done to Mordecai (Obad.
15). The retribution prefigures the justice of God's final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and the
elimination of the enemies of God's people (Rev. 20:7–10; 21:8, 27).

8:8 The effects of victory now extend to all the Jews, prefiguring the extending of Christ's victory to

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those who are his (Rom. 8:10–11; 1 Cor. 15:54–57; Col. 3:1–4).

9:1 The reversal anticipates the reversal of positions with Christ's coming (Luke 1:48–53; 14:11;
18:14) and the justice of God's final judgment (see note on Est. 7:10).

10:3 The blessings to the Jews through Esther and Mordecai prefigure the blessings that come to us
through Christ (Eph. 1:3–14; see note on Est. 8:8).

Job
Job's suffering and relief prefigure the suffering and glory of Christ.

1:1 Job, though not sinlessly perfect, is upright, prefiguring the righteousness of Christ (Heb. 4:16).

1:11 Satan is an accuser of God's people (Rev. 12:10). Redemption in Christ includes giving a final
answer to Satan's accusations, both by justifying the ungodly (Rom. 4:5) and by making the ungodly
into godly people (Rom. 6:4, 15–19; Rev. 19:8; 21:27).

1:21 Job trusts God even though he does not know about Satan's accusation. He exemplifies all who
walk by faith and not by sight (2 Cor. 5:7). Christ as man trusted in God perfectly (Heb. 2:13; 5:7–
10).

2:6 God uses even the works of Satan for his own glory and for the sanctification of his people. God
forbids Satan to take Job's life. But when Christ comes, he is allowed to die at the hands of sinful
men (Acts 2:23). It is the supreme act of trust and of vindication of the name of God, as well as
victory over Satan (John 12:31).

3:3 Intense suffering negates all the meaning of life, underlining the fact that both suffering and
death are horrible effects from the fall (Gen. 3:19). An answer comes only with the meaningful
sufferings of Christ (Phil. 3:10) and his resurrection from the dead, which is the beginning of the
end to all suffering (Rev. 21:4).

4:7 Eliphaz speaks as if God's protection to the righteous were a universal rule. But the mystery of
the death of Christ the innocent one shows the superficiality of his reasoning.

4:15 Eliphaz does not realize that he may have seen an evil spirit who, like Satan, accuses God's
people (see note on 1:11).

4:17 Yes, a man can be pure, as is demonstrated by the purity of Christ. Moreover, Christ gives his
righteousness to his people through justification (Rom. 5:1; 2 Cor. 5:21).

5:13 God catches the wise with the foolishness of the cross, according to 1 Cor. 3:19. Ironically,
Eliphaz, who claims to be wise, is himself caught in his speeches (Job 42:7), because he does not
know the wisdom of the cross, and its meaning for the suffering of the innocent.

5:18 The statement parallels Hos. 6:1. Eliphaz correctly describes God's discipline to sinful people.
But he does not see that God may discipline the innocent for more mysterious purposes (Job 1:12; 2
Cor. 5:21; see note on Job 4:7).

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6:15 Job's misery is increased by his friends. It anticipates Christ's betrayal by Judas (John 13:18)
and abandonment by the disciples (Matt. 26:31).

7:17 Note similarities with Ps. 8:4 and Heb. 2:6. God has set his heart on man and brought suffering
with a view to redemption in Christ, but Job cannot see the full picture yet.

8:3 God is just, but his justice is deeper than straightforward rewards and punishments in this life.
The issue of justice points forward to the achievement of justice in the work of Christ (Rom. 3:23–
26) and in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

9:2 See note on 4:17.

9:14 Job sees the need for an intercessor, anticipating the intercession of Christ (Heb. 7:25).

9:24 The frustration over injustices finds resolution only in the future, with the coming of final
salvation (Rev. 20:11–22:5). In the meantime, the righteous may suffer and the wicked prosper,
anticipating the human injustice in the crucifixion of Christ.

9:30 Isaiah 1:18 gives hope that God will himself makes us white as snow, which he accomplishes
in Christ (Rom. 8:1).

9:33 Christ is both God and man, and will stand in between (1 Tim. 2:5–6; see note on Job 9:14).

10:4 Doubts about whether God sympathizes with man are resolved with Christ's manifestation of
sympathy (Heb. 4:15).

10:11 God's creation of Job shows care and intimacy (see Ps. 139:13–16), anticipating the love
displayed in the incarnation of Christ (John 1:14).

11:17 The life of the righteous will end in bright day (Prov. 4:18), ultimately the day of
consummation (Rev. 21:23–22:5). But Zophar underestimates the complexity. The mysteries of
God's providence lead to consummation only through the sufferings of Christ (1 Pet. 2:21–25) and
his people (Phil. 2:10–11).

12:3 Job's anguish is increased by what he knows concerning God's wisdom and power, because it
seems inconsistent with his sufferings. God's wisdom and power are climactically manifested in the
suffering of Christ (1 Cor. 1:18–25).

13:3 See note on 9:14.

13:15 Job's continued hope anticipates Christ's trust even to the point of death (Matt. 26:38–39).

14:14 Job sees that resurrection is needed to solve the mystery of suffering. He thereby anticipates
the resurrection of Christ (Rom. 4:25) and of Christ's people (John 5:24–25, 29; 1 Thess. 4:13–18).

14:17 Job anticipates forgiveness, which has now been accomplished in Christ (Rom. 4:7–8; 8:1).

15:9 See note on 12:3.

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15:14 See note on 4:17.

16:11 Job's abandonment prefigures the abandonment of Christ (Matt. 20:18–19).

16:17 See the parallel in the sufferings of Christ in Isa. 53:9.

16:19 Job anticipates the intercession of Christ, who pleads our cause (Rom. 8:34).

16:21 See note on 9:14.

17:6 The despising of Job anticipates the despising of Christ (Ps. 69:11; Isa. 50:6; Matt. 27:30).

18:21 God will judge the wicked (Rev. 20:11–15). But justice is delayed for the sake of salvation
(Ps. 73:3; 2 Pet. 3:9).

19:7 See the parallel in Hab. 1:2–4. Faith is necessary in waiting for the justice of Christ.

19:19 Job's abandonment by friends anticipates the abandonment of Christ on the cross (Ps. 55:13;
John 13:18).

19:25 Job anticipates both the vindication of Christ's justification (Rom. 4:25) and the open
manifestation of righteousness at the last judgment (2 Cor. 5:10; Rev. 20:11–15).

19:26 Seeing God takes place through seeing Christ, both now (John 14:9) and in the
consummation (Rev. 22:4). See note on Ex. 33:22.

20:29 See note on 18:21.

21:7 A similar struggle is found in Ps. 73:3. See notes on Job 18:21 and 19:7.

22:8 False accusations imitate those of Satan (1:11; 2:5) and anticipate the false accusations against
Christ (Matt. 26:59–60; 27:13; Luke 23:10, 14) and against his people (Rev. 12:10).

23:7 Job's desire for God and for acquittal anticipates the justification that is found in Christ (Rom.
4:25–5:1; 8:1).

24:12 See Ps. 50:21 and note on Job 9:24.

25:4 See note on 4:17.

26:13 God's victory over the serpent anticipates the final victory over Satan through Christ (John
12:31; Rev. 20:7–10). Job knows that God's ways are mysterious, but he continues to hope.

27:5 Job's holding fast to the right anticipates Christ's steadfastness toward God and our privilege
of holding fast to his righteousness (2 Cor. 5:21).

28:12 Job cannot fathom God's ways, but wisdom is found ultimately in Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; Col.
2:3).

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28:27 Wisdom was with God even in creation, as in Prov. 8:22–31. The association of wisdom with
creation anticipates the revelation that Christ (the wisdom of God) was with God in the beginning
and was mediator of creation (John 1:1–3; Col. 1:15–17).

28:28 See Prov. 1:7.

29:3 Job's time of blessing anticipated the blessings that come through Christ (John 8:12).

30:10 See note on 17:6.

30:20 The unanswered cries anticipate the abandonment of Christ on the cross (Ps. 22:1–2; Matt.
27:46).

31:1 Job's commitment to God anticipates the integrity of Christ (Heb. 4:15).

32:12 God has put in us a desire for wisdom and understanding that will be satisfied only in Christ
(1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:3; see notes on Job 28:12 and 28:27).

33:23 The desire for a mediator anticipates the exclusive mediation of Christ (1 Tim. 2:5–6; see
notes on Job 9:14 and 9:33).

34:11 God's reward or punishment according to justice is a regular theme (e.g., Ps. 62:12; Prov.
24:12; Rev. 2:23; 20:12–13). But final payment awaits the working out of justice and mercy in
Christ (see notes on Job 8:3 and 11:17). God's justice does not endorse a superficial conclusion
about Job's situation.

35:2 See notes on 34:11 and 8:3.

37:5 The wisdom of God is inaccessible, except through Christ (Col. 2:3; 1 Cor. 1:30; see note on Job
28:12).

37:24 The danger of man-centered wisdom is real (as in Prov. 3:7; Rom. 11:25; 12:16) and holds
people back from humbly seeking God and his wisdom in Christ (1 Cor. 1:18–31).

38:4 See note on 28:27.

38:17 Only God has power over death, anticipating the victory of Christ over death (Heb. 2:14–15;
Rev. 1:18).

39:9 Both wisdom and power belong to God but not to man (see note on 12:3).

40:8 Man has a God-given sense of justice, but it is inadequate in the face of the depths of God. The
depths of God's justice and mercy and wisdom are to be revealed in Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; see notes on
Job 12:3 and 28:12).

40:14 Job confronts not only the issue of wisdom and justice, but salvation. Salvation ultimately is
worked out in Christ (1 Cor. 1:30).

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41:1 God has power even over the most untamable creature, and ultimately even over Satan, who is
named Leviathan (Isa. 27:1). Christ's victory over Satan (John 12:31) will ultimately answer all the
human frustrations of suffering and injustice (Rev. 21:4).

42:3 Job finds satisfaction in knowing God and his wisdom. Final satisfaction is to be found in Christ
(John 16:33; 17:3; Col. 2:3; Rev. 21:4).

42:10 Job's vindication after his sufferings anticipates the vindication of Christ after his sufferings.

Psalms
By expressing the emotional heights and depths in human response to God, the Psalms provide a
permanent treasure for God's people to use to express their needs and their praises, both
corporately and individually. Christ as representative man experienced our human condition, yet
without sin, and so the Psalms become his prayers to God (see esp. Heb. 2:12; cf. Matt. 27:46 with
Ps. 22:1). The Psalms are thus to be seen as his words, and through our union with him they
become ours.

1:1 God's commitment to bless the righteous is supremely shown when he blesses Christ, the
perfectly righteous man, by raising him from the dead and enthroning him (Phil. 2:10–11).

2:1 The rebellion of the peoples anticipates the rebellion against the message of Christ (Acts 4:25–
27).

2:6 God uses David and other Israelite kings to protect his people against enemies. These kings
prefigure Christ, who is enthroned after his resurrection (Acts 13:33) and now rules on behalf of his
people (Eph. 1:20–22).

2:8 Christ rules over all nations (Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:21).

2:12 Salvation or damnation depends on one's relation to the Son (John 3:36).

3:1 Protection from earthly enemies prefigures protection from the ultimate evils of Satan, sin, and
death (Heb. 2:14–15). God the Father delivered Christ from his enemies in his resurrection (Acts
3:13–15), and that is the basis for our deliverance (Rom. 4:25).

3:5 Being preserved through the night anticipates the hope of resurrection after the “sleep” of
death (13:3; 1 Thess. 4:13–18).

4:7 The joy of knowing God anticipates the joy and peace that Christ promises (John 15:11; 16:33).

5:4 Sinners cannot stand before God's holiness. Christ's perfection allows us to come into God's
presence and for our prayers for deliverance to be heard (Heb. 10:19–22).

5:9 See Rom. 3:13 and note on Ps. 14:1.

5:12 See note on 1:1.

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6:2 Sufferings of God's people ultimately turn out to be analogous, on a lesser level, to the sufferings
of Christ (Ps. 22:14; Phil. 3:10).

7:8 God's justice gives hope for vindication when we are in the right. But in the matter of eternal
salvation, no one is in the right except Christ alone, and in him we take refuge (Rom. 3:23–26).

8:2 Praise from infants anticipates children's praise of Christ (Matt. 21:16).

8:5 God gave Adam a distinguished role (Gen. 1:28–30). But because of the disobedience of Adam
and his posterity (Rom. 5:12–21), it is Christ who fulfills the role and receives glory and honor in his
resurrection and ascension (Heb. 2:5–9).

8:6 Dominion is finally achieved through Christ's reign (1 Cor. 15:25–28; Eph. 1:22; Heb. 2:5–9).

9:13 Deliverance from death anticipates the resurrection of Christ, and through him the
resurrection of his people (1 Cor. 15:42–49; Col. 3:1–4).

10:1 The lack of immediate answers from God frustrates our desire for justice. This frustration
finds its climax in the death of Christ, which from a human point of view was supremely unjust
(Luke 23:14–16). But God answers in the resurrection (Acts 3:13–16), and therefore we hope for
further answers, culminating in the consummation (Rev. 21:4).

10:7 The treachery of man contrasts with the righteousness to be found in Christ alone (Rom. 3:14–
26; see note on Ps. 14:1).

11:4 The Lord's holiness and power, which are supremely revealed in Christ, guarantee an answer
to the distress of his people.

12:6 In the midst of lies from man, God's word is supremely true, anticipating the truthfulness of
Christ (John 14:6), who is able to deliver us from lies (John 8:44–47).

13:1 See note on 10:1.

13:3 See note on 3:1.

13:5 Salvation includes both the deliverance of Christ himself from death in his resurrection (Heb.
5:7) and the deliverance of believers through Christ (Col. 1:13).

14:1 In ultimate terms, none is righteous except Christ, through whom we may be part of the
generation of the righteous (Rom. 3:10–12).

15:2 Fellowship with God in his holiness ultimately requires perfection, which we receive through
the mediation of Christ the final high priest (Heb. 10:19–22).

16:8 God's mercies to David look forward to the climactic answer when Christ does not remain in
the grave but is raised (Acts 2:25–33).

17:2 See note on 7:8.

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17:7 Christ above all others waited for God to deliver him from his adversaries (Matt. 26:53; 27:43;
1 Pet. 2:23).

17:15 Awaking may mean awaking from sleep, but it looks forward ultimately to the new life of the
resurrection and seeing God face to face (Rev. 22:4; see note on Ps. 3:5).

18:1 David's song from 1 Samuel 22 has been included in the book of Psalms, indicating its
relevance to the people of God as a whole.

18:4 See note on 9:13.

18:17 Christ's resurrection is the ultimate case of deliverance from enemies.

18:20 See note on 7:8.

18:34 God gives the king effectiveness in war for the sake of defending his people from their
enemies in other nations. OT war prefigures Christ's conquest of all enemies (Matt. 28:18–20; Eph.
1:20–22; Rev. 19:11–21).

18:49 See note on 2 Sam. 22:50.

18:50 Victory to David's offspring ultimately points to the victory of Christ in his resurrection
(Rom. 6:8–10).

19:1 Revelation of God through nature leaves man with no excuse (Rom. 1:18–23).

19:7 The close relation between God's instruction through creation (vv. 1–6) and through his law
(vv. 7–14) anticipates the role of Christ as mediator in creation and redemption (Col. 1:15–20).

20:6 The key to salvation to all the people is salvation to the anointed king. Christ's deliverance in
his resurrection is the foundation for our salvation (1 Cor. 15:17–22).

21:4 The blessing of long life to the king in the line of David anticipates the blessing of eternal
resurrection life that Christ possesses as he sits at the right hand of God (John 11:25; Rev. 1:18).

21:8 See note on 18:34.

22:1 The suffering and abandonment of the psalmist prefigure the suffering of Christ (Matt. 27:46).

22:8 The bystanders mock Christ's trust (Matt. 27:43).

22:18 The soldiers around the cross divide Christ's garments (Matt. 27:35 and John 19:23–24).

22:22 Public praise prefigures Christ praising God to his people for the salvation that God has
accomplished in him (Heb. 2:12).

22:27 The Abrahamic promise of salvation to all nations (Gen. 12:3) will be fulfilled as the message
of Christ's resurrection spreads (Matt. 28:18–20; Luke 24:47; Gal. 3:14).

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23:1 Jesus is the good shepherd (John 10:11–18, 27–29) who embodies God's care for his people.

23:4 See note on 9:13.

23:6 Dwelling in the presence of God is fulfilled for Christ personally in his ascension (John 16:10;
Acts 1:9–11) and for believers in the consummation (Rev. 22:4).

24:4 See note on 15:2.

24:7 Heaven is opened to receive Christ in his ascension (Luke 24:51; Heb. 9:24).

25:2 See note on 3:1.

25:4 Christ perfectly followed the path of the Lord (John 5:36; 14:31). Through Christ and his
instruction and through the teaching of the Spirit of Christ believers learn to be disciples and follow
his path (John 14:6; 16:13).

26:1 The ultimate vindication takes place in Christ (1 Tim. 3:16), who perfectly trusted in the Lord
without wavering. In him his people find vindication (Rom. 4:25).

26:12 See note on 22:22.

27:1 Christ is the light of the world (John 8:12).

27:4 Enjoyment of fellowship with God in his presence anticipates the joy of knowing God through
Christ (John 15:11; 16:24; 17:3; Rev. 22:4). Christ opens the way into the heavenly sanctuary (Heb.
10:19–22).

27:11 See note on 25:4.

28:8 Salvation to God's people and salvation to the anointed king go together. Both are fulfilled in
Christ the anointed One (Luke 4:18).

29:3 God's word is powerful to save and to destroy, anticipating the power of Christ the Word (John
1:1) and the power of the gospel (Rom. 1:16; 2 Cor. 2:15–17).

30:2 God's healing from physical sickness anticipates rescue from death (v. 3) and eternal salvation
through the resurrection of Christ (John 5:24; 11:25).

31:5 Trust in God for deliverance anticipates Christ's trust as he dies (Luke 23:46).

32:1 Forgiveness of sins anticipates the sacrifice of Christ as the ultimate basis for forgiveness
(Rom. 4:7–8).

33:6 God's power and wisdom displayed in creation and in providence encourage praise and
encourage hope in his salvation. Instances of temporal salvation look forward to eternal salvation in
Christ (see 33:22; Matt. 1:21; Luke 2:30).

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34:8 Experiencing God's goodness anticipates the experience of goodness in Christ (1 Pet. 2:3).

34:12 Christians now imitate Christ the Righteous One (Acts 3:14) in walking in the way of
righteousness (1 Pet. 3:10–12).

34:20 The OT deliverances of the righteous prefigure the deliverance of Christ (John 19:36).

35:3 Small acts of salvation prefigure the climactic salvation in Christ—that Christ is raised from
the dead and that through him we are rescued from sin and Satan (Col. 1:13–14).

35:4 See note on 3:1.

35:18 See note on 22:22.

35:19 Hatred for the righteous prefigures hatred against Christ (John 15:25).

36:1 See Rom. 3:18 and note on Ps. 14:1.

36:8 Joy in God's presence anticipates the joy that Christ gives (John 15:11), which is to be fulfilled
in the consummation (Rev. 19:6–9).

36:11 See note on 3:1.

37:9 In the consummation ultimate blessing will come to God's people and ultimate overthrow to
his enemies (Rev. 20:11–21:8). The first stage of this goal occurs in Christ's resurrection, where he
as our representative inherits the earth (Matt. 28:18) and triumphs over his enemies (Col. 2:15).

38:1 Deliverance from God's wrath comes ultimately through Christ (John 3:36; Rom. 5:1).

38:4 See note on 32:1.

39:4 The threat of death hangs over all human existence and finds relief ultimately only through
the resurrection of Christ (1 Cor. 15:12–26, 35–58).

40:7 The psalmist's eagerness to serve God prefigures the perfection of Christ's willingness and the
perfection of his sacrifice (Heb. 10:5–10).

40:9 See note on 22:22.

41:9 The treachery against the psalmist prefigures Judas's treachery against Christ (John 13:18).

41:12 The eternal enjoyment of God's presence anticipates the resurrection of Christ (Heb. 9:24).

42:7 The waters of suffering threaten death (see Jonah 2:3). Such suffering according to God's will
anticipates the suffering and death of Christ, and the hope for deliverance anticipates his
resurrection.

43:1 See note on 26:1.

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43:3 Coming into the presence of God prefigures Christ as our representative coming into heaven
(Heb. 9:12).

44:22 Victory based on Christ's resurrection sustains God's people in the midst of oppression
(Rom. 8:36).

45:6 The kings in the line of David prefigure the reign of God the king through the reign of the
divine Son (Heb. 1:8–9).

45:11 The marriage of the Davidic king prefigures the marriage of Christ to the church (Eph. 5:25–
27).

46:5 The dwelling of God with his people anticipates his coming to dwell with us in Christ (John
1:14; 2:19–21; Eph. 2:20–22).

47:9 The promise of God's subduing the nations is fulfilled in Christ (Matt. 28:18–20; Luke 24:47;
Eph. 1:20–22; Rev. 5:9–10).

48:1 Jerusalem as the holy city prefigures the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26; Heb. 12:22–24; Rev.
21:2, 9–10), both as a present reality in Christ and as a future hope.

49:7 Reliance on God is the only solution to death. Such reliance anticipates faith in Christ's
resurrection (Rom. 10:9) and the hope for our future resurrection (1 Cor. 15:42–57; 1 Thess. 4:13–
18).

50:4 God acts to judge, both in preliminary ways and climactically in the final judgment (Rev.
20:11–15).

50:15 True reliance on God is fulfilled both in Christ's trust in God (see note on 31:5) and in our
faith in Christ (Rom. 10:9).

51:1 See note on 32:1.

51:7 Hyssop alludes to cleansing ceremonies (Lev. 14:4; Num. 19:18) that point forward to the final
cleansing from sin through the work of Christ (Heb. 9:19–28).

52:5 See note on 3:1.

52:8 Enjoyment of the house of God in the OT prefigures eternal enjoyment of the presence of God
in Christ, both in this life (John 15:11–16) and in the consummation (Rev. 22:2–4).

53:1 This psalm is very similar to Psalm 14. See note on 14:1.

54:1 The role of the name of God in salvation anticipates the fact that salvation is in the name of
Christ alone (Acts 4:12).

54:4 God's upholding of life prefigures the giving of eternal life in the resurrection of Christ (1 Cor.
15:42–57; Col. 3:1–4).

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54:5 See note on 3:1.

55:3 See note on 3:1.

55:13 The treachery of friends anticipates Judas's betrayal of Christ (John 13:18).

56:1 See note on 3:1.

56:3 The psalmist's trust in God anticipates both Christ's trust in the Father during his earthly life
(Heb. 2:13; see note on Ps. 31:5) and Christians' trust in Christ (Acts 16:31).

56:13 Deliverance from death anticipates the resurrection (see note on 9:13).

57:2 God's acts of salvation work out his plan and purpose from all eternity (Eph. 1:3–4, 11).

57:9 The spread of the message of salvation among the nations anticipates the spread of the gospel
message (Luke 24:47; see note on Ps. 22:27).

58:2 Distress over injustice will be satisfied when God brings righteous judgment (58:11). The
longing for justice anticipates the justice accomplished in the resurrection of Christ (Rom. 4:25) and
in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–21:8). See note on Ps. 10:1.

59:1 See note on 3:1.

59:8 As in 2:4, God will triumph over the rebellious nations through his anointed, the Messiah (2:6–
7; Acts 13:33).

60:12 Earthly foes prefigure the ultimate foes of sin, death and Satan, which are subdued by Christ
(1 Cor. 15:25–28; Eph. 1:20–22; Heb. 2:14–15; see note on Ps. 3:1).

61:7 Blessing to the king is a key to the salvation of God's people as a whole. The king in the line of
David anticipates Christ the king (Matt. 1:1–16).

62:1 Salvation comes from God, not man, anticipating the fact that Christ who brings salvation is
God incarnate (John 1:14; 10:30).

63:2 True satisfaction is to be found in God alone, anticipating the satisfaction and blessing in
Christ (John 15:11; Eph. 1:3–14; Rev. 22:3–5).

63:11 See note on 61:7.

64:2 Wickedness can be all the more dangerous when it is secret and deceitful. The deceit
anticipates Satan's deceitfulness (Rev. 12:9). See note on Ps. 3:1.

65:4 Salvation means enjoying the presence of God. It is accomplished through Christ, the unique
one whom God chooses to come near as our representative (Luke 9:35; Heb. 10:19–22) and
through whom we can come near and be blessed (Eph. 1:3–14).

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65:9 The prosperity of the land, which is a blessing to its people, anticipates the prosperity of the
consummation (Rev. 22:1–5).

66:6 God's salvation in the exodus produces hope for further acts of salvation, culminating in
salvation in Christ (Col. 1:13).

67:2 Salvation is to be made known among the nations, anticipating the spread of the gospel to the
nations (Luke 24:47).

68:1 God's arising against his enemies anticipates the resurrection of Christ as a triumph over
demonic enemies (Col. 2:15; Heb. 2:14–15).

68:18 God's ascending to reign anticipates Christ's resurrection and ascension, through which his
enemies are subdued and his people delivered (Eph. 4:8–16).

68:26 Praise is the appropriate response to God's salvation (Eph. 5:19–20; Heb. 13:15; see note on
Ps. 22:22).

69:2 See note on 42:7.

69:9 The zeal of the psalmist prefigures the zeal of Christ for the honor of God's name and God's
house (John 2:17; Rom. 15:3).

69:21 The mercilessness of enemies prefigures the action of the enemies of Christ when he is on
the cross (Matt. 27:48).

69:22 The desire for judgment on God's enemies finds fulfillment in Rom. 11:9–10.

69:25 Retribution for the wicked has an notable fulfillment in the fate of Judas (Acts 1:20).

70:4 Praise and admiration for God's salvation anticipates the praise for the salvation in Christ
(Eph. 1:3–14; 5:19–20).

71:6 The psalmist's trust in God prefigures Christ's trust in the Father (22:8–9) and is also a model
for our trust in Christ (see note on 56:3).

71:11 The enemies prefigure Christ's enemies, who imagine that they have won when Christ is on
the cross.

71:14 See notes on 22:22 and 68:26.

72:1 The king in the line of David has a key role in bringing justice. Justice is climactically achieved
through Christ the king (Matt. 1:1–16; Rom. 3:24–26; 4:25).

72:8 Dominion for the Davidic king is fulfilled in the universal reign of Christ (Isa. 9:6–7; 1 Cor.
15:24–28; Eph. 1:20–21).

72:19 The filling of the earth with God's glory will be fulfilled in the consummation (Rev. 21:22–

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27).

73:3 See note on 10:1.

73:17 In the presence of God in the sanctuary one finds an answer to frustration. His presence
anticipates God's presence in Christ (John 1:14; 2:19–21; 14:9–10).

74:3 The destruction of the sanctuary, the place of God's presence, prefigures the destruction of
Christ in death. But God answers and fulfills his promises in Christ's resurrection (2 Cor. 1:20). In
union with Christ we participate in his death and resurrection (2 Cor. 4:7–15; Phil. 3:10–11).

74:10 See note on 10:1.

74:13 God's dividing the sea in the exodus symbolizes his power over chaos and his power to
deliver his people from death. His victory in the exodus anticipates Christ's victory over death and
Satan (Heb. 2:14–15).

75:7 God's providential control of rulers and his preliminary judgments within history give us hope
for climactic judgment. And the climactic judgment began when God lifted up Christ from death to
the highest position (1 Cor. 15:20–28; Phil. 2:10–11).

75:8 See note on 3:1.

76:3 The establishment of peace in God's dwelling place prefigures the peace that Christ brings
(John 16:33), first in reconciling us to God (Rom. 5:1–10), but also in reconciliation with one
another (Matt. 18:15–20; 1 Corinthians 12).

76:9 See note on 50:4.

77:11 Remembrance of God's past acts of salvation, like the exodus (v. 19), strengthen the hope for
present and future salvation. Now we look back on the climactic salvation in the death and
resurrection of Christ (Acts 2:29–41; Rom. 4:25).

78:2 The expounding of the deeper meaning of God's past acts of salvation anticipates the role of
Christ in expounding the meaning of God's ways (Matt. 13:34–35).

78:4 See note on 77:11.

78:17 The rebellious hearts in Israel are ultimately overcome only through the renewal in the heart
that takes place in the new covenant in Christ (Heb. 8:8–13).

78:72 The rebellion in Israel points to the need for a shepherd-king who will guide them. David is a
preliminary fulfillment (v. 70) pointing forward to Christ as the final shepherd (Ezek. 34:23–24;
John 10:11, 14).

79:1 See note on 74:3.

79:9 Ultimate salvation and the glorification of God's name come through Christ (John 13:31–32;

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17:1–5).

80:1 Christ is the true shepherd (John 10:11, 14).

80:17 The “son of man,” the key representative for the people of God, is ultimately Christ (Matt.
26:64; see note on Ps. 61:7).

81:1 Praise is the appropriate response to God's salvation (see note on 68:26).

81:13 See note on 78:17.

82:2 The failure of judges to bring justice points to the need for God's ultimate judgment. He has
brought justice in Christ (Rom. 4:25) and will bring ultimate judgment in the consummation (Rev.
20:11–21:8).

82:6 Judges reflecting God's authority (Rom. 13:1) foreshadow Christ, who is the exact image of
God (Heb. 1:3) and is God himself (John 10:34–36).

83:1 See note on 10:1.

83:9 The destruction of Israel's enemies prefigures the destruction of the ultimate enemies—sin,
death, and Satan (Heb. 2:14–15; Rev. 21:4; see note on Ps. 3:1).

84:1 God's dwelling place in the OT prefigures Christ as the dwelling place of God (John 1:14; 2:19–
21), the church as dwelling place through the Spirit (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22), and the new
Jerusalem as final dwelling place (Rev. 21:2–3, 21:22–22:5). See notes on Ps. 23:6 and 27:4.

85:4 The forgiveness of Israel in the OT anticipates the permanent forgiveness in Christ (Col. 1:13–
14).

86:2 See note on 35:3.

86:9 The coming of the nations to worship is fulfilled in Christ (Luke 24:47; see note on Ps. 57:9).

86:11 See note on 25:4.

87:4 The incorporation of other nations into the holy city is fulfilled as the nations come to Christ
(Luke 24:47; Rev. 5:9–10; 21:24–26).

88:3 The miseries of the psalmist prefigure the sufferings of Christ (Luke 24:26–27; see note on Ps.
22:1).

89:4 The promise concerning offspring is ultimately fulfilled in Christ (Matt. 1:1–16). But victory is
preceded by suffering, abandonment, and apparent failure of the promise, all anticipating the
sufferings of Christ.

89:48 In the resurrection of Christ is the ultimate answer to death (1 Cor. 15:50–57; Heb. 2:14–15).

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90:3 See note on 89:48.

90:17 Despite the reality of death, Christ's resurrection guarantees victory and demonstrates that
work has eternal meaning (1 Cor. 15:58).

91:1 God is our ultimate dwelling place and protection, prefiguring Christ as dwelling place and
protection (John 1:14; 10:27–30).

92:1 See note on 68:26.

92:13 Fruitfulness is found in the presence of God (see 1:3). Fruitfulness prefigures the fruitfulness
of Christ (Isa. 53:10) and of his people (John 15:1–16).

93:1 See note on 11:4.

93:4 The Lord's power is greater than the threat of overwhelming waters. The power over waters
threatening death prefigures the power in Christ's resurrection (Eph. 1:19–22; see note on Ps.
42:7).

94:2 See notes on 50:4 and 58:2.

94:3 See note on 10:1.

94:11 The limitations of human thinking contrast with the wisdom of God, which is to be found in
Christ (1 Cor. 3:20; Col. 2:3).

94:15 Final justice, accomplished in Christ, will have benefits for all who are his (1 Cor. 15:42–49).

95:1 See note on 68:26.

95:8 Israel's rebellion (Numbers 14; Deut. 32:5) serves as a negative example for all time (Heb.
4:7–12). Faith in God, culminating in faith in Christ, is the proper response to God (Heb. 4:2).

96:1 See note on 68:26.

96:3 The declaration to the nations anticipates the spread of the gospel (Luke 24:47; Acts 1:8; see
note on Ps. 22:27).

97:2 See note on 7:8.

97:8 God's people can rejoice in judgment, ultimately because Christ has taken away the negative
judgment against their sins and they may receive blessing in him (2 Cor. 5:21).

98:1 See Psalm 96 and note on 68:26.

98:7 Ultimate salvation in Christ includes blessing to all nations (see note on 22:27) and renewal of
the world itself (2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1).

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99:3 See note on 11:4.

99:4 The experience of the benefits of justice make us long for ultimate justice, which is to be found
in Christ and his justification (Rom. 3:23–26; 4:25–5:1). Justice includes both the vindication of
God's people and the removal of enemies. The ultimate enemies are sin, death, and Satan (see note
on Ps. 3:1).

100:4 Entering the presence of God has been made possible through Christ who opened the way
(John 14:6; Heb. 10:19–22).

101:5 The zeal of the Davidic king to remove wickedness prefigures the power of Christ in
triumphing over all evil and making people new (John 13:10; Eph. 4:20–24).

102:3 See note on 6:2.

102:15 See note on 22:27.

102:16 God appears in his glory climactically in Christ (John 1:14; 13:31–32; 17:1–5).

102:26 Through Christ the abiding character of God benefits us (Heb. 1:10–12).

103:4 Earlier redemptions look forward to the climactic redemption in Christ.

104:2 God's people are to praise God for his works of creation and providence, seeing in them
displays of God's power and goodness. His power and goodness and blessing are supremely
manifested in Christ (John 1:14; Eph. 1:3–14).

105:5 The faithfulness of God in past generations encourages Israel to respond in faithfulness.
Christians look back not only on God's acts of salvation in the OT, but on the climactic salvation in
Christ, which gives the ultimate basis for our trust.

106:6 The unfaithfulness of Israel in response to God is answered by Christ's obedience, and then
by the obedience of God's people who follow Christ (John 14:15; Eph. 2:10).

107:2 God's acts of redemption in the OT prefigure final redemption in Christ (Col. 1:13–14).

108:6 See note on 35:3.

108:7 God is committed to subduing his enemies, and this commitment is fulfilled climactically in
Christ, both in his resurrection (Heb. 2:14–15) and in his second coming (Rev. 19:11–21).

109:8 Judas is a chief example of the enemies whom God judges (Acts 1:20; see note on Ps. 69:25).

109:31 Christ, having been himself saved from death in his resurrection, is able to save us from
death (John 11:25; Heb. 2:14–15; Rev. 1:18).

110:1 The Messiah is superior even to David and exercises universal rule (Matt. 22:44–45; Acts
2:34–36; 1 Cor. 15:25–28; Eph. 1:22; Heb. 1:13).

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110:4 The Messiah has an eternal priesthood superior to Aaron's (Heb. 5:6; 7:21–8:2).

111:1 See note on 22:22.

111:9 Final redemption and final fulfillment of God's covenant is accomplished in Christ (2 Cor.
1:20; Heb. 7:25; 8:6–13).

112:1 Christ is the supremely righteous man (Acts 3:14), and in him we too receive the reward for
righteousness (Eph. 1:3–14). See note on Ps. 1:1.

112:9 The principle of generosity continues in the NT (2 Cor. 9:9).

113:7 Attentiveness to the needy is supremely manifested in Christ (Luke 1:48–55; 6:20).

114:3 The crossing of the Red Sea (Exodus 14–15) and of the Jordan River (Joshua 3) are acts of
salvation and symbolic triumphs over death that anticipate the triumph of Christ (John 10:18;
11:25; Rev. 1:18; 21:4).

115:1 God is supremely glorified and his faithfulness manifested in Christ's work (John 13:31–32;
17:1–5).

116:3 See notes on 9:13 and 13:5.

116:13 See note on 68:26.

116:15 God continues to care for his saints even after death, hinting at the hope for the
resurrection (John 11:25; 1 Thess. 4:13–18).

117:1 All nations will come to praise God as a result of his salvation in Christ (Rom. 15:11),
fulfilling the promise to Abraham (Gen. 12:3; see note on Ps. 22:27).

118:5 See note on 35:3.

118:6 God has expressed his commitment in Christ, giving us all the more reason to trust him (Heb.
13:6).

118:22 The Lord's exaltation of the one rejected by man is fulfilled in the exaltation of Christ (Matt.
21:42; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11–12; Eph. 2:20–22; 1 Pet. 2:4–7).

118:26 Israel ought to recognize Jesus as one who brings the salvation of God (Matt. 23:39).

119:1 People with renewed hearts delight to obey God and learn from his word, which guides
them. Christ was perfectly obedient to God (Heb. 10:7–10), and through his Spirit we are
transformed into his image (Rom. 8:9–17; 2 Cor. 3:18) and become obedient servants of God.
Delight in God's word anticipates delight in Christ, who is the Word of God (John 1:1).

119:11 Having God's word in the heart anticipates the new covenant (Heb. 8:10–13; 10:16–18).

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120:1 See note on 35:3.

120:2 Deliverance from deceit anticipates the purity of God's word and God's work of deliverance
from Satanic deceit through Christ (Rev. 12:9; see note on Ps. 64:2).

121:2 Salvation comes from God alone, anticipating the fact that Christ is the divine Savior.

122:1 Joy in experiencing the presence of God in his house anticipates the joy of the presence of
God in Christ (John 1:14; 15:11; see note on Ps. 27:4).

122:6 Jerusalem as the city of God prefigures the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26–28; Heb. 12:22–24)
of which we are citizens (Phil. 3:20). Christ has given peace to his people (John 16:33; Eph. 4:3; Col.
3:15).

123:2 Mercy is received ultimately through Christ (Eph. 2:4; see note on Ps. 121:2).

124:4 See note on 42:7.

125:1 Trust in the Lord anticipates trust in Christ (Acts 16:31), who has supremely manifested
God's faithfulness.

126:1 Relief from misfortune prefigures the great salvation in Christ (John 16:20–22).

127:1 The necessity of the Lord's power for temporal achievements anticipates the necessity for
God, and him alone, to accomplish eternal salvation through Christ (John 15:4–5; Acts 4:12).

128:1 See note on 112:1.

128:2 Temporal blessings prefigure the eternal blessings in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14; Rev. 21:1–4).

129:1 See note on 6:2.

129:5 See note on 60:12.

130:4 Forgiveness is ultimately accomplished in Christ (Col. 1:13–14; see note on Ps. 32:1).

131:1 The psalmist's humble trust anticipates the humble trust of Christ in the Father (Matt. 11:29;
Heb. 5:7–10) and the trust that Christians are to have in Christ (Acts 16:31).

132:12 The promise to David culminates in Christ the offspring of David (Matt. 1:1–16), who is
both king in the line of David and priest in God's heavenly dwelling (Ps. 110:2, 4; Heb. 8:1–2).

133:1 Unity among God's people is produced in Christ and in his Spirit (Eph. 4:1–6).

134:1 Praise of God looks forward to the praises offered by Christ (Heb. 2:12), the praises of God's
NT people (Eph. 5:19–20; Heb. 13:15), and the praises of the consummation (Rev. 19:1–10).

135:4 God's acts of grace and salvation to his people in the OT anticipate the climactic salvation

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accomplished in Christ (Luke 2:30–32; Acts 4:12).

136:4 God's works of creation, providence, and merciful deliverance show the steadfast love that
has now been climactically revealed through salvation in Christ (John 1:14).

137:6 Devastation to God's holy city makes people long for future blessing and destruction to God's
enemies. God's ultimate answer is found in salvation in Christ and in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–
21:8). Jerusalem prefigures the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26–27; Heb. 12:22–24).

138:3 See note on 35:3.

138:4 See note on 22:27.

138:6 Mercy to the lowly comes in Christ (Luke 1:48–55).

139:1 Detailed knowledge and care for the psalmist anticipates God's care for us (John 10:14–16).

140:1 Deliverance from enemies prefigures Christ's deliverance from his enemies, both human and
demonic (Matt. 26:46; Col. 2:15); it also prefigures our deliverance in Christ from sin, death, and
Satan (Heb. 2:14–15).

140:3 See Rom. 3:13 and note on Ps. 14:1.

141:3 The need for wise speech, in prayer as well as in other circumstances, anticipates the purity
of Christ's speech (John 8:43–47) and the purity that we receive from Christ (John 17:17–19). Our
prayers are heard because of him (John 14:13–14; 1 John 5:14–15).

142:4 See notes on 6:2 and 22:1.

142:6 Deliverance from persecutors anticipates the deliverance of Christ from his persecutors,
after he was brought low in his crucifixion and death.

143:2 Perfect righteousness is found only in Christ, who provides righteousness for those who are
his (2 Cor. 5:21; see notes on Ps. 7:8 and 14:1).

144:1 See note on 18:34.

144:10 Deliverance for David prefigures final deliverance given to Christ the offspring of David. See
notes on 2:6 and 18:50.

145:1 See note on 68:26.

145:8 The Lord's grace and mercy is climactically poured out in the salvation in Christ (Rom. 8:32).

146:3 Mere man cannot save, pointing to the need for Christ to be God as well as man (John 1:14).

147:5 God's greatness and goodness, in both providence and redemption, motivates praise and
trust. God's goodness has now been supremely manifested in Christ (Rom. 8:32).

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148:3 The created world declares the character of its maker (19:1–6), anticipating the final, even
more glorious praise in the consummation (Rev. 21:1–4). The creation reflects the glory of the Son,
who is mediator of creation (John 1:1–3; Col. 1:15–17).

149:4 See note on 68:26.

149:7 At Christ's second coming rebellious nations will be subdued (Rev. 19:11–21). In the
meantime, gracious subduing comes through the power of the gospel (Matt. 28:18–20).

150:2 See note on 68:26. Praise, not a cry of distress, has the final position in the Psalms,
anticipating the victory of Christ (Eph. 4:8) and the final abolition of suffering (Rev. 21:4).

Proverbs
Wisdom ultimately comes from God and his instruction, which anticipates the fact that Christ is the
wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:3) and that in him and his instruction we find the way of life and
righteousness (John 14:6, 23–24). Through the Spirit we may walk in the right way (Gal. 5:16–26).

1:1 Solomon's wisdom prefigures the wisdom of his greater descendant, Jesus Christ (1 Cor. 1:30;
see note on 1 Kings 2:6).

1:7 Wisdom is to be sought from God, anticipating that we seek wisdom from Christ, the incarnate
God (John 1:14; Col. 2:3).

1:8 Listening to parents is one aspect of honoring them, which is an abiding principle (Ex. 20:12;
Eph. 6:1–3). Within the church we are now to have specifically Christian instruction of children
(Eph. 6:4). The archetype for this obedient listening is found in the relation of the Son of God to the
Father (John 8:28–29).

1:18 The principle of just retribution is broad (Obad. 15) and is to be fulfilled ultimately in the
consummation (Rev. 20:12–14).

1:19 Sin leads to death (Rom. 6:23), but in Christ there is life (John 14:6; 1 John 5:12).

1:20 The call of wisdom prefigures the call of the gospel, which contains the wisdom of God (1 Cor.
1:18–25; 2:6–10).

2:4 The diligent seeking for wisdom prefigures the need to seek the kingdom of God (Matt. 13:44).

2:13 The path of righteousness is ultimately that of Jesus Christ, the perfectly Righteous One (John
14:6). All other ways lead to destruction (Matt. 7:13–14; Acts 4:12).

2:16 Wisdom involves the avoidance both of literal adultery and of the spiritual adultery of idolatry
(Ex. 34:16; Hos. 1:2; 2:1–5; 3:1–3; 2 Cor. 11:3).

2:21 Temporal blessings prefigure the blessings of eternal salvation (Eph. 1:3–14).

3:2 Length of days prefigures eternal life that comes through fellowship with Christ, who is the

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wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:30).

3:5 Trust in the Lord anticipates trust in Christ, who is the Lord's salvation (Acts 16:31).

3:11 Christians as sons of God receive the Lord's discipline (Heb. 12:5–6).

3:18 The possession of the tree of life anticipates the final inheritance in the consummation (Rev.
2:7; 22:1–2).

3:34 The call for humility anticipates the role of humility in the NT (Matt. 11:29; James 4:6; 1 Pet.
5:5).

4:13 Instruction for the path of life anticipates the instruction of Christ, who is the way and the
truth and the life (John 14:6).

5:3 See note on 2:16.

5:5 Ultimately Christ delivers us from death (John 11:25–26), and as one aspect of deliverance he
gives wisdom and integrity of heart (1 Cor. 1:30).

6:6 Diligent work now has as its deepest motivation the hope of final satisfaction in Christ (1 Cor.
15:58).

6:24 See note on 2:16.

7:21 Smooth, deceitful talk is linked ultimately to the deceit of Satan (John 8:44–47; Rev. 12:9).

8:1 See note on 1:20.

8:22 The eternality of wisdom with God anticipates the eternality of the second person of the
Trinity, who is the Word of God and who mediated creation (John 1:1–3).

8:35 Life is obtained ultimately from Christ, who is the life (John 14:6) and the wisdom of God (1
Cor. 1:30).

9:2 The invitation to feasting anticipates the spiritual food of Christ (John 6:52–58) and the future
marriage supper of the Lamb (Rev. 19:9).

9:18 See note on 1:19.

10:1 On Solomon, see notes on 1:1 and 1 Kings 2:6.

10:2 Blessings on the righteous anticipate the blessings on Christ, the perfectly righteous man, and
the blessings that come to those in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14).

10:12 Wisdom transforms relations with others, anticipating the NT transformation through love
(John 13:34–35; 1 John 3:16–18; 4:7–21).

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10:21 The blessing to others anticipates the blessing of gracious words in the church (Eph. 4:14–
16; Col. 3:16; 4:6).

11:2 The value of humility anticipates the humility of Christ (Matt. 11:29) and of his people (Luke
14:11; Eph. 4:2; see note on Prov. 3:34).

11:3 See note on 2:13.

11:4 Temporary avoidance of death prefigures the promise of eternal life, based on the
righteousness of Christ (John 5:24; Rom. 4:25; see note on Prov. 2:13).

12:18 The blessing of wise words anticipates the blessings of the words of Christ (John 6:63) and of
his followers (Eph. 4:29; Col. 4:6).

13:4 See note on 6:6.

13:14 Christ the supremely wise One has the words of eternal life (John 6:68–69).

13:24 Christians are to train their children in Christ (Eph. 6:1–4; see note on Prov. 1:8).

14:2 True trust in Christ manifests itself in obedience (Gal. 5:13–26; James 2:14–26).

15:1 Gentle words anticipate the gentleness of Christ (Matt. 11:29). Gentleness is also to
characterize his people (Gal. 5:23; Eph. 4:2, 25–29).

16:3 Only through union with Christ can we bear fruit (John 15:1–11).

16:12 The duty of kings to bring justice anticipates Christ, who is the great king and the one who
brings perfect justice (Rom. 3:26; Rev. 19:11).

17:3 The Lord's discernment is perfect (Heb. 4:12–13), implying the need for purification (Heb.
9:9–14).

18:3 Temporal judgments on wickedness prefigure final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15), underlining the
need for repentance.

19:1 We must be discerning about real value and seek first the kingdom of God (Matt. 6:33).

19:5 See note on 18:3.

19:11 Readiness to forgive anticipates the forgiveness of Christ (Col. 1:14) and the practice of
forgiving among his people (Col. 3:13; James 1:19).

20:8 Authorities have an obligation to punish evildoing (Deut. 16:18–20; Rom. 13:1–4). In this they
anticipate the final judgment of God (Rev. 20:11–15).

20:22 Vengeance belongs to God (Rom. 12:17–21). Christ himself waited patiently for vindication
(1 Pet. 2:21–23).

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21:3 See 1 Sam. 15:22–23 and Mic. 6:6–8. The requirement for real obedience, and ultimately for
perfect obedience, is fulfilled in Christ (Heb. 10:5–10).

22:4 See note on 2:21.

23:4 Counsel against lust for money anticipates Jesus' counsel about true riches (Luke 12:22–40;
16:10–13; Eph. 5:5).

23:13 See note on 13:24.

23:19 The way of righteousness is found ultimately in Christ (John 14:6). See note on Prov. 1:8.

23:30 The warning against drunkenness is repeated in the NT, and it is complemented by a positive
command to be filled with the Spirit (Eph. 5:18).

24:3 Human use of wisdom imitates God's use of wisdom (8:22–31) and anticipates Christ, who is
the wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:30) and who builds the church (Matt. 16:18).

24:19 See note on Ps. 10:1.

24:30 See note on 6:6.

25:7 The principle of humility is further developed in Christ's teaching and example (Luke 14:7–
11).

25:11 See notes on 12:18 and 15:1.

25:21 The principle of doing good to enemies is further developed in Christ's example and his
teaching (Matt. 5:43–48; Rom. 12:20–21).

26:3 The answer to folly and its disasters is found in seeking the wisdom of Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; Col.
2:3).

26:11 It is folly to turn back from following Christ (2 Pet. 2:22).

26:13 See note on 6:6.

26:20 The answer to words of strife is found in Christ's peace and his empowering of his people to
be at peace with one another (Col. 3:13–15).

27:3 See note on 26:20.

27:11 See note on 13:24.

28:1 The boldness of the righteous anticipates the boldness of followers of Christ (2 Cor. 3:12; Phil.
1:28–30).

28:2 See note on 16:12.

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28:9 God desires righteousness and obedience, which are fulfilled in Christ (2 Cor. 5:21; see note on
Prov. 21:3).

29:2 See note on 16:12.

29:25 Trust in the Lord anticipates trust in Christ (see 3:5).

30:4 The inaccessibility of wisdom to man points to the need for Christ, who comes down from
heaven (John 3:12–15; 6:33, 50–51).

31:3 See note on 2:16.

31:10 The excellent wife prefigures the excellence of the church, the bride of Christ (Eph. 5:25–27;
Rev. 19:7–8).

Ecclesiastes
The meaninglessness, frustrations, and injustices of life “under the sun” call out for a solution from
God. Christ through his suffering and resurrection provides the first installment (1 Cor. 15:22–23)
of meaning, fulfillment, and new life (John 10:10), to be enjoyed fully in the consummation (Rev.
21:1–4).

1:14 The crumbling of human works makes life pointless, unless there is relief in God. Knocking
down false ambitions creates a longing for the relief that will come in Christ (Matt. 11:28–30).

2:10 The fading pleasures in this life contrast with the eternal pleasures in God's presence (Ps.
16:11; John 15:11; Rev. 21:4).

2:14 Wisdom in this world contrasts with the wisdom in Christ that will last forever (1 Cor. 1:30).

2:16 What is needed is a remedy for death, and this remedy comes through Christ (1 Cor. 15:54–
58).

3:11 Now in the light of revelation we can know that God's purpose is to unite all things in Christ (1
Cor. 2:9–10; Eph. 1:10).

3:12 Man need not understand everything but can live a life of joy as a servant of Christ (John
15:11), trusting that God's plans are good (Rom. 8:28).

3:17 God will execute final judgment (Rev. 20:11–21:8). But in the meantime we must endure much
injustice (John 16:33).

3:20 See note on 2:16.

4:1 See note on 3:17.

4:9 The virtue of cooperation anticipates the mutual help in the body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12).

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5:8 See note on 3:17.

5:10 The fleeting character of riches implies that we should invest in God's kingdom (Matt. 6:33;
Luke 12:22–34).

7:2 See notes on 2:10 and 2:16.

7:15 See note on 3:17.

7:18 In the midst of much confusion and frustration about outward circumstances, we must hold
fast to God. God brings ultimate salvation from vanity in Christ (Rev. 21:1–4).

8:14 See note on 3:17.

8:15 See note on 3:12.

9:5 See note on 2:16.

9:7 See note on 3:12.

9:16 The seeking for wisdom ultimately culminates in Christ, who is the wisdom of God (Matt.
12:42; 1 Cor. 1:30).

10:17 Good rulers make a notable difference in the character of a nation. The final, perfect ruler is
Christ himself, who brings the kingdom of God and everlasting righteousness (Matt. 12:28; Rev.
21:1–4).

11:1 Work done for Christ will be rewarded (Col. 3:22–25).

12:1 See note on 1:14.

12:7 Reckoning with death leads to abandoning a focus on selfish achievement and pleasure and
seeking God (see note on 2:16).

12:14 Reckoning with the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–21:8) changes the orientation of life. We are
to follow Christ who delivers us from condemnation (Rom. 8:1) and death (John 11:25–26) and
gives meaning to work in fellowship with him (1 Cor. 15:58).

Song of Solomon
The Song of Solomon depicts marital love. But after the fall merely human love is always short of
God's ideal, and so we look for God's remedy in the perfect love of Christ (Eph. 5:22–33; 1 John
3:16; 4:9–10). The connection with Solomon (Song 1:1; 3:7, 9, 11; 8:11) invites us to think
especially of the marriage of the king in the line of David (Ps. 45:10–15), and the kings point
forward to Christ the great king, who has the church as his bride (Rev. 19:7–9, 21:9).

1:1 The marriage of the Davidic king points forward to Christ (Ps. 45:10–15; cf. Ps. 45:6–7 with
Heb. 1:8–9).

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1:2 Perfect love has been demonstrated in Christ (1 John 4:9–10).

1:4 Longing for intimacy prefigures the longing for intimacy with the love of Christ (1 John 4:7–21).

1:15 The beauty of the lovers anticipates the beauty of Christ and his bride (Eph. 5:26–27; Rev.
19:7–8).

2:3 Delight in love prefigures the joy in Christ (John 15:11).

2:16 The possession of the loved one prefigures the possession of Christ and the church.

3:1 See note on 1:4.

3:11 The wedding of Solomon prefigures the wedding of the Messiah (Ps. 45:10–15).

4:1 See note on 1:15.

4:13 Edenic abundance in the “garden” anticipates the abundance and satisfaction and fulfillment
of the final consummation (Rev. 22:1–5).

5:1 Satisfaction with the loved one contrasts with God's dissatisfaction with the disobedience and
disloyalty of Israel (Isa. 5:1–4), who was supposed to be married to the Lord (Ezek. 16:8–15). The
remedy is found in Christ's salvation (Eph. 5:25–27).

5:8 See note on 1:4.

5:10 See note on 1:15.

6:9 The focus on the beloved anticipates the uniqueness of God's love for the church.

7:1 See note on 1:15.

7:6 Delight in the loved one prefigures Christ's delight in the church (Eph. 5:26–27; Rev. 19:8).

8:6 The abiding character of commitment in love prefigures the abiding character of the new
covenant (John 10:27–29; Phil. 1:6; Heb. 8:8–13).

Isaiah
Isaiah prophesies exile because of Israel's unfaithfulness. But then God will bring Israel back from
exile; this restoration prefigures the climactic salvation in Christ. Christ as Messiah and “servant” of
the Lord will cleanse his people from sin, fill them with glory, and extend blessing to the nations.
Christ fulfills prophecy in both his first coming and his second coming.

1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 15–20 and 2 Chronicles 26–32.

1:4 The failures of Israel precipitate the exile, and indicate the need for the messianic servant of the
Lord, who will faithfully obey the Lord (42:1–4; 49:1–12).

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1:9 The Lord preserves a few, a remnant for Israel. The theme of the remnant is fulfilled in Christ,
who is the ultimate remnant of one, and then the remnant is expanded to include Christ's people
(see Rom. 11:5 and note on Isa. 6:13).

1:18 Ultimate cleansing comes through Christ's sacrifice (Heb. 10:1–10).

2:2 Christ himself is the ultimate “house” or dwelling place of God (John 1:14; 2:19–21). Through
him the church becomes a temple (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22), and through Christ's exaltation the
nations are drawn to him (Luke 24:47; John 12:32).

2:6 See note on 1:4.

2:11 The humbling of human pride takes place in Christ (Matt. 20:25–28; Luke 1:48–53; 1 Cor.
1:31).

3:2 The lack of adequate leaders shows the need for the Messiah as the final, perfect leader (9:6–7).

4:4 Cleansing looks forward to the forgiveness and purification in Christ (Col. 1:13–14; Heb. 10:10–
14).

5:7 The lack of fruit from Israel contrasts with the fruitfulness of Christ and those in him (John
15:1–6; see also Matt. 21:33–44).

6:1 Isaiah's vision of the glory of God anticipates the glory of God in Christ (John 1:14; 12:41; Rev.
4:2–10).

6:9 The resistance of Israel to Isaiah's message anticipates resistance to the gospel (Matt. 13:11–17;
Acts 28:24–28; Rom. 11:7–8).

6:13 The holy seed, the remnant, are those in Israel who remain faithful to God. Ultimately none is
completely faithful except Christ, who is the final remnant (11:1; Gal. 3:16; see note on Isa. 1:9).

7:14 The prophecy concerning Immanuel (see also Gen. 3:15) is fulfilled in Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:20–
23). It is related to the larger OT theme in which God brings new life and offspring to barren women
(see note on Gen. 18:10).

8:13 Treating the Lord as holy culminates in the holiness of Christ (Acts 2:27) and our obligation to
holiness (1 Pet. 1:15–16; 3:15).

8:14 The nation of Israel being offended by the Lord Almighty prefigures their rejection of Christ
(Matt. 21:43–44; Rom. 9:31–33; 1 Pet. 2:6–8).

9:1 Jesus brings light by preaching in Galilee (Matt. 4:12–17). He is the light of the world (John 1:5,
8–9; 8:12; 9:5).

9:6 The Messiah is both human (from the line of David) and divine (see John 1:14; Col. 2:9).

9:7 The Messiah establishes his rule in justice (Rom. 3:26; Eph. 1:20–22) and peace (John 16:33).

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10:22 In NT times, the remnant consists of those who believe in Christ (Rom. 11:1–10; see note on
Isa. 1:9).

11:1 The Messiah is from the line of Jesse, the father of David (1 Sam. 16:1). He is filled with the
Spirit (Matt. 3:16; Luke 4:18), with wisdom (Col. 2:3), and with justice (Rev. 19:11).

11:10 Christ draws the nations to himself (John 12:32; Rom. 15:12; see note on Isa. 2:2).

12:1 The song of praise for God's salvation anticipates the praise for God's salvation in Christ (Eph.
5:19–20; Heb. 2:12; 13:15; Rev. 19:1–8).

13:6 The day of the Lord is a day of judgment. Judgments within history, such as the judgment of
the exile of Israel, anticipate the final judgment (1 Thess. 5:2–11; 2 Pet. 3:10–13; Rev. 20:11–21:8).
Because of Christ's salvation, the day is a day for which Christians hope (Titus 2:13).

13:9 All sinners will be swept away in the ultimate judgment. We must take refuge in Christ (2 Cor.
5:21).

13:10 The darkening is a symbol of judgment, prefiguring judgment at the crucifixion (Matt. 27:45)
and at the second coming (Matt. 24:29; Rev. 6:12–13; see Rev. 8:12).

14:4 The fall of Babylon to the Medes and Persians (Dan. 5:28) prefigures the final fall of Babylon
the Great (Rev. 17:15–19:3) and the defeat of Satan (Luke 10:15; Rev. 12:7–9; 20:10), as well as
looking back on the fall of Babel (Gen. 11:1–9).

15:1 Moab, one of the traditional enemies of Israel (Num. 22:1–6), is defeated, prefiguring final
judgment on God's enemies (Rev. 20:11–15) and fulfilling Num. 21:29.

16:5 Despite her record of enmity, Moab (like other hostile nations) can find refuge in the Messiah.
Christ's mercy extends to all nations (Acts 1:8; Rev. 5:9–10).

17:6 See note on 1:9.

17:7 God the Maker is seen in Christ (John 14:9) and will be seen face to face by the pure in heart
(Matt. 5:8; Rev. 22:4).

18:7 The coming of the nations takes place as Christ draws them (Matt. 28:18–20; John 12:32; Acts
1:8; see note on Isa. 2:2).

19:18 Egypt, traditionally an enemy to God's people, will come to submit to God. Christ calls the
nations to himself (Acts 2:10; see notes on Isa. 2:2 and 18:7).

20:6 The failure of human hopes highlights the need to hope in God through the way that he has
provided in Christ (Ps. 146:3–4; John 14:6).

21:9 The fall of Babylon prefigures the defeat of all evil and the victory of Christ over evil (Col. 2:15;
Rev. 14:8; 18:2; see note on Isa. 14:4).

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22:11 A basic temptation is to trust in man rather than in God (Acts 4:12; 16:31; see note on Isa.
20:6).

22:13 Abandonment of hope would be appropriate only if God did not provide salvation in Christ
(1 Cor. 15:19, 32).

22:22 Kingly authority in the right hands provides security. But even Eliakim (v. 20) is ultimately
not up to the task (v. 25). Only the Messiah in the line of David can bear the full weight of
responsibility that will bring final salvation (Matt. 1:21; see Rev. 3:7).

23:9 After destroying human pride, the Lord brings about blessing and glory to himself (v. 18). The
reversal of human ambitions takes place preeminently in the death and resurrection of Christ (Phil.
2:6–11; see note on Isa. 2:11).

24:6 In fulfillment of the curse from the fall of Adam, all the earth will ultimately be judged (2 Pet.
3:10; Rev. 20:11–15). But through the work of Christ blessing comes to the godly (Isa. 24:15; Rev.
21:3–4).

25:8 God's overwhelming victory, resulting in blessing, will come at the consummation (1 Cor.
15:54; Rev. 7:17; 21:4).

26:4 Trusting in God anticipates trusting in Christ, who has accomplished climactic salvation (Phil.
4:7).

26:5 See notes on 2:11 and 23:9.

26:19 The hope for reversal of death is fulfilled in Christ's resurrection (John 11:25–26; 1 Cor.
15:46–57; Eph. 5:14).

27:1 Satan will be completely defeated (John 12:31; Rev. 20:10).

27:6 Fruitfulness is found ultimately in Christ (John 15:1–17).

28:1 See note on 2:11.

28:11 The foreign tongue is analogous to speaking in tongues in the NT (1 Cor. 14:21).

28:16 Christ is the stone, both providing a foundation to those who trust in him (Eph. 2:20–22; 1
Cor. 3:11; 1 Pet. 2:4) and becoming a cause of stumbling to those who reject him (Matt. 21:42–44;
Rom. 9:31–33; 1 Pet. 2:6–8; see Ps. 118:22).

29:10 Spiritual hardness comes to part of Israel in Rom. 11:7–8 (see note on Isa. 6:9).

29:13 The stubbornness and disobedience of God's people comes to a climax with the opposition to
and rejection of Jesus (Matt. 15:8–9; see Col. 2:22).

29:14 Human wisdom is confounded by the gospel (1 Cor. 1:18–25).

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29:18 Jesus' healing of the blind and the deaf symbolizes the giving of spiritual light (John 9:39–
41).

30:2 See note on 22:11.

30:20 Christ is the ultimate teacher who instructs us in the way of the Lord (Matt. 23:10) through
the Spirit (John 16:12–15).

31:1 See note on 22:11.

31:5 The protection of Jerusalem prefigures God's protection of his people in Christ (John 10:27–
29; see Isa. 40:11).

32:3 See note on 29:18.

32:15 The blessings of salvation in Christ come in two stages, in his first coming (Acts 1:8; Eph. 1:3–
14) and his second coming (Rev. 21:1–22:5).

33:6 See note on 32:15.

33:14 Only perfect righteousness will remedy sin. Such righteousness is found in Christ (Rom.
3:21–26; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 10:1–14; see Heb. 12:29).

34:2 God's judgment against sin and evil anticipates the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15; see notes
on Isa. 13:6; 13:9; and 15:1).

34:4 The skies disappear at the second coming (Rev. 6:13–14; 20:11).

35:3 The call for strengthening occurs in responding to God's NT discipline (Heb. 12:12).

35:5 Christ gives sight and hearing, symbolizing the giving of spiritual sight and hearing (Luke
7:20–22; Acts 26:18; see note on Isa. 29:18).

35:10 The return to Palestine in the restoration prefigures the coming to heavenly Jerusalem and
the presence of God in heaven (Heb. 10:19–23; 12:22–24; Rev. 21:4).

36:1 The threat from Assyria anticipates the later threat from Babylon (39:6), which in turn
illustrates all the attacks of Satan on God's people. God answers with redemption that prefigures
redemption in Christ. See the parallels in 2 Kings 18:13–20:19 and 2 Chronicles 32.

36:15 See note on 2 Kings 18:30.

37:1 God is our refuge in time of distress (Ps. 46:1). We now look to Christ for salvation (Acts 4:12).

37:23 See note on 2 Kings 19:22.

38:5 See note on 2 Kings 20:5.

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38:10 The ultimate remedy for death is found in the resurrection of Christ (see note on 26:19).

39:6 God's judgment of exile, which comes on account of sin (2 Kings 23:26–27; 2 Chron. 36:15–
16), prefigures final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). But through Christ we may escape condemnation
(Rom. 8:1).

40:1 Comfort to Jerusalem prefigures the comfort that is found in Christ (2 Cor. 1:3–7).

40:3 John the Baptist uses these words to announce the coming of the Lord (Matt. 3:3; John 1:23) in
the person of Christ (John 10:30; 14:9).

40:5 The glory of the Lord is revealed in Christ (Luke 2:32; John 1:14; 13:31–32; 17:1–5).

40:6 The fading of human life contrasts with eternal salvation in Christ (1 Pet. 1:24–25; see James
1:10–11).

40:11 Jesus is the good shepherd (John 10:11, 14).

41:17 God's mercy to the poor is manifest in Christ (Luke 4:18–19; 7:22).

42:1 The servant, the Messianic king (9:6–7), rules with justice and mercy (Matt. 12:17–21; see
Matt. 3:17).

42:6 Christ the light of the world (John 8:12; 9:5) brings light to the nations (John 12:32; Acts
26:18, 23), fulfilling the promise to Abraham of blessing to the nations (see note on Gen. 12:3).

43:25 Forgiveness is found ultimately in Christ (Mark 2:7; Col. 1:14; Heb. 10:1–18).

44:3 See note on 32:15.

44:28 The restoration under Cyrus (Ezra 1) prefigures the eternal salvation in Christ in the
heavenly Jerusalem (Heb. 12:22–24).

45:1 Cyrus as anointed by God prefigures the Messiah and his salvation (Luke 4:18–19).

45:23 The submission of the nations is accomplished in Christ (Phil. 2:10–11; Rev. 15:4).

46:1 The worthlessness of idols is expressive of the principle that only Christ, the one way of
salvation that God has established (John 14:6; Acts 4:12), is worthy of trust.

47:3 The oppressor of God's people will be judged (see note on 14:4).

47:8 See Rev. 18:7 and note on Isa. 14:4.

48:20 Rescue from Babylon prefigures rescue from sin and death (Col. 1:13–14; Rev. 18:4).

49:2 The word of God is like a sharp sword (Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12; Rev. 1:16; 2:12, 16; 19:15).

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49:6 See Acts 13:47 and 26:23, and note on Isa. 42:6.

49:8 Now, subsequent to Christ's resurrection, is the time of salvation (2 Cor. 6:2).

49:10 Protection and blessing ultimately come through the Lamb (Rev. 7:16–17).

50:6 The Messianic servant undergoes suffering and humiliation for the sake of accomplishing
salvation (Matt. 27:26–31).

51:10 God's redemption in the exodus is analogous to his redemption of his people from
Babylonian exile, and both look forward to his climactic redemption in Christ.

51:11 See note on 35:10.

51:17 Wrath is followed by exaltation, prefiguring the movement from the wrath of Christ's
crucifixion to the exaltation of his resurrection and ascension. On the cup of wrath, see note on Jer.
25:15.

52:7 The gospel is the good news of salvation (Rom. 10:15).

52:10 The inclusion of the nations fulfills the promise to Abraham concerning blessing to all
nations (Gen. 12:3; Luke 2:30–31; see note on Isa. 42:6).

52:11 The Israelites' departure from pagan Babylon prefigures the departure of believers from the
contamination of the world (2 Cor. 6:14–7:1).

52:13 Exaltation of the servant, the Messiah, follows his suffering (v. 14; 53:3–9; see note on
51:17).

52:15 Many who have not heard of Christ will be awed (v. 14) by his suffering sacrifice. Paul
spreads the message to those who have not heard (Rom. 15:14–21).

53:1 The message of salvation in Christ often meets an unbelieving response (John 12:37–43; Rom.
10:16).

53:5 The messianic servant undergoes substitutionary suffering (Rom. 4:25; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet.
2:24–25).

53:9 Christ was put to death between two robbers (Matt. 27:38) and buried in the tomb of a rich
man, Joseph of Arimathea (Matt. 27:57–60).

53:11 Christ's death and resurrection results in our justification (Rom. 3:23–26; 4:25; 5:19).

54:1 The return of Jerusalem's inhabitants from exile prefigures the multiplication of children of
the promise (Rom. 9:8) who will return to God through Christ (Gal. 4:27).

54:7 See note on 51:17.

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54:10 The new covenant results in permanent peace with God (Rom. 5:1) and is secure forever
(Heb. 9:12).

55:2 God's offer of food is fulfilled in Christ, who is the food and drink of eternal life (John 6:52–58).

56:7 The extension of salvation to the nations takes place in Christ (Matt. 21:13; Acts 1:8; Rev. 5:9).

57:3 See notes on 1:4; 12:6; and 34:2.

57:19 God gives the invitation of salvation to all, anticipating the spread of the gospel (Acts 2:39;
Eph. 2:17).

58:1 See note on 1:4.

58:2 Israel's hypocrisy anticipates the hypocrisy and externalism that Christ will confront (Matt.
15:1–10).

59:2 See note on 1:4.

59:7 Paul uses these words (Rom. 3:15–17) to show that Jews and Gentiles alike are guilty of sin.
See note on Ps. 14:1.

59:17 God's battle anticipates (1) the coming of righteousness and salvation at Christ's first coming
(Rom. 3:23–26), (2) Christians' battle against evil (Eph. 6:10–20; 1 Thess. 5:8), and (3) the war at
Christ's second coming (Rev. 19:11–21).

59:20 The Redeemer is Christ, who saves both Jews and Gentiles (Rom. 11:25–32).

60:1 God's glory is seen in Christ (John 1:14).

60:3 Nations come to Christ through the gospel (Luke 24:47; John 1:32; Acts 1:8; Rev. 21:24–25;
see notes on Isa. 2:2 and 11:10).

60:6 The wise men, representing the nations, bring gold and frankincense and myrrh (Matt. 2:11).

60:19 God is the sole light in the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:22–24).

61:1 Christ applies these words to himself and his work of salvation (Luke 4:18).

61:10 The church as Christ's bride is given beautiful clothing (Rev. 19:8; see Eph. 5:25–27).

62:1 Righteousness and salvation come in Christ (see note on 9:7).

62:4 God's restoration of Israel prefigures Christ as husband to the church (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25–
27; Rev. 19:7–9).

63:3 The execution of punishment anticipates final punishment (Rev. 14:20; 19:15).

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63:4 See notes on 13:6 and 13:9.

63:12 Past acts of salvation foreshadow the great future salvation (see note on 51:10).

64:1 God comes from heaven both at the first and second coming of Christ (John 6:33, 38, 50; Rev.
19:11).

64:11 See note on 51:17.

65:1 The resistance and rebellion of Israel fits into the plan of God to extend salvation to all nations
(Rom. 10:20–21; 11:11–32).

65:9 See note on 1:9.

65:17 Ultimate blessing to God's people comes in the consummation (2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1). The
new creation has come in its beginnings already in Christ (2 Cor. 5:17).

66:1 The inadequacy of a house of stone indicates by contrast the fact that God's purpose to dwell
with man is fulfilled in Christ (Matt. 1:23; John 1:14; 2:19–21; Acts 7:48–50; 17:24).

66:8 The restoration of inhabitants to Jerusalem prefigures the multiplication of children of God in
the church, the heavenly Jerusalem (Isa. 54:1; Gal. 4:26–27).

66:18 On the gathering of the nations, see notes on 2:2 and 11:10.

66:24 The picture of unending judgment anticipates the NT teaching about Gehenna, the lake of fire
(Mark 9:48; Rev. 20:15; 21:8).

Jeremiah
Jeremiah's prophetic indictment of Israel is largely rejected, prefiguring the rejection of Christ's
prophetic message to Israel (Luke 11:49–51). God's judgment on Israel for apostasy prefigures the
judgment that Christ bears as substitute for the apostasy of mankind (1 John 2:2). It also prefigures
final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). Restoration from exile prefigures final restoration to God through
Christ (Heb. 10:19–22).

1:2 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 22–25 and 2 Chron. 34:1–36:20.

1:5 God's care from the womb prefigures the Father's relation to the Son in the incarnation (Luke
1:35) and also the calling of the apostle Paul (Gal. 1:15).

1:8 God delivers Paul from plots at Corinth (Acts 18:9–11) and elsewhere.

1:9 The firmness of the prophet amid opposition prefigures the firmness of Christ's teaching amid
opposition.

1:16 God's judgment on evil and apostasy (see 2 Chron. 36:15–16) anticipates the final judgment
(Rev. 20:11–15). Christ in the crucifixion bears judgment for our apostasy (1 Pet. 2:24; 1 John 2:2).

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2:2 In forsaking the Lord, Israel is like an adulteress. Her unfaithfulness contrasts with the
faithfulness and purity that will be worked out in the church (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25–27; Rev. 19:7–
8).

2:11 The folly of apostasy prefigures the folly of rejecting Christ, who opens the way of salvation
(John 14:6; Acts 4:12).

2:13 Living water is found in Christ (John 4:10–14).

2:21 See Isa. 5:1–4.

3:1 See note on 2:2 and the connection with Deut. 24:1–4.

3:10 The pretense in Judah illustrates the hypocrisy that can infect religion (Matt. 23:13–36; see
note on Isa. 58:2).

3:13 Forgiveness comes to those who acknowledge guilt, but not to those who continue to think
they are righteous (Luke 18:9–14).

3:17 The gathering to Jerusalem anticipates the NT gathering to heavenly Jerusalem (Heb. 12:22–
24) and the future gathering to the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:24–26).

4:4 Circumcision of the heart comes in Christ (Col. 2:11; Heb. 8:8–13).

5:1 The lack of a righteous man is finally remedied in Christ (Acts 3:14).

5:9 See note on 1:16.

5:14 See note on 1:9.

6:1 See note on 1:16.

6:14 True peace with God can come only through the definitive overcoming of sin in Christ (John
16:33; Rom. 5:1).

7:11 Israel's hypocrisy anticipates the hypocrisy and corrupt worship that Christ confronts (Matt.
21:13).

7:14 The destruction of the temple anticipates the later destruction of Herod's temple that Christ
predicts (Matt. 24:2).

8:3 The remedy for death and for sin that leads to death is the resurrection of Christ (1 Cor. 15:42–
57).

8:11 See note on 6:14.

9:1 Apostasy is a deep grief both to Jeremiah and to Christ, the final prophet (Luke 19:41–44).

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9:23–24 The principle of boasting in God alone is fulfilled in 1 Cor. 1:29–31 (see 2 Cor. 10:17).

10:5 Only God, not idols, offers salvation. The uniqueness of God and his way anticipates the unique
role of Christ as the way to God (John 14:6; Heb. 10:19–22; see note on Isa. 46:1).

11:8 Through Moses God predicts that disasters and exile will result from disobedience
(Deuteronomy 28).

11:19 The hostility to Jeremiah prefigures the hostility to Christ as prophet (Isa. 53:7; Matt. 27:1;
Luke 6:11).

12:7 God forsakes his house and his people on account of their sin. This anticipates later judgments
on sin, including the forsaking of Christ when he is the sin-bearer (Matt. 27:46).

13:9 The pride of God's people contrasts with the need for people who truly serve him. The need is
answered in the new covenant (31:31–34) in Christ (Heb. 8:8–13; 10:15–25).

14:3 Drought fulfills the curse in Deut. 28:22 that must come when Israel forsakes the Lord. It
contrasts with the blessing of living water in Christ (John 4:14; 6:35).

14:14 The conflict between true and false prophets anticipates the conflict between Jesus and his
opponents, and between true and false teaching in the church (2 Pet. 2:1–3).

15:2 Judgments fulfill the prophetic curses in Deut. 28:15–68 (see Rev. 6:8). God's wrath against sin
anticipates the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15; see note on Jer. 1:16).

15:10 Jeremiah as a rejected prophet prefigures the rejection of Christ's prophetic ministry (Luke
11:49–51).

16:15 Restoration, prophesied in Deut. 30:1–5, prefigures final salvation in Christ (Isa. 40:1–11).

17:8 The blessing promised to the righteous man (Ps. 1:3) is fulfilled in Christ the perfectly
righteous man (Acts 3:14) and in those who are righteous in him (2 Cor. 5:21).

18:6 God's power as creator can bring salvation even to the wayward (Rom. 9:20–24; Eph. 2:4–10).

18:11 The call to repent anticipates the call to repent from John the Baptist (Matt. 3:2) and in
gospel proclamation (Luke 24:47; Acts 2:38).

19:3 See note on 1:16.

19:9 The specific horror of eating human flesh was prophesied in Deut. 28:53–55. Horror upon
horror shows the results of the degradation of sin, and prefigures the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–
15; see note on Jer. 1:16).

20:2 Opposition to Jeremiah the prophet prefigures opposition to Christ the final prophet (Luke
11:49–51). Those who oppose Christ will experience judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

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21:8 Even in the midst of the greatest disaster God in mercy holds open a way of escape. The escape
prefigures the escape from sin, death, and destruction through the salvation in Christ (John 11:25–
26; 14:6).

22:3 The demand for justice from the king fails to be answered. The answer finally comes in Christ
the king (Isa. 9:6–7; Rev. 19:11).

23:1 The false shepherds contrast with Jesus the true shepherd (John 10:11, 14).

23:5 The “Branch,” alluding to Isa. 11:1, is the Messiah in the line of David (see Zech. 6:12; John
15:1–17).

23:8 The restoration, which is parallel to the exodus (Ex. 12:33–38), prefigures rescue from sin and
the kingdom of Satan (Col. 1:13–14).

23:16 See note on 14:14.

24:5 The exiles are the remnant to whom God gives favor, illustrating the remnant theme (see
notes on 1 Kings 19:18; Isa. 1:9; and 6:13).

24:7 The renewal of the heart, already prophesied in Deut. 30:6, is further explained in the promise
of the new covenant (Jer. 31:31–34; Heb. 8:8–13; 10:15–25).

25:11 Daniel relies on the prophecy of 70 years when he prays for restoration (Dan. 9:2). The 70
years are years of sabbath rest for the land (2 Chron. 36:21). The restoration looks forward to final
rest in the consummation (Heb. 4:9–10).

25:15 The cup of wrath prefigures the wrath of God in final judgment (Rev. 14:10; 16:1, 19). Christ
on the cross drank the cup of wrath as our substitute (Matt. 26:39, 42).

26:6 See note on 7:14.

26:8 The desire for death illustrates a pattern of opposing the prophets, a pattern that culminates
in the death of Christ (Matt. 21:33–41; Luke 11:49–51; see note on Jer. 20:2).

27:9 See note on 14:14.

27:11 To those who listen the service to Babylon becomes a judgment tempered with mercy,
prefiguring the mercy in Christ (Heb. 12:5–11; see note on Jer. 21:8).

28:9 Peace with God does not come without first dealing with the issue of sin. The answer is to be
found in Christ (Col. 1:13–14; see note on Jer. 6:14).

28:15 See note on 14:14.

29:8 See note on 14:14.

29:10 See note on 25:11.

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29:13 See notes on 24:7 and 31:31.

29:14 Restoration from exile prefigures the reconciliation with God by which we may be gathered
into the presence of God in heaven (Rom. 5:1–10; Gal. 4:26–28; Heb. 10:19–22; 12:22–24; see notes
on Jer. 3:17 and 16:15).

30:18 The rebuilding of cities prefigures the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26–28; Heb. 12:22–24; Rev.
21:9–14).

31:1 The promise, “I will be . . . God, and they shall be my people,” is a repeated refrain in Jeremiah
(11:4; 24:7; 30:22; 31:33; 32:38). It builds on the promise to Abraham (Gen. 17:7) and to Israel
through Moses (Ex. 19:5–6). It is fulfilled in the new covenant in Christ (Jer. 31:33; Heb. 8:10; see
note on Jer. 31:31).

31:15 Past devastations to Israel anticipate the devastation when Herod kills the children (Matt.
2:16–18).

31:31 The new covenant is fulfilled in the covenant that Christ makes at the Last Supper (Matt.
26:28; 1 Cor. 11:25; 2 Cor. 3:6; Heb. 8:8–13; 10:15–25) and includes Gentiles as well as Jews
through union with Christ (Gal. 3:9, 14, 27–29).

32:20 A long history of God's demonstrations of faithfulness is linked to his faithfulness in


Jeremiah's time and in the climactic salvation in Christ (Rom. 3:3–4).

32:40 See notes on 24:7 and 31:31.

33:8 Forgiveness is foreshadowed in the restoration from exile, but it is fully accomplished in
Christ (Col. 1:13–14).

33:15 See note on 23:5.

34:11 The faithlessness of the people concerning the law in Ex. 21:2 and Deut. 15:12 contrasts with
the faithfulness of Christ, who brings full and permanent liberty from sin (Luke 4:18–19).

35:10 The obedience of the Rechabites contrasts with the disobedience of Israel and prefigures the
obedience of the Christ the Son to his Father (John 8:29).

36:2 The triumph of the word of God over opposition prefigures Christ (John 1:10–11) and his
triumph over opposition.

37:18 The innocent suffering of Jeremiah prefigures the innocent suffering of Christ (Matt. 27:24).

37:19 See note on 14:14.

38:6 Jeremiah's brush with death prefigures Christ's being put to death (see notes on 11:19 and
15:10).

38:17 See note on 21:8.

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39:1 The prophecies of disaster from Jeremiah and from other prophets (2 Chron. 36:15–16; Jer.
25:4–11) now come to pass, confirming the faithfulness of God in judgment. Judgments in history
prefigure the final judgment (see note on 1:16).

39:18 See note on 21:8.

40:4 God shows mercy to Jeremiah and to those who are left, anticipating the mercy he will show in
Christ (Rom. 6:23).

41:14 God shows mercy to the captives, anticipating the mercy he will show in Christ (Rom. 6:23;
Col. 1:13–14).

42:6 After all of the rebellion in previous times, the people finally resolve to obey the Lord. But then
they prefer their own judgment (43:1–7). Their stubbornness shows the need for renewal of the
heart that will come in Christ (31:31–34; see notes on 4:4 and 31:31).

44:16 The persistence in rebellion shows the justice of God's judgment but also the need for a
radical renewal of heart, promised in the new covenant (see note on 31:31).

45:5 Even the righteous suffer as a result of the sins of the people. The righteous suffering
prefigures the suffering of Christ as the sin-bearer (2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:22–24).

46:2 God as judge of the whole world executes judgment on the nations as well as on his own
people, prefiguring final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15; see note on Jer. 1:16).

46:10 See note on Isa. 13:6.

47:1 The destruction of the Philistines, one of the long-time enemies of Israel, prefigures final
judgment (Rev. 20:11–15; see note on Jer. 1:16; cf. the note on Isa. 15:1).

48:7 Chemosh, the patron god of Moab, is shown to be worthless. Destruction of false hopes and the
punishment for idolatry looks forward both to the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and to the gospel
as a call to worship God in truth (John 4:23; 14:6).

48:47 See note on Isa. 16:5.

49:2 Deliverance for God's people includes judgment on their oppressors. Judgments within history
look forward to final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). Sin, Satan, and death, as ultimate oppressors, have
already been defeated in Christ (Heb. 2:14–15; see note on Jer. 1:16).

49:9 Some verses about Edom are similar to Obadiah (Obad. 5).

49:12 See note on 25:15.

50:1 See note on Isa. 14:4.

50:8 The command to flee prefigures the command to flee the final Babylon, the city of sin (Rev.
18:4).

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50:20 Forgiveness of sins is found ultimately in Christ (Col. 1:14; Heb. 10:1–14). On the remnant,
see note on Isa. 6:13.

51:9 Judgment on Babylon prefigures final judgment against God's enemies (Rev. 18:5; see note on
Jer. 1:16).

51:11 Judgment through the Medes is predicted also in Isa. 13:17 and comes to pass in Dan. 5:31.

52:1 See the parallel in 2 Kings 24:18–25:21.

52:3 See note on 2 Chron. 36:16.

52:7 Jeremiah's earlier prophecies about destruction (e.g., 7:14; 34:2–4) are here fulfilled,
underlining the faithfulness of God and the power of his word. The words of judgment foreshadow
Christ's prophecies about the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24:2; Luke 19:43–44) and the
prophecies of final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). See note on 2 Chron. 36:21.

52:13 See note on 2 Kings 25:9.

52:31 See note on 2 Kings 25:27.

Lamentations
The lament over Jerusalem anticipates Christ's lamenting over the future fall of Jerusalem (Luke
19:41–44). In both cases, Jerusalem suffers for her own sins. But suffering for sin finds a remedy
when Christ suffers as a substitute for the sins of his people (2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:22–24).

1:5 God shows his justice in judging the sins of Jerusalem. He prefigures the manifestation of justice
in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and in the work of Christ.

2:14 On false prophets, see note on Jer. 14:14.

2:17 God's fulfillment of prophecy underlines his faithfulness and the power of his word. His
faithfulness is supremely manifested in the suffering and vindication of Christ (see note on Ps.
105:5).

3:14 The sufferings of the prophet prefigure the sufferings of Christ (Matt. 27:27–31, 39–44).

3:26 Even in the midst of disaster and pain there is final hope for the salvation of the Lord. This
hope has come to fruition in the salvation that Christ has accomplished (Matt. 1:21), and we now
wait for its consummation (Rom. 8:18–25).

4:11 The pouring out of God's wrath on Jerusalem prefigures the wrath poured out on Christ as sin-
bearer (Gal. 3:13), the wrath on Jerusalem in its second destruction (Luke 21:22–24), and the wrath
in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

5:21 Restoration is promised to Jerusalem after 70 years of exile (Jer. 25:11–12; 29:10–14). The
restoration prefigures final salvation in Christ (Col. 1:13–14; see note on Jer. 29:14).

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Ezekiel
God judges Israel's apostasy through the exile. Israel suffers for her own sin, and in so doing
anticipates God's final judgment against sin (Rev. 20:11–15). But the suffering also anticipates the
suffering of Christ for the sins of others. The subsequent blessing in restoration prefigures the
blessings of eternal salvation in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14).

1:26 God appears in human form, anticipating the incarnation of Christ and his glory (John 1:14;
Rev. 1:12–16).

2:3 The resistance to Ezekiel as a prophet prefigures the resistance to Christ as final prophet (Luke
11:49–51; see note on Jer. 1:9).

2:8 The picture of eating, symbolizing an appropriation of the words of God, anticipates Rev. 10:9–
11.

3:8 See note on Jer. 1:9.

3:12 The empowering by the Spirit prefigures the role of the Spirit in Christ's prophetic ministry
(Luke 4:18), and then his empowering of gospel proclamation (Acts 1:8).

3:17 Ezekiel has a responsibility for faithfulness analogous to the responsibility in gospel
proclamation (2 Cor. 2:14–17; 3:5; 4:2).

4:4 Ezekiel's identification with the punishment of the people prefigures Christ's bearing the sins of
his people (2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:22–24).

5:1 The prophet's own body becomes a symbol for the sinful people. It prefigures Christ's
identification with the sins of his people (2 Cor. 5:21).

5:2 The casting off of much of the hair leaves a remnant, anticipating the remnant in the NT (Rom.
9:27; 11:5; see note on Isa. 6:13).

5:8 Judgment against sin prefigures the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

5:13 Knowing that “I am the Lord”—an important theme in Ezekiel—anticipates the deeper
knowledge of God given in Christ (John 14:9; 17:1–5).

6:4 God's judgment makes plain the worthlessness of idols. God destroys false hopes to make plain
that Christ is the one, God-ordained way of salvation (John 14:6; Acts 4:12; see notes on Isa. 46:1;
Jer. 48:7).

7:2 See note on 5:8.

8:2 See note on 1:26.

8:3 God judges idolatry, making plain that the true God alone is the source of salvation (see note on
6:4).

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9:4 Mercy comes to those who follow God's ways, prefiguring the mercy in Christ. The mark
prefigures the seal of the Holy Spirit and of the name of God, guaranteeing our salvation (2 Cor.
1:22; Eph. 1:13; Rev. 7:2–8; 14:1–3).

9:8 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13.

10:18 The departure of God's presence from the temple is one aspect of judgment. It contrasts with
the dwelling of God in the temple, which prefigures the coming of God to dwell with us in Christ
(Matt. 1:23).

11:13 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13.

11:19 The promise of a new heart, reiterated in 36:25, is connected to the new covenant that will
come in Christ (Jer. 31:31–34; Heb. 8:8–13; 10:16–18; see note on Jer. 31:31).

12:11 On the exile as judgment, see note on Isa. 39:6.

13:2 The false prophets prefigure Christ's opponents and false teachers in the church (2 Pet. 2:1–3;
see note on Jer. 14:14).

13:10 The religious leaders opposing Jesus are like whitewashed tombs (Matt. 23:27). On false
peace, see note on Jer. 6:14.

14:3 God does not reveal himself to the rebellious. The lack of understanding anticipates the lack of
understanding of Jesus' teaching (Matt. 13:10–17).

14:6 On repentance, see note on Jer. 18:11.

14:9 The deception that falls on the rebellious anticipates the deception on those who refuse the
truth of the gospel (2 Thess. 2:10–12).

15:2 Israel is a vine without fruit. See note on Isa. 5:7.

16:8 The faithlessness of Israel contrasts with the faithfulness of the bride of Christ (Eph. 5:25–27;
Rev. 19:7–8). The church also is tempted to go astray from her covenant with Christ (2 Cor. 11:2–3).
See note on Jer. 2:2.

17:13 The penalty for breaking a covenant with a human king shows by analogy the seriousness of
breaking the covenant with God (Heb. 10:29–31).

17:22 After destruction comes a new beginning, symbolizing the kingdom of Christ and its growth
to fill the nations (see Isa. 11:1).

18:4 God will execute justice. The judgments within history look forward to the final judgment,
when perfect justice will come (Rev. 20:11–21:8).

18:9 The granting of life to the righteous in the short run prefigures the granting of eternal life. The
gift of eternal life comes only through perfect righteousness, the righteousness of Jesus Christ (Rom.

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3:23–26; 6:23).

19:9 On the exile as judgment, see note on Isa. 39:6.

20:3 See note on 14:3.

20:8 The repeated rebellion of Israel calls for judgment. God must also be faithful to his name in
rescuing them. Judgment and mercy are finally both achieved in Christ (Rom. 3:25–26).

20:11 See note on Lev. 18:5.

21:31 Fire and wrath anticipate the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). The sword (Ezek. 21:28)
anticipates the sword of Christ in final judgment (Rev. 19:15; see Heb. 4:12–13).

22:15 On the exile, see note on Isa. 39:6.

22:20 The melting process prefigures the coming of the Messiah as refiner (Mal. 3:3).

22:30 No man is adequate to the task of redemption except Jesus Christ (1 Tim. 2:5–6).

23:3 See note on 16:8.

23:22 Any lover other than the true God will be found to be treacherous, resulting in judgment. The
failure of other gods points to the one way of salvation through the true God (John 14:6; Acts 4:12).

23:32 On the cup of wrath, see note on Jer. 25:15.

24:8 The coming of God's wrath prefigures his wrath in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

24:21 The destruction of the temple destroys false pride and confidence. By contrast it points to
confidence in God alone for salvation (John 2:19–21; Acts 4:12).

25:2 God's judgment against Israel's traditional enemies prefigures future judgments against
enemies, including the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

26:4 The completeness of destruction indicates God's zeal to remove evil completely. His zeal is
manifested both in the death of Christ and in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

27:9 The fall of Tyre with its riches prefigures the fall of Babylon the prostitute (Rev. 18:19).

28:13 The fall of Tyre is reminiscent of the fall of Adam (Gen. 3:1–19), and some think it is also
reminiscent of the fall of Satan. The proud beauty of Tyre also prefigures the beauty of Babylon
(Rev. 17:4), in contrast with the true beauty of the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:18–21).

29:3 Egypt, another traditional enemy of God and God's people, is judged by God, prefiguring the
last judgment. By depicting Egypt as a dragon, Ezekiel makes the connection between her and the
defeat of Satan the dragon (Rev. 12:3–17).

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29:13 God shows mercy to Egypt, in analogy with the mercy shown to Israel in bringing them back
from exile. This mercy anticipates the mercy in Christ (Rom. 5:6–11).

30:3 On the day of the Lord, see note on Isa. 13:6.

31:14 Human pride is put down (see note on Isa. 2:11), anticipating the humbling of pride through
salvation in Christ (1 Cor. 1:26–31).

32:2 On Egypt as a dragon, see note on 29:3.

32:7 The darkening of light prefigures the darkening at the second coming of Christ (Matt. 24:29–
31; Rev. 6:12–13).

32:21 An answer to the powerlessness and humiliation of death is found only in Christ and his
resurrection (John 11:25–26; 1 Cor. 15:42–58).

33:2 On the watchman, see note on 3:17.

33:11 The invitation to repent anticipates the gospel invitation (2 Pet. 3:9; Acts 2:38–41).

33:16 See note on 18:9.

33:17 See note on 18:4.

33:31 Hypocrisy among the people anticipates the hypocrisy that Christ confronts (Matt. 23:13–36;
see Jer. 7:11).

34:2 The false shepherds in Israel contrast with God, who is the true shepherd through Christ (vv.
11–31; Isa. 40:11; Luke 15:1–7; John 10:11, 14).

34:23 God is shepherd in connection with David, prefiguring the fact that Christ is both God and
man, and that as man he is the king in the line of David (Matt. 1:1–16).

35:5 See note on 25:2.

35:6 The principle of retribution manifests God's justice and anticipates the final judgment (Rev.
20:11–15; see note on Prov. 1:18).

36:10 The return from exile prefigures God's climactic redemption from sin through Christ (Col.
1:13–14; see note on Isa. 39:6).

36:22 The Lord vindicates his name in Christ when he shows holiness and justice in punishing sins
and mercy in saving the sinner (Rom. 3:23–26).

36:25 Cleansing from sins is accomplished in Christ (Col. 1:14; Heb. 9:23–28).

36:27 The promise of the Holy Spirit is fulfilled at Pentecost (Acts 2:1–21) and in the giving of the
Spirit to those who believe in Christ (Rom. 8:9–17).

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37:5 The vision of new life through the Spirit has a partial fulfillment in the return from exile
(37:12). It prefigures the giving of resurrection life through the Spirit of Christ (John 11:25–26;
Rom. 8:9–17; Col. 3:1–4).

37:24 See note on 34:23.

38:2 Gog and Magog attack, pointing to the final war between God and his enemies in Rev. 20:8–10.

38:22 Fire comes from heaven in Rev. 20:9.

39:17 The sacrificial feast is depicted in Rev. 19:17–21.

39:29 On the pouring out of the Spirit, see notes on 36:27 and 37:5.

40:2 The vision of a new temple builds on the earlier passages about the tabernacle of Moses
(Exodus 25–40) and the temple of Solomon (1 Kings 5–8). Ezekiel's temple is even more glorious,
pointing forward to several realities: (1) the glory in which God dwells with man in Christ (John
1:14); (2) Christ's body that is the temple (John 2:19–21); (3) the church as a temple (1 Cor. 3:16;
Eph. 2:20–22; 1 Pet. 2:5); (4) the body of the individual believer (1 Cor. 6:19); and (5) the heavenly
Jerusalem (Rev. 21:9–22:5).

40:6 The gateways give access to the presence of God from all four directions. This access
prefigures the access to God through Christ, an access extending to all nations (Heb. 10:19–22; Rev.
21:12–13, 24–26).

40:38 The burnt offering, described in Lev. 1:1–17; 6:8–13, prefigures the sacrifice of Christ (Eph.
5:2; Heb. 10:5–10; and note on Lev. 1:9). God gives the vision to Israel (Ezek. 43:10–11) using the
symbolism belonging to the Mosaic covenant, but all the symbolism finds its culmination and
fulfillment in Christ (Heb. 8:8–13).

40:45 The priesthood descending from Aaron is described in Leviticus 9–10; 21–22; Numbers 3–4;
8; 17–18; and other passages. This priesthood is a shadow and a symbol, to be fulfilled in the
eternal priesthood of Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:6).

41:2 The spaciousness prefigures free access to God through Christ (see notes on 40:2 and 40:6).

42:13 The eating of the holy food prefigures spiritual food in Christ (John 6:53–58; see note on
Ezek. 40:45).

43:3 The coming of the glory of the Lord, as described in chapter 1, indicates the blessing of his
presence, giving a remedy for God's departure in chapter 10. The presence of God comes to the
church as a temple through the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:2–4; 1 Cor. 3:16).

43:18 On the burnt offering, see note on 40:38.

44:4 See note on 43:3.

44:15 The holiness required to serve God prefigures the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:6; 9:11–28;

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see note on Ezek. 40:45).

45:1 The expansion of holy area prefigures the holiness of the church, which is an international
community (Rev. 5:9–10), and the holiness of the new heaven and the new earth (Rev. 21:1–22:5).

45:4 On the priests, see note on 40:45.

45:7 The princes as leaders of Israel belong to the symbolism of the Mosaic order that God uses in
this vision (see notes on 40:2 and 40:38). They point forward to the leaders in the church (Eph.
4:11; 1 Pet. 5:1–5) and in the new heaven and new earth. Christ is the supreme Lord over all (Eph.
1:19–23). Fulfillment in Christ transforms the nature of worship and so displaces the forms of
worship belonging to the shadows of the Mosaic order (Heb. 8:1–9:14).

45:18 Permanent purification has now been accomplished through the offering of Jesus Christ once
and for all (Heb. 10:1–14).

45:21 Christ is our Passover lamb (1 Cor. 5:7; see notes on Ezek. 40:38 and 40:45).

46:2 On the prince and the priests, see notes on 40:45 and 45:7.

47:1 Refreshing water from the presence of God (see Ps. 46:4) prefigures the living water that
Christ offers through the Spirit (John 4:10, 13–14; 6:35; 7:37–39; Rev. 22:1–2).

47:12 The trees prefigure the tree of life as a symbol of abundant blessing from God (Rev. 22:2).

47:13 The inheritance of the land with its boundaries picks up the theme from Numbers 34, Joshua
14–19, and other passages. The land prefigures the new heaven and the new earth (Heb. 11:13–16;
Rev. 21:1).

47:22 The inclusion of foreigners prefigures the inclusion of the Gentiles in the blessing of the
gospel and the inheritance from Abraham (Gal. 3:9, 14, 26–29; 4:28–31).

48:1 See note on 47:13.

48:21 God dwells consummately in the midst of his people in Rev. 21:1–22:5. See notes on Ezek.
40:2 and 40:38.

48:31 The gates are found in Rev. 21:12–13 (see notes on Ezek. 40:2 and 40:6).

Daniel
Daniel and his friends exemplify the conflict between the kingdom of God and the kingdoms of this
world, a conflict that will come to its climax in Christ, in both his first coming and his second
coming.

1:5 Daniel and his friends resist the temptation to assimilate to the idolatrous culture in which they
are immersed. Christ was in this world but did not yield to temptation (Matt. 4:1–11; Heb. 4:15),
and we are called to follow in his steps (John 17:14–19; 1 Pet. 2:21).

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1:17 Daniel is like Joseph (Gen. 40:8; 41:39) and prefigures the wisdom of Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; Col.
2:3).

2:11 God by answering Daniel shows that he is the true God, and anticipates the time when God's
dwelling will be in the flesh (John 1:14).

2:24 Daniel also saves the lives of others, prefiguring Christ who saves us (Heb. 2:14–15).

2:44 In the days of the fourth kingdom, the Roman Empire, the kingdom of God is established
through Christ (Matt. 3:2), especially through his resurrection (Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:19–23).

3:6 The forcing of false worship anticipates the situation with the beast (Rev. 13:12–15) and the
persecution against the church (Acts 8:1–3).

3:18 The willingness to die for the faith anticipates Christ's willingness to die (John 10:17–18) and
the willingness of Christians to be martyrs (Acts 7:55–60; Rev. 6:9; 12:11).

3:25 The one like “a son of the gods” is the preincarnate Christ (cf. Rev. 1:12–16). Christ identifies
with the persecution of the Jews and in his power protects them.

3:29 The resurrection-like deliverance from death results in the spread of the message about the
true God. The message prefigures the message of the gospel announcing the resurrection of Christ.

4:9 Daniel's wisdom and ability to interpret dreams is like that of Joseph (Gen. 41:38). Daniel serves
to mediate divine wisdom to Nebuchadnezzar, and so prefigures the unique mediation of Christ,
who is the wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:3).

4:30 Nebuchadnezzar is humbled by God's judgment. The putting down of human pride anticipates
the putting down of pride when God brings salvation in Christ (1 Cor. 1:26–31; see Dan. 4:37).

5:4 The judgment on idolatry anticipates the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and demonstrates the
sovereignty of God.

5:11 See note on 4:9.

5:20 See note on 4:30.

6:7 See note on 3:6.

6:23 The resurrection-like deliverance of Daniel prefigures the resurrection of Christ.

6:26 The message concerning the true God is spread, prefiguring the spread of the gospel, which
announces the resurrection of Christ (see note on 3:29).

7:3 The four beasts are four kingdoms (v. 17), corresponding to the four kingdoms of 2:36–40.
Features of the four beasts are combined in the beast of Rev. 13:1–8, which represents a final
opponent of God's people.

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7:9 Features of this appearance of God reappear in Christ (Rev. 1:12–16), who is God in the flesh
(John 1:14).

7:13 Jesus is the Son of Man (Matt. 24:30; 26:64).

7:14 The dominion of Christ is associated with his resurrection and ascension (Matt. 28:18; Acts
2:33–35; Eph. 1:20–22) and continues until the consummation (Rev. 22:1).

7:21 The war against the saints is described in Rev. 11:7; 13:7–10.

7:25 The period of “a time, times, and half a time” (also in 12:7) is echoed in the half week in 9:27
and is the time of persecution of the church in Rev. 11:2, 3, 11; 12:6, 14. See also Dan. 8:14 and
12:11, 12 for possible further echoes.

8:10 The little horn, Antiochus Epiphanes, persecuted the faithful Jews and profaned the temple
(168 b.c.; see 8:23). He prefigures the man of lawlessness, the final Antichrist, the great opponent of
God's people (2 Thess. 2:3–4, 7–12; Rev. 12:4).

9:2 See 2 Chron. 36:21; Jer. 25:11–12; and 29:10.

9:9 Definitive forgiveness comes only in Christ (Rom. 4:6–8; Col. 1:14).

9:24 Atonement comes in Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:6; 10:1–14). Everlasting righteousness comes both
with Christ the perfectly Righteous Savior (Acts 3:14) and with the righteousness that he gives to
his people in justification (Rom. 3:23–26; 2 Cor. 5:21).

10:6 The glorious appearance, reflecting the glory of God, prefigures the glory of Christ in Rev.
1:12–16.

10:12 Daniel's intercession for Israel prefigures the intercession of Christ the great high priest
(Heb. 7:25).

10:13 The angelic war prefigures the spiritual war in Revelation (Rev. 12:7–9).

11:2 Tumults and wars on earth continue until the end (Matt. 24:6–7; Rev. 6:2–4) and remind us of
spiritual war, part of which is invisible (Rev. 12:7–9). In the midst of tumult, Christ alone provides
true peace (John 16:33; cf. Phil. 4:6–7; 1 Thess. 3:4).

11:31 See note on 8:10.

11:35 The refining process looks forward to God's refining of the church (Rom. 5:3–5; Heb. 12:3–
11; 1 Pet. 1:6–7).

11:36 The king is either the man of lawlessness of 2 Thess. 2:3–4 or a foreshadowing of him.

12:1 The book is identified as the book of life of the Lamb that was slain (Eph. 1:4; Rev. 13:8; 17:8),
guaranteeing the salvation of those who belong to Christ.

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12:2 Life and final judgment are controlled by the power of Christ (John 5:27–29).

12:3 The brightness looks forward to the brightness in the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:22–27; 22:5).

Hosea
The unfaithfulness of Israel calls for a permanent remedy, which will come in the faithfulness of
Christ to the Father and the faithfulness that Christ then works through the Spirit in his people.
God's love for Israel foreshadows Christ's love for the church (Eph. 5:25–27).

1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 15–20 and 2 Chronicles 26–32.

1:2 Israel's spiritual adultery, indicated also in Jeremiah (see note on Jer. 2:2), is a shocking
rebellion that must lead to judgment on God's part (Hos. 1:4). Yet God will eventually bring a
remedy in Christ (1:10; Rom. 9:26). Christ prepares the church as a faithful bride (Eph. 5:25–27).

1:10 In faithfulness to the promise to Abraham (Gen. 13:16; 22:17) God will remember Israel. The
remembrance takes surprising form in that it includes Gentiles (Rom. 9:25–26) as well as Jews
(Rom. 11:25–32).

2:3 God in justice brings judgment on unfaithfulness. His justice is climactically manifested in
Christ, through whom we escape condemnation (Rom. 3:23–26; 8:1), and is manifested in the final
judgment (Rev. 20:11–21:8).

2:14 Punishment and restoration for Israel prefigure the punishment and resurrection of Christ,
the true Israel (Rom. 4:25).

2:23 See note on 1:10.

3:1 God's love for the wayward prefigures his love for sinners in Christ (Rom. 5:6–11).

4:5 On false prophets, see note on Jer. 14:14.

4:10 False gods are not able to satisfy. Their failure shows the folly of false worship and points by
contrast to the one true God, and ultimately to his way of salvation in Christ (John 14:6).

5:4 The lack of knowledge of God points by contrast to true knowledge, which is to be found
ultimately in Christ (John 14:7; 17:3).

5:14 See note on 2:3.

6:2 The invitation to come to the Lord prefigures the invitation of the gospel (Acts 16:31; 17:30–
31). The granting of life on the third day prefigures the resurrection of Christ as the source of life to
his people (Col. 3:1–4).

6:3 God is known truly in Christ (Matt. 11:27; John 14:6; 17:3).

6:6 Jesus teaches the centrality of steadfast love (Matt. 9:13; 12:7).

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7:5 The king and princes participate in sin with the people, pointing to the need for a faithful king.
Christ is the faithful king in the line of David (Matt. 1:1–16).

8:13 God in his justice punishes. Since the people have broken his covenant, he reverses the
deliverance from Egypt that was an aspect of covenantal redemption. A greater redemption is
needed, which is to be found in Christ (Matt. 2:15; Heb. 8:8–13).

9:10 Israel's present apostasy repeats the old apostasy at Baal-peor (Num. 25:1–5), pointing to the
need for a permanent remedy and a permanent change of heart, which will come in Christ (Heb.
8:8–13).

10:6 See note on 4:10.

10:8 Fear of God's wrath prefigures the fearful character of the final judgment (Luke 23:30; Rev.
6:16).

10:12 Full righteousness comes in Christ (Rom. 3:23–26; 8:1–4).

11:1 Israel, labeled God's “son” in Ex. 4:22 (see Deut. 8:5), came out of Egypt in the exodus (Exodus
14). The movement of Israel prefigures the movement of Christ (Matt. 2:15), who is the faithful Son
(Matt. 3:17), whereas Israel as son repeatedly failed (Hos. 11:2).

11:11 On the restoration from exile, see note on Isa. 35:10.

12:2 God's punishments are the product of his justice, prefiguring the justice of final judgment
(Rev. 20:11–15). Such demonstrations of justice make plain the need for pardon through the
propitiation of Christ (1 John 2:1–2).

13:14 The threat of death as punishment for sin (Rom. 6:23) is finally answered through the
resurrection of Christ (John 11:25–26; 1 Cor. 15:55–57; Heb. 2:14–15).

14:1 The command to repent anticipates the command to repent in the gospel (Acts 2:38).

14:5 The promise of blessing prefigures the blessings of salvation in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14; see note
on Isa. 27:6).

Joel
The day of the Lord, the day of God's coming (see note on Isa. 13:6), brings judgment on sin but also
may include blessing. Both aspects are fulfilled in both the first coming and the second coming of
Christ.

1:4 God sent a locust plague on the Egyptians during the time of Moses (Ex. 10:1–20). But the
plague in Joel's day comes on God's own people because of their sins (see Deut. 28:38). It shows the
desperate need for forgiveness in Christ and prefigures the locust plague preceding the judgment of
the second coming (Rev. 9:1–11).

1:13 See note on 2:12.

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1:15 The day of the Lord, the day when God appears, is a day of judgment (see note on Isa. 13:6).

2:12 The call to repent anticipates the gospel call to repent (Acts 2:38).

2:18 Christ welcomes repentant sinners (Luke 5:32; 15:7).

2:28 The climactic blessing is the pouring out of the Spirit, accomplished at Pentecost (Acts 2:16–
21).

2:32 NT preaching invites listeners to be saved by the name of Christ (Acts 2:38–41; Rom. 10:13;
see Acts 4:12).

3:13 At the second coming God executes judgment (Rev. 14:14–20).

3:15 The light is darkened at the second coming as part of God's judgment (Matt. 24:29–31; Rev.
6:12; see Rev. 8:12). The darkening at the crucifixion also indicates judgment (Matt. 27:45).

3:17 The holiness of Jerusalem is perfected in the consummation (Rev. 21:27).

Amos
God comes to Israel with both judgment for sin and promises of restoration. The judgment and
restoration anticipate the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ, as well as the final judgment (Rev.
20:11–15). The demand for righteousness is fulfilled in the righteousness of Christ (Rom. 8:1–4).

1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 14:23–15:7.

1:2 The power of God's word in judgment anticipates the power of Christ's word, both in his first
coming and in his second coming (John 12:48–50; Rev. 19:15, 21).

1:3 Damascus, the capital of Syria, is judged, prefiguring final judgment on God's enemies (Rev.
20:11–15). On the display of God's justice in judgment, see notes on Lam. 1:5 and Ezek. 18:4.

2:4 God does not overlook the sins of his own people, but calls them to account just as he did the
other nations (1:3–2:3). He shows his impartiality (Rom. 2:11–16). All are subject to curse for their
disobedience, and escape is found only in Christ (Gal. 3:13–14; Rom. 3:9–31).

3:2 Those with greater privileges are liable to greater punishment (Luke 12:48). The principle is
shown in the guilt that comes to those Jews who reject Christ (Matt. 11:20–24; John 15:22–25).

3:8 See note on 1:2.

3:10 The demand for righteousness is an integral part of God's law. Righteousness is to be fulfilled
in the righteousness of Christ (Rom. 1:17; 2 Cor. 5:21) and in his followers (Rom. 8:1–4).

3:12 On the remnant, see note on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13.

4:6 Stubbornness, like the stubbornness of Pharaoh in the exodus, increases guilt. Stubbornness

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characterizes Israel's history, and comes to a climax in the rejection of Christ (Acts 7:51–53; see
note on Isa. 29:13). The judgments on Israel were prophesied in Deut. 28:15–68.

5:18 People hoped that the day of the Lord would mean judgment against Israel's enemies. But it
involves judgment on sinners universally, including Israel. See notes on 2:4; Isa. 13:6; and 13:9.

5:27 The exile of the northern kingdom to lands beyond Damascus and then the southern kingdom
to Babylon prefigures final judgment.

6:1 Pride and self-confidence are judged by God, anticipating the judgment against human pride in
the gospel (1 Cor. 1:26–31).

7:3 The Lord in mercy does not simply destroy, but refines his people. His mercy anticipates the
mercy to be manifested in Christ (Matt. 9:27).

8:9 The darkening is a symbol of judgment, prefiguring the judgment at the crucifixion (Matt.
27:45) and at the second coming (Matt. 24:29–31; Rev. 6:12; see Joel 3:15 and Rev. 8:12).

9:1 The lack of escape prefigures the universality of the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

9:8 On the remnant, see 3:12 and notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13.

9:11 The house of David is raised up when Christ is raised.

9:12 When Christ is raised, the nations (Gentiles) become included in God's blessings, in fulfillment
of the promise to Abraham (Gen. 12:3).

Obadiah
The judgment against Edom, a traditional enemy of Israel, contributes to the blessing of God's
people. The judgment and vindication prefigure the vindication of Christ and the judgments against
his enemies, both in his first coming and in his second coming.

3 God judges human pride, anticipating the gospel's judgment on pride (1 Cor. 1:26–31).

10 Those who attack God's people will ultimately be destroyed in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–
15).

15 On the day of the Lord, see note on Isa. 13:6. On the principle of just retribution, see note on
Prov. 1:18.

Jonah
Jonah's rescue from death prefigures the resurrection of Christ (Matt. 12:39–40). The repentance of
the Ninevites prefigures the repentance of Gentiles who respond to the gospel (Matt. 28:18–20;
Luke 24:47).

1:15 The saving of mariners through the sacrifice of Jonah prefigures the salvation of all nations

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through the death of Christ (1 John 2:2).

1:17 Jonah is under the sea, symbolizing the realm of death. His state prefigures the death of Christ
(Matt. 12:40).

2:6 Jonah's rescue from death prefigures the resurrection of Christ from the dead (Matt. 12:40).

3:5 Gentiles repent in response to the preaching of Jonah, who figuratively has been raised from the
“death” of the belly of the fish. Gentiles repent in response to the preaching of the resurrection of
Christ (Matt. 28:18–20).

3:10 The repentance of Gentiles contrasts with the repeated lack of repentance on the part of Israel
(Matt. 12:41; 21:43).

4:11 God's mercy is shown abundantly in the gospel and in the salvation of Gentiles who deserve
nothing (Rom. 9:30–31; 11:30).

Micah
God pronounces judgment on Israel, prefiguring final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and the judgment
that fell on Christ (Gal. 3:13). He promises blessing through the Messiah, anticipating the blessings
of salvation in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14).

1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 16–20 and 2 Chronicles 27–32.

1:5 God in justice cannot overlook the sins of his people. Punishment prefigures the punishment of
the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and the substitutionary punishment that Christ bore for his
people (1 Pet. 2:24).

2:3 On the judgment of human pride, see notes on Isa. 2:11; Ezek. 31:14; and Amos 6:1.

2:12 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13.

3:5 On false prophets, see note on Jer. 14:14.

3:12 On the destruction of the holy city, see note on Ps. 74:3.

4:1 The exaltation of the name of God is accomplished in Christ (see note on Isa. 2:2).

5:2 The Messiah is to be born in Bethlehem (Matt. 2:1–6).

5:8 On the remnant, see 2:12 and notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13.

6:2 Israel does not escape judgment for her sins. This judgment prefigures the justice and
thoroughness of final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

6:8 Sacrifices cannot replace the need for justice and kindness. The focus on real righteousness
anticipates Jesus' teaching (Matt. 5:23–24; 9:13; 15:10–20) and is fulfilled in Jesus' own

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righteousness (Acts 3:14; Rom. 8:1–4).

7:6 The family treachery in Israel anticipates the family treachery from resistance to Christ (Matt.
10:35–36).

7:18 Pardon is accomplished in Christ (Rom. 3:23–26; 1 John 2:2). On the remnant, see notes on Isa.
1:9 and 6:13.

Nahum
Judgment on Nineveh, a traditional enemy of God's people, prefigures final judgment and final
release from oppression (Rev. 20:11–21:8).

1:15 The good news of deliverance from the oppression of Nineveh prefigures the good news of
eternal deliverance from sin and death in the gospel (Isa. 52:7; Mark 1:1; Rom. 1:1).

2:3 The attack and destruction of Nineveh prefigures God's war through Christ against his ultimate
enemies (Matt. 12:29; Luke 10:17–19; John 12:31; Rev. 19:11–21; 20:7–10).

3:4 Nineveh's punishment prefigures the punishment for the idolatrous seduction of Babylon the
prostitute (Rev. 17:1–6; 18:1–3).

Habakkuk
God's use of a wicked nation to accomplish his righteousness foreshadows the use of wicked
opponents to accomplish his purpose in the crucifixion of Christ.

1:4 The perversion of justice in the triumph of the wicked prefigures the temporary triumph of the
wicked in the crucifixion of Christ.

1:5 The unbelievability of God's use of a wicked people, the Chaldeans, prefigures the
unbelievability of the way in which the injustice of the crucifixion of Christ is used by God for
salvation.

1:13 In the crucifixion of Christ the wicked leaders swallowed up Christ the righteous one.

2:4 The righteous person trusts in God; he believes that God's promises are true and that he will
bring to pass his righteous purposes. This trust anticipates trust in Christ (Rom. 1:17; Gal. 3:11;
Heb. 10:37–38), in whom the promises of God are fulfilled (2 Cor. 1:20).

2:8 On the principle of just retribution, see note on Prov. 1:18.

2:16 On the cup of God's wrath, see note on Jer. 25:15.

3:13 God appears to bring salvation to his people and to the anointed king. Salvation comes when
God appears in Christ (John 1:14; 14:9), when Christ the anointed king is saved from death in his
resurrection, and when his people are saved through Christ.

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Zephaniah
Judgments on evil people anticipate the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and indicate the necessity
of Christ's work and sin-bearing in order to save us from judgment (see note on Isa. 13:9).

1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 22–23 and 2 Chronicles 34–35.

1:2 God in his holiness is zealous to eliminate all evil. His commitment anticipates the final
judgment and renewal of the consummation (2 Pet. 3:10–13; Rev. 21:1).

1:7 On the day of the Lord, see note on Isa. 13:6.

2:3 The call for humility prefigures the gospel call to repent and turn to the Lord (Acts 2:38), and
the call to avoid the coming wrath (Acts 17:30–31).

2:9 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13.

2:10 On the punishment of pride, see note on Ezek. 31:14.

3:15 The removal of judgments and curse comes with Christ (Rom. 8:1; Gal. 3:13–14). Christ is the
Lord in our midst (Matt. 1:23; John 1:14) and now indwells the church through the Spirit (John
14:20; Rom. 8:9–10).

Haggai
The rebuilding of the temple prefigures the building of NT temples: the church (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph.
2:20–22) and the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:9–22:5).

1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in Ezra 5–6 (see Ezra 5:1 and 6:14).

1:2 The house of the Lord symbolizes his presence and looks forward to Christ as temple (John
1:14; 2:19–21), the church as temple (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22), and the dwelling of God in the
new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:3; 21:22–22:5).

1:13 The promise to be with the people anticipates God being with his people in Christ (Matt. 1:23,
“Immanuel”) and through the Spirit of Christ (Rom. 8:9–10; 1 Cor. 3:16).

2:4 Our work is not in vain in the Lord (1 Cor. 15:58; Phil. 2:12–13).

2:6 God shakes the old order, showing that we should put our hope in his unshakable kingdom in
Christ (Heb. 12:26–28).

2:7 The ultimate glory of God is found in Jesus Christ (John 1:14; Rev. 21:22–23).

Zechariah
The rebuilding in the time of the restoration from exile prefigures the eternal salvation that comes

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in Christ.

1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in Ezra 5–6 (see Ezra 5:1 and 6:14).

1:3 The call to return prefigures the gospel call to repent and come to God (Acts 2:38; 17:30–31).

1:16 Mercy on Jerusalem prefigures the mercy on sinners in Christ (Luke 5:32).

2:5 The glory of God is manifest in Jesus Christ (John 1:14; 17:1–5; Rev. 21:22–27).

2:11 On the coming of the nations, see notes on Isa. 2:2; 11:10; and 42:6.

3:4 The removal of iniquity symbolizes justification in Christ (Rom. 3:23–26; 5:1).

3:8 The Branch is the Messiah (based on Isa. 11:1).

4:6 The Spirit of Christ gives a permanent supply of power and light (John 16:13–15; Rom. 8:9–13).

5:3 We can escape the curse for wrongdoing through Christ, who bore the curse for us (Gal. 3:13–
14).

6:12 On the Branch, see notes on 3:8 and Isa. 11:1.

6:13 Christ builds the temple, the church (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 3:10–16).

7:9 The central importance of righteousness, rather than sacrifice, appears in 1 Sam. 15:22–23,
Amos 5:21–27; Mic. 6:7–8, and Matt. 9:13, and underlines the superiority of the righteousness of
Christ over all animal sacrifices (Heb. 10:1–14).

8:3 On God's dwelling, see note on Hag. 1:2.

8:11 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13.

8:22 On the coming of the nations, see notes on Isa. 2:2 and 11:10.

9:9 Jesus the king comes to Jerusalem on a donkey (Matt. 21:1–9).

10:9 The restoration from exile prefigures final salvation and life in Christ (John 6:35; 14:6).

11:10 Faithlessness leads to annulling the covenant, indicating the need for a new covenant (Heb.
8:8–13).

11:12 Thirty pieces of silver is the payoff connected with repudiating the Lord as true shepherd. It
anticipates the payoff for Judas (Matt. 26:15; 27:9–10).

12:10 Repentance involves looking on the crucified Messiah (John 3:14–15; 19:37).

13:1 Cleansing from sin comes in Christ (1 John 2:1–2).

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13:7 The disciples are scattered at the time when Christ the shepherd is crucified (Matt. 26:31).

14:8 The living waters are found in Christ (John 4:10; Rev. 22:1; see note on Ezek. 47:1.

14:20 Holiness is found in Christ (Acts 2:27; Heb. 7:26) and in the new Jerusalem that he
establishes (Rev. 21:22–22:5).

Malachi
Disobedience and compromise are eliminated with the coming of Christ and his purification.

1:2 God's sovereign love for Jacob prefigures the sovereignty of his love for the elect (Rom. 9:1–29).

1:7 The danger of despising God continues in the church at the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 10:21).

2:8 The corruption of the covenant shows the need for a new covenant (Heb. 8:8–13) and a perfect
priest (Heb. 7:11–8:6).

3:1 John the Baptist is the messenger preparing the way for Christ, who is the Lord, the messenger
of the covenant (Matt. 11:10–11).

3:7 On the call to repentance, see note on Jer. 18:11.

4:1 On the day of the Lord, see note on Isa. 13:6.

4:6 John the Baptist prepares hearts for the coming of the Lord in the person of Christ (Luke 1:17).

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Course Overview
Timeline of the Life of Jesus (2nd)
I will show the complete timeline from His birth to resurrection

Historical Background (1st)


This will cover the history of the Jewish dispersion and differences between the Hellenist Jews
(Jews of the West) and Jews of the East. It will also cover the different translations of the scriptures
and which one influenced them during the time of Christ.

DA 2-3 “Chosen People” & “The Fullness of Time.” All my information supplements this chapter

Harmony of the Gospels


I will cover from Christ’s Birth to His transfiguration. Showing the chronology of events, and how
they relate to each other in the gospels.

The Life and teachings of Jesus (Birth to transfiguration)


This will focus on the theme of each Gospel; portions of scripture covering L&T1, Matt 1-18, Mark 1-
9, Lk 1-9:50; 11:14-32; 13:18-21, Jn 1-7:1. Jesus’ parables, Jesus’ sermons, Jesus’ questions, Jesus’
miracles.

Reading the Gospels


The Gospels and were designed to be read as full accounts, each in their own right, even as they
seek to tell about Jesus and his followers. The main obstacle in the Gospels continues into Acts:
many in Israel have rejected a message and promise originally intended for them. A key to
understanding these accounts is to trace the negative reaction and what it teaches about how
people respond to God, and how God still moves to draw people to himself.

Genre
The Gospels have a genre parallel in the ancient world that was called the bios. This was ancient
biography. Rather than focusing on physical description and tracing psychological thinking and
personal development like modern biographies, a bios highlighted the key events that surrounded a
person and his teaching. That is very much what the Gospels do. The key characters are Jesus and
God, as Jesus carries out the plan of the Father.

Acts belongs to a different kind of genre. It is a legitimization document: its goal is to explain and
legitimate the early church and its roots. This was necessary because in the ancient world what
counted in religion was its age and time-tested quality. Since Christianity was new, it needed to
explain how it could be new and still be of merit. The answer was that, although the form of
Christianity was new, the faith itself was old, rooted in promises and commitments made to Israel.
In fact, the new movement did not seek to make itself into a new entity but was moved in a new
direction only when official Judaism rejected it and expelled it from the synagogue, with the result
that (in accord with God's plan, as Acts clarifies) the gospel was taken to the Gentiles also. Acts tells
this story as it presents how the promise of God expanded as far as Rome. Though the Gospels are
historical writings, they are not always presented in a strict chronology, since some of their scenes
are organized topically. For example, Mark 2:1–3:6 reports five controversies in a row that Matthew
spreads out over chapters 8–12.

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Perspectives
Even though the Gospels each offer varying accounts, they all share the view that Jesus is the
promised Messiah, uniquely related to God to bring his promise and salvation. Three of the Gospels
(called the Synoptics because they overlap at many places) tell the story of Jesus “from the earth
up,” gradually depicting how one can see his unique relationship to the Father. Mark starts with
John the Baptist, while Matthew and Luke start with Jesus' unique birth. John, however, tells the
story very much “from heaven down.” He starts with the preincarnate Word becoming flesh. His
presentation of Jesus as Son of God is more direct and explicit. The Synoptics allow the reader to
gradually see this idea, much in the manner people come to realize gradually who Jesus is. This
difference in how the story unfolds does not represent a conflicting account of Jesus, but simply a
distinct perspective on how to highlight who he is and what he has done.

Acts chronicles the expansion of Jesus' newly formed community from Jerusalem to Rome. Here
God and Jesus are the key figures, directing the action through the Spirit, with the key human
figures being Peter, Stephen, Philip, and Paul. Acts is not a defense of Paul, as many argue, but is a
defense of what Paul's ministry to the Gentiles represents: the realization of God's promise to
reconcile all people groups to himself and to one another through Jesus.

Distinctive of Matthew
Matthew's major concerns include Jesus' relationship to Israel and explaining Israel's rejection of
him. Those who were Christians did not seek a break with Judaism but had separated from Judaism
because the nation rejected the completion of the divine and scriptural promise Jesus brought and
offered. However, that rejection did not stop the arrival of the promise; it raised the stakes of
discipleship and led to the creation of a new entity, the church. The message was not limited to
Israel but included the whole world. Five discourse units consisting of six discourses (long sections
of teaching by Jesus) are the backbone of the book (chs. 5–7; 10; 13; 18; 24–25 [eschatological
discourse followed by a parables section]). As with all the Gospels, there is an interaction and
interchange between Jesus' word and deeds. Jesus' actions support what he preaches. Jesus' death
was an act of the divine plan that led to his vindication and mission. Disciples are those who come
to Jesus in personal relationship and trust, seeking forgiveness and the righteousness that God so
graciously offers.

A brief listing of major Matthean themes shows the variety of his interests. (Italics identify the key
themes, which in some cases overlap with other Gospels and in other cases are unique.) Matthew's
Christology presents a royal, messianic understanding of Jesus, who as Son of God comes to be seen
as the revealer of God's will and the bearer of divine authority. As the promised King of the Jews,
Jesus heals, teaches the real meaning of the OT in all its dimensions, calls for a practical
righteousness, inaugurates the kingdom, and teaches about the mystery elements of God's promise.
Matthew associates all of this with a program he calls the kingdom of heaven. This kingdom is both
present and yet to come (12:28; 13:1–52; 24:1–25:46). Jesus proclaims its hope throughout the
nation to the lost sheep of Israel. He calls on them to repent, challenges their current practices,
expresses his authority over sin and the Sabbath, and calls them to read the law with mercy. Most of
Israel rejects the message, but the mystery is that the promise comes despite that rejection. One day
that kingdom will encompass the entire world (cf. the parables of ch. 13). At the consummation, the
authority of Jesus in that kingdom will be evident to all in a judgment rendered on the entire
creation (chs. 24–25). Thus, for Matthew the kingdom program, eschatology, and salvation history
are all bound together.

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 He was a publican (tax collector): Matt 9:9, 10:3. They bought their position in the
government which meant to betray their people and working for the oppressive Roman
government.
 He’s another name is Levi: Mark 2:14, Luke 5:27.
 He was a disciple: he was among those who were classed as the worst people, as chief of
sinners. Yet, Jesus chose Matthew. One day Jesus came and “he saith unto him, Follow me.”
Matt 9:9. As the writer of this book, all he said was, “and he(Matthew) arose, and followed
him.” Jesus picked disciples from the people that we consider the worst.
 He was a Jew.
 His audience is Jews: begins Christ’s genealogy with Abraham, father of Israel.
 He is trying to show that Jesus fulfilled the prophecies which point to the Messiah: As it
was written by the prophet Jeremiah, Zechariah, Isaiah…He’s trying to say, “Look,
everything that Jesus did, this points exactly to what the prophets of old said.

Distinctive of Mark
Mark is generally regarded today as the first Gospel to have been written, although a minority of
scholars regard Matthew as first. Thus, Mark's outline of Jesus' ministry has become the basic
structure through which his life has been traced, even though sections of it are probably given in
topical rather than chronological arrangement (e.g., the conflicts of chs. 2–3). The first major
section of this Gospel (1:16–8:26) cycles through a consistent structure in each of its three parts.
There is a story about disciples at the start (1:16–20; 3:13–19; 6:7–13) and a note about rejection
or a summary at the end (3:7–12; 6:1–6; 8:22–26). The turning point of the Gospel is the confession
in 8:27–31 that Jesus is the Christ. Half of the Gospel treats the movement toward the final week of
Jesus' ministry, while a full quarter of it is on the last week alone. For Mark, the events of the final
week are central to the story.

The key themes are also evident in how the account proceeds. It begins with a note that what is
being told is the gospel. Though to a lesser degree than Matthew or Luke, Mark also traces the
kingdom of God as a theme. For Mark, it has elements that indicate its initial presence, while the
bulk of the emphasis is that it will come in fullness one day in the future. The mystery of the
kingdom is that it starts out small but will accomplish all that God has called it to be. It will grow
into a full harvest.

Mark is more a Gospel of action than of teaching. Things happen immediately, one of Mark's favorite
expressions. Mark has only two discourses, the parables of the kingdom (4:1–33) and the
eschatological discourse (13:1–37). Miracles abound. Mark has 20 miracle accounts. Combined with
healing summaries, these units comprise a third of the Gospel and are nearly one-half of the first 10
chapters. These pictures of Jesus' authority are important to Mark, as he presents Jesus as one who
teaches with authority. The authority underscores that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (1:1; 8:29;
15:39). Mark's Christology presents Jesus as this promised figure. His claims of authority over sin,
human relationships, and practices tied to purity, Sabbath, and temple get him into trouble with the
Jewish leaders, who early on determine they must stop him. This conflict raised by Jesus' claims is
also a central feature of the Gospel.

However, Jesus' authority is not one of raw power. In terms of proportion, Mark highlights Jesus as
the suffering Son of Man and suffering Servant more than the other Gospels. His mission is to come
and give his life as a ransom for many (10:45). The importance of understanding the suffering role

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probably explains the commands for silence given to those, including demons, who confess Jesus as
Messiah (1:44; 5:43; 9:9). Without an appreciation of his suffering, Jesus' messianic calling is not
understood. It is here that the pastoral demands of discipleship appear as well (10:35–45; cf. 8:31–
38; 9:33–37). Mark is like Matthew here. After the suffering come glory and vindication. The same
Son of Man will return one day to render judgment, as the eschatological discourse reveals (ch. 13).
The need for discipleship and really listening to Jesus is clear as Mark notes without hesitation the
failures of the disciples. Their instincts will not take them in the right direction. Instead, they must
trust in God and his ways. In addition, Mark notes the emotions of Jesus and the disciples more than
any of the other Gospels.

 He was also a contemporary: Mark appears in Acts, and some of Paul’s writings.
 He was not a disciple
 He got the information by talking with Peter
 He has information which no other gospel writer has
 It was his grandma’s house where the Last Supper was held at.
 The man in chapter 14 who ran away naked must be Mark: all the disciples were gone
including Peter, so there’s no way Peter would know about this and tell Mark.
 His account is very short
 We believe that it was the first gospel written: about 32 years after Jesus died – 65 AD.
Why would it take so long for them to write it? They were busy evangelizing, until Mark was
moved by the Holy Spirit to sit down and write this book.
Mark comes from a devote Christian family. Christians gathered for prayer in her mother
Mary’s house. He’s sername is John. (Acts 12:12)

Mary is Barnabas sister. Mark is nephew of Barnabas. (Col 4:10)

Paul and Barnabas took John Mark with them in their mission trip. (Acts 12:25).

John served as minister in the trip. (Acts 13:5)

After severe trials, John left Paul and returned home (Acts 13:13)

Barnabas wanted to take John again in another mission trip and Paul fiercely opposed
remembering his unfaithfulness in the previous trip. There was a great contention and Paul
not wanting to take John went separate way. Acts 15:37-39

Worked with Peter and considered as son by Peter (1Pet 5:13)

Mark was ministering to Paul when he was in the prison. (Col 4:10)

Paul calls Mark “my fellowlabourer.” (Philemon 23-24)

Paul states that Mark is profitable to him for the ministry. (2Tim 4:11)

Distinctives of Luke
The third Gospel is the longest. It has a mix of teaching, miracles, and parables. Luke gives more

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parables than any other Gospel. Whereas Matthew presents teaching in discourse blocks, Luke
scatters his teaching throughout his Gospel, usually in smaller units. Many key discourses happen in
meal scenes (7:36–50; 11:37–52; 14:1–24; 22:1–38; 24:36–49).

Key themes center on God's plan. Things “must be” (Gk. dei) in Luke (2:49; 4:43; 9:22; 24:7, 26, 44–
47). God has designed a plan to reach and deliver the poor, the oppressed, and those caught in
Satan's oppressive grip (4:16–18; 11:14–23). The plan reflects a promise and fulfillment structure,
where key figures express scriptural realization of the plan (7:28; 16:16). The opening infancy
section does this through the use of hymns decorated in scriptural language, underscoring the note
of joy that works through the Gospel. Things also happen with an immediacy, as many texts speak of
what is happening “today” (2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 19:9; 22:34; 23:43). The gospel marches forward, as is
indicated by the geographic progression in the story from Galilee to Jerusalem (9:52–19:44).

Jesus appears as the Messiah-Servant-Lord. The basic category is messianic (1:31–35; 3:21–22;
4:16–30; 9:18–20), but as the story proceeds it is clear that this role is one of great authority that
can be summarized by the image of the judging Son of Man or by the concept of Lord (5:24; 20:41–
44; 21:27; 22:69). All of these connections reflect what Scripture has said about the plan. Jesus also
functions as a prophet like Moses, a leader-deliverer-prophet who is to be heard (4:20–30; 9:35).
Jesus' miracles provide evidence for the inaugurated presence of the kingdom. Ultimately the
kingdom brings with its deliverance the defeat of Satan (11:14–23; 17:20–21). Yet there also is a
future to that kingdom, which will see Jesus return to reign over both Israel and the nations, visibly
expressing the sovereignty he now claims (ch. 21). Thus Jesus' deliverance looks to the realization
of covenantal promises made to Abraham, David, and the nation (1:45–54).

The national leadership is steadfast in its rejection of the message. Nevertheless, the plan proceeds.
Israel will experience judgment for her unfaithfulness (19:41–44; 21:20–24). Her city will be
destroyed as a picture of what final judgment is like and as an assurance that God's program is
taking place. Efforts to call Israel to faithfulness continue despite her refusal to embrace God's care
and Promised One.

In the meantime, Jesus forms a new community (called “the Way” in the book of Acts). This
community is made up of those who turn to embrace Jesus' message and follow in faith. Acts is
really the second half of Luke's story, telling how God led the gospel into the heart of the Roman
Empire, despite stiff opposition, through the boldness of exemplary witnesses drawing on God's
Spirit.

 He got the information from other disciples who were around, and from other things
that were written. Luke 1:2, 3: EGW’s writing.
 He wrote for Theophilus: “Theo” means “God”; “Philus” means “friend.” So Theophilus
means “the friend of God.” This book is for friends of God—you and I.
 He was a Gentile, a Greek
 He was trying to reach the Gentile mind: Begins his genealogy from Adam;
 Tries to anchor the life of Jesus into secular history (Luke 3:1). He’s trying to correlate
what Jesus was doing on earth, with what was going on in the world at that time. If it
weren’t Luke, we would have difficult determining exactly when Jesus was baptized.

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Distinctive of John
The fourth Gospel's account emphasizes Jesus as the Sent One from God, who acts in unity with the
Father. John highlights Jesus' uniqueness from the declaration of the incarnation, through a
narration of seven signs, to the use of multiple discourse-dialogues. This Gospel's explicit portrayal
of Jesus gives it its literary power.

John's themes focus on Christology. Unlike the Synoptics, he speaks little of the kingdom. Rather, it
is eternal life that is the key theme to express what the Synoptics call the kingdom promise. The
emphasis in the term “eternal life” is not only the duration of the life (eternal) but also its quality
(i.e., real, unending life). Thus, to know the Father and Jesus Christ whom the Father sent is eternal
life (17:3). This life is available now (5:24–26). Along with the opportunity is also the prospect of
judgment for those who refuse it (3:16–21, 36).

The promise is brought by the Word/Logos sent from God in the form of human flesh. The “I Am”
sayings convey various ways in which Jesus represents the way of God. Each image (light of the
world, the resurrection and the life, the good shepherd, the bread of life, the vine) specifies some
central role that belongs to Jesus. As Son, Jesus only does that which the Father shows him. It is the
unity with the Father in mission that John highlights. Jesus is the hoped-for Messiah, as well as the
Son of Man who ascends and descends between earth and heaven. In this role, he will judge (5:27),
be lifted up (3:14), and serve in mediating salvation (3:13; 6:27). Even when Jesus is seen as a
prophet, it is as a leader-prophet like Moses (6:14; 7:40).

Seven signs dominate the first two-thirds of the Gospel. The response to them covers the range from
rejection (12:37–39) to openness (9:25). Interestingly, unlike the Synoptics, there is no casting out
of demons in John. He focuses on acts of healing, restoration, and provision. What these signs
especially highlight is Jesus' superiority to Jewish institutions (1:17; 2:19–21; 7:37–39; 9:38; 10:1–
18). Most of the miracles take place in a setting of Jewish celebrations and underscore how Jesus
provides what the feasts celebrate. At the end of the Gospel, blessing comes to those who have faith
without the need for such signs (20:29).

Jesus is seen as the revelator of God. He makes the Father and his way known, functioning as light
(1:14–18). Jesus' death shows the love of the Father for his own people and is an example to
disciples of how they should love (13:1, 11–17). Jesus' death also serves to gather God's people
together (10:1–18) and is a means by which the Son and Father are glorified as life is made
available though him (3:14–16).

Also of great importance to John is the Spirit, also called the Helper (Gk. paraklētos; see John 14:16–
18, 26; 15:26; 16:7–14; 20:22), the one Jesus sends after his death, a point Acts also highlights. This
encourager-enabler leads the disciples into the truth, empowers them for ministry and mission, and
convicts the world of sin, righteousness, and judgment (John 14:25–31; 16:8–11). He is the one who
sustains life (4:8–10; 7:37–39).

 He was a disciple: the beloved


 He wrote 5 books – John, 1,2,3 John and Revelation
 He wrote the book of John after he wrote the book of Revelation: If the Lord’s day was
Sunday, in the book of John he would have recorded something. He never, ever mentioned
Sunday as sacred day, but always referred to the Sabbath.

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 John is not part of the synoptic gospels: “syn” means “together”; “optic” means “eye.”
“Synoptic” means “to see together.” Matthew, Mark and Luke almost have the same content
– they are called the Synoptic gospel. But John is unique.
 Purpose of John’s gospel (20:31) is to prove that Jesus is divine & to experience salvation:
he is the clearest on the issue of conversion and salvation. It’s experiential.

Distinctives of Acts
Acts teaches that the new community is rooted in old promises. It does this by telling how God
directed the inclusion of Gentiles and took the message from Jerusalem to Rome. The central figures
in the book are Peter (chs. 1–5; 10–12); evangelists from the Hellenistic believing community, such
as Stephen and Philip (chs. 6–8); and Paul (chs. 9; 13–28). Discourses are important to the book,
whether they be missionary speeches to call people to belief or defense speeches where the Christian
mission is explained. In the end, the book makes it clear how an originally Jewish movement came
to include Gentiles. The gospel can go to all the world because (1) Jesus is Lord and (2) God directed
that the gospel go into all the world. The book ends on a note of triumph as the gospel comes to
Rome, even though believers suffered in terms of injustice and physical persecution in an effort to
get the gospel there.

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The Four Gospels
There are 4 gospel accounts because they all emphasize different characteristics of Jesus just like
the sanctuary.

Because sin took place, and because Jesus came to this earth, something happened that would never
have happened. What was it? God is doing something for us that is greater that would not have
happened had we not sinned. He brought us back and brought us higher through the plan of
salvation.

Luke gives us an account on the life of John the Baptist that you will not find anywhere else in the
Bible.
Luke 1:
John 1:15
Mark 1:1-3

Why did they all begin with introducing John the Baptist? Because before there is ever a coming of
Jesus Christ, there will always be one announcing His coming, to prepare the way for Him.

DA 101 In preparing the way for Christ's first advent, he was a representative of those who are to
prepare a people for our Lord's second coming.

His life parallel’s with the lives of the SDA’s. He was predicted by prophecy, he was a reformer in
diet, he was a reformer in dress, and he has a message of the Sanctuary.

The gospels are not to cover every aspects of Jesus’ life.

Jn 21:25 And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written
every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written.
Amen.

These writers are trying to help us each see a different aspects of Jesus. But most importantly, to
point us to Him as the source of salvation. There are 4 gospel accounts because they all emphasize
different characteristics of Jesus just like the sanctuary:

 Matthew: King Lion


 Mark: Servant Cow
 Luke: Humanity Man
 John: Divinity Eagle

Timeline of the Life of Jesus


This is my own personal edited timeline. I have chosen random events to give an overall timeline.

1. The Birth of Jesus


2. Angels & Shepherds
3. Visit of Magi (Pic Ava) (Matt 2)
4. Flight of Jesus to Egypt (Matt 2)
5. First Passover visit at the age of 12
6. The Baptism of Jesus (Matt 3, Mark 4, Luke 4)

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7. The temptation of Jesus (Matt 4, Mark 4, Luke 4)
8. First Passover, A.D. 28 – Second Passover A.D. 29
a. Nicodemus (Pic Ava) (John 3)
b. Samaritan Woman (John 4)
c. Nobleman’s Son
d. John Imprisoned
9. Second Passover, A.D. 29 – Third Passover A.D. 30
a. Call by the sea
b. Plucking Grain on the Sabbath (Matt 12)
c. Sermon on the mount (Matt 5-8)
d. Sermon by the sea (Matt 13)
i. The tares
ii. The Sower and 4 different grounds
e. Death of John the Baptist (Matt 14)
10. Third Passover A.D. 30 – Fourth Passover A.D. 31
a. Feeding the 5,000
b. Jesus walks on the Lake (Peter sinks)
c. Feeding the 4,000
d. The Blind man near Bethsaida
e. The transfiguration (Matt 17)
f. The Adulteress (John 8)
g. Mission of the Seventy
h. The good Samaritan (Luke 10)
i. Lost Sheep (Luke 15)
j. Lost Coin (Luke 15)
k. Prodigal Son (Luke 15)
l. The Raising of Lazarus (John 11)
m. The ten lepers
n. The rich young ruler (Matt 18)
o. Betrayal Plot
11. Passion Week (Fourth Passover A.D. 31)
a. Triumphal Entry (Matt 21-Monday)
b. Second Cleansing of the temple
c. Mt. Olives (Signs of Christ Return) (Tuesday)
d. The Lord’s Supper (Thursday)
e. Gethsemane (Friday)
f. Judas confession and suicide (Friday)
g. First trial before Pilate (Friday)
h. Hearing before Herod Antipas (Friday)
i. Second trial before Pilate
j. The crucifixion (6th Hour-12:00pm)
k. The Burial
l. Resurrection
12. Resurrection to Ascension (Spring, A.D. 31)
a. Walk to Emmaus
b. First appearance in the upper room
c. Appearance on a mountain in Galilee
d. The Ascension

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Summary of Chapter 1
Because we sinned…

Because sin took place, and because Jesus came to this earth, something happened that would never
have happened. What was it?

God is doing something for us that is greater that would not have happened had we not sinned. He
brought us back and brought us higher through the plan of salvation.

Let’s say you wrecked a Honda and take it to the body shop, and now they bring you out a Mercedes
Benz. It wasn’t restored exactly the same as before, it’s actually better now. God actually is doing
something for us that is greater than what would have happened had we not sinned. It shows you
the extent of the work of redemption. God didn’t just brought us back, but He brought us back and
higher.

DA 25 By His life and His death, Christ has achieved even more than recovery from the ruin wrought
through sin. It was Satan's purpose to bring about an eternal separation between God and man; but
in Christ we become more closely united to God than if we had never fallen. In taking our nature, the
Saviour has bound Himself to humanity by a tie that is never to be broken. Through the eternal ages
He is linked with us.

We can now more closely united to God, because God became a man.

This is the theme of this whole book called, “Desire of Ages”—Jesus becoming a man, and how
through becoming a man, He is going to restore the image of God in us, and He’s going to brings us
to become something we’ve never been before, perfectly united with Christ and He is going to be
our elder brother. We will become closer to God than if we’ve never sinned.

Our world as a lesson book

DA 19 Our little world is the lesson book of the universe. God's wonderful purpose of grace, the
myste ry of redeeming love, is the theme into which "angels desire to look," and it will be their study
throughout endless ages.

Others are watching us even as we speak right now. They’re watching our planet to see the
resolution of the issue in the Great Controversy.

Summary of Chapter 2
Chapter 2, what was God’s purpose for the nation of Israel? They were to be the examples for the
whole earth for what God wanted to do His people.

DA 27 But the Israelites fixed their hopes upon worldly greatness.

Your theology can be right, but if your philosophy is wrong, your theology will end up being wrong
too. Israelites had the truth, they understood what was right. But the problem was that all the truth
they had was eclipsed by the idea of worldly greatness. Because of that, they started to go wrong.

DA 27 It was in vain that God sent them warning by His prophets. In vain they suffered the
chastisement of heathen oppression. Every reformation was followed by deeper apostasy.

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Because they had their hopes fixed upon worldly greatness, all these reformations were followed by
deeper apostasy.

Listen, young people, here you are studying to be a missionary. This school is not to train you for
success in the business world, nor political world. We are training you for service. But there may be
a philosophy in your mind, “I want to be somebody great. I want to be famous!” If you are still
seeking for a worldly greatness, you may come out of school with the greatest truth, but you will
always be striving to exalt self. In that sense, ultimately with that kind of philosophy, God can’t bless
you, and you will continue to go down and down until the thought changes and even your theology
will end up being wrong too. Listen, young people, as you learn the truth and gain experiences, you
may caught up in the mood of “I’m somebody now.” When a small group of people ask you to come
and speak for them you wonder if you should even go there. In other words, you are saying, “I’m too
good for them!”

DA 30 At the time of the birth of Christ the nation was chafing under the rule of her foreign masters,
and racked with internal strife. The Jews had been permitted to maintain the form of a separate
government; but nothing could disguise the fact that they were under the Roman yoke, or reconcile
them to the restriction of their power.
The Romans did control Palestine and Judea, but they still allowed a puppet government to exist. So
there were certain things they did allow and they didn’t. That sets the stage for the closing scenes of
Christ. What was taking place right then was a fulfillment of the prophecy. Jacob, before he died,
prophecied:

Gen 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh
come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

After Jesus died, Israel lost all their privileges and Jerusalem was destroyed.

DA30 Hatred of the Romans, and national and spiritual pride, led the Jews still to adhere rigorously
to their forms of worship…They had studied the prophecies, but without spiritual insight.

With that wrong mentality, desire of human worldly greatness, these people have gotten
themselves to the point where they were so far down and ruled by someone else, and having
limited powers.

Summary of Chapter 3
DA 32 When the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son." Providence had directed the
movements of nations, and the tide of human impulse and influence, until the world was ripe for the
coming of the Deliverer. The nations were united under one government. One language was widely
spoken, and was everywhere recognized as the language of literature. From all lands the Jews of the
dispersion gathered to Jerusalem to the annual feasts. As these returned to the places of their
sojourn, they could spread throughout the world the tidings of the Messiah's coming.

This parallels the time right before Christ’s second coming.

One government:

You can freely go any part of the world. In 1888, there was no country where missionary couldn’t
go. God sent the message to carry throughout the whole world. If that message had been taken, SOP
tells us that in two years Jesus would have come. Though the whole world wasn’t under one

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government, the message of the gospel could go anywhere. In these days, you can go almost any
country you want.

One language:

English is widely used in our globe.

Jews returning to different parts of the world: Communication


Internet, Radio, satellite, TV.

The world right now is very similar to the conditions that existed in the first coming of Jesus.

DA 32 At this time the systems of heathenism were losing their hold upon the people. Men were
weary of pageant and fable. They longed for a religion that could satisfy the heart. While the light of
truth seemed to have departed from among men, there were souls who were looking for light, and
who were filled with perplexity and sorrow. They were thirsting for a knowledge of the living
God, for some assurance of a life beyond the grave.

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Matthew
Introduction
Matthew GK 3156 = “gift of Jehovah”

Author and Title


Since none of the four Gospels includes the names of their authors in the original manuscripts, they
are all technically anonymous. This is not surprising, since the authors likely compiled their Gospel
accounts for members of their own churches, to whom they were already well known. However,
historical documents from early church history provide significant insight into the Gospels'
authorship. The earliest traditions of the church are unanimous in attributing the first Gospel to
Matthew, the former tax collector who followed Jesus and became one of his 12 disciples. The
earliest and most important of these traditions comes from the second century in the writings of
Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor (c. a.d. 135), and Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons in Gaul (c.
175). Because these early church leaders had either direct or indirect contact with the apostolic
community, they would have been very familiar with the Gospels' origins. Moreover, no competing
traditions now exist (if they ever did) attributing Matthew's Gospel to any other author. If Matthew
did not write the book, it is hard to see why the false ascription would bear the name of a relatively
obscure apostle when more well-known and popular figures could have been chosen (e.g., Philip,
Thomas, or James).

When Jesus called him, Matthew was sitting in the tax collector's booth (9:9), collecting taxes for
Herod Antipas, and this may have been along a commercial trading route about 4 miles (6.4 km)
from Capernaum. However, since the narrative surrounding Matthew's call is set in Capernaum
(9:1, 7, 10; cf. 4:13), the tax booth may have been on the Sea of Galilee at Capernaum, since Herod
also taxed fishermen. At his calling in the first Gospel he is referred to as “Matthew” (9:9), while
Mark's and Luke's Gospels describe him as “Levi the son of Alphaeus” (Mark 2:14) and “Levi” (Luke
5:27). The reason for the variation in names has elicited much discussion, but most scholars believe
that the tax collector had two names, Matthew Levi, which he either possessed from birth or took
on following his conversion. His occupation as a tax collector implies that he had training in scribal
techniques and was thus able to write, while his identity as a Galilean Jewish Christian suggests his
ability to interpret the words and actions of Jesus in light of OT messianic expectations.

Date
The precise date of the writing of Matthew's Gospel is not known. Some people argue for a date
earlier than the destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70, since Jesus alludes to this event in 24:1–28.

Theme
This is the story of Jesus of Nazareth, recorded by the apostle Matthew as a compelling witness that
Jesus is the long-anticipated Messiah, who brought the kingdom of God to earth and is the
prophesied fulfillment of God's promise of true peace and deliverance for both Jew and Gentile.

Key Themes
1. Portrait of Jesus. Jesus is the true Messiah, Immanuel (God incarnate with 1:1, 23; 2:2;
his people), Son of God, King of Israel, and Lord of the church. 14:33;
16:16;

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18:20; 21:5–
9
2. The bridge between Old and New Testaments. Jesus fulfills the hopes and 1:1–17, 22–
promises of the OT through his messianic genealogy, fulfillment of OT 23; 2:4–5, 15,
prophecies, and fulfillment of the OT law. These bridging qualities may have 17, 23; 5:17–
been one reason Matthew was chosen to begin the NT canon. Another 20
possible reason is that many in the early church thought that Matthew was
the first Gospel written, and another is that it was personally written by an
apostle, in contrast to Mark and Luke.
3. Salvation-historical “particularism” and “universalism.” Matthew's Gospel 10:5–6; 28:19
traces God's continuing work of salvation within Israel (“particularism”) and
extends this saving work to all the peoples of the earth (“universalism”),
through the person and work of Christ.
4. The new community of faith. The early church included both Jewish and 11:28; 16:18–
Gentile Christians. Matthew's Gospel would have encouraged them to 19; 28:19
transcend ethnic and cultural barriers to find unity in service to Jesus the
Messiah as members of his universal church.
5. The church is built and maintained by Jesus' continuing presence. God's 16:18; 18:15–
saving work in the present age is carried out chiefly by and through the 20; 22:10;
church, which Jesus continues to build and inhabit. Anyone who responds to 28:20
Jesus' call—whether Jew or Gentile, male or female, rich or poor, slave or
free—is brought into the fellowship of his church to enjoy him and
participate in the community of his kingdom.
6. A “great commission” for evangelism and mission. Jesus' command to “make 28:19
disciples of all nations” is found only in Matthew and has motivated countless
believers to reach out to the lost with the good news of the gospel. As Jesus
made disciples in his earthly ministry, he commissions his church to follow
his example.
7. Jesus' five discourses recorded in Matthew can be viewed as a manual on chs. 5–7; 10;
discipleship. The presentation of five of Jesus' major discourses, addressed at 13; 18–20;
least in part to his disciples, forms the most comprehensive collection of 24–25
Jesus' instructional ministry found anywhere in Scripture. They paint a
holistic picture of life lived in obedience to Christ, and the church has used
them to instruct disciples through the ages.

Purpose, Occasion, and Background


Matthew crafted his account to demonstrate Jesus' messianic identity, his inheritance of the Davidic
kingship over Israel, and his fulfillment of the promise made to his ancestor Abraham (Matt. 1:1) to
be a blessing to all the nations (Gen. 12:1–3). Thus in large part Matthew's Gospel is an evangelistic
tool aimed at his fellow Jews, persuading them to recognize Jesus as their long-awaited Messiah. At
the same time, the Gospel reveals clearly to Gentiles that salvation through Jesus the Messiah is
available to all nations. For Jewish Christians, Matthew's Gospel provides encouragement to stand
steadfast amid opposition from their own countrymen, as well as Gentile pagans, secure in the
knowledge of their citizenship in God's kingdom.

Against the backdrop of such opposition to Jesus' message, Matthew establishes the identity of
Christ's church as the true people of God, who now find their unity in service to Jesus despite
previous racial, class, and religious barriers. His Gospel provides necessary instruction for all future
disciples, Jew and Gentile, who form a new community centered upon devotion and obedience to

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Jesus the Messiah amid significant opposition.

Many scholars have suggested that the prominent church in Antioch of Syria, whose members
included both Jewish and Gentile Christians (cf. Acts 11:19–26; 13:1–3), was the intended audience
of Matthew's Gospel. They point to the Gospel's influence on Ignatius, an early bishop of Antioch. At
the same time, Matthew's message spoke to all of the fledgling churches of his day, and the Gospel
appears to have circulated rapidly and widely.

History of Salvation Summary – Matthew & the Kingdom of God


Jesus comes as the messianic King in the line of David to fulfill the OT, especially its promises of
everlasting salvation. The ultimate fulfillment comes with his crucifixion and resurrection. This
section covers topical studies from the book of Matthew

Second Coming

Matt 10:23 But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye
shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come.

First mention of the Second Coming

Matt 16:27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall
reward every man according to his works.

He comes to reward according to our works. This verse shows by implication the investigative
judgment

Matt 13:40-43 [40] As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the
end of this world. [41] The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his
kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; [42] And shall cast them into a furnace of
fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. [43]Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun
in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.

Shows when He comes and what the rewards are. Note: V.41 Calls it the kingdom of Christ; V.43
calls it the kingdom of the Father (Study).

Matt 19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the
regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve
thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

We will judge Israel after His coming. Note: Then the kingdom of Glory will come. See Ps 102:16

Matt 8:11 And I say unto you, That many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven.

Abraham, Isaac, Jacob all sitting together with many in the kingdom of heaven..= Note: If you
connect this with chapter 19:28 they will be judging.

Luke 22:30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the
twelve tribes of Israel.

Shows that we will sit down and eat and drink together.

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Matt 26:29 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when
I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom.

Shows that we will be drinking grape juice together Note: Christ calls it His Father’s kingdom; Mark 14:25
Christ calls it the Kingdom of God, therefore God is the Father; Luke 22:18 He says He won’t drink until the
Kingdom of God shall come. That means the kingdom of the Father.

1 Corin 15:24-28 [24] Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God,
even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. [25] For he must
reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. [26] The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.
[27] For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is
manifest that he is excepted which did put all things under him. [28] And when all things shall be
subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him,
that God may be all in all.

This must be the best passage showing the transition between the kingdom of Christ and kingdom of God

Matt 23:39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that
cometh in the name of the Lord.

There will be a special resurrection at the Second Coming. Note: this could also apply to after the Millennium.

Matt 26:64 Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see
the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.

Caiaphus will be among the special resurrection of the wicked.

Kingdom of God & Christ

Matt 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in
earth.

(Relationship of Father and Son), Before you can completely understand the Kingdom of God and
the Kingdom of Christ, you must understand the relationship that exists between God (the Father)
and the Son (Jesus). They are equal in the sense of both are God. But when it comes to the roles that
they each have in relationship to their created beings they are different. They have these roles so
that the created beings can understand and comprehend who God is to them. Now after the fall of
man, they take different roles in the plan of salvation, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit all work
together for the salvation of man. You also must understand their roles in the light of the great
controversy Satan has accused the Father and the Son and therefore God reveals certain details to
help us understand how God has met the accusations of Satan.

“All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth” – When we read this verse a natural
questions should come to mind. What? Does this mean Jesus didn’t have all power in heaven and
earth before? It also shows that the Father is Supreme Sovereign. If He gives all power to His Son, it
means that the Father has all power.

Matt 11:27 All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son, but the
Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and [he] to whomsoever the Son will
reveal [him].

“All things are delivered unto me of my Father” – This shows that everything the Son has in His

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possession comes from the Father. He receives everything from the Father. Note: It also shows their
relationship. The Son reveals the Father

Jn 3:35 The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.

Jn 13:3 Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from
God, and went to God.

Jn 14:28 I go unto the Father: for my Father is greater than I.

This is not speaking in reference to Divinity in the sense of the Father being a greater God. But the
Son as a man willing places Himself in subjection to His Father as an example of how you and I are
suppose to place ourselves in subjection to Christ. Christ says…

Jn 14:31 …as the Father gave me commandment, even so I do.

This shows that as a man in fallen nature Jesus obeyed. Again we now it is not talking about divinity
because Jesus says

Jn 10:30 I and [my] Father are one…

Phil 2:6 Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God:

Both of these verses show that Jesus is equal with God! Therefore, when Christ says the Father is
greater or all power is given to me, it is in reference to their roles in the government of God. All
government must have order and a supreme head. And others must fulfill other roles for the
government to operate efficiently and this is what I see.

1 Corin 15:27 For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under
[him, it is] manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.

Again, this re-emphasizes the fact that the Father is greater than the Son in reference to the
government of God. So when Matthew says ‘All power is given’ what does it mean? When did it
happen? From Matt 28 we can see that it happened after His resurrection. This power refers to all
ecclesiastical and political power. Both being given at His resurrection and both power being
wielded in different ways. Did the Son have this power before? I would have to say yes, but He had
that power in His divine form. Was the Son a King before? Yes, but a co-ruler. Was He revealed as a
King? (In heaven I am not sure, but at some point after the creation of this earth He was) Note:
There is much that is revealed to us about the Kingdom of God and Christ after 31 A.D. before that
we have glimpses, but it is not as clear. More study is needed

Is 6:1-4 I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up.

Jn 12:41 These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him.

It was Christ on the throne, as a king, but again it was the throne of the Father.

Phil 2:6-7 [6] Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: [7] But
m:ade himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the
likeness of men.

Christ was equal with God. That means that He was God. But the bible says He ‘made himself of no

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reputation’. That means that He clothed His divinity with humanity, hiding His glory which would
have made it manifest that He was God. Previously He was in the “form of God” now in the “form of
a servant”. So when you look at Him He just looked like an ordinary man.

Phil 2:8 And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death,
even the death of the cross.

Note: ‘found’ Gk 2147 “2 to find by enquiry, thought, examination, scrutiny, observation, to find out
by practice and experience. 2A to see, learn, discover, understand. 2B to be found i.e. to be seen, be
present. 2C to be discovered, recognised, detected, to show one’s self out, of one’s character or state
as found out by others (men, God, or both)1 ”

Phil 2:9 Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every
name:

“Wherefore” – meaning because He went from being in the form of God to the form of a servant
and being obedient unto death.

“hath highly exalted him” – exalting the Son in the ‘form of a servant….in the likeness of men’. So
He is exalting the Son as a Man. And the name Jesus is above all names.

Phil 2:10 That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of [things] in heaven, and [things] in
earth, and [things] under the earth;

Phil 2:11 And [that] every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ [is] Lord, to the glory of God the
Father.

Now all of heaven and earth acknowledge Him as Lord in Human form. (He was Lord before in
Divine form Is 6:1-4) Now He is Lord as Jesus a man, but also Christ, God. This further explains Matt
28:18 “All power is given unto me (as God in human form) in heaven and earth” every knee in
heaven and earth shall bow. Political power

“to the glory of God the Father” – This is the great controversy theme. When we all acknowledge
Christ as Lord. This vindicates the Father who has exalted Him. He was not being arbitrary towards
Satan. He exalted His Son because His Son was God.

Eph 1:20-21 [20] Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set [him] at his
own right hand in the heavenly [places] [21] Far above all principality, and power, and might, and
dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:”

This is clear that Jesus will be exalted over all power and dominion and every name that is named.
But because He will sit on the right hand of God. It means that Christ is above everything except for
the Father. He is equal with the Father. The Father is above all things and the Son is above all things,
but the Father is above Christ. In this world and the world to come.

Eph 1:22 And hath put all [things] under his feet, and gave him [to be] the head over all [things] to
the church.

Notice He is the head over all things to the church. That is complete ecclesiastical power. Note: The
papacy desires to be over all things to the church. This shows he is the antichrist.

1 Strong, J. 1996. The exhaustive concordance of the Bible

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Eph 1:23 Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.

This shows that the church also will be above all things. But Christ will be above the church. The
hierarchy will be. The Father, The Son, The Church, and all principalities and powers, etc. Extra

Col 1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the
dead; that in all [things] he might have the preeminence.

This explains the same concept. The Son has preeminence over everything except the Father. Note:
All these passages show Jesus being exalted and having preeminence after the resurrection

Eph 5:23-24 [23] …Christ is the head of the church… [24] the church is subject unto Christ.

This means that the church is not subject to anything else. They are above everything except for
Christ and the Father. And Christ is above everything except the Father. This is further proven by…

1 Corin 15:28 And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be
subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.

“And when all things shall be subdued unto him”

Ps 18:39 For thou hast girded me with strength unto the battle: thou hast subdued under me those
that rose up against me.

This describes the battle that takes place at the end of the millennium. It gives a time frame to when
all things will be subdued to Christ.

Rev 20:7-9 [7] And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, And
shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to
gather them together to battle: the number of whom [is] as the sand of the sea. And they went up on
the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire
came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.

Ps 18:47 [It is] God that avengeth me, and subdueth the people under me. He delivereth me from
mine enemies: yea, thou liftest me up above those that rise up against me… Great deliverance giveth
he to his king; and showeth mercy to his anointed, to David, and to his seed for evermore (His seed is
Christ)

“then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him”

1 Corin 11:3 …the head of Christ is God.

Note: Same as 1 Corin 3:23 “Christ is God’s”

Phil 3:20-21 [20] For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the
Lord Jesus Christ: [21] Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious
body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself

And because the Father subdued all things under Christ. He is able to change our bodies and give us
immortality. The Father put all enemies under His feet. And according to that power that was given
Christ by the Father He gives us immortality. This verse can also be understood as according the

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working of the Father Christ is able to subdue all things to Himself. The Father said sit on my right
hand until I make thy enemies thy footstool. So the Father makes His enemies His footstool. The last
enemy is death. Now Christ can exercise power to destroy death.

1 Corin 15:24-28 [24] Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God,
even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. [25] For he must
reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. [26] The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.
[27] For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is
manifest that he is excepted which did put all things under him. [28] And when all things shall be
subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him,
that God may be all in all.

These verses give the most comprehensive understanding of the Kingdom of God and Christ. The
theme of 1 Corin 15 is the resurrection. It also includes the second coming and the kingdoms of God
and Christ. This is because they are all related. The citizens of the kingdom are those who died in
Christ. Therefore Christ must return and resurrect them and then finally Christ and His people will
be a part of the Father’s kingdom (Still in study)

1 Corin 15:24 Then [cometh] the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the
Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.

“End” – End of the plan of Salvation; or most likely the end of the reign of Christ. (this is hard to
understand because other passages say that Christ kingdom will last forever. Therefore it has to be
one of two main ideas. 1.) Forever means duration or a set amount of time in the same sense of
Samuel being given to the Lord forever as a child, or David’s kingdom lasting forever. If I maintain
this position it would mean Christ kingdom of glory would last from the close of probation until the
end of the millennium. 2.) Forever means eternally and even though the kingdom will be given to
the Father Christ reigns jointly with His Father. From this verse we can see Christ was given all rule,
authority, and power from the Father as related to Christ’s Kingdom. Paul gives the end picture
right here. Then he will explain what leads up to this event.

1 Corin 15:25 For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.

“reign” – This word explains all rule, authority and power. Note: Matt 28:18 Christ said all power is
given unto me in Heaven and in Earth. Once all enemies are subdued under his feet He no longer
will reign or have all rule, authority and power. The question is when did He begin to reign? Notice
the OT passages that teach about the reign of Christ

Ps 2:6 Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.

It sounds like present tense, but when did the Father set His king upon His holy hill? Note: This
verse makes it clear also that the Father was the sole King over His own Kingdom

Ps 2:7 I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou [art] my Son; this day have I
begotten thee.

Decree: Means commandment or law; this verse shows future tense. When will the Father sent His
king of His holy hill? When He declares thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Note: This
verse implies several things. First this doesn’t necessary mean that the Son wasn’t a king prior to
this even, but that He wasn’t a King as the begotten Son of God. When was Christ begotten? At his
resurrection

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Acts 13:33 God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; as
it is also written in the second psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.

Ps 2:8 Ask of me, and I shall give [thee] the heathen [for] thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts
of the earth [for] thy possession.

“shall give” shows future tense again. So in the future the Father will give the whole earth for His
possession (or kingdom).

Ps 2:9 Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.”

Future tense again. Another promise

Ps 110:1 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy
footstool.

Now when did this take place? This could not be prior to Him coming to this earth. The enemies of
Christ were cast from heaven. This took place at His resurrection.

Summary: At His resurrection the Father set on His holy hill. At His resurrection He was begotten as
a Son of God in human form. At His resurrection He was made a High Priest after the order of
Melchizedeck to rule as king and priest.

Heb 10:12 But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right
hand of God; From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool.

This makes it crystal clear that it was after His death and resurrection. That means that Christ has
been expecting, waiting, for the Father to make His enemies His footstool. The Father will
accomplish this through the work of Christ in the Holy Place and Most Holy Place.

Acts 2:32-36 [32] This Jesus hath God raised up…[33] Therefore being by the right hand of God
exalted…[34] For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The Lord said unto my
Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, [35] Until I make thy foes thy footstool. [36] Therefore let all the
house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both
Lord and Christ

“Lord” – Master or King

“Christ” – Anointed Priest

This began in 31 A.D. At this time Christ is ruling in the midst of His enemies Ps 110:2, but He is
sharing the throne of His Father as a King in Human form. When Jesus went to heaven in 31 A.D. He
was called the King of glory. Why? Not just king of heaven, but it was in anticipation that His
kingdom would be established (Luke 22:29).

Ps 24:3 Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD? or who shall stand in his holy place?

This is the same hill of Ps 2 that the Father says He will set His king on His holy hill.

Ps 24:4 He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, nor
sworn deceitfully.

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Christ has clean hands, a pure heart was not proud and did not swear deceitfully.

Ps 24:7 Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory
shall come in.

This is in anticipation that His kingdom of glory would be established. So the kingdom of grace
prepares the way for the kingdom of glory.

“enemies” – This is a long study. The heathen or kings of this earth are his enemies, sin, death, the
grave, etc (study out later).

1 Corin 15:26, 55 [26] The last enemy [that] shall be destroyed [is] death. [55] O death, where [is]
thy sting? O grave, where [is] thy victory?

Hos 13:5 I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I
will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction: repentance shall be hid from mine eyes.

“ransom…power of the grave” – 1st Resurrection

“grave…thy destruction” – After the millennium. Note: Grave is also likened to a prison. Who has
the keys? The ward of the prison. Who has the keys to hell and death? Jesus Rev 1. When is death
destroyed?

Rev 20:14 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death

1 Corin 15:27 For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under
[him, it is] manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.

Kingdom of God & Christ (We receive a Kingdom like Christ)

Matt 19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the
regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve
thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

We judge in the kingdom of Christ

Luke 22:29 And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me;

Christ appoints us a kingdom as the Father appointed Him a kingdom

Matt 25:34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father,
inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:

Inherit kingdom from the foundation of the world

Luke 12:32 Fear not, little flock; for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.

Fathers pleasure to give us a kingdom (Margin: see the references to the OT)

Jam 2:5 Hearken, my beloved brethren, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in faith, and
heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to them that love him?

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Heirs of the kingdom

Note: Jam 1:12 says we receive a crown of life

Ps 103:19 The LORD hath prepared his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all.

The Lord prepared His throne Note: Ps 102:19 the throne is in the sanctuary. Ps 11:4 the Lord’s throne is in
heaven.

Matt 24:47 Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods.

We will be made rulers of Christ’s goods

Ps 45:6 Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre.

Throne of God is forever. This goes with Heb 1:8-9

Ps 93:2 Throne of old…

The Setting of Matthew


The events in the book of Matthew take place almost entirely
within the vicinity of Palestine, an area extending roughly from
Caesarea Philippi in the north to Beersheba in the south. During
this time it was ruled by the Roman Empire. The opening chapters
describe events surrounding Jesus' birth in Judea, where Herod had
been appointed king by the Romans. The closing chapters end with
Jesus' death, resurrection, and ascension during the rule of Pontius
Pilate and the tetrarchs Antipas and Philip.

Outline
1. The Arrival in History of Jesus the Messiah (1:1–2:23)
a. The genealogy of Jesus the Messiah (1:1–17)
b. The angelic announcement of the conception of Jesus the Messiah (1:18–25)
c. Magi report the star-sign of the birth of “the King of the Jews” (2:1–12)
d. OT prophecies are fulfilled in Jesus the Messiah (2:13–23)
2. John the Baptist Prepares for the Appearance of the Messianic Kingdom (3:1–17)
3. Jesus the Messiah Begins to Advance the Messianic Kingdom (4:1–25)
a. Temptations of the Messiah (4:1–11)
b. Jesus the Messiah begins his Galilean ministry (4:12–25)
4. The Authoritative Message of the Messiah: Kingdom Life for His Disciples (5:1–7:29) (First
Discourse)
a. Setting, Beatitudes, and witness of the kingdom of heaven (5:1–16)
b. The messianic kingdom in relation to the law (5:17–48)
c. The development of kingdom life in the real world (6:1–7:12)
d. Warning! With Jesus or against him? (7:13–29)
5. The Authoritative Power of the Messiah: Kingdom Power Demonstrated (8:1–9:38)
a. Healings, discipleship, and overpowering Satan's strongholds (8:1–9:8)
b. Unexpected discipleship, miracles, and workers (9:9–38)
6. The Authoritative Mission of the Messiah's Messengers (10:1–42) (Second Discourse)

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a. Commissioning and instructions for the short-term mission to Israel (10:1–15)
b. Instructions for the long-term mission to the world (10:16–23)
c. Characteristics of missionary disciples (10:24–42)
7. Opposition to the Messiah Emerges (11:1–12:50)
a. Jesus, John the Baptist, and ministry in Galilee (11:1–30)
b. Confrontations with the Pharisees (12:1–45)
c. Jesus' disciples are his true family (12:46–50)
8. Mysteries of the Messianic Kingdom Revealed in Parables (13:1–53) (Third Discourse)
a. The opening of the Parabolic Discourse (13:1–23)
b. Further parables told to the crowds (13:24–35)
c. Explanations and parables told to the disciples (13:36–53)
9. The Identity of the Messiah Revealed (13:54–16:20)
a. Prophet(s) without honor (13:54–14:12)
b. Compassionate healer and supplier for Israel (14:13–21)
c. The Son of God worshiped (14:22–36)
d. Teacher of the Word of God and compassionate healer (15:1–39)
e. Peter confesses Jesus as the Christ, the Son of the living God (16:1–20)
10. The Suffering of the Messiah Revealed (16:21–17:27)
a. The suffering sacrifice (16:21–28)
b. The beloved, transfigured Son (17:1–13)
c. Sons of the kingdom (17:14–27)
11. The Community of the Messiah Revealed (18:1–20:34) (Fourth Discourse)
a. Characteristics of life in the kingdom community (18:1–35)
b. Valuing the kingdom community (19:1–20:34)
12. The Messiah Asserts His Authority over Jerusalem (21:1–23:39)
a. The triumphal entry into Jerusalem: Jesus' authority as Messiah (21:1–11)
b. The temple actions: Jesus' pronouncement on the temple establishment (21:12–17)
c. Cursing the fig tree: Jesus' judgment of the nation (21:18–22)
d. Controversies in the temple court over Jesus' authority (21:23–22:46)
e. Warnings against the teachers of the law and the Pharisees (23:1–12)
f. Woes of judgment against the teachers of the law and the Pharisees (23:13–36)
g. Lament over Jerusalem (23:37–39)
13. The Delay, Return, and Judgment of Messiah (24:1–25:46) (Fifth [Olivet] Discourse)
a. The beginning of birth pains (24:1–14)
b. “Great tribulation” and the coming of the Son of Man (24:15–31)
c. The nearness and time of Jesus' coming (24:32–41)
d. Parabolic exhortations to watch and be prepared for the coming of the Son of Man
(24:42–25:30)
e. Judgment at the end (25:31–46)
14. The Crucified Messiah (26:1–27:66)
a. Plot, anointing, and betrayal to the religious leaders (26:1–16)
b. The Passover and the Lord's Supper (26:17–35)
c. Gethsemane: Jesus' agonizing prayers (26:36–46)
d. Jesus arrested (26:47–56)
e. The Jewish trial of Jesus (26:57–27:10)
f. The Roman trial of Jesus (27:11–26)
g. Jesus the Messiah crucified (27:27–44)
h. The death of Jesus the Messiah (27:45–50)
i. Testimonies, women followers, and burial (27:51–66)
15. The Resurrection and Commission of the Messiah (28:1–20)

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a. An empty tomb and the risen Jesus (28:1–10)
b. The conspiracy to deny the truth of Jesus' resurrection (28:11–15)
c. The risen Jesus' Great Commission (28:16–20)

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Chapter 1 – Genealogy of Jesus
Matt 1:1 The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

“Generation” – GMK 1078 = Genesis; translates as “generation” once, “natural” once, and “nature”
once.

Matt 1:17 So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David
until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into
Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations.

The word means a succession or series of persons from the same stock.

Matt 24:34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.

“This generation” = the persons then living contemporary with Christ. The Hebrews seem to have
reckoned time by the generation. In the time of Abraham a generation was an hundred years, thus:
Gen. 15:16, “In the fourth generation” = in four hundred years (comp. verse 13 and Ex. 12:40). In
Deut. 1:35 and 2:14 a generation is a period of thirty-eight years

Isa 53:8 Who shall declare his generation?

His manner of life who shall declare? or rather = His race, posterity, shall be so numerous that no
one shall be able to declare it. 2

Conclusion = Generation represents the lineage of Christ as well as those living contemporary with
Christ. It may also allude to the spiritual descendants of Christ. (More study)

Matt 3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto
them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

Matt 11:16-17 [16] But whereunto shall I liken this generation? It is like unto children sitting in the
markets, and calling unto their fellows, [17] And saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not
danced; we have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented

Matt 12:34 O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things?

Matt 12:39 But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a
sign

Matt 12:41 The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it:
because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas [is] here.

Matt 12:42 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall
condemn it: for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and,
behold, a greater than Solomon [is] here.

Matt 12:45 Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself,
and they enter in and dwell there: and the last [state] of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall

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it be also unto this wicked generation.

Matt 16:4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given
unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas

Matt 17:17 Then Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be
with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him hither to me

Matt 23:33 [Ye] serpents, [ye] generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?

Matt 23:35-36 [35] That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the
blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the
temple and the altar Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

Matt 24:34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled

1:1 The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

The Genealogy of Jesus


Matthew 1
 He was a Jew and was trying to prove that Jesus was the Messiah of the Genealogy only goes
up to Abraham
 This is the genealogy of Joseph
Luke 3
 This is the genealogy of Mary
Jesus was the partaker of the law of heredity – He came like as we were.

1:2 Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren;

1:3 And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram;

1:4 And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon;

1:5 And Salmon begat Booz of Rachab; and Booz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse;

1:6 And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of
Urias;

1:7 And Solomon begat Roboam; and Roboam begat Abia; and Abia begat Asa;

1:8 And Asa begat Josaphat; and Josaphat begat Joram; and Joram begat Ozias;

1:9 And Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ezekias;

1:10 And Ezekias begat Manasses; and Manasses begat Amon; and Amon begat Josias;

1:11 And Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon:

1:12 And after they were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; and Salathiel begat Zorobabel;

1:13 And Zorobabel begat Abiud; and Abiud begat Eliakim; and Eliakim begat Azor;

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1:14 And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud;

1:15 And Eliud begat Eleazar; and Eleazar begat Matthan; and Matthan begat Jacob;

1:16 And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.

1:17 So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the
carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto
Christ are fourteen generations.

1:18 ¶ Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph,
before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost.

1:19 Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a publick example, was
minded to put her away privily.

1:20 But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream,
saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in
her is of the Holy Ghost.

1:21 And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from
their sins.

1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,

1:23 Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name
Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.

1:24 Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him
his wife:

1:25 And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS.

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Chapter 2
2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came
wise men from the east to Jerusalem,

The Life of Jesus

Matt 2:1-2 [1] Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king,
behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, [2] Saying, Where is he that is born King of
the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.

Matt 2:15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the
Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.

Hosea 11:1 is the text quoted but in Hosea it is referring to the children of Israel. The similarities is
after they were baptized, one went into wilderness for 40 years and Jesus went into 40 days into
wilderness. Jesus was the one that Hosea was referring to. Israel is a type of Jesus.

Luke 2:4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judæa, unto the city
of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:)

It was prophesized that Jesus was to be born in Bethlehem. The reason why Joseph went back to
Bethlehem because everyone was to be taxed.

Luke 2:25-32, 36-38, 40 [25] And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon;
and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Ghost was
upon him. [26] And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before
he had seen the Lord's Christ. [27] And he came by the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents
brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law, [28] Then took he him up in his
arms, and blessed God, and said, [29] Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to
thy word: [30] For mine eyes have seen thy salvation, [31] Which thou hast prepared before the face
of all people; [32] A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel. [36] And there was
one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser: she was of a great age, and had
lived with an husband seven years from her virginity; [37] And she was a widow of about fourscore
and four years, which departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night
and day. [38] And she coming in that instant gave thanks likewise unto the Lord, and spake of him to
all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem. [40] And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit,
filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him.

Simeon was indicating to the parents that God had given to them the Messiah. This is important
because EGW mentioned that Mary wandered sometimes if Jesus was the Messiah or not – but she
always remember the words that had been spoken to her.

DA 73 He expected much; therefore He attempted much.

DA 74 Yet Jesus shunned display. During all the years of His stay in Nazareth, He made no exhibition
of His miraculous power. He sought no high position and assumed no titles. His quiet and simple life,
and even the silence of the Scriptures concerning His early years, teach an important lesson. The
more quiet and simple the life of the child,--the more free from artificial excitement, and the more in
harmony with nature,--the more favorable is it to physical and mental vigor and to spiritual strength.

DA 83 If Joseph and Mary had stayed their minds upon God by meditation and prayer, they would
have realized the sacredness of their trust, and would not have lost sight of Jesus. By one day's

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neglect they lost the Saviour; but it cost them three days of anxious search to find Him.

How do we know that John the Baptist ministered for 6 months?

Luke 1:36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is
the sixth month with her, who was called barren.

We can see here that Jesus and John the Baptist were cousins, we know that they were six months
apart.

Luke 3:1-2 [1] Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, Pontius Pilate being governor
of Judæa, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the
region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, [2] Annas and Caiaphas being the high
priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.

John the Baptist was in the wilderness until the time came. The word of God came to him in the 15th
year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar

2:2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come
to worship him.

2:3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.

2:4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of
them where Christ should be born.

2:5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet,

2:6 And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee
shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.

2:7 Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star
appeared.

2:8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child; and when ye
have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.

2:9 When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went
before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.

2:10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.

2:11 ¶ And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell
down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts;
gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.

2:12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their
own country another way.

2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying,
Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee
word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.

2:14 When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt:

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2:15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by
the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.

2:16 ¶ Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent
forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old
and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men.

2:17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying,

2:18 In Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping
for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not.

2:19 ¶ But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,

2:20 Saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: for they are
dead which sought the young child's life.

2:21 And he arose, and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.

2:22 But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid
to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee:

2:23 And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the
prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.

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Chapter 3 – Anointing | Baptism of Christ
3:1 In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judaea,

3:2 And saying, Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.

3:3 For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the
wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.

3:4 And the same John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his
meat was locusts and wild honey.

3:5 Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan,

3:6 And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins.

3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O
generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

Two generations in the book of Matthew: The generation of Christ and the generation of vipers,
Another word for viper is serpent. The generation of serpents.

Gen 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed

Here in Matthew we see the descendents of the woman and the descendents of the serpent. Both
are the descendents of Abraham, but through Christ the descendents are not limited to the blood
line. (PO Note: Perhaps the Pharisees and Sadducees came from the tribe of Dan.)

Gen 49:17 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that
his rider shall fall backward.

The Pharisees and Sadducees were used by Satan

Rev 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which
deceiveth the whole world…

Satan deceived the land of Palestine through the Pharisees and Sadducees. The Jews were suppose
to be the remnant. Matt 22, but they were deceived.

3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O
generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

3:8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance:

3:9 And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, that God is
able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.

3:10 And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth
good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.

3:11 I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I,
whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire:

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“he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire” – This was fulfilled on the Day of
Pentecost. John describes four phases of Christ’s work.
 His baptism
 “baptize with…fire” – Resurrection
 “gather wheat into the garner” – Second coming. This also lays the foundation for Matt 13,
the wheat and the tares
 “burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire” – third coming. Note that this verse describes
the doctrine of Hell’s fire. It says ‘burn up’ meaning it will not longer be. It will be
consumed. It does not say burn forever with unquenchable fire.

3:12 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the
garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.

3:13 Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him.

3:14 But John forbad him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me?

3:15 And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all
righteousness. Then he suffered him.

3:16 And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were
opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him:

3:17 And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

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Chapter 4 – Temptations of Christ
4:1 Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.

4 :2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungred.

How long had Jesus been fasting for before the devil came and tempted Him? 40 days.

How did he feel after he had been fasting that long? He was hungry. How would you feel if you
hadn’t eaten for a long time?

4:3 And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be
made bread.

The Temptation of Jesus – Why did the Spirit drive Him into the wilderness?

DA 114 He went to the wilderness to be alone, to contemplate His mission and work. By fasting and
prayer He was to brace Himself for the bloodstained path He must travel. But Satan knew that the
Saviour had gone into the wilderness, and he thought this the best time to approach Him –

Mark 1:12-13 [12] And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness. [13] And he was
there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels
ministered unto him.

It is covered very quickly. In Luke 4 and in Matthew 4.

The First temptation

Matt 4:2-3 [2] And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungred. [3]
And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be
made bread.

Satan came to Jesus as if he was a messenger from Heaven

DA 118 There came to the Saviour, as if in answer to His prayers, one in the guise of an angel from
heaven. He claimed to have a commission from God to declare that Christ's fast was at an end.
Though he appears as an angel of light, these first words betray his character. "If Thou be the Son of
God."

There is no evidence in the scriptures that this happened.

What was the first temptation that the devil tempted Jesus on? It was on appetite. Do you think
that this would have been something difficult for Jesus? Of course. Remember, how long had he
been fasting?

Matt 4:3-4 [3] And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that
these stones be made bread. [4] But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread
alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.

Was there anything wrong with turning stones into bread? Why would that have been “bad”
for Jesus to do? 1 Cor. 15:22 – Christ had to pick up where Adam failed. Gen. 3:1-6 – where was it
that Adam and Eve failed? It was first upon the point of appetite. So Jesus had to first overcome on

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appetite because He had to pick up where humanity fell. For Jesus to use His power to turn the
stone into bread would be to use His own power for selfish purposes. That was not the reason why
He came. He HAD to overcome on this point. Ever since the fall of man, the greatest weakness has
always been on the point of appetite. Many sins can be lead back to the sin of intemperance.

1 Cor 15:22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.

Gen 3:1-6 [1] Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had
made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?
[2] And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: [3] But of
the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither
shall ye touch it, lest ye die. [4] And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: [5] For
God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods,
knowing good and evil. [6] And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was
pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did
eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.

What did the phrase “If thou be the Son of God” insinuate?

“If Thou be the Son of God” – Answer: It insinuated distrust in God and asking for proof that He
was the Son of God. The “if” showed that if Jesus had listened to Satan, it would have proved that He
didn’t believe that voice that He had heard when Jesus was baptized when God the Father said form
heaven “This is my beloved Son” (Matt. 3:17). Satan was insinuating that Jesus may not be the Son
of God – it was because of the way that he looked:

DA 118 Weak and emaciated from hunger, worn and haggard with mental agony, "His visage was so
marred more than any man, and His form more than the sons of men." Isa. 52:14. Now was Satan's
opportunity. Now he supposed that he could overcome Christ.

DA 119 When Satan and the Son of God first met in conflict, Christ was the commander of the
heavenly hosts; and Satan, the leader of revolt in heaven, was cast out. Now their condition is
apparently reversed, and Satan makes the most of his supposed advantage. One of the most powerful
of the angels, he says, has been banished from heaven. The appearance of Jesus indicates that He is
that fallen angel, forsaken by God, and deserted by man. A divine being would be able to sustain his
claim by working a miracle; "if Thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread."
Such an act of creative power, urges the tempter, would be conclusive evidence of divinity. It would
bring the controversy to an end.

The first temptation deals with doubt. Not only was it to do with appetite, but it was to also prove
that He was the Son of God.

1 John 2:16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of
life, is not of the Father, but is of the world.

All the sin that is in the world:


1. Lust of the flesh
2. Lust of the eyes
3. Pride of life

DA 120 It was in the time of greatest weakness that Christ was assailed by the fiercest temptations.

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Satan tries to cause us to sin at our weakest point. Jesus overcame by saying – “It is written”. Jesus
showed us how we can overcome by quoting the Bible.

DA 121 Perhaps it appears that obedience to some plain requirement of God will cut off his means of
support. Satan would make him believe that he must sacrifice his conscientious convictions.

It is so easy to think that God will not supply our needs if we follow Him 100% of the time.

DA 122 Of all the lessons to be learned from our Lord's first great temptation none is more
important than that bearing upon the control of the appetites and passions. In all ages, temptations
appealing to the physical nature have been most effectual in corrupting and degrading mankind.
Through intemperance, Satan works to destroy the mental and moral powers that God gave to man
as a priceless endowment.

Matt 4:6 And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall
give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time
thou dash thy foot against a stone.

Satan didn’t cast Him down but asked Him to cast Himself down. What is the difference between the
first and second temptation? The first was to show His power. The second was to show if God was
really with Him or not. Satan can never force us to sin. It is always our own choice.

4:4 But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that
proceedeth out of the mouth of God.

4:5 Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple,

The Second Temptation – What was the second temptation that the devil tempted Jesus on?

Matt 4:5-6 [5] Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the
temple, [6] And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall
give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time
thou dash thy foot against a stone.

Stimulate discussion by asking why the devil asked Jesus to jump off? What does that represent?
Surely there was something bad behind the devil asking Jesus to do that or else he wouldn’t have
tried to tempt him. This temptation represented presumption. How did this temptation represent
presumption? The devil quoted scripture but we shouldn’t quote scripture for our own benefit. The
devil tried to get Jesus to take action on a scripture that the devil quoted.

What was different about this temptation as compared to the other two that Satan
presented? The devil quoted scripture. Compare the scripture that Satan quoted to what is actually
written in the Bible. What is the difference between the two and discuss the importance of what
was omitted. What important lessons can we learn from this?

Psa 91:11-12 [11] For he shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways. [12]
They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.

He left out “to keep thee in all thy ways” which meant all the ways of God’s choosing. Why was it so
important? Because it omitted the need to follow the way of God. What important lesson can we
learn from this? If we read scripture, we must make sure we don’t misquote it otherwise we may
act presumptuously on something that God didn’t promise. That is why it is so important to know

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how to study the Bible properly. Eve misquoted God in the beginning and she believed a lie because
of that (Gen. 3:3). Obedience to the word of God safe guards us from Satan. This is true faith. Faith in
the word of God brings forth fruit in obedience. Whereas, presumption claims the promise to
excuse transgression.

Matt 4:5-6 [5] Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the
temple, [6] And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall
give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time
thou dash thy foot against a stone.

Con 47 But Satan was not willing to cease his efforts until he had tried every means to obtain victory
over the world's Redeemer. He knew that with himself all was at stake, whether he or Christ should
be victor in the contest. And in order to awe Christ with his superior strength he carried Him to
Jerusalem and set Him on a pinnacle of the Temple, and continued to beset Him with temptations.

Satan quotes from Psalms 91 but leaves out “to keep thee in all thy ways” – in God’s way. God only
gives us protection when we are obedient to His ways. Angels do not attend the theatres with us. So
can we expect God’s protection over us if we attend theatres? Just like driving. If we pray for
protection on the road and then speed, that is presumption. God does also expect us to obey the
speed limit on the roads. Needlessly showing that God is with us, the love of display that would lead
to presumption, would not accomplish anything. Satan was trying to tell Jesus to show that God was
with Him. Jesus quoted from Deut 6:16

Ex 17:2, 7 [2] Wherefore the people did chide with Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink.
And Moses said unto them, Why chide ye with me? wherefore do ye tempt the LORD? [7] And he
called the name of the place Massah, and Meribah, because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and
because they tempted the LORD, saying, Is the LORD among us, or not?

Jesus quoted the text in the right context because they were asking if God was with them or not. We
need to claim the promises that are relevant for that situation.

4:6 And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his
angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy
foot against a stone.

4:7 Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.

4:8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms
of the world, and the glory of them;

What was the third temptation that the devil tempted Jesus on? He was trying to tempt Jesus to
take the easy way out. He was trying to tempt Jesus with power, and a path less sacrificing to get the
whole world back. He was trying to get Jesus to worship him – something that he had been trying to
do from the very beginning before he was thrown out of heaven

Matt 4:8-9 [8] Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all
the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; [9] And saith unto him, All these things will I give
thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.

How did this temptation differ from the other two? What lesson can we learn from its
difference? Satan came outright in trying to get Jesus to disobey the commandments of God. Every
time we resist temptation, it comes out stronger and more bold in its demands to go against God’s

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commandments

What is our only safeguard when Satan comes to tempt us? How did Jesus respond each
time? We must learn to use the words “It is written.” How does this become practical for us to
apply today? We need to make sure we don’t misquote the Bible, otherwise we deceive ourselves
thinking that God had said that when He didn’t and hence we believe a lie. We should learn to
memorize scripture. Jesus didn’t have the Bible with Him on the mount of temptation. He had it
memorized and could say “It is written.” The Bible is our safe guard against temptation. If we want
victory in life, we need to behold the Bible so much that we can say “It is written.” Suggest to them
to maybe memorize a book of the Bible together. Start with something small – Philemon or Jude.

4:9 And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.

4:10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy
God, and him only shalt thou serve.

4:11 Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him.

4:12 Now when Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, he departed into Galilee;

4:13 And leaving Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast, in the borders
of Zabulon and Nephthalim:

4:14 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying,

4:15 The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the
Gentiles;

4:16 The people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow
of death light is sprung up.

4:17 From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.

4:18 And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his
brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.

Fishers of Men – Aim = A purpose or intention toward which one's efforts are directed. Motto = A
maxim adopted as a guide to one's conduct.Class Aim = To render Efficient service as Fishers of
men; Motto = Together with God

Calling of the fisher men

Matt 4:18-22 [18] ¶ And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter,
and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. [19] And he saith unto them,
Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. [20] And they straightway left their nets, and followed
him. [21] And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John
his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. [22] And they
immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him.

I will make you fishers of men (Why did He choose them?). App: You must be called, you can’t make
yourself a fisher men. Note: Fish symbolize men; Net symbolizes the tool necessary to gather the
men.

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Ezek 22:23, 26, 30 [23] ¶ And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, [26] Her priests have
violated my law, and have profaned mine holy things: they have put no difference between the holy
and profane, neither have they shewed difference between the unclean and the clean, and have hid
their eyes from my sabbaths, and I am profaned among them. [30] And I sought for a man among
them, that should make up the hedge, and stand in the gap before me for the land, that I should not
destroy it: but I found none.

Called to stand in the gap. Note: Ps 106:23 – Moses stood in gap to prevent destruction of God’s
people.

Jud 3:9, 15 [9] And when the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised up a deliverer
to the children of Israel, who delivered them, even Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother.
[15] But when the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised them up a deliverer, Ehud
the son of Gera, a Benjamite, a man lefthanded: and by him the children of Israel sent a present unto
Eglon the king of Moab.

Jud 4:3-4 [3] And the children of Israel cried unto the LORD: for he had nine hundred chariots of
iron; and twenty years he mightily oppressed the children of Israel. [4] ¶ And Deborah, a prophetess,
the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

Called as an answer to praying saints. Training of the fisher men. 3 ½ years of training, Note: DA 30
“He ordained twelve”; 25 “The Call by the sea.” After 3 ½ years you have a Judas and a Peter;
Betrayer and one unconverted.

Commission of the fisher men

Matt 13:47-50 [47] ¶ Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and
gathered of every kind: [48] Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered
the good into vessels, but cast the bad away. [49] So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels
shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just, [50] And shall cast them into the furnace
of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

Commissioned to gather men for the judgment

PA: 1844-after millennium (Par Rev 14 3 angels, second coming, winepress after the millennium).
Note: Parables many times are prophetic in nature: Matt 22 Wedding Feast (Invest Judgment); Matt
21 Husbandman (crucifixion, destruction of Jerusalem); Matt 25 10 Virgins (Millerite Advent
Movement, Midnight cry) .

Appeal/Con

Matt 4:19 …Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men…

EGW Quotes

Passed by wise men DA 249-250 “But He passed by the wise men of His time, because they were so
self-confident that they could not sympathize with suffering humanity, and become colaborers with
the Man of Nazareth. In their bigotry they scorned to be taught by Christ…. Jesus chose unlearned
fishermen because they had not been schooled in the traditions and erroneous customs of their time.
They were men of native ability, and they were humble and teachable,--men whom He could educate
for His work.”

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Priests appointed by Rome – DA 30 The Romans claimed the right of appointing and removing the
high priest, and the office was often secured by fraud, bribery, and even murder. Thus the priesthood
became more and more corrupt.

Disciples training -- DA 250 When the disciples came forth from the Saviour's training, they were no
longer ignorant and uncultured. They had become like Him in mind and character, and men took
knowledge of them that they had been with Jesus.

Most import work given -- Jesus had called His disciples that He might send them forth as His
witnesses, to declare to the world what they had seen and heard of Him. Their office was the most
important to which human beings had ever been called, and was second only to that of Christ
Himself. They were to be workers together with God for the saving of the world. DA 291

4:19 And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.

4:20 And they straightway left their nets, and followed him.

4:21 And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his
brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them.

4:22 And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him.

4:23 And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the
kingdom, and healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people.

4:24 And his fame went throughout all Syria: and they brought unto him all sick people that were taken
with divers diseases and torments, and those which were possessed with devils, and those which were
lunatick, and those that had the palsy; and he healed them.

4:25 And there followed him great multitudes of people from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and from
Jerusalem, and from Judaea, and from beyond Jordan.

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Chapter 5 – Law of the Kingdom of God
The Beatitudes can be summed up simply has how to enter into the Kingdom of heaven. Jesus
concludes His sermon saying Matt 7:21 “Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter
into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.” If you are a
partaker of the kingdom of grace, you will also be a part of the kingdom of glory. How do you enter
into heaven? By fulfilling or keeping the law and the prophets.

The rest of Matthew builds upon this sermon. The principles constantly unfold while at the same
time maintaining its overall theme of Jesus being the King, the Messiah, the seed of David.

Why did Jesus preach the sermon on the mount? People were looking to this man to set up this
kingdom.

DA 299 In the Sermon on the Mount He sought to undo the work that had been wrought by false
education, and to give His hearers a right conception of His kingdom and of His own character. –

Jesus was addressing a people that wanted an earthly kingdom. Jesus also deals with the law of God.
Verses 1 to 12 I believe that some how these verses lay the foundation for the sermon on the mount
& the rest of Matthew.

Matt 5:5 …blessed are the meek…

Chapter 6 explains how to be meek; humble acts of devotion in alms, praying, and fasting.

Matt 5:6 Blessed [are] they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be
filled.

Matt 5:20 except your righteousness shall exceed [the righteousness] of the scribes and Pharisees,
ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.

Matt 6:33 But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be
added unto you.

Matt 5:7 Blessed [are] the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

Matt 7:12 Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to
them: for this is the law and the prophets.

Matt 9:13 But go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not
come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

Matt 9:27 And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed him, crying, and saying, Thou
Son of David, have mercy on us.

Matt 12:7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not
have condemned the guiltless.

Matt 15:22 And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying,
Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou Son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.

Matt 17:15 Lord, have mercy on my son: for he is lunatick, and sore vexed: for ofttimes he falleth

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into the fire, and oft into the water.

Matt 20:30-31 [30] And, behold, two blind men sitting by the way side, when they heard that Jesus
passed by, cried out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David. [31] And the multitude
rebuked them, because they should hold their peace: but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on
us, O Lord, thou Son of David.

Matt 23:23 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and
cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought
ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.

Matt 5:8 Blessed [are] the pure in heart: for they shall see God.

Matt 5:28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed
adultery with her already in his heart.

Matt 6:21 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

Matt 11:29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall
find rest unto your souls.

Matt 5:9 Blessed [are] the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.

Matt 5:44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that
hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you. (See 5:38-45)

Reading
 The Sermon on the mount

5:1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto
him:

The disciples were the closest to Him. The beatitudes are steps in conversion.

5:2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,

5:3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Blessed means “happy.” So it is happy are they who are poor in spirit meaning in humility Jesus was
showing something far different than what they were expecting. There are 2 kinds of poverty.
Relative poverty, which is us relative to Bill Gates is poor then there is teal poverty. We are talking
about people who are lacking – they are “poor in spirit.” These people will inherit the kingdom.

“blessed are the poor in spirit” –The meaning of the word “Blessed” means happy or
extremely blessed. According to the Bible how can we be happy?

Deut 11:26-28 [26] ¶ Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse; [27] A blessing, if ye
obey the commandments of the LORD your God, which I command you this day: [28] And a curse, if
ye will not obey the commandments of the LORD your God, but turn aside out of the way which I
command you this day, to go after other gods, which ye have not known.

Prov 29:18 Where there is no vision, the people perish: but he that keepeth the law, happy is he.

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We can be happy if we obey the commandments of God. Many people feel miserable when they
think about keeping the commandments of God, but we are going to find that in the Bible true
happiness comes from following God’s words and God’s commandments. According to the first
beatitude, what is the condition of the people in this world today? The condition of the people
in this world today is that they are poor.

Rev 3:17 Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and
knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked:

But not just that. They are poor but they don’t realize it. What does it mean to be poor in spirit?

Is 66:2 For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD: but
to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.

To be poor in spirit means to be contrite in spirit. What is the meaning of contrite? Get people to go
around and discuss. Meaning from the strongs concordance – feeling regret and sorrow for one’s
sins or offences; penitent. But remember, you cannot feel sorry for your sins or offences if you don’t
know what you’ve done. That is why the first step in being poor in spirit is to recognize that you are
poor in spirit. We are told that being poor in spirit is bad. But what is the purpose of the Holy Spirit?

Ezek 36:26-27 [26] A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will
take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. [27And I will put my
spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.

The Holy Spirit is there to help us to walk in God’s statutes (commandments) and to do them. So
how can we have the spirit?

John 3:3, 5 [3] Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be
born again, he can not see the kingdom of God. [5] Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee,
Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he can not enter into the kingdom of God.

We need to be born of the water and also of the spirit. A lot of people are poor in spirit because they
are not born of the spirit. What happens when a person is born again?

1 John 3:9 Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he
cannot sin, because he is born of God.

When a person is born again, it means that they do not sin anymore. The fact a person sins shows
that we are poor in spirit. What is the role of the Holy Spirit other than to help us to obey the
commandments?

John 16:7-8 [7] Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not
away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. [8] And when he
is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:

Spirit reproves us

John 16:13 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall
not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to
come.

Spirit is to guide us

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How will the Spirit reprove and guide us?

Eph 6:17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God:

The word of God is like a sword which is called the Sword of the spirit

Heb 4:12 For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword,
piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a
discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.

It will reprove us because it knows our thoughts and goes against the sin that we like to do. It
discerns our thoughts and intents. It knows our motives and reproves the evil thoughts that we
have.

Ps 119:105 Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.

The word of God is like a lamp to guide our feet to show us the way that we ought to walk.
Basically, the Holy Spirit works through the Bible. So how can we be born of the Spirit today that
we may have victory over sin?

1 Pet 1:22, 23 [22] Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto
unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently: [23] Being
born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth
for ever.

We must be born of the word of God which is really the same as being born of the spirit since the
Holy Spirit works through the Bible.

Psa 119:9-11 [9] Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way? by taking heed thereto according
to thy word. [10] With my whole heart have I sought thee: O let me not wander from thy
commandments. [11]Thy word have I hid in mine heart, that I might not sin against thee.

We need to hide the word of God in our hearts today

John 1:29 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which
taketh away the sin of the world.

How to have our sins taken away? We need to behold the Lamb

John 5:39 Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which
testify of me.

How do we behold the lamb? We have to behold the scriptures because it tells us about Jesus

Acts 5:32 And we are his witnesses of these things; and so is also the Holy Ghost, whom God hath
given to them that obey him.

We must obey. How is all this applicable to us today? We must first realize that we are sinners.
Solution – we must be born again of the Spirit, born of the Bible and learn to hide it in our heart. But
not just that. We must learn to apply the things that we learn in the Bible as the Holy Spirit is only
given to those that obey. May God give us true insight to our own wretchedness today and give us

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the strength to apply the things that we have learnt in beholding the Bible. Maybe we should pray
that God would give us a love for His word.

5:4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.

“mourn” – sorrow for sin. If we compare ourselves to God, then we really realize our
unrighteousness.

There are two types of mourning in the Bible. What are they?

1 Thes 4:13-18 [13] But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are
asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope. [14] For if we believe that Jesus died
and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. [15] For this we say
unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord
shall not prevent them which are asleep. [16] For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a
shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise
first: [17] Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to
meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. [18] Wherefore comfort one another
with these words.

Sorrow for trials and bereavement.

Psa 38:18 For I will declare mine iniquity; I will be sorry for my sin.

Being sorry for sin.

Matt. 11:28 says that we are heavy laden. But what does this heavy burden represent?

Heb 12:1 Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us
lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race
that is set before us,

We are heavy laden with sin. We are not going to go to Jesus until we realize that we are heavy
laden with sin. See how important the first step is in recognizing your need as a sinner?

What happens when we go to Jesus? What does He do?

Acts 5:31 Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give
repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.

Jesus actually gives us repentance and forgiveness. Repentance is not something that actually takes
place within ourselves, Jesus actually gives us that repentant heart.

How do we get repentance from Jesus?

Rom 2:4 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not
knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?

We repent when we understand God’s goodness.

Rom 5:6-8 [6] For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. [7]
For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even

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dare to die. [8] But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ
died for us.

We will repent when we understand what Christ did for us on the cross and His great love.
The most ungrateful people are those that do not realize the sacrifice the others have made on their
behalf.

In your own words, describe what the meaning of repentance is? It means to change one’s
mind and purpose as a result of after knowledge. That means when we come to comprehend that
we are sinners and when we understand the great love of Christ in dying for our sins, then that will
lead us to repentance which Christ gives us.

How do we come to a knowledge that we are sinners?

Rom 3:20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the
law is the knowledge of sin.

It is through the law that we understand that we are sinners.

Jas 1:23-25 [23] For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding
his natural face in a glass: [24] For he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway
forgetteth what manner of man he was. [25] But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and
continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed
in his deed.

It is continually looking into the law that we understand that we are sinners and that we never
forget what God has saved us from. Example – what does it mean to look continually? After every
time you wash your face, you always look up into the mirror to check to see if your face is still dirty
or not. Everyday, we must look into that mirror (not to be vain) but to check to see if we are clean
or not.

1 John 1:9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from
all unrighteousness.

We are cleansed when we come and confess our sins. Note that we will not confess unless we
realize that we have done something wrong. But confession is our part.

John 15:3 Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you.

We can be clean through hearing the word being spoken to us.

Eph 5:26 That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word,

We are cleansed by the word.

Psa 119:9-11 [9] Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way? by taking heed thereto according
to thy word. [10] With my whole heart have I sought thee: O let me not wander from thy
commandments. [11] Thy word have I hid in mine heart, that I might not sin against thee.

We not only need to hear the word but we need to pay heed to it. And some people will never have
victory over sin until they memorize scripture and hide it in their heart. There are two types of

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sorrow for sin in the Bible. What is the differences between the two?

2 Cor 7:10-11 [10] For godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation not to be repented of: but the
sorrow of the world worketh death. [11] For behold this selfsame thing, that ye sorrowed after a
godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, what
indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge! In all things
ye have approved yourselves to be clear in this matter.

Sorrow of the world is just being sorry because you were caught. Godly sorrow is true repentance,
making sure that you are clear in the very matter of what was done. How do we know if a person
has truly repented or not?

Prov 28:13 He that covereth his sins shall not prosper: but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them
shall have mercy.

The person will prove through their actions that they are a different person. They will forsake their
old acts. This proves that their confession is genuine. Give an example of a person who keeps saying
sorry but yet keeps doing the same act over and over again. Do you think they are really sorry? True
repentance and confession is a U-turn. The promise of mourning is that we will be comforted. What
is the purpose of this comfort that God gives us?

2 Cor 1:3-5 [3] Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and
the God of all comfort; [4] Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort
them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God. [5] For
as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ.

Is 40:1-2 [1] Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God. [2] Speak ye comfortably to
Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned: for she
hath received of the LORD'S hand double for all her sins.

The purpose of this comfort is so that we will comfort others who are going through the same trials
as us and may be even committing the same sins we committed in the past.This will help us to not
be so critical when a person falls into the same sin as us, because we remember how we were like
that in the past. A quote you can use if it is all Adventists or just say it is your favorite author:

MCP 431 Helping Others Helps Oneself.--Many are in obscurity. They have lost their bearings. They
know not what course to pursue. Let the perplexed ones search out others who are in perplexity and
speak to them words of hope and encouragement. When they begin to do this work, the light of
heaven will reveal to them the path that they should follow. By their words of consolation to the
afflicted they themselves will be consoled. By helping others, they themselves will be helped out of
their difficulties. Joy takes the place of sadness and gloom. The heart, filled with the Spirit of God,
glows with warmth toward every fellow being. Every such a one is no longer in darkness; for his
"darkness" is "as the noon day.

5:5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.

“blessed are the meek” – When we are meek, we are really happy. When you don’t have to prove
that you are best and are just content with where you are, then you don’t have stress. When you
don’t have pride, then you are happy. We must first realize that we are heavy laden with sin. This is
one of the key ingredients that will help to keep us meek. Or else we would become proud thinking
that we don’t need help from Christ. Because the wages of sin is death, how meek do you think
someone would be who is waiting for a death sentence?

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We must also yoke ourselves together with Christ and learn of Him.

What does it mean to be yoked together with Christ? What does the word “yoke” mean?
Explain how when two oxen are yoked together. They have to walk the same path. It is usually a
younger oxen with an older oxen. The younger provides the strength and the older provides the
guidance. This is how the younger oxen learns, by being yoked up and learns through experience.
When we are yoked with Christ, it means that we will walk the same path that He walks, and we will
follow the same way that we went. How do we learn of Christ in His school that we may be His
followers?

1 Pet 2:21 For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an
example, that ye should follow his steps:

In the school of Christ we learn through suffering, not just through books. It’s easy to talk religion,
but to live it is another story.

Matt 16:24 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself,
and take up his cross, and follow me.

Before we can follow Jesus, we must deny ourselves and take up the cross.

Gal 2:20 I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life
which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for
me.

We must crucify ourselves so that Christ can live through us. We must expect to suffer when we
follow Christ, because that is what He went through.

What type of suffering is this relating to? What type of suffering did Jesus have to go
through? This is not relating to physical suffering. It was the suffering that we go through in the
mind. Yes Jesus went through physical suffering, but other type of suffering did He go through? He
had the power to destroy all the sinners, He had the power to retaliate and show others that He was
God, but on the cross the greatest suffering He went through, apart of dying from a broken heart,
was to withhold Himself from showing His divinity. Just like us when we have the power to
retaliate, the greatest suffering is to withhold yourself from showing that you can beat them or be
better than them, etc.According to Matt. 5:5 the meek shall inherit the earth. But in Ps. 37:9-11, who
are those that will inherit the earth?

Psa 37:9-11 [9] For evildoers shall be cut off: but those that wait upon the LORD, they shall inherit
the earth. [10] For yet a little while, and the wicked shall not be: yea, thou shalt diligently consider
his place, and it shall not be. [11] But the meek shall inherit the earth; and shall delight themselves in
the abundance of peace.

They that wait upon the Lord = the meek. Both these groups shall inherit the earth.

What does it mean to wait upon the Lord?

Prov 20:22 Say not thou, I will recompense evil; but wait on the LORD, and he shall save thee.

To wait upon the Lord means that we will wait for His salvation and will not recompense evil for
evil.

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Rom 12:19 Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written,
Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

Waiting on the Lord means to overcome evil with good because we realize that vengeance is God’s,
not ours. To wait upon the Lord means that we need to be patient:

Rev 14:12 Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and
the faith of Jesus.

There will be a group of people called saints that have patience. How do we develop patience?

Jas 1:2-3 [2] My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations; [3] Knowing this, that
the trying of your faith worketh patience.

We develop patience through trials. You have to suffer even more when you have to love your
enemy. It isn’t easy. The suffering is inside… willing to be humble and kind and loving and gentle to
the one that hates you or that hurt you.

What is meek also equivalent to according to the Bible?

Ps 25:9-13 [9] The meek will he guide in judgment: and the meek will he teach his way. [10] All the
paths of the LORD are mercy and truth unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies. [11] For
thy name's sake, O LORD, pardon mine iniquity; for it is great. [12] What man is he that feareth the
LORD? him shall he teach in the way that he shall choose. 13His soul shall dwell at ease; and his seed
shall inherit the earth.

The meek He shall teach His way and he that fears God shall also He teach His way. So being meek
means to fear God. Because the meek will inherit the earth, so also will those that fear God. How
does fearing God relate to being meek?

Ex 20:20 And Moses said unto the people, Fear not: for God is come to prove you, and that his fear
may be before your faces, that ye sin not.

Fearing God means that we don’t sin.

Deut 6:2 That thou mightest fear the LORD thy God, to keep all his statutes and his commandments,
which I command thee, thou, and thy son, and thy son's son, all the days of thy life; and that thy days
may be prolonged.

Eccl 12:13, 14 [13] ¶ Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his
commandments: for this is the whole duty of man. [14] For God shall bring every work into
judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil.

Fearing God means that we keep the commandments meaning that we don’t sin because sin is the
transgression of the law (1 John 3:4).

Ps 149:4 For the LORD taketh pleasure in his people: he will beautify the meek with salvation.

The meek will receive salvation. Salvation means victory. We will be given victory over what? Over
sin. Therefore, if we want the promise of inheriting the earth to come true, then we must learn to
have victory over sin.

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In the context of what we studied, how is it that we may inherit the earth? TEACHERS,
basically this is to recap the whole lesson. If we realize our condition of being a sinner, being heavy
laden. If we learn to be patient through trials and suffering – not recompensing evil for evil. If we
have victory over sin. Somehow, we can never have victory over sin or be perfect if we are not
patient.

5:6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.

“Blessed [are] they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness” – Each drink of the living
water will make the drinker want to drink more.

What is the definition of righteousness?

Rom 3:10-12 [10] As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: [11] There is none that
understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. [12] They are all gone out of the way, they are
together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one.

It means to seek after God and to do good.

Who is unrighteous?

1 John 5:17 All unrighteousness is sin: and there is a sin not unto death.

All unrighteousness is sin.

Rom 3:23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;

All have sinned. Therefore, everyone is unrighteous. There is not one person here on this earth that
is righteous.

Who then is righteous?

1 John 2:1 My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we
have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:

Jesus Christ is righteous. According to what we have studied so far, if we are hungering and
thirsting after righteousness, what does that mean? What are we really hungering and
thirsting after? It means that we are hungering and thirsting after Jesus Christ because He is
righteous.

When does one literally feel hungry or thirsty? When your stomach is empty or when your fluids in
your body is low. So it is when we are to hunger and thirst for Christ. We must feel that we are
empty inside or else we won’t be hungry or thirsty for Him. Many feel like they are ok, so they don’t
hunger and thirst after Him. That is why the first step is so important, to realize we are sinners, or
else we will never feel like we need Christ. Because when we realize we are sinners, we realize that
we are empty and nothing without Christ. Of course we must never just continue to bash ourselves
over the head saying we are sinners, but at least we must ever keep this before us, or else we will
come to this point one day thinking that we don’t need Christ anymore. So there is a fine balance
between the two.

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What does it mean to hunger and thirst after Christ?

John 6:35 And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger;
and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.

To eat of Christ, to eat the bread. To go to Him and believe on Him. So we must eat of the living
bread, the Bible (Matt. 4:4).

John 6:53-57

To eat Jesus’ flesh and drink His blood. Really it means to abide in Christ and He in us (verse 56)
and also to live by Christ (verse 57).What does it mean to abide in Christ?

John 15:4-10

To abide in Christ means to have His words abide in us (verse 7). How can we have His words abide
in us? By keeping his commandments (verse 10).

1 John 2:3-6

To abide in Christ means to walk as He walked. How did He walk? He kept the commandments. And
so contextually speaking, how do we know if we are in Him or not, by keeping His word, which is
referring to the commandments. So if we want to abide in Christ, we need to keep His words in us,
we need to keep His commandments.

What do we understand about the commandments according to the Bible and how is this
applicable to us?

Psa 119:172

All the commandments are righteousness. So if we are hungering and thirsting after righteousness,
we are really hungering and thirsting after Christ, we are abiding in Him. And if we are abiding in
Him, it’s because we are keeping the commandments, which are righteousness. Therefore, we
should be hungering and thirsting after the commandments of God which is righteousness.

How can we abide in Christ that we may keep His commandments?

John 14:15

If we love Him we will keep His commandments.

Rom 13:10

Love is the fulfilling of the law. We will abide in Christ because we love Him.

Where does this love come from?

1 John 4:19

We will only love Him when we realize the love that He first showed us.

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How did He show His love to us?

John 3:16

The love of God was demonstrated at the cross.

Luke 7:47

To him that was forgiven much shall also love much. But when we don’t realize that we are heavy
laden and burdened with sin, we won’t feel that we need forgiveness. And as a result, we won’t love
much. That is why the first step is so important.

In the context of what we have studied today, how can we be filled today? If we want to be full,
then we must hunger and thirst after righteousness. Righteousness = Jesus Christ. Righteousness =
commandments. To hunger and thirst after Christ means to abide in Christ = keeping His
commandments. And we will keep His commandments if we love Him, and we will love Him when
we realize how much He has forgiven us. And we will seek and remember His forgiveness when
realize that we are heavy laden with sin. THIS IS A NATURAL PROGRESSION. EMPHASIZE THAT.
AND ALSO REMIND THEM THAT THIS IS THE STEPS TO HAPPINESS (Blessed means to be happy)
End with this text: Prov. 29:18 – happy is he that keepeth the law.

5:7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

One of the things that we are told about a condition for our forgiveness, is that we would be willing
to forgive others. The ones that love us the most, hurt us the most. They are the hardest to forgive.

In order to obtain mercy, what must we do?

Matt 6:12

If we want mercy, we must show mercy, we must be merciful. If we want to follow the Lord’s
prayer, we must pray that our debts be forgiven only as we forgive others.

In your own words, what is the definition of mercy? Mercy – to have compassion (by word or
deed, specially by divine grace)s, have pity on.

What is mercy connected to?

Luke 6:36

We are to be merciful as our Father in heaven is merciful.

Matt 5:48

A parallel verse, we are to love as Jesus loved. So really, the Bible’s definition of merciful is to love
as Jesus loved. We will never show the same mercy upon others if we don’t love like Jesus.

According to the Bible, what is another word for mercy?

Gen 19:19

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Heb 4:16

Grace = Mercy

How is God’s mercy or grace displayed?

Eph 1:7

Riches of his grace is needed for forgiveness of sins.

Exo 34:7

Mercy needed for forgiveness of iniquity.

Psa 86:5

Mercy of God is to forgive. God’s mercy is mostly connected with forgiveness. If we want to have
the same mercy as Jesus, we must have the same love. What was that love?

John 3:16 ….for God so loved the world that He gave….

Somehow forgiveness is tied in with something that we must give. God gave His Son for the sins of
the world. This also was His ultimate act of love. How did God love? He had to forgive.

Rom 5:8 ….while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us…

Dying for the ones that hate us is really much harder than we think it is. Also, forgiving someone
that really deserves punishment or death is also much harder than we think it is. But that is God’s
love. To forgive your enemies and those that deserve the punishment that they are getting. BUT
keep in mind, it required us to give up something.

How do we get this love of God, that we may also forgive and be merciful like our Father?

Luke 7:36-47

Those that are forgiven much will love much. Those that are forgiven little love little. So those that
are unmerciful and unforgiving, it is because they have forgotten how much Christ has forgiven
them. If they remember that, their love would flow out to others just like God’s love flowed out to
us.

Matt 18:21-35

Similar story to show that God has forgiven us so much, that we ought to forgive others, whose debt
to us is so little compared to our debt to God the Father.

Rom 3:23 …all have sinned…

Rom 6:23

There are no degrees of sin. We have all sinned. We all deserve death. The problem is that many
think they are worthy of eternal life because their sins are not as bad as others. We should not

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compare a sinner to a sinner. We should all compare ourselves to Jesus, and then we will realize
how far short we have really fallen.

What is God’s ultimate act of mercy towards us?

Heb 8:12

God’s ultimate act of mercy is to not remember our sins anymore.

Is 43:25

Not remembering our sins is to blot them out. A Christian has no right to hold grudges. When we
forgive someone, we should not even remember it. We should act as if they never did it. God will not
bring our sins back to remembrance in heaven if we ever get there.

What is our part to play that God may blot out our sins?

Heb 10:16-17

We must allow Him to write the law in our hearts and our minds. We must remember His
commandments.

Deut 7:9

Keeps His covenant and mercy to them that love Him and keep His commandments.

Rev 14:5, 12

These people are without fault and they also keep the commandments of God. Let us not be fooled
that there is not part for us to play in the plan of salvation. In order for God to blot out our sins, we
need to remember His commandments and also show that same mercy to others as well. Love is not
enough, we must also show it (John 14:15).

5:8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.

“Pure in heart” right now:

DA 302 The merciful shall find mercy, and the pure in heart shall see God. Every impure thought
defiles the soul, impairs the moral sense, and tends to obliterate the impressions of the Holy Spirit. It
dims the spiritual vision, so that men cannot behold God.

Spiritual things are spiritually discerned. We will not be able to see God in the scriptures.

“Pure in heart” when Jesus comes we can actually see God.

According to the Bible what is pure?

Ps 19:8

The statutes and commandments are pure.

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Psa 12:6

Prov 30:5

The words of the Lord are pure. So basically, it is referring to the Bible as the one that is pure.

What are we to put in our heart?

Psa 40:8

The law is to go into the heart.

Psa 119:11

The word of God is to go into the heart so that we don’t sin. So we see that the word of God and the
law of God (basically the Bible) have a lot to do with having a pure heart.

What are we to be pure from?

1 Tim 5:22

To be pure means to be pure from sin.

Prov 20:9

To be pure (or have a clean heart) means you are pure from sin. So when the Bible says blessed are
the pure in heart, it means that these people are pure or free from sin. Contextually speaking: We
cannot be free from sin if we don’t realize we are sinners (blessed are they that are poor in spirit).
We cannot be free from sin if we don’t mourn for our sins (repentance). We cannot be free from sin
if we don’t hunger and thirst after righteousness (seeking after the Bible and the law).

According to the previous beatitudes, how can we have a pure heart?

Matt 5:3-7

Poor in spirit – to realize our need of Jesus. Mourn – to mourn and be sorry for our sins. Meek – to
yoke ourselves up with Christ and follow where He goes. Hunger and thirst after righteousness –
hungering and thirsting after Jesus and the Bible. Merciful – forgiving and giving grace because we
are forgiven and have the love of Jesus in us.

What is our part to play that we may have a pure heart? We saw earlier that we need to hide the
word of God in our hearts (Ps. 119:11).

Eph 5:26

Use the word to clean our hearts and minds.

Phil 4:8

We need to train our mind to dwell on more eternal things and not let the mind wander. We need to
learn to use our imagination to reflect on pure and holy things.

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1 Pet 1:22

Psa 119:9

Not only do we have to study the word of God and think/dwell on eternal things, but we also have
to obey what the Bible says if we want to have a pure heart. How can we obey?

Rom 6:12-13

We must learn to yield ourselves to God. What does that word “yield” mean? It means to surrender.
We must learn to surrender ourselves by God by placing our will in His hands. Then the result will
be found in the next verse.

Phil 2:13

God will work in us to will and do of His good pleasure. How do we know if our heart is pure or
not?

Prov 20:11

We will be known by our works whether they are pure or not.

Prov 21:8

What does the Bible warn about those that are striving to be pure? What must we be careful
of?

Prov 30:12

There is a generation of people that think they are pure. We must be careful when striving to be
pure that we don’t think that we are pure when we really aren’t. The litmus test is our works. There
are those that say and think they are pure, but their very works deny their profession. What are
they called? Hypocrites. We must remember though that we are not saved by works. Our works
only show what type of person we are.

Prov 16:2

We, in our own eyes, may think that we are pure. But we need to allow the Lord to judge us on that.
How does He do that? But using His word as the standard. So we must compare our lives to God’s
standard – the Bible. What does the Bible call those people that think they are pure but really
aren’t?

Rev 3:17

They don’t know that they are wretched, miserable, poor, blind and naked. The Bible calls them
Laodicean. They think they are alright when they really aren’t. Why? Because they haven’t
compared their lives to the standard of God’s word. Who will see God when He comes again?

Rev 1:7

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Everyone will see him. What will be the difference between those that have pure heart and
those that have filthy heart when God comes again?

Rev 6:14-16

The wicked will run and try and hide from Him and ask the mountains and rocks to fall on them.

Isa 25:9

They will rejoice to see Him for they have been waiting for Him. One group will run away from Him,
and the other will run towards Him. What is this group of people called that are able to see
God?

1 John 3:2, 3

They are called the sons of God. Keep in mind that a son resembles the Father in some way. Do
people see God’s character or resemblance in you today? How can we be a son of God today?

John 1:12

We have to believe and also receive Him. If you believe in Him and receive Him today, you are called
the son of God. It’s that simple, believe in Him.

Gen 15:6

It says that Abraham believed God and it was counted to Him for righteousness. Many of us don’t
believe. We say we believe, but our acts show the opposite. Let us begin to really live like a child of
God today. Believe that we have a pure heart and start living like God has cleansed us from our sins.
Believe that we are holy and that we don’t participate in the sins of the world anymore. Believe!
Believe on Him and He will save you!

5:9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.

The carnal heart is enmity of God. But if we make peace, we shall be called the children of God.

In your own words, what does the word peacemaker mean? Let them share and then try and
confirm their answer from the Strong’s Concordance. To reconcile between two parties. From the
Strong’s Concordance: It means to pacify, to appease. To pacify means to soothe or calm. It has
much to do with trying to quieting people who are upset, excited or disturbed. Appease means that
you have given into someone’s demands or made concessions in order to please them (eg. She said
she would visit her mother just to please her).

Before we can become peacemakers, what must take place first?

Rom 5:1

We need to be justified by faith first. We need to make peace between God and us (the sinner) first.
We need to realize this peace so that we can show it to others.

How are we justified?

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Rom 5:9

We are justified by the blood of Jesus.

Job 25:4

Justify = clean

Jer 33:8

Clean = pardon

Num 14:19

Pardon = forgiveness

1 John 1:9

In order for us to be forgiven we need to confess our sins. Jesus dying on the cross for us was not
enough to clean us. We need to want to be clean in order for His blood to justify us. So we are
justified by two things: By the blood of Jesus. By confessing our sins.

How can we become a peacemaker?

1 John 3:2-3

Those that are peacemakers are the children of God. Notice that the sons (children) of God are also
pure, meaning they are pure in heart. Therefore, the beatitudes give us a logical progression in how
we may be able to become peacemakers. Remember, the beatitudes are steps.

NOTE: Go through it quickly just to refresh it with them. Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs
is the kingdom of heaven. Realizing your need of Jesus. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall
be comforted. Being sorry for your sins – repentance. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit
the earth. Following after Jesus to learn of Him (Matt. 11:28). Blessed are they which do hunger and
thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. Seeking after Jesus and the Bible. Blessed are the
merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Forgiving and giving grace because we are forgiven and have
the love of Jesus in us. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Having the law written
in our hearts and our works showing our pureness so that we will see Jesus face to face when He
comes again for a second time.

What else does the Bible talk about in how we can become peacemakers?

Psa 119:165

Great peace have they which love thy law. If we love the law of the Lord, it will give us peace and
nothing shall offend us.

Prov 3:1-2

Forget not the law, but let the heart keep the commandments. This is going to be important for a
future question.

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What are the characteristics of a peacemaker or a child of God?

Rom 12:18-21

Living peaceably with all men. How? It first comes with a knowledge that vengeance (vindication)
belongs to the Lord, not us. If we think we have the right to take revenge on those that have hurt us
then we have forgotten then words of the Lord. Be nice to those that hurt you. This is called the
perfect revenge. This is a peacemaker.

Matt 5:43-48

To be a peacemaker that we may be called children of God is to love your enemies.

1 John 3:10

Isa 32:17

They do righteousness. Their outward acts show that they are a child of God.

Phil 2:14-15

They are blameless and harmless. How? They do all things without murmuring and disputing
(debate). Note: Remember that these characteristics are all important because these are needed to
lead a soul to Christ. Sin separates us from Christ. If we are a peacemaker, it is because we are in
peace with God. We have confessed our sins. And so we need to help others make peace with God as
well. Help them to renounce their sins and yield their lives to God.

Why is it so important for us to learn the lesson of being peacemakers?

Matt 24:9

There is coming a time where people will persecute us because of the name of Jesus. It becomes so
important to understand what we believe now and have the law written in our hearts, because in
the future when people will persecute us for following the Lord at least we will know what we
believe. And we are not believing it because of anyone but because we love Him.

Matt 5:11-12

Same concept brought out about being persecuted in the future. If we aren’t willing to stand up for
the Lord now in times of peace, we will definitely not want to be peaceable with those who will
persecute us in the future. It is going to be in our retaliation, how we react, that will show whether
we are children of God or not.

Have you been through trying circumstances in life that you can see now that the Lord is
trying to teach you to be a peacemaker or to be more long suffering? This is an open-ended
question for discussion. Summary: Remember that God allows calculated trials to test our faith and
patience that He may prepare us for the future struggles ahead.

John 1:12-13

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5:10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

When you are trying to do what is right and are persecuted, then we have the promise that we will
have the kingdom of Heaven.

What is the difference between this blessing and all the others before it? This is the one
beatitude that we don’t have a choice over. People are persecuting us. That is not a choice. It
involves another party. But we have a choice to mourn, to hunger and thirst, to be a peacemaker. All
the others involve choice except this one. However, we do have one choice in the midst of this,
whether we want to be happy or not.

According to the verses that we read, why are we persecuted? We are persecuted for
righteousness sake. Note: There are some that are persecuted for their own foolishness sake, for
their own actions or words and they deserved to receive that persecution, because of their own
sins. But this is referring to those who are righteous, not unrighteous.

What does the word righteousness mean? Discuss. The word righteousness simply means “right
doing.” So therefore, in these verses it is describing the fact that we are being persecuted because of
doing what is right. Have you ever been persecuted or punished for doing the right thing? Teachers,
please make sure they share. And think of examples to share of your own experience. Note: the
beatitudes are basically steps on how we may be righteous.

What is righteousness according to the Bible?

Psa 119:172

Law is righteous

Rom 7:12

The law is holy, just and good. So righteousness is being holy and being just and being good. This is
a transcript of God’s character. So really, being righteous means to reflect God’s character.

2 Tim 3:12

Being righteous means to live Godly lives. How do we know? Because living Godly life means you
will be persecuted, and living righteous life means to you will be persecuted also. Therefore,
righteousness = living Godly life.

Who will persecute those that live Godly lives in 2 Tim. 3:12?

2 Tim 3:1-5

This is describing those that have a form of Godliness by deny the very power thereof. They are
Christian’s, and claim to be Christian’s but live the very opposite to what a Christian should be.
Those sorts of people you need to be afraid of the most. They will be the greatest persecutors of the
righteous in the last days, not the heathen’s, but those Christian’s in the church who are
unconverted.

Gal 4:29

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They haven’t died to self. They still have a carnal mind and haven’t been born again and are not .
These will be the greatest persecutors.

Why will those mentioned in 2 Tim. 3:12 be the greatest persecutors?

John 15:20-21, 25

Because they didn’t really know who Jesus was. It is possible to go to church every week and still
don’t know who Jesus is.

John 3:19-20

They love darkness rather than light. And so when a truly righteous person comes along, they hate
him because by his life their own evil deeds are reproved.

Rev 3:17

They don’t even realize they are sinners. They haven’t even taken the first step in the beatitudes in
realizing that you need Jesus because you are a sinner. This Laodicean condition is very dangerous.
Remember, they are not cold or hot. They are lukewarm. They are in the church but don’t have the
power of the true Christian. We have much to fear from within.

Why will they be the greatest persecutors? They will look at those who really are living righteous
and Godly lives and will start to ridicule them saying they are too strait laced, or too legalistic, or get
angry at them because they know their own lives aren’t like those who are righteous.

What examples are we given in the Bible about those that will be persecuted for righteousness
sake?

1 John 3:11-13

Why did Cain kill Abel? Because his works were more righteous. Recap the Cain and Abel story.
Teacher’s please read up on Gen. 4:3-8. Notice, Cain was a professed worshipper of the true God,
but yet it was he that slew his own brother. And this is what will happen in the last days as well.

According to what we have studied so far, why is there so little persecution in the world
today?
Because there are little or few righteous people in the world. There is little godliness in this world.

How should we react to this persecution?

Matt 5:11-12

We should rejoice. Notice that they are even saying evil things against you. That means they are
lying about what you are doing and who you are. And how should we respond? REJOICE!

Rom 12:14, 18-21

We need to bless them that persecute us. We must remind ourselves that vengeance belongs to God,
not us.

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Matt 27:12-14

When Jesus was accused of evil deeds, He didn’t answer even a word. How often we try to vindicate
ourselves in what we do but speaking. But the way that Jesus handled it was by remaining quiet.
Are going through you persecution? Learn to be silent. Remember that God will avenge, we don’t
need to do it here on this earth. What must we remind ourselves of in these times that we live?

Rev 12:17

It is the great dragon who is Satan (Rev. 12:9) that really wants to destroy those that are righteous,
who follow God and His commandments.

Matt 5:12

We must remind ourselves that our reward is in heaven. RECAPPING LESSONS LEARNT: Learning
to be quiet in the face of persecution. You may be going through persecution in the home with
family, learn to be quiet and not retaliate. Remembering that vengeance is God’s, not ours.
Remembering that our reward is in heaven, not on this earth.

5:11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil
against you falsely, for my sake.

5:12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the
prophets which were before you.

Luke 6:23

It tells us to leap for joy. When studying John the Baptist, the greatest gift that he has bestowed
upon man: Fellowship of Christ and His suffering, Jesus knew that John the Baptist could endure it.

5:13 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is
thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.

“Salt” – It is a preserving agent for food. Spiritual Application: Salt makes you thirsty – thirsty for
the living water. So a well ordered family can make someone thirsty. But how can we be salt here? If
we have true joy, love, happiness, patience, etc, people will want that. It melts ice. Spiritual
Application: As Christians, we are the ones that should be breaking through the prejudice, anger,
hatred, etc. Salt that has no flavour, is useless. We can only obtain our savor by studying God’s
Word. In order to have this potency, is to study the Word of God. They used salt in the older times
for remedies:

Eze 16:4

It seems that when the baby was born, they would put the baby in salt. According to Matt. 5:13,
what was salt to be used for? It was to be used as a flavouring, as a savour. What was being a
savour also connected to in the Bible?

Gen 8:20, 21

Noah made a sacrifice and it came up as a sweet savour.

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Exo 29:25

Sweet savour is connected with burnt offering.

Num 15:13

Sweet savour connected to offering made by fire.

Ezra 6:10

Sweet savour is connected to sacrifices again. If you look up the word “savour” in the Bible, you find
that it is connected a lot with sacrifices and offerings.

What was salt used for in the Bible?

Lev 2:13

Salt was to be put with all the offerings and sacrifices. So we see here that salt is connected
with sacrifice, and salt gives savour which is also connected with sacrifices.

What does the Bible call us to be?

Rom 12:1

We are called to be living sacrifices. The word “living sacrifice” seems like an oxymoron. Living
means to be alive, but sacrifice seems like we are to die. How can we be a living sacrifice?
How can we be alive and dead at the same time?

Rom 6:3-11

We are to be dead to sin. Baptism is a symbol of that death to sin. But we aren’t to remain dead, but
we are to rise in newness of life. That is why Jesus’ resurrection was so important. Verse 10 – we
are to live unto God. That means, our life is going to be lived in such a way that will glorify God, but
we must die first. Many Christians are not dead to self and sin yet. They are professing to live a life
of a Christian, but sin still reigns in their lives.

Rom 12:2

To be a living sacrifice in this text means to be NOT conformed to this world. By being not
conformed to the world means that we are not like the world. We don’t enjoy the same things as the
world does, we don’t do the same things they do. Our pleasures and enjoyments are found in other
things.

NOTE: Oxymoron means two words which means the opposite but cannot be put in the same
phrase. Eg. Cruel kindness, make haste slowly, deafening silence.

How do we know if we have the experience of being salt of the earth?

Mark 9:49-50

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If we have salt in ourselves, we will have peace with one another. That means we will be
peacemakers. That means we will have the experience in the beatitudes of being a
peacemaker, which means we will have gone through the steps of the beatitudes.
How can we have peace with one another?

Rom 12:18-21

It means that we won’t retaliate to other people’s unkindness and their actions of being
unjust. We will overcome their wicked actions with kindness. It doesn’t mean people won’t
hate us. Christ had peace with everyone but people still crucified him. But we must in our
minds have peace with them.

How else do we know if we have the experience of being salt of the earth?

Col 4:6

By our speech people will know whether we are of God or not. Our speech will be seasoned with
grace. Our words will heal and not destroy. How was Jesus salt of the earth when he was on the
earth? And how can we follow His example?

Eph 5:2

Christ became a sweetsmelling savour by being a sacrifice for us. And in the similar manner, we are
to walk in the same way as He did. We are to walk in love. Our actions are to show to others of His
love towards us. We are to be a sacrifice for others.

John 15:13

Our greatest way of being salt of the earth is to lay down our lives for our friends. That is to walk in
His love. How else can walk in His love that we may give a sweet savour to others?

1 John 3:16-18

To love in deed. Helping our brother in need. Our works don’t get us into heaven, but it is by our
works that it will show whether we are salt with savour or salt that is good for nothing. What type
of salt are you today? How does your life stand with Christ and others? Is it salt that has a good
flavour? Or are you salt that just looks like salt but has not flavour? Are you just a Christian by name
or are you really a true Christian which by word and deed shows the love of Christ to others?

5:14 Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.

What is the relationship between “ye” and the “city.” Zion is God’s people. There are many
references that show that Zion is a symbol of God’s people.

How can we become lights of the world?

2 Cor 4:6

In the same way that Jesus shines light we are to shine the light. But before we can even shine light,
we must have that light shining in our heart first because we have no light in our hearts of our own
self. What was the condition of our heart before God shone light into it?

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Gen 1:1-2

The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep. “Without form”
means a desolation, worthless, empty place, confusion, waste, wilderness. “Void” means an
undistinguishable ruin, emptiness. “Dark” means misery, destruction, death, ignorance, sorrow,
wickedness. This sounds like the earth that we live in today. Why? Because this is the condition of
many of our hearts before God shines light into it. How did God shine light into our hearts?

Gen 1:3

God spoke and the light was created. So in the same way that God spoke light into the dark earth, He
spoke that light into our hearts. So how can He shine light into our hearts? We must hear Him speak
and as a result, the light will be created. What does light represent in the Bible?

1 John 1:1, 4

Light represents the Word who was Jesus (John 1:14 – only say this text if necessary).

John 8:12

Jesus is the light of the world.

Psa 119:105

Light represents the Word of God.

2 Cor 4:4

Light represents the gospel. So we must hear about the Bible which speaks about gospel of Jesus
Christ. This is the light that must shine into our hearts to fix the problems of darkness and void and
without form.

According to what we have studied so far, how can we be a light of the world? We must learn
to behold Jesus who IS the light of the world. And by beholding we will become changed. So we
need to study the Bible which tells us about Him. We also need to share this same light. How do we
share the word of God? Preaching. Bible study, and Evangelism.

How else can we be lights of the world? What else does light represent in the Bible?

2 Cor 4:6

Light of the knowledge of the glory of God. Therefore, light = glory. What does glory represent?

Exo 33:18, 19

It represents character. It is by our character. Why does the Bible state in Matthew 5:14 that a
city that is set on a hill cannot be hid? How does that relate to our previous question?

Matt 5:14

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Just as a city that is on a hill can be easily seen from a distance, so our characters are also seen from
a distance. People will naturally know us for who we really are eventually. We may be able to hide it
for a time because they don’t know us, but soon enough our true character will come out. So if we
want to naturally shine Jesus’ character, we must behold the Bible that we may be changed into the
same likeness.

What is the emphasis of Matthew 5:15? Why do you think Jesus gave this illustration? What
was His point?

Matt 5:15

Naturally people do not light a candle and then hide it. The purpose of the candle is to give light.
And so naturally they would want to set it in a place where the most light could be given – on a
candlestick. Jesus is trying to emphasize more His point about a city being set on a hill and not being
able to hide. As a Christian comes in contact with Christ and his/her life begins to change, they
cannot help but shine the light of Christ. It is not something that is forced. It is natural. It we are
lights of the world, we will naturally shine the character and love of Christ to this world. We cannot
force ourselves to be lights. It is something that will come naturally.

What does a candlestick represent in the Bible and what application can we draw from that?

Rev 1:20

A candlestick represents the church. Application: God’s appointed way of shining the Bible and His
character to the world has always been through the church. Not just an individual, but also as a
corporate body are we to shine into this dark world. According to Matt. 5:16, what does the light
represent and what important application can we draw from this?

Matt 5:16

Light represents our works.

Phil 2:14-15

What type of works? – doing all things without murmuring or disputing. No complaining or fighting.
Not only are we to shine the character of Jesus and preach, but we are to show through our works,
our actions, that we are the children of the light. Many people think that all we need to do is have
faith and believe. But our works will tell a lot as to what sort of person we truly are and whether we
have the character of Jesus or not.

According to Matt. 5:16, what should be the result of shining our lights?

Matt 5:16

People should give glory back to God. Glory represents character – we studied it earlier in the
lesson. So naturally, when people see our good works, they should naturally shine the character of
God to others as well. End with these questions: Stop and think about the people around you. Are
they more blessed and drawn towards God when they hang around you? Or do you bring out the
worst in them? What is your influence like? Are you shining the light of Christ and helping them
reflect the character of Christ? Or are you shining darkness and making them worse? Let us be
lights in this world today.

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5:15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light
unto all that are in the house.

There is one thing that could hinder your life from shining – a bushel. The term “bushel” is just a
measuring instrument. It is used in connection with agricultural harvest so it can be used as a
symbol of prosperity. Prosperity can cause people to forget about God.

Luke 8:16

What does a vessel represent? – a person

2 Cor 4,

Matt 25

How can a person keep your light from shining? Looking at the faults of others or looking at man.
People’s faults sometimes keep us from doing our own Christian duty. We can not let our light shine
sometimes because we see the good qualities in others. We believe that there is someone else who
can do it. But we must just do our thing. What does a bed represent? Laziness

Prov 6:9

“Light” is a symbol good works. The way we prepare for the coming of Jesus is by good works. But
what is the source of the light? It was the oil and that is a symbol of the Holy Spirit (Zach 4, Gal 4).
The source of all good works is from the Holy Spirit. But do not let the legalistic idea come in. None
of our good works will merit us any favor with God. We cannot be saved with our works, but we
cannot be saved without them either. In true salvation, we are doing these good works because of
the Holy Spirit within us.

5:16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father
which is in heaven.

5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.

It is indicated that the word “fulfill” is the opposite to destroy. Some say that because Jesus fulfilled
the law, they don’t have to obey it anymore. But the opposite to fulfill is destroy, so indicating that it
was not taken away. Fulfill meant to exalt, to uphold.

Mat 5:17-20 [17] Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to
destroy, but to fulfil. [18] For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle
shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. [19] Whosoever therefore shall break one of
these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of
heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of
heaven. [20] For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the
scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.

The rest of His sermon is an explanation on how He will not ‘destroy the law, or the prophets’ but
‘fulfill’ them. This is also a fulfillment of Is 42:21 how Christ will magnify the law and make it
honorable. The law refers to the law of Moses, but keep it mind that law of Moses includes the 10
commandments. The law of God can be split into two parts. The first 4 commandments describing
our love to God and the last 6 describing our love to our brothers and sisters. Of the last 6 Jesus

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points out two. Someone these two commandments are at the root of hatred toward each other, and
these two commandments will keep many out of the kingdom of God.

When Jesus mentions “think not,” what does this tell us about the mindset of the hearers and
what they were thinking? There were some there that were thinking that the law and the
prophets had been done away with at the cross. When Jesus mentions the law and the prophets,
what or who is He referring to?

Matt 11:12-13

If all the law and prophets prophesied until John the Baptist, then it must be referring to things
written before that – talking about the Old Testament.

John 1:45

Philip was talking about the Old Testament because he mentioned Moses who is found in the Old
Testament. So when Jesus talks about the law and the prophets, He is referring to the Old
Testament. How did Jesus fulfil the law and the prophets?

Matt 1:21-23

He fulfilled it by being born.

Matt 2:23

He fulfilled it by living in Nazareth.

Matt 8:17

He fulfilled it by healing people.

Matt 13:34-35

He fulfilled it by speaking in parables.

Matt 27:35

He fulfilled it when they parted His garments and cast lots at the cross.

Luke 24:44

Jesus fulfilled all the prophecies of the law and the prophets (the Old Testament) in His life.

According to Matthew 5:18, when will everything be fulfilled? Everything will be fulfilled when
heaven and earth passes away.

When will heaven and earth pass away?

2 Pet 3:10

Heaven and earth will pass away at the day of the Lord as it will come as a thief in the night.

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When is the day of the Lord that He will come as a thief?

Isa 13:9

The day of the Lord is when He shall lay the land desolate and destroy the sinners out of it.

Joel 2:31

The sun shall turn into darkness and the moon into blood just before the day of the Lord.

Rev 6:12-14

The sun is turned into darkness and the moon into blood when the heaven is rolled together as a
scroll and every mountain and island is moved out of their places.

Luke 12:39-40

When Jesus comes as a thief, it is referring to His second coming. When will the heaven and the
earth totally pass away?

Rev 21:1-2

The old heaven and earth will totally pass away when God recreates a new heaven and earth. This
will be at the third coming. So the second coming is only a partial fulfillment of the heaven’s and
earth passing away. What is easier to pass – heaven and earth? Or one jot or tittle from the
law? What important application can we draw from this?

Matt 5:18

Luke 16:17

Heaven and earth will pass before even a jot or tittle fails from the law. We have already seen when
heaven and earth will pass – at the second and third coming. Therefore, the law and the prophets
will remain until then.

App: This is strong evidence to show that the Ten Commandments given in the Old Testament are
still valid today. Many people say that Jesus nailed the commandments to the cross when He died,
but we can see from this that that is not true.

What was the law and prophets referring to again? The Old Testament. Therefore, the Old
Testament will still be valid to us at least until the second and third coming of Jesus. Many people
say that the Old Testament is not relevant or valid to us anymore. But that is not what Jesus said. He
said that not even one jot (an iota) or tittle (the least particle of an Hebrew letter) will pass before
heaven or earth does which just shows us that today the Old Testament is still relevant and that
Jesus didn’t do away with it when He came. When He said He fulfilled it, He was saying that He
fulfilled the prophecies of it, but not that He was doing away with the Old Testament.

What is our role in Christ’s fulfillment of the law today?

Gal 5:14

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All the law is fulfilled in one word – love your neighbor as yourself.

Rom 3:31

We establish the law through faith in Christ.

John 14:15

If we love Him we will keep the law/commandments. What is more important? They both are
important. You cannot love without expression of keeping the law, and it is impossible to keep
God’s law if we don’t love Him.

5:18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from
the law, till all be fulfilled.

As long as we are here on earth, the law will still exist because the earth is still in existence.

5:19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall
be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be
called great in the kingdom of heaven.

“do and teach them” – Jesus said about the Pharisees, do as they say, but not as they do. Jesus is
commending them to do and teach them.

5:20 For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and
Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.

The Pharisees only had a form of outward appearance. Not true righteousness.

According to Matt. 5:19, when are we called the least in the kingdom of heaven? When we
break one of the least commandments and teaching others to do so as well. That means when we
break one commandment that we think is so small or so irrelevant we are called the least. Teachers
– take everyone back to the 10 commandments and ask them which one they consider to be the
least. Lying is pretty small in some people’s eyes. Taking God’s name in vain is very little in people’s
eyes.

When we break one, what does the Bible say that we have done? How is that applicable to us
today?

James 2:10

When we break one, we have broken them all. Sometimes we like to compare our sins to
others. And just because we lied but haven’t committed murder or adultery, we think we are
better than them. But in the eyes of God, we are just as great a sinner as the person that
killed someone or that committed adultery.

When will we be considered great in the kingdom of heaven? We will be considered great in the
kingdom of heaven when we do and teach them. We aren’t considered great based upon how much
money we give to the church. We are considered great in the eyes of heaven when we learn to do
and teach the commandments of God.

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What is so important about the order that Jesus listed about first doing and then teaching the
commandments? Discuss. It is easy to teach and tell others to keep the commandments. But Jesus
wanted us to do them first and then teach them. If we only teach them and not do them, what are
these people called? Hypocrites.

Why did Jesus have to talk about the law and the prophets before He mentioned the
commandments? What important application can we learn from that?

Matt 5:17-18

Jesus had to talk about the law and the prophets because He had to establish that the Old Testament
was still valid even though He is fulfilling the prophecies of it. The reason He has to establish that is
because when you take away the Old Testament, you have to take away the 10 commandments. So
Jesus was establishing the Old Testament because that was the foundation which the 10
commandments was to stand upon. Today many people are doing away with the Old Testament
saying that it is not relevant or it is old fashioned, and as a result they are doing away with the 10
commandments.

What is the condition upon how we can enter the kingdom of heaven?

Matt 5:20

Our righteousness must exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees. What is the
righteousness of the scribes and the Pharisees?

Matt 23:1-7

They say and don’t do. They like to be praised by men for their works – meaning, when they do
good deeds they make sure others see them so they can be praised.

Mark 7:5-9

They honor God with their lips but their heart is far from Him. They hold tradition above the
commandments of God.

Luke 15:2

The fact that the Pharisees and scribes pointed out that Jesus ate with sinners means that they
never ate with them. So they only ate with those that they thought were righteous. What does the
Bible define as righteousness that will allow us to enter the kingdom of heaven?

Matt 3:2

We must repent.

Matt 7:21

We must do the will of the Father.

Matt 18:3

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We must be converted.

John 3:5

We must be born of the water and of the spirit.

Matt 5:3, 10

We must go through the steps of the beatitudes. So if we want to enter the kingdom of heaven, we
must have all of these characteristics. If we want to be righteous we must repent, do the will of the
Father, be converted, be born of the water and of the spirit. The beatitudes simply outline the steps
in how we can be righteous. What else is righteousness connected to?

Ps 119:172

Righteousness is connected to the commandments.

How can we fulfill this righteousness in our lives today that it may exceed the righteousness
of the Pharisees?

Rom 13:10

Love will fulfill the law.

Gal 5:14

The law is fulfilled in this word – Love. The one main thing that was lacking in the scribes and
Pharisees was a love for God and a love for others. Because they lacked this, they lacked the very
thing needed to be a righteous person. Do you have love in your hearts today for God and for
others?

5:21 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall
be in danger of the judgment:

This is the sixth commandment.

Ex 20:13

Verses 22-26 are an explanation and expansion of the sixth commandment.

What does Jesus put on the same level as killing someone?

Matt 5:21-22

Hating your brother without a cause. Both have the same consequences – they shall be in danger of
judgment.

1 John 3:15

Whoever hates his brother is a murderer. So if we hate our brother, we are a murderer. What is the

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difference between hating someone and killing someone? Is there a difference? Why does
the Bible put it on the same level? Discuss. The difference between someone who hates and
someone who murders is that the person who hates lacks opportunity or is too scared to perform
the act. There is no difference between the two. One just lacks the opportunity. But the heart is the
same. The Bible puts it on the same level because Jesus is not dealing with just our acts, He is
dealing with the root of the problem – our heart.

If you hate someone, who do you belong to?

John 8:44

You are a child of the devil if you are a murderer because he was a murderer from the beginning.
What else is put on the same level as murdering and hating your brother? Why do you think
they are categorized together?

Matt 5:22

Calling your brother Raca (which means worthless or vain fellow) or a fool is categorized in the
category with hating your brother. In some respects, calling your brother a fool is much worse,
because the consequence is worse – being in danger of hell fire. Leading question for the second
part: Why is hating your brother, calling your brother Raca (worthless) or calling him a fool all put
together on the same level? It affects our perception of how we view our brother or sister. Makes us
to think bad of them. And no one is worthless or a fool in the eyes of God. And God doesn’t hate
anyone in His heart either. God is trying to deal with our heart, how we think and view others.

According to Matt. 5:23-24, who should do the reconciling? Compare this to how we operate
today in this world. The person that should do the reconciling is the one that realizes that his
brother has something against him. Today in this world, when someone has a problem with us, we
don’t usually approach him. Because it is not our problem so we usually wait for them to approach
us. But that is not the way a Christian should deal with those that hate us or have something against
us.

What does the Bible define as reconciliation?

Eph 2:16

To be in one body again, to unify or unite.

Col 1:20-21

To make peace between two parties, to not be aliens or enemies anymore. How were we enemies
of Christ or separated from Him?

Jam 4:4

We were enemies of Christ because we are friends with the world.

Isa 59:1-2

We were separated from Christ by our sins.

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How did Christ show us an example of this reconciliation? And why did He do what He did?

Rom 5:7-10

We are hesitant to even die for a righteous man, never mind a sinner. Christ showed us this example
of reconciliation by dying for us while we were yet sinners, while we were enemies of Him. So who
had the problem? We did. We were sinners. We hated Him. We crucified Him. Who reconciled?
Christ did. Why did He do what He did? Because He loved us.

According to what we have studied, if our neighbour hates us, how far should we go to be
reconciled to them?

1 John 3:13-16

We ought to lay down our lives for those that hate us as well. Are you willing to die for your enemy?

How can we practically apply dying for our enemies today that we may truly be reconciled to
those that hate us?

1 John 3:17-18

Rom 12:19-21

When we see them hungry, feed then. When we see them thirsty, give them drink. This is
how we may be reconciled back to them, but sacrificing for them even though they hate us.
We think this is easy, but it isn’t. Why? Because it’s not so much dealing with just actions but
our motives and our heart.

When Jesus said at the beginning, “Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time,” was
He really teaching anything new?

Lev 19:17-18

Do not hate your brother in your heart, but love your neighbour as yourself. No, He wasn’t teaching
anything new. He was just reiterating what was taught in the past. It’s just that many people had
forgotten about the wickedness of their own heart.

How can our righteousness exceed the righteousness of the Pharisees based upon the study
that we have learnt today? Discuss. The Pharisees kept the letter of the law but not the spirit of
the law, which is love. Many of us don’t outwardly kill people, but in our hearts we do. Also, in order
for our righteousness to exceed that of the Pharisees, we need to learn to love those that hate us
and be reconciled back to them by dying for them. Loving the unlovable. So when we keep the law
of God we need to keep it from our hearts which will be automatically be expressed in our words
and actions. So in this teaching, Jesus was dealing with both sides of the coin: Those that hate
without any good reason or holding grudges. And those that are hated by others and how we should
deal with them in reconciliation.

5:22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of
the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but
whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

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“angry with his brother without a cause” this shows that the sixth commandment condemns us
being angry with each other, and it is the first time Christ introduces the topic of ‘the judgment’ and
mentions ‘hell fire’.

“whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment” –
There is a time to be angry. Mistreatment and genocide. Can we be angry without violating His
principles? Yes. We can be jealous for His cause. “Raca” and “fool” are derogatory expressions.

5:23 Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought
against thee;

Verses 23 and 24 teach reconciliation; once you reconcile you are in harmony with the sixth
commandment

5:24 Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then
come and offer thy gift.

We are being taught to reconcile with our brother even though they have some occasion against us.
If we know that, we HAVE to go to them and ask them.

5:25 Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the
adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.

Verses 25 and 26 provide practical guidance on how to deal with someone who is angry with you
and avoid prison. Many will go to prison because they will not agree with their ‘adversary’ and
adversary brings accusations. And if you are guilty and don’t admit it, then you go before a ‘judge’
and the judge sees that the accusations are correct and you go to the officer and then to prison.

5:26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost
farthing.

5:27 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:

Mat 5:27-32 [27] Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:
[28] But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed
adultery with her already in his heart. [29] And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it
from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole
body should be cast into hell. [30] And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee:
for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body
should be cast into hell. [31] It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a
writing of divorcement: [32] But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for
the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is
divorced committeth adultery.

This is the seventh commandment. Verses 28-32 are an expansion of the seventh commandment.
These verses are about not committing adultery through: Divorce or lust. When does a thought
become a sin? When you cherish the thought and it turns into something more. When you choose to
think about it again and again and again. Spiritual Application: Adultery is the unholy union
between the two parties. Love not the world

John 2:15

It is literal when it says to “pluck it out” – your eye? Could you have one eye and still lust? – Of

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course. You can still do wrong actions. What do the eye and the hand represent? The eyes is
connected to our thoughts and the hand is connected to actions, If you are having trouble with
thoughts and actions, then what should we do? Whatever the root of the temptation might be – get
rid of it.

There is only one Bible reason for divorce. It is for adultery – when one party has been unfaithful.
How about abuse? It is not a grounds for divorce according to the Bible.

What does Jesus equate committing adultery to?

Matt 5:27-28

Jesus equates committing adultery to a man lusting after a woman in his own heart. What is the
difference between lusting and a passing thought or look? A passing thought or look is
something that you pass by and your eyes behold, and if it is evil you cast your eyes away from it
(ie. All those horrible bill board that you may pass in your car, or advertisements that appear on
TV). To lust means to set your heart upon it, to long for, to covet or desire.

Is there a difference between actually committing adultery and lusting after a woman?
Discuss. There really is no difference other than one had the action and the other didn’t. But for the
person that was lusting after that woman, if he had the opportunity, he would have. This is exactly
the same as the killing and hating your brother (Matt. 5:21-24). One lacked the opportunity for it to
come to pass, or they were too scared to put it into action.

What is Jesus really trying to address here about adultery?

Jer 17:9

The heart is deceitful and desperately wicked.

Matt 12:34

Out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaks. Jesus is trying to address the issues of the
heart, the fountain and root of all the problems of our actions. If our heart was right, our actions
would be right too.

Prov 23:7

As we think in our heart, so are we. Our thoughts ultimately lead us to sin. Many people think that
just because they don’t commit adultery or kill they are fine. But they don’t realize that they are the
same condition as those that do commit such acts. What is Jesus’ solution to our sinning ways of
our eyes and hands?

Matt 5:29-30

If we can’t stop sinning with our eyes of hands Jesus says we should pluck it out or cut it off.

Why does Jesus mention about the eyes and hands?

Matt 6:22-23

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The light of the body is the eye. It is our eyes that dictate to a great degree how our body reacts. And
it is also our eyes that give light or darkness to our minds, which is the very thing that controls our
bodies. Jesus mentions eyes, because it is the very thing that will affect our mind and ultimate our
actions.

Psa 26:10

Our hands are full of mischief.

Prov 6:17

Our hands shed innocent blood. Our hands represent our filthy actions. Actions that lead us to sin.

What did Jesus really mean when he said to pluck out our eyes and cut off our hands? Are we
to do that today literally?

Rom 6:6, 11-13, 19

What happens to a body part after it is cut off? It dies. Therefore Jesus was talking about spiritually
killing the old man. The body part that causes you to sin is part of the old man. It must be destroyed.
What are the two key action words that we read in the Bible text other than killing? Reckon and
yield. We must learn to surrender our will to God. Our eyes and our hands are necessary parts of
our bodies. Because we are all sinners, if we did that, all of us would be disabled today. So Jesus isn’t
meaning that in a literal sense. But our hands and our eyes represent in a way those things that are
very necessary to us in our lives. Eg. If our computer leads us to sin, then we should throw that
away or put it in a inconvenient place in the house so that you don’t sin. If there are certain things in
our lives that lead us to sin, that maybe are almost essential, then we should learn to do without. Eg.
If taking the train leads us to sin, then we should drive the car even though it is more expensive.
What is more important? Saving the money on train ticket or your eternal salvation. TEACHERS ask
this question – are there things in your life that cause you to sin that you know you should throw
away or get rid of? Maybe it is expensive – big screen TV? Etc… Jesus wants us to weigh up
everything on this earth in the light of heaven. He doesn’t want us to put things of this earth over
things in heaven. Sometimes it is almost like cutting off our hands or plucking out our eyes because
it is a big sacrifice to us.

How often should we cut off our sinful body parts?

1 Cor 15:31

We should die daily. Everyday in our devotional life we should ask God to kill our sinful body parts.
Therefore, it is NOT when the temptation comes, but on a daily basis before we start the day, we
must acknowledge our sinful body parts and ask God to help us reckon and yield because we know
that Satan will surely bring the temptation.

Even though we are not married or do not lust after a woman, how else are we adulterers
according to the Bible?

Jas 4:4

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By being a friend of the world, through looking and lusting and touching the things of the world.

Instead of looking at the things of the world, what should we behold?

John 1:29 ….behold the Lamb.

Heb 12:2 …looking unto Jesus.

2 Cor 3:18 …by beholding Jesus we will be changed into the same likeness.

SUMMARY – things we should do daily: Cut off our body parts by reckoning ourselves dead and
yielding through surrender. Behold and look unto Christ.

5:28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery
with her already in his heart.

5:29 And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that
one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.

This verse is especially related to adultery. If your right eye offend you by looking on a woman to
lust after her being a married man is adultery. If you are single it is fornication. Verse 29-30 gives
the solution. Pluck it out. Jesus give problem, then solution.

“whole body should be cast into hell” this shows two reasons why people will go to hell.

5:30 And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one
of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.

5:31 It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement:

5:32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication,
causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.

5:33 Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but
shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths:

What did Jesus mean when He said “thou shalt not forswear thyself?” What does the word
forswear mean? God does not make your keep your oaths because He saved you out of something.
He does not work like that. This is an expansion of the third commandment. One way to take the
name of the Lord God in vain is by swearing in His name

Ex 20:7 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him
guiltless that taketh his name in vain.

Lev 19:12 And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy
God: I [am] the LORD.

We should make promises to each other and leave the Lord’s name, dwelling place, His creation, out
of it. Otherwise it would lead to evil. Verses 34-37 expand this thought. This is the text that Jesus
was referring to and He was talking about swearing falsely, or taking an oath falsely. That was
equivalent to profaning the name of God. Forswear in the concordance means to commit perjury
which means to give a false testimony or false witness.

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What did Moses teach about swearing or taking an oath? Was it OK to swear?

Num 30:2

Deut 6:13

Deut 10:20

Moses taught the Israelites that it was OK to swear by God’s name. How is this different to what
Moses was teaching the Israelites and what Jesus was dealing with? Moses was teaching the
Israelites to tell the truth under oath. However, Jesus was dealing with the issue of lying under oath
– making promises that they did not keep. This is already taking place in the Old Testament:

Isa 48:1

They swear by the name of God but not in the truth or in righteousness. Moreover, He is
dealing with people that swear by God or objects that they are telling the truth when they
are not.

Was Jesus trying to destroy oath taking altogether, or is there still room for the judicial oath?

Matt 26:63-64

If Jesus was condemning the judicial oath, He would have reproved the high priest for making such
a statement instead of giving him an answer. So there is still room for the judicial oath in which God
is solemnly called to witness that what is said is truth and only the truth. What did Jesus mean
that our communication should be yea, yea; nay, nay?

Jas 5:12

Let your yea be yea, and your nay be nay. Our communication should be clear and precise and we
should mean what we say and not halt between two opinions. Many people say yes but they really
mean no or vice versa. They don’t mean what they say.

2 Cor 1:17-18

Our word toward you was not yea and nay. The ministering to the unbelievers, Paul told them that
his communication was just as he said it. He didn’t mix a yea with a nay. He didn’t mix truth with
error. He didn’t say yes and then no. It was clear and precise. What does the Bible say about how
we should communicate with our speech?

Col 4:6

Our speech should always be with grace and seasoned with salt

Matt 5:13

How can we be salts of the earth? By what we say. Our communication can be a great blessing to
people and it can also be a great curse to people. RELFECTION QUESTION: Does your speech always
show that you are serving the true God? Can people tell that you are a Christian just by the way you
speak?

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Eph 4:29

Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth Nothing vile or profane should come out
of our mouths. God desires that we should use our speech to edify others and minister grace to
those that hear us. When Jesus talks about our communication, what is He really addressing?

Matt 12:34

Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks. What we say is just a fruit of the condition of
our heart. So once again Jesus is dealing with the heart issue. He is trying to tell us that it is not just
in outward forms and a mere keeping of the commandments that we should obey, but that we
should obey from the heart. What has Jesus been addressing in the previous passages after the
beatitudes and what is the common theme that runs through them all?

Matt 5:17-20

The law

Matt 5:21-26

The law – thou shalt not kill and being angry at your brother (a heart issue)

Matt 5:27-32

The law – thou shalt not commit adultery in the heart

Matt 5:33-37

The law – thou shalt not lie and our communication which stems back into out heart. The common
theme that runs through it all is the law and how Jesus is trying to deal with our hearts. The
spirituality of the law. The people such as the Pharisees could keep the law in an outward form, but
they lacked the true spirit of keeping the law. What does Jesus desire to do with the law today?

Heb 10:16

Jesus desires to write the law in our hearts today that the keeping of the law will not just be an
outward form but that we will truly keep it form the heart.

Psa 40:8

When we have the law in our heart, we will delight in it. We will be happy in obeying it. Today are
you keeping the law because it is in your heart, or are you keeping the law out of obligation or
tradition? Jesus desires us to be happy. You can be happy today as well if you have the law within
your heart.

5:34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne:

5:35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.

5:36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black.

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5:37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.

In our dealings with people, we should make it very simple. A “yes” or a “no”

5:38 Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:

Verses 39-42 expand on this verse. It is an expansion of the law of Moses. In our modern day
language, what does it mean to give an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth? It means to exact
justice on people for what they’ve done to you. To give back to them exactly what they did to you.
Equality in justice.

When Moses gave this law, in what context was he giving it for?

Lev 24:17-22

Moses was giving the law to establish order and laws for the country so that no matter who entered,
stranger or citizen, all were to abide by the law of that land. It was civil law. Specifically Lev. 24:22
says that any person, even a stranger was to abide by such laws. So this is the laws of the
land/country.

What offences are these texts in Leviticus applied to specifically? Was Jesus dealing with the
same issues that were mentioned there? The offences that were mentioned in Leviticus were
referring to such that killed a person or that permanently destroyed a person’s goods or that caused
a blemish on the person. Jesus was dealing with something totally different. He was dealing with
someone that slapped them on the cheek, or took their coat, or told them to run a mile.

According to Jesus’ comments, how do you think the people were applying it in their day?
They were using the civil law that Moses instituted to exact revenge on every petty thing that
people did to them. If they were hit on the cheek, they would retaliate and hit back on the cheek. If
they had their coat taken away, they would try to retaliate by taking away their enemies coat.

Instead of exacting justice on our enemies and those that deserve it, what does Jesus advise
that we should do? Jesus’ advice is to go beyond what they ask. Go the extra mile. If they slap you
on one side, instead of retaliating give them your other cheek. If they take your coat, give them your
cloak also. If they ask you to run a mile, run two.

What is the pattern that you can find according to the severity of the actions done?

Matt 5:39 …smite…

Matt 5:40 …sue…

Matt 5:41 …compel…

Matt 5:42 ….ask…

It is going from most severe to simply asking. What is the pattern that you can find in how we
should respond in our actions?

Matt 5:39 …turn….

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Matt 5:40 …let…

Matt 5:41 …Go…

Matt 5:42 …Give…

It is going from a simple action such as turning, to having to invoke a deep response as to whether
we will give or not. If you try to summarize these verbs of our responses how would you
categorize them? They would be categorized at selflessness and submission. If we wanted to
protect ourselves we would do the opposite.

Compare the severity of the action done to a person to the response that we should give to
that action. What important lesson can you learn from that?

Matt 5:39 …smite…turn…

Matt 5:40 …sue…let…

Matt 5:41 ….compel…go….

Matt 5:42 …ask…give…

Which is the most severe action? Smite (That is without a doubt). Which is the hardest to do in
response? Turn or give? I would say give. Yes when someone smites you it is hard to turn. But on an
individual basis it is easy to turn. But it’s even harder to give not knowing whether you will get it
back or not. It requires a pro-active approach to give, but it almost seems like turning is very
passive. So the more the severe the action done, the less proactive we should be in responding. Yet
when someone asks, we should give. The important lesson that we can learn from that is, if we don’t
learn to give first when someone asks, we will never be able to turn when someone smite’s us.
Turning is easier than giving, yet smiting is more severe than asking. We need to learn the lesson of
benevolence first.

So how do we not resist evil today when we are treated unfairly?

1 Pet 2:23

When he was reviled, Jesus didn’t retaliate. But He committed himself to him that judgeth
righteously. What does it mean that we commit ourselves to him that judges righteously? When we
commit ourselves, the word commit means to surrender, to yield, to intrust ourselves to that
person. But we must understand who we are committing ourselves to. The Bible didn’t mention
Jesus or God or Saviour. It is to the person that judges righteously, or that judges fairly. Was Jesus
really teaching anything new? What did the Old Testament say about how we should treat
those that hurt us?

Prov 20:22

Don’t recompense evil for evil.

Prov 24:29

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Don’t say you will do to him as he has done to you.

Prov 25:21-22

If your enemy is hungry give him bread to eat.

Rom 12:18-21

A repeat of Prov. 25 but it tells us that vengeance is God, He will repay, we do not need to avenge for
ourselves. Basically, do not treat them as they have treated you. Jesus wasn’t teaching anything
new. Have there been people in your life that have treated you unfairly? How have you responded?
Have you committed yourself to God knowing that He will judge righteously? Or have you retaliated
thinking that God will not avenge? Let us commit ourselves to God today that we may use our
submission and spirit of non-retaliation to reveal the character of Christ to them and to win them
over to the Saviour.

5:39 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to
him the other also.

5:40 And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also.

5:41 And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.

5:42 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.

5:43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.

What do you have to do in order to earn God’s love? God’s love is unconditional. In order to be
perfect, we need to have this love that is described.

BE YE THEREFORE PERFECT

Read Matt. 5:43-48 and answer the following questions.

According to this passage, what qualifies us to be called the children of our Father in heaven?
When we love our enemies. Blessing them that curse us. Doing good to those that hate us. Praying
for those that despitefully use us and persecute us.

If God expects those qualities of His children, what does it imply about the Father?

1 John 3:2

When we see God, we shall be like Him, we shall see Him as He is. God doesn’t demand something of us or
expect something from us that He Himself hasn’t first done. So if God expects us to love our enemies, He must
have demonstrated it somewhere first.

How did God demonstrate His love towards enemies?

Rom 5:6-8

God sent His Son to die for the ungodly, for sinners. We already find it difficult to die for a righteous
person, how much more difficult would it be to die for your enemy? Someone that hates you?

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Luke 23:34

While Jesus was on the cross, He prayed for those that reviled Him and persecuted Him.

Why does Jesus bring in the illustration of how God sends the sunshine and the rain? What
characteristic is He trying to imply about God? Jesus is trying to emphasize the fact that Jesus is
not impartial to anyone. He doesn’t favor a righteous person more than an unrighteous person.
Both wicked and evil He gives the blessings of rain and sunshine. So we should not be impartial to
anyone either.

What does James say about being partial and favoring one person over another?

Jas 2:1-4, 9

James is saying that if we are partial, we are committing sin. Why does Jesus use the publicans as
an example? Who was listening to this sermon and how did they regard publicans?

Matt 4:25

Basically it was all the Jewish people, including the Pharisees and scribes. How did the Jews regard
the publicans?

Luke 15:1-2

They classified them in the same category as the sinners.

Luke 19:2, 5-7

They out rightly called Zacchaeus a publican and a sinner. So not just in the same category but they
called them sinners.

Matt 18:17

They were considered Heathen’s. People that didn’t believe in God. So why does Jesus use the
publican’s as an example? Basically He’s saying that if we treat those around us nice that treat us
nice, we are no better than a sinner and a heathen person. Even the worldly person knows how to
do that. We are no better than them if we do that.

Therefore, when Matthew tells us to be perfect, contextually what does that mean? Discuss.
To be perfect means to be perfect in love. But not just to love those that love you, but to love your
enemies and those that hate you and curse you.

Why is love so important? Why does Jesus emphasize this so strongly at the end of this
portion of His sermon?

Rom 13:10

Love is the fulfilling of the law. If we love Jesus, all that He talked about in Matthew 5, going beyond
the mere letter of the law, will be easily fulfilled. We will exceed the righteousness of the Pharisees.

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Why? Because they did it as a mere form, not form the heart.

1 Cor 13:1-3, 13

Paul makes it clear that love is the most important of everything. And in everything we do, if our
motivation is not because we love then our motivation is wrong. We may do the right things, but
some of us do good things to be praised by others, or to come across in a certain way when we
really aren’t. What is your motivation for doing good works? To be praise of men? Because if you
don’t learn to love your enemy, your love for God is not totally complete. As the saying goes, you
love God as much as the person you love the least. And if you don’t love that person, you hate them.
And in Matthew it says that if we hate our brother or are angry at them without a cause, we have
committed murder (Matt. 5:22).

What has Jesus really been trying to deal with in this portion of His sermon so far?

Matt 5:17

At the beginning He told that He did not come to destroy the law and the prophets. And in the rest
of the sermon He addresses the law and how they have been obeying it wrongfully. They didn’t kill,
but they hated their brother. They didn’t outwardly commit adultery, but they lusted after women
in their hearts. Jesus was dealing with heart issues.

Matt 22:36-40

Jesus was dealing with the law – loving God and loving your neighbour. It’s all about love. How do
we get this love according to everything that we have studied in Matthew 5? We need to go
through the steps of the beatitudes at the very beginning. Because it ends with telling us to rejoice
when we are persecuted. They are steps to happiness. But they are also steps to teach us how to
truly love God and love our neighbour.

5:44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and
pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;

5:45 That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the
evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.

5:46 For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?

5:47 And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so?

5:48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.

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Chapter 6
6:1 Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of
your Father which is in heaven.

What does alms mean? (Check the middle of your Bible). Alms = righteousness. From STRONGS;
compassionateness, that is, (as exercised towards the poor) beneficence, or (concretely) a
benefaction: - alms (-deeds). Basically alms = good works.

Which particular group of people was Jesus particularly referring to as hypocrites? Who do
they represent today according to Mark 7?

Matt 6:2

Matt 23:13-15

Mark 7:5-6

Christ is referring to the Scribes and Pharisees. From Mark 7:5-6, they particularly represent those
who worship with their mouths but not with their hearts, which is far from God. Application: What
does it mean to honor God with our lips and not our hearts? Ask the group for examples. One
example = come to church on Sabbath to worship, but in our hearts be thinking about the sports
results or talking with our friends about the latest fashion, etc.

With the above definition of a hypocrite in mind, contrast what it means to be a hypocrite vs
Christ’s true follower in doing alms?

Matt 6:1-4

Hypocrite: will try to do their alms (good works) in public. True follower of Christ: does alms in
secret. Application: What does it mean to do alms in secret? Are we talking about hiding our good
works?

What is the difference between the intentions of good works in Matt 5:16 and Matt 6:2? What is
Jesus emphasizing when he asks us to do alms in secret?

Matt 5:16

Matt 6:2

Matt 5:16 tells us to do our good works for the glory of God, but in Matt 6:2, Jesus is saying the
Pharisees or hypocrites are doing good works for their own glory. What is Jesus emphasizing?
Doing alms in secret = doing things for God’s glory.

In the context of doing alms, what does it mean to give glory to God?

Matt 6:4

What does it mean to do things for God’s glory? To seek HIS reward and recognition, and NOT
man’s. CONCLUSION: Jesus is pointing to the MOTIVE in our hearts. Who do we really want
recognition from, man OR God? What is usually our motive for good works? (ask group). Our own

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glory. So that is why we tend to do things so that everyone can see. Eg. We get so hung up because
we didn’t get an opportunity to go up on the pulpit and be recognized for our “alms”, and that we
have to settle for the little things behind the scenes. According to this passage, only hypocrites will
get upset if they are left with the “invisible” jobs. Why are they upset? Because their motive was
wrong in the first place.

What did the hypocrites do during Jesus’ time with their prayers?

Matt 6:5, 7

1. Love to pray in public. 2. Vain repetition. What does vain repetition mean? Eg. Heathen prayers
(Buddhist, Hindu) generally repeat the same words over and over again. They are also very
monotone. We have to careful that our prayers are not the same. Why? Because our God is a living
God, an intelligent God. Example: Just like talking to a friend, can you imagine using his name over
and over again, or repeating the same phrase to them. They will think you are insulting their
intelligence.

What was the problem with the public prayers of the Pharisees in Jesus’ time?

Luke 18:10-13

The Pharisee was more interested in self praise and self glory. Can you imagine shouting these
words from the corners of the streets? CONCLUSION: When we use vain repetition, or self praise to
God in public, or repeat private things in public, we are not giving glory to God, but to man.

Was Jesus discounting public prayer?

Acts 1:14-15

Acts 4:31-32

No. The disciples continued to pray together in public. Acts 1:14-15 says there were 120 people.
If public prayer was not ordained by Christ, the Holy Spirit would not have been poured out.
What is the difference? There is a place for secret prayer and a place for public prayer. However, the
Pharisees were using public prayer as an occasion for self praise and self glory.

What does praying to the Father in secret imply? Who needs to be involved?

Matt 6:6

It simply means there is no one else around. Therefore, Jesus is saying there is no need for a human
mediator between God and man. All prayer whether secret or public is to be directly to God the
Father and does not need to go through anybody else. That means we need only confess our sins to
God, NOT man. Some religions ask us to confess our sins to priests or holy men.

Contrast what a hypocrite and a true follower does in respect to fasting? What does it mean
to fast in secret?

Matt 6:16-18

Hypocrite – puts on sad countenance and disfigured face. What does this mean? Show how painful

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and torturous it is when fasting. True follower – anoint thine head and wash thy face, appear not
unto men to fast. What does this mean? You can’t tell when a true follower is fasting. He should be
just as cheerful and not complaining about being hungry. What does it mean to anoint thine head
and wash they face? Basically to look fresh, healthy, strengthened. Not go out of the way to look
weak, weary and hungry.

What is the phrase that is being constantly repeated in regards to alms, prayer and fasting?
What was Christ emphasizing?

Matt 6:4, 6, 18

Do good works, prayer and fasting in secret, because the Father seeth in secret and shall reward
openly. What does it mean to do things in secret? Our motive should always be to look for God’s
glory and not our own. Therefore, we should not need to seek public recognition for these 3 actions
(good works, prayers, fasting). Bottom line, God is interested in our attitude and motives for
service. This will come out in how we do good works, how we pray and how we fast. These are
indicative of the condition of our heart and its desires. Remember, in God’s time, He will reward us
openly.

6:2 Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in
the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their
reward.

6:3 But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth:

When we do something good, naturally people want to receive acknowledgement. We should do


our works in humility.

6:4 That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee
openly.

6:5 And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in the
synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They
have their reward.

When you pray out loud, it helps your mind not to wander. Vain repetitions make a prayer or song
have no meaning sometimes.

6:6 But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy
Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.

6:7 But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard
for their much speaking.

6:8 Be not ye therefore like unto them: for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye
ask him.

6:9 After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.

This prayer highlights that we must live day by day. We must ask for strength day by day. God
works with us one day at a time.

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Which person of the Godhead should we address when we start our prayers? We should
address the Father, and not Jesus or the Holy Spirit. It is God the Father that answers our prayers,
but it is Jesus that pleads on our behalf.

Just as we understand our parents love towards us, Jesus also wanted us to know that when we
pray, we pray to a Father, someone who cares deeply for us. Not as one that approaches a King or a
God or a Creator that we must kneel and beg.

When we call God our Father, what does that imply in our relation to Jesus and also to each
other?

Heb 2:11

We are all brothers and sisters, including Christ. We are all members of one family and so we pray
for our neighbours as we pray for ourselves.

What is the first thing that Jesus instructs us to pray for? How would that change our
perspective in this life by praying that? He asks us to pray for the coming of His kingdom. That
would change our perspective in a way that by saying that it makes us personally responsible for
the fulfillment of those words. That we would go throughout the day to hasten His kingdom.

What is the one way that the Lord’s prayer suggests that we can hasten the coming of His
kingdom?
The way to hasten His kingdom to come is that His will be done on earth as it is in Heaven. If the
will of God is done in earth as in Heaven, then there will be no difference between heaven and earth.
Then Jesus can come again! What is the will of God?

1 Thes 4:3

The will of God is our sanctification, to live a holy life, to be separate from the world. Therefore, one
way that we can hasten the coming of His kingdom is simply living a holy life here on this earth so
that we are ready for Him to come again.

Why is it important for us to ask God to give us our daily bread? How does that change our
perspective on our own lives? By asking God to give us our daily bread we are recognizing that it
is God that puts the food on our tables and fills our stomachs with food. By praying this we are
giving thanks to the Lord for feeding us. This will help us not to become self sufficient thinking that
we are the ones that provided.

What is the important spiritual application behind asking for the daily bread?

Matt 4:4

We must have the daily bread from heaven, the word of God, which is tied in with doing the will of
God in earth as in heaven. Spending time in the word of God will also stir up in our hearts the need
to hasten His kingdom to come.

To what extent should we be asking that the Lord forgive us? How many of us really ask the
Lord for forgiveness in this way? That He forgives us as much as we forgive others. Maybe we are
scared to pray such a prayer because we know that we have not forgiven our brother or sister out

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there. Is there anyone you know that you need to forgive today?

Why does Jesus make forgiving others a condition for Him to forgive our sins?

Luke 7:47

It will help us to understand and appreciate the mercy and love of God in forgiving our sins and as a
result, love and mercy should spring up from within us. It is easy for a sinless God to forgive our
sins, but how much easier should it be for us, who are sinners, to forgive those that have done just
as much wrong as we have. Forgiveness breeds love. And those that don’t forgive others show that
they don’t love them much because they forgot their past sins and how they have been forgiven.
May God help us to be merciful to our brother’s and sisters today.

Contextually speaking, why do we end saying “Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the
glory?”

Matt 6:13

Jude 24, 25

We must recognize that the power comes from God and is available to us now and forever to keep
us from falling, to keep us from temptation and to deliver us from evil.

How should we end our prayers and why is it important to end this way?

John 14:13-14

John 15:16

Acts 4:12
We must learn to ask in the name of Jesus, and not simply end with the words Amen. Why? Because
it is through this name that we are saved, and it is through Jesus Christ that we are able to present
our petitions before our Heavenly Father.

Overall, what was the main emphasis that Jesus was trying to bring out about prayer at the
end? He recapped in verse 14 and 15 a very important point that He mentioned in the prayer itself,
and that was forgiveness. That we are to recognize that God would only forgive our sins as much as
we forgave others. If there was anything that He wanted His disciples to remember about the
prayer it was about forgiving each other. That was the very last thing that Jesus prayer for when He
was hanging on the cross, for forgiveness of His enemies.

6:10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.

6:11 Give us this day our daily bread.

6:12 And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.

6:13 And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power,
and the glory, for ever. Amen.

6:14 For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you:

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6:15 But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.

We cannot be forgiven unless we forgive others.

6:16 Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces,
that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.

6:17 But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face;

6:18 That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which
seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.

6:19 Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where
thieves break through and steal:

These three things described cover everything single thing on earth. Moth, rust, and thieves.

What is the comparison that Jesus makes between verse 19 and verse 20? One is earthly, the
other is heavenly. One is temporary, the other is eternal.

What does the Bible say about those that lay up treasures for themselves on earth?

Jas 5:1-4

They will howl and weep for the miseries that will come upon them. These are the people that have
garments that are moth eaten, their treasures are rusted and thieves have broken in and stolen
their possessions.

What day is that referring to when the rich men will weep and howl?

Ezek 30:1-3

People will howl at the coming of the day of the Lord.

Zeph 1:14-15

The day of the Lord is compared to the day of wrath. When is that?

Rev 6:12-17

The day of wrath is equated to the second coming of the Lord. So those that lay up treasures for
themselves will not be ready at the second coming. How can we lay up for ourselves treasures in
heaven? What is the first step that Jesus gave?

Matt 6:21

Our hearts need to be fixed on the treasures of heaven first. How can we fix our hearts on the
treasures of heaven?

Matt 6:22-23

Prov 23:26

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What our eyes behold will also change our mind, our heart. So the first step to fixing our heart on
heaven is to fix our eyes on heaven. Our eyes need to behold light.

What eyes is this referring to and what does the light represent?

2 Cor 5:7

We walk by faith, not by sight. So this is referring to the eye of faith.

Psa 119:105

The light represents the word.

Rom 10:17

Faith is built upon the word of God. So our first step is to build our faith upon the word of God.
What is the next step that Jesus gave to lay for ourselves treasures in heaven?

Matt 6:25-32

To take no thought for our life, what we shall eat, drink or wear. What are these categorized as
according to the previous verses? The treasures of earth. When we start to worry so much about
our own life, food, drink and clothes we tend to lose sight of heavenly things. We get into the rat
race.

Does that mean it doesn’t matter what we eat or drink or wear at all? That we shouldn’t even
think about our next meal? No, but we are to commit our lives to God and allow Him to lead us
each day. The words “Take no thought” mean “not to be anxious.” Some of us worry so much about
our temporal things that we work so hard to secure our treasures here and forget about heaven.
Note: This is not approving laziness, not having to work for our food and raiment. But we are not to
be anxious and stressed out about our temporal things.

What is the final step that Jesus gave that we may lay up treasures in heaven?

Matt 6:33

We should seek first the kingdom of Heaven and his righteousness and then all the other things will
be added to us. How does it work together? Because as we study the Bible, it will instill in us
principles of hard work, and we will not be lazy. It will instill in us principles of honesty and
integrity which we can show to the world as we work for our daily bread.

How can we seek for the kingdom of God and His righteousness?

John 5:39

Jer 29:13

We need to search the scriptures, and if we diligently search, we will find Him, if we search with all
of our hearts.

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What is the fruits of a person that is seeking after the kingdom of God and His righteousness?

Matt 5:20

Their righteousness exceeds the righteousness of the Pharisees. How can we exceed that? By not
hating our brother in our heart. By not committing adultery in our heart. Loving our enemies. Then
will we know that our focus is on heaven and His righteousness.

Rom 14:17

When we seek after the kingdom of God, we experience joy and peace and righteousness.

6:20 But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where
thieves do not break through nor steal:

6:21 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

6:22 The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.

Body represent the church. If the eye is single and not double minded, it will be full of light and
truth. But if the eye is evil, then the people will be full of darkness – there is a great deal that rests
on the leadership of the church.

6:23 But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee
be darkness, how great is that darkness!

6:24 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will
hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.

6:25 Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor
yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?

6:26 Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your
heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?

6:27 Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?

6:28 And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not,
neither do they spin:

6:29 And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.

6:30 Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the
oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?

6:31 Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal
shall we be clothed?

The things listed are the basic necessities of life. We are admonished to seek ye first the kingdom of
God, otherwise we are just like Gentiles.

6:32 (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need

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of all these things.

6:33 But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto
you.

6:34 Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself.
Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

Each day has its own problems.

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Chapter 7
7:1 Judge not, that ye be not judged.

Is there a time when we are called to judge? Yes – judge righteous judgment. What we are dealing
with is that there is a type of judgment which stems from self-righteousness.

In what context does Jesus say that we should judge, or not judge, others?

Luke 6:37-38

We should judge others the same as we wished to be judged. Same as condemning others and also
forgiving others and also giving to others. We should treat others the way we wish to be treated.

Does that mean we should do away with the Judicial law? What does the Bible mean about
not judging?

Jas 4:11

When we speak evil of one another, the Bible says that we are also judging each other. When people
tend to speak evil behind each others backs, that is judging their motive or character. Unless the
fruit is there for proof, we should not be judging one another’s motives if we don’t know what they
are doing.

1 Cor 6:3

We ought to judge those things that pertain to this life.

Exo 18:13

Moses was a judge for the people to settle disputes between each other. And later on in that chapter
he also set people over each other as well.

What is the difference between a mote and a beam? And who is the one that has the mote and
who is the one that has the beam? A mote is a straw or a twig. A beam is a stick of timber. The one
that is being judged has the mote, and the one that has the beam is the one that jus judging (the
hypocrite).

What does the Bible say is the condition of a person who has a beam in their eye?

Luke 6:39

The person who has a beam in their eye is called a blind man by Jesus. What is a blind man
according to the Bible?

2 Pet 1:9

A blind man is a person who has forgotten that they were purged of their past sins.

According to what we have studied so far, why is it that we pronounce such harsh judgment

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upon others and are so ready to condemn others for their sins? Because we forget that we have
been purged of our past sins and forget the mercy of God in our lives, and as a result we become
harsh and exacting of other people’s sins which we once did.

What is the definition of a hypocrite according to Matt. 7:5? They try to cast out the mote from
their brother’s eye before they cast out the beam from their own. Basically, it’s the pot calling the
kettle black.

Why does the hypocrite judge people and try to cast out the mote from their brother’s eye?
Teachers note that this is a different perspective from a blind person. The blind person forgot their
past sins. But the hypocrite is different. This is showing another aspect of why others are so harsh
and exacting.

Luke 6:31

Because they have a bigger mote in their own eyes, it’s a beam. But they have forgotten that they
have that in their eyes. They perceive not!

Rom 2:1

They judge because they do the same thing. So often when people are critical and judgmental, it’s
because the sin in their own lives is much bigger than the actual sin that they are seeing in other
people’s eyes. So the very thing that they are doing, they become harsh on others.

How does the Bible advise that we should act when we find a person in sin?

Gal 6:1

We should seek to restore that person to God in meekness. Meekness meaning with in humbleness
and sincerity, without condemning or judging them. The Bible also says that we should consider
ourselves too incase we are tempted. How can we consider ourselves? How can we make that
practical? It may not always be appropriate for a person to help another individual. Example, a
married man consoling a single lady. That is dangerous and tempting to both parties. We should
consider how we help each other if that may cause us to stumble or not in the long run.

1 Cor 10:12

We should take heed, incase we think we shall stand we will fall. How about if we are being
condemned or judged? How should we act?

1 Pet 2:23

We should commit ourselves to God incase we react in such a way which will prove us right but yet
destroy the character of God in us. For example, sometimes when we know we are right and being
judged unfairly, we tend to come out with a vengeful spirit or a angry spirit which is not of Christ.
Christ was treated unfairly, but He didn’t revile against those that reviled against Him, even though
they found no fault in Him. And He didn’t threaten them – He didn’t say “You just wait till I get out
of this and you will be in trouble.” He didn’t look for an opportunity to exact revenge upon them.

7:2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be

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measured to you again.

7:3 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in
thine own eye?

It is talking about a level of care and compassion for someone.

MB 128 Not until you feel that you could sacrifice your own self-dignity, and even lay down your life
in order to save an erring brother, have you cast the beam out of your own eye so that you are
prepared to help your brother.

7:4 Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is
in thine own eye?

7:5 Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast
out the mote out of thy brother's eye.

7:6 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample
them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.

Both of these animals are unclean which can be applied to the Gentiles. There are some that you
can’t preach the gospel to them as we know it because it may turn them off from it. Emphasizing the
need to read the Bible or proving that the Bible is trustworthy.

What is the condition that Jesus specifies if we want to receive or find or have something
opened to us?

Luke 6:37-38

We must ask, seek or knock.

How should we ask that it may receive?

Matt 21:22

We should ask in prayer and also believe. Does that mean that if we pray and really believe that we
will get a BMW that God will give it?

John 14:13

We should ask in the name of Jesus that the Father may be glorified and not for the glory of
ourselves, otherwise that becomes a selfish prayer. Example – praying for a wife – you must ask
yourselves questions like why do you want a wife? Just so you won’t be lonely? Or just to fulfill your
lusts? Or so that you may look good in public? Sometimes we may pray selfishly.

What are the conditions for asking?

John 15:7

We have to abide in Christ and His words abide in us, then whatever we ask it will be done unto us.
It is important for Christ’s words to abide in us and us in Him that we may know His will. Maybe
that is why our prayers are not answered sometimes, because we aren’t abiding in Christ.

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Psa 66:18

If we regard iniquity in our heart the Lord will not hear. We must make sure that we confess and
forsake our sins (Prov. 28:13) that the prayers we pray may ascend up before God. However, bear
in mind that when we ask for forgiveness, the Lord will hear us because we cannot cleanse
ourselves (1 John 1:9). So do not wait for yourself to be clean before you come to the Lord – that
will never happen. It is by His grace that we are made clean.

By asking, what does that imply about that person’s mindset? Why is that so important?
Further add to the question by asking “What brings a person to ask for help? Or when does a person
ask?” For example, when would you ask your parents for money? Or when do you ask your friends
for help in some homework? The asking implies that we realize our necessity, that we need
something or need help because we cannot do it alone. This is so important because it will keep us
humble not self sufficient, to help us realize that God will be our help and our strength in time of
need. Those that never ask for help will never receive help because they think they can do it all
alone.

What should we seek after that we may find?

Luke 12:29-31

We shouldn’t seek after temporal things like food or water. We should seek first the kingdom and
all those things shall be added to us. It’s almost as if Jesus gave us a step of assurance how we can be
guaranteed our bread and water. We should seek after the kingdom of God.

How should we seek that we may find?

Jer 29:13

We are promised that we will find if we seek with all of our heart. That means it must not be a half-
hearted searching. Many people do not receive blessings even though they do the same things as
those that do sometimes because their heart really isn’t in it. Example – a doctor may be happy and
content ministering to patients, but yet another doctor may be very dissatisfied because his heart is
not in that job. What does mean with all of our heart? That we put all of our efforts into what we do.

What is the assurance that Jesus gives to us that our asking, seeking or knocking will be
answered?

Matt 7:8-11

First Jesus puts a triple emphasis that God is able to do all things and will answer if we ask, seek or
knock. Secondly, he gives an analogy of how a father would give bread to his son instead of a stone
or a fish instead of a serpent. And HOW MUCH MORE will our Heavenly Father would give us so
much more. The question is “HOW MUCH MORE?” Contrasting God the Father to our earthly Father.

Isa 49:14-16

A woman may forget her suckling child but God has given us the assurance that He will not forget
us. He will answer us when we ask, seek and knock.

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What is that good thing that Jesus promised that He would give us if we ask?

Luke 11:13

The Holy Spirit is compared to a good thing which Jesus promised He would give if we ask.

What should be out attitude so that we can receive the Holy Spirit? We need to ask, seek, and
knock. This involves our faculties: Ask = lifting our voice in prayer for the Holy Spirit. Seeking =
searching the Scriptures, how do we do this by using our eyes. Knocking = involves the sense of
touch, involving doing, action. In order to knock we must walk to a door and knock. All our being,
voice, eyes, and our actions/hand should show that we are earnestly desiring the good gift of the
Holy Spirit. It's not a haphazard request to God.

Why is it so important, or good, that we ask for the Holy Spirit?

John 14:26

The Holy Spirit will teach us all things.

John 16:13

The Holy Spirit will guide us into all truth.

1 Pet 1:2

The Holy Spirit is the one that sanctifies us and enables us to live a holy life.

Apart from asking, what are the conditions for receiving the Holy Spirit?

Acts 5:32

The Holy Spirit is given to those that obey. It is not enough just to ask, presuming that we
will receive the Holy Spirit. We must learn to obey those things that God has outlined in the
Bible which is one of the conditions to receiving Him.

7:7 Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you:

One of the greatest promises in the Bible.

7:8 For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be
opened.

7:9 Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone?

7:10 Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent?

7:11 If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your
Father which is in heaven give good things to them that ask him?

“how much more” – The gift that He desires to give to us is the Holy Spirit.

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Luke 11:13

Why is the Holy Spirit such a great gift? Because the fruit of the Spirit is all these other things.
Without the Holy Spirit, we could never be convicted of sin.

7:12 Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this
is the law and the prophets.

It is the most famous verse in the Gentile world – it is called the golden rule. So the idea is that we
should treat others as we want to be treated. What we do to others will always return back to us.

7:13 Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction,
and many there be which go in thereat:

The platform of truth is like a path coming narrower. We start of with broad topics and then zoom
into more specific topics. There will always be very few people who want to do right. The road to
destruction is wide and easy.

What is the original meaning of the word “strait” in the Bible? In the concordance it means
“narrow.” Strait does not mean straight as in a straight line, but narrow or difficult.

More than just being exhorted to enter the strait gate, what are we advised to do?

Luke 13:24

We are exhorted to STRIVE to enter in at the strait gate. That word strive means to struggle, or
fight, or contend.

According to the Bible, what does it mean to strive, or fight or contend?

Rom 15:30

We can strive by praying.

Jude 1:3

We should fight for the faith.

Heb 12:4

By striving to enter in the strait gate, we need to strive against sin.

According to Matt. 7:15, what will stop us from striving to enter into the strait gate?

Matt 7:15

False prophets will stop us from striving to enter into the strait gate. How may we know who is a
false prophet?

Matt 7:16-20

We may know who is a false prophets by the fruits that they bear. What are the fruits that will

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show who is and who is not a false prophet?

Matt 12:33-34

The words that they speak will show what their heart is like. We may hide for a while who we really
are, but just by how we speak it will reveal the deep thoughts and intents of the heart.

Gal 5:19-23

The fruits of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, etc. In our character it will be revealed what sort of person
we are. How we live our life it will show if we are a false prophet or not.

Prov 11:30

The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life and that fruit is shown in winning souls. A true prophet will
win many souls to God. But a false prophet does not win any to the kingdom of God. A person is
known by the company that they keep. It will be easy to determine a false prophet to look at the
people that he/she has ministered to, to see what type of character they are because they are most
likely reflecting the type of person that he is.

According to Matt. 7:21-23, what should we do if we want to strive to enter into the strait
gate?

Matt 7:21-23

We must do the will of God. Notice that doing the will of God is not the same as performing miracles,
or praying or preaching or casting out devils. Doing the will of God is opposite of trying to work our
way into heaven.

What does it mean to do the will of God?

1 Thes 4:3

To do the will of God means that we are to be sanctified. What does the word sanctification mean? It
means to be set apart for a holy use. To be made holy.

How can we be sanctified?

John 17:17

We are sanctified by the word of God. So according to what we have studied so far, how else can we
strive to enter into the strait gate? We must be sure not to follow false prophets. We will know them
by their fruits. But if we want to detect false prophets and their false teachings what should we
study? THE BIBLE! And by studying the Bible we are? SANCTIFIED! APPLICATION QUESTION: Have
you studied your Bible today? Are you doing the will of God and striving to enter into the strait gate
by studying the Word?

How can we help and encourage each other today to strive to enter into the strait gate?
Discuss? Encourage them to share with each other some thoughts on this question. Suggest things
like: Pick and partner not of your own family and share with each other during the week your

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devotions on what we read in the Bible. Prayer group chain, praying for each other over the phone.

7:14 Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find
it.

“few there be that find it” – we have to look, we have to search for it.

7:15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening
wolves.

An index to the heart is mostly what you can see outside. This is one of the tests of a true prophet.
What are the results of their work? Their fruits? What can we learn about conversion here with the
context of good and bad fruits? It is talking about false prophets but can also talk about people. The
issue here is the heart because a good branch can easily be grafted on.

7:16 Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?

7:17 Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.

7:18 A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.

7:19 Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.

7:20 Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them.

7:21 Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that
doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.

7:22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name
have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works?

7:23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.

Not all Christians will enter into Heaven. Miracles are not a test that a person is right with God.

“iniquity” in verse 23 means lawlessness.

7:24 Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise
man, which built his house upon a rock:

What is the difference between the wise man and the foolish man in this short parable? The
wise man hears and does Jesus’ sayings but the foolish man hears but doesn’t do it. The wise man
builds his house upon the rock and the foolish man builds his house upon the sand.

What does the rock represent that we are to build our foundation upon?

Luke 6:48

We are to build our foundation upon the rock.

2 Sam 22:47

The Lord God is our rock.

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1 Cor 3:11

Which God is that, it is Jesus Christ who is our foundation. What elements beat against the house
to try to make it to fall?

Matt 7:25

The elements that beast against the house was the rain, the flood and the winds. What did these
elements try to do to the house that was built upon the rock?

Luke 6:48

It tried to shake the house but could not.

What does the shaking represent?

Isa 13:13

The shaking represents the time when God will arise to shake the heavens and the earth.

2 Thes 2:2

The shaking represents those who will be shaken in mind and troubled with the things that are
taking place upon the earth.

What is the purpose of the shaking?

Heb 12:26-27

To shake everything that can be shaken so that those things which remain are those which were
founded upon the rock.

Neh 5:13

To shake every man which does not do according to the promise (the word) of the Lord. It is a
testing time which God allows every person to go through to test what sort of foundation they were
building upon.

It is the elements that cause the shaking. So what does the rain, the floods and the winds
represent?
Deut 32:2

Doctrine will fall as rain. So it is the doctrine of God that will cause a shaking to test what
foundation we have been building upon. How does that cause a shaking? Because when people hear
the pure truth, some will not accept it because it goes against what they are doing. That is exactly
what happened with the scribe and Pharisees when they heard Jesus speaking? That is why they
plotted to kill Him.

The floods

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Isa 59:19

The flood represents your enemies, those that hate you and persecute you.

Psa 69:1-4

The flood represents those that hate you without a cause. They will come to persecute you as David
was persecuted by Saul in the wilderness. So the flood represents persecution. But what does the
Bible tell us to do in times of persecution?

Matt 5:11, 12

The winds:

Eph 4:14

The winds represents the winds of doctrines, of the false doctrines, that will lead men astray and
deceive them. So it is the straight testimony of truth, persecution or false doctrines that will cause
people to be shaken in the last days.

The foolish man built his house upon the sand. What does the sand represent and what does
it mean to build on sand?

Gen 32:12

The sand represented the people that could not be counted. Sand represents people. So to build
upon sand means to build upon people and not the word of God.

How do we build upon people today?

Matt 15:9, 6

We listen more to the preacher than to the Word. We obey the commandments of man rather than
the commandments of God. What is the commandments of men? Verse 6 – men’s traditions.

More than just Jesus Christ, what is that foundation that we must build upon today that will
stand forever?

Isa 40:8

The word of the Lord will stand forever.

Matt 24:35

Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away. It is the word of the Lord (the
Bible) that we must learn to build our sure foundation.

7:25 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it
fell not: for it was founded upon a rock.

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7:26 And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a
foolish man, which built his house upon the sand:

7:27 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it
fell: and great was the fall of it.

Both had a house. They both heard Him. A rock represents Christ in the Bible

1 Cor 10:4

What does a house represent? The house represents a church or God’s people

Heb 3:6

Rain represents doctrine.

Deut 32:2

Wind represents winds of doctrine.

Eph 4:14

The sand represents a multitude of people.

Joshua 11:4

Floods represents ungodly men –

Ps 18:4

In the Bible, Babylon also has a great fall. So what is the structure of the Sermon on the Mount.
Conversion, true obedience, then Jesus makes an appeal – not only to hear but also do.

7:28 And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people were astonished at his
doctrine:

7:29 For he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.

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Chapter 8
Reading
 Desire of Ages – Chapter 27 – Thou Canst Make Me Clean
 Desire of Ages – Chapter The Centurion
 Desire of Ages – Chapter Peace be still

8:1 When he was come down from the mountain, great multitudes followed him.

8:2 And, behold, there came a leper and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me
clean.

Leprosy in the Bible is a symbol of sin. Leprosy was contagious. Leprosy would often cause death
likewise, sin will ultimately will produce death.

DA 263 Some try to prevent him from approaching Jesus, but in vain.

Many that want to approach Jesus, Satan makes it very hard for them to make it able. Satan makes it
hard for them to come to Jesus for repentance.

DA 263 Pressing to Jesus, he casts himself at His feet with the cry, "Lord, if Thou wilt, Thou canst
make me clean." Jesus replied, "I will; be thou made clean," and laid His hand upon him. –

8:3 And Jesus put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will; be thou clean. And immediately his
leprosy was cleansed.

As soon as the leper asked, he was healed straight away. When we pray, is it always answered
straight away?

DA 266 In some instances of healing, Jesus did not at once grant the blessing sought. But in the case
of leprosy, no sooner was the appeal made than it was granted. When we pray for earthly blessings,
the answer to our prayer may be delayed, or God may give us something other than we ask, but not
so when we ask for deliverance from sin. It is His will to cleanse us from sin, to make us His children,
and to enable us to live a holy life.

Whenever we pray for deliverance from sin, God answers that prayer right away.

8:4 And Jesus saith unto him, See thou tell no man; but go thy way, shew thyself to the priest, and offer
the gift that Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.

Why did He tell him to tell no one? Too many lepers would come – if He was known as a leper
healer, then no one else would come because it was contagious.

DA 264 Notwithstanding the caution of Jesus, the man made no further effort to conceal the fact of
his cure. It would indeed have been impossible to conceal it, but the leper published the matter
abroad. Conceiving that it was only the modesty of Jesus which laid this restriction upon him, he
went about proclaiming the power of this Great Healer. He did not understand that every such
manifestation made the priests and elders more determined to destroy Jesus.

There is a danger to adding more to what Jesus actually said.

DA 267 Yet it was not physical restoration he desired so much as relief from the burden of sin. If he

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could see Jesus, and receive the assurance of forgiveness and peace with Heaven, he would be
content to live or die, according to God's will.

When people sin, the guilt of sin can cause you to go insane. The results of many physical illnesses is
the guilt of sin that rests heavy on a persons mind.

8:5 And when Jesus was entered into Capernaum, there came unto him a centurion, beseeching him,

8:6 And saying, Lord, my servant lieth at home sick of the palsy, grievously tormented.

8:7 And Jesus saith unto him, I will come and heal him.

8:8 The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof: but
speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed.

Faith always manifests itself in works. Love is the same as righteousness.

Luke 7:4

In that instance they were seeking for righteousness by works. True Faith is paired with true
humility.

He who stood beside the sorrowing mother at the gate of Nain, watches with every mourning one
beside the bier. He is touched with sympathy for our grief. His heart, that loved and pitied, is a heart
of unchangeable tenderness. His word, that called the dead to life, is no less efficacious now than
when spoken to the young man of Nain. He says, "All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth."
Matt. 28:18. That power is not diminished by the lapse of years, nor exhausted by the ceaseless
activity of His overflowing grace. To all who believe on Him He is still a living Savior.

8:9 For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth;
and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it.

8:10 When Jesus heard it, he marvelled, and said to them that followed, Verily I say unto you, I have not
found so great faith, no, not in Israel.

8:11 And I say unto you, That many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham,
and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven.

8:12 But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and
gnashing of teeth.

8:13 And Jesus said unto the centurion, Go thy way; and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee.
And his servant was healed in the selfsame hour.

8:14 And when Jesus was come into Peter's house, he saw his wife's mother laid, and sick of a fever.

8:15 And he touched her hand, and the fever left her: and she arose, and ministered unto them.

8:16 When the even was come, they brought unto him many that were possessed with devils: and he cast
out the spirits with his word, and healed all that were sick:

8:17 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, Himself took our
infirmities, and bare our sicknesses.

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8:18 Now when Jesus saw great multitudes about him, he gave commandment to depart unto the other
side.

8:19 And a certain scribe came, and said unto him, Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.

8:20 And Jesus saith unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the Son of
man hath not where to lay his head.

8:21 And another of his disciples said unto him, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father.

8:22 But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead.

8:23 And when he was entered into a ship, his disciples followed him.

DA 334 The sun had set, and the blackness of night settled down upon the stormy sea. The waves,
lashed into fury by the howling winds, dashed fiercely over the disciples' boat, and threatened to
engulf it. Those hardy fishermen had spent their lives upon the lake, and had guided their craft safely
through many a storm; but now their strength and skill availed nothing. They were helpless in the
grasp of the tempest, and hope failed them as they saw that their boat was filling.

All their past experiences were helpless. They were at this point where they knew they could not
help themselves.

8:24 And, behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was covered with the
waves: but he was asleep.

Jesus never feared – He was asleep.

Rev 21:8

Those who are fearful are those that will be lost. God hath not given us a spirit of fear, but of love
and a sound mind. Fear is not from God.

8:25 And his disciples came to him, and awoke him, saying, Lord, save us: we perish.

8:26 And he saith unto them, Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith? Then he arose, and rebuked the
winds and the sea; and there was a great calm.

DA 335 Never did a soul utter that cry unheeded. As the disciples grasp their oars to make a last
effort, Jesus rises. He stands in the midst of His disciples, while the tempest rages, the waves break
over them, and the lightning illuminates His countenance. He lifts His hand, so often employed in
deeds of mercy, and says to the angry sea, "Peace, be still."

8:27 But the men marvelled, saying, What manner of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey
him!

The same power that He possesses as Creator, He possesses here on the sea.

8:28 And when he was come to the other side into the country of the Gergesenes, there met him two
possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by that way.

8:29 And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou
come hither to torment us before the time?

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8:30 And there was a good way off from them an herd of many swine feeding.

8:31 So the devils besought him, saying, If thou cast us out, suffer us to go away into the herd of swine.

8:32 And he said unto them, Go. And when they were come out, they went into the herd of swine: and,
behold, the whole herd of swine ran violently down a steep place into the sea, and perished in the waters.

8:33 And they that kept them fled, and went their ways into the city, and told every thing, and what was
befallen to the possessed of the devils.

8:34 And, behold, the whole city came out to meet Jesus: and when they saw him, they besought him that
he would depart out of their coasts.

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Chapter 9
Chapter 9 is unique in that it shows Christ authority as King to forgive sins. He is a religious
spiritual king. This means that His kingdom consists of those whose sins He has forgiven. There
were many examples of Christ healing before in the book of Matthew, but this is the first time it
mentions healing in relationship to Him forgiving sins. That is Matthew’s main point.

Chapter 9 can be connected with Matthew 1:21 “and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall
save his people from their sins.” This chapter shows how He will save His people from their sins,
and the latter chapters show Him dying on the cross

Reading
 Desire of Ages – Chapter 28 – Levi-Matthew
 Desire of Ages – Chapter The Touch of Faith

9:1 And he entered into a ship, and passed over, and came into his own city.

“into a ship, and passed over” – this shows that Jesus was separated from this city by water.
There was a separation between Him and the people in Capernaum.

9:2 And, behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed: and Jesus seeing their faith
said unto the sick of the palsy; Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee.

“they brought to him a man sick of the palsy” – This shows the attitude of the men who were in
Capernaum. They were waiting, longing, and anticipating the day when Jesus would be in close
proximity to them so they could bring the man. This shows the attitude of the man who had palsy.
The man had to first trust Christ. He did this by faith. Before this Jesus was out of their reach. Where
is He? In another city? Where is He? On the Mt. of Olives. But once He came to their city they could
reach Him. But what Jesus did was made Himself available. He came near to where they were to
incite within their heart the desire to come to Him. He says “Come unto me all ye that labor and are
heavy laden”. Two things took place, Jesus came near to them, and then the men had to make the
effort to then come to Him.

App: the first thing we need to do is long to see Jesus. We need to anticipate Him. Coming, but
before we can go to Him we must first know where He is. The men found Him in the city of
Capernaum in a home. Where is He now? In another home, His heavenly home. And that Home has
two compartments, the holy place, and the most holy place. Where is He? In the MHP. But before
they were separated by a body of water, and Jesus made the effort to come. We may feel like we are
separated by a great body of water, something keeping us from Him, but He will part that obstacle
so He can come near to you.

“Jesus seeing their faith” – After we find Him, we realize where He is we must exercise faith. When
we exercise faith Jesus sees it. That means recognizing where He is should cause us to have faith.
They had faith all along, but now that faith was revealed to all. The faith of the men was also
instrumental in the healing of this man. When there are others who are sick, we need to go get them
and bring them to Jesus, and this will help them to have greater faith to receive healing.

9:3 And, behold, certain of the scribes said within themselves, This man blasphemeth.

The scribe missed the whole point. He should have been paying attention to the attitude of the three

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men. Jesus was trying to help the scribe exercise faith. But He said Jesus committed blasphemy.

Application: We do the same thing. Instead of being happy that people exercise faith for healing, and
learning a lesson in faith. We murmur about the people who perform the healing. I understand
there are many ways of practicing the healing art and God only approves one. But that doesn’t mean
that God only heals based on your understanding of healing. You should have paid attention to the
lesson God was trying to teach instead of criticizing.

9:4 And Jesus knowing their thoughts said, Wherefore think ye evil in your hearts?

The scribe needed to be forgiven. But his sin was hid from everyone else’s eyes.

9:5 For whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and walk?

Arise and walk is synonymous with thy sins be forgiven thee. That means every time Christ healed
it was the same as Him forgiving sin. But there was a condition they had to have faith in Him.

9:6 But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (then saith he to the
sick of the palsy,) Arise, take up thy bed, and go unto thine house.

“ye may know” – especially the leaders, the scribes, not just the multitudes. Jesus was trying to
forgive them. When the man trusted Christ, exercised faith, they exercised His will by choosing to
obey the power was given for Him to arise and walk. There was a co-operation.

9:7 And he arose, and departed to his house.

9:8 But when the multitudes saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God, which had given such power unto
men.

We glorify God by acknowledging His power to forgive sins on this earth because He came as the
Messiah, the King! Jesus as King has power to forgive.

9:9 And as Jesus passed forth from thence, he saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of
custom: and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him.

To types of arising in chapter 9. Having faith, and arising to have your sins forgiven and arising to
follow Jesus. That means Jesus wants to give our sins so that we can follow Him

What was Matthew like? He was a tax collector and a Jew. Often times, publicans were
dishonest and greedy

DA 273 To Matthew in his wealth, and to Andrew and Peter in their poverty, the same test was
brought; the same consecration was made by each. At the moment of success, when the nets were
filled with fish, and the impulses of the old life were strongest, Jesus asked the disciples at the sea to
leave all for the work of the gospel. So every soul is tested as to whether the desire for temporal good
or for fellowship with Christ is strongest.

When success comes, it is then that Christ calls you. You have to choose between worldly success
and a life of sacrifice.

9:10 And it came to pass, as Jesus sat at meat in the house, behold, many publicans and sinners came
and sat down with him and his disciples.

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First time the people are referred to as sinners. Your mind should go back to Matt 1:21

9:11 And when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto his disciples, Why eateth your Master with publicans
and sinners?

DA 273 The calling of Matthew to be one of Christ's disciples excited great indignation. For a
religious teacher to choose a publican as one of his immediate attendants was an offense against the
religious, social, and national customs. By appealing to the prejudices of the people the Pharisees
hoped to turn the current of popular feeling against Jesus.

Sometimes it is the despised of the community that are the most earnest. To know!!

DA 280 Man must be emptied of self before he can be, in the fullest sense, a believer in Jesus. When
self is renounced, then the Lord can make man a new creature. New bottles can contain the new
wine. The love of Christ will animate the believer with new life. In him who looks unto the Author
and Finisher of our faith the character of Christ will be manifest.

Wine represents Christ’s Words. If a heart is unconverted and the Words touch the heart, without
the change of heart, it may harden it more. We need a new heart first.

9:12 But when Jesus heard that, he said unto them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they
that are sick.

“sick” – from the previous verses it means that they had sins that were not forgiven. But in order to
be forgiven they needed faith. So who are the whole? Those whose sins are forgiven.

9:13 But go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not come to
call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

“righteous” = Whole - those who are whole and there sins are forgiven

“Sinners” = Sick – Jesus wants to forgive their sins

Note: This also shows that Jesus calls or draws us. He drew the three men in the previous verses.

“I will have mercy” what is the mercy of God? Forgiven our sins. Note: Mercy seat in the sanctuary
is where forgiveness is complete. The Pharisees and Scribes should have been merciful to the
publicans and sinners. But they were more concerned about the ceremonial law, when this is what
the ceremonial law taught. Jesus said “Blessed [are] the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.” Matt
5:7 What is that mercy? Forgiveness of sin. Therefore, the scribes and Pharisees were not eligible to
have their sins forgiven. And the act of being merciful is an alms deed, or deed of good work. That
should remind you of Matt 6.

9:14 Then came to him the disciples of John, saying, Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but thy
disciples fast not?

9:15 And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom
is with them? but the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they
fast.

9:16 No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto an old garment, for that which is put in to fill it up taketh
from the garment, and the rent is made worse.

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9:17 Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and
the bottles perish: but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved.

9:18 While he spake these things unto them, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him,
saying, My daughter is even now dead: but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live.

9:19 And Jesus arose, and followed him, and so did his disciples.

9:20 And, behold, a woman, which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him,
and touched the hem of his garment:

Why is the hem significant? It represented obedience. Power comes to us when we are willing to be
obedient to God.

Mark 5:26

This particular woman, she basically spent all her money, and at the end of this, she came to Jesus.
Many people are like that – when we have lost all hope, then we go to Jesus.

Mark 5:31-34

Why did Jesus have to ask who touched Him? She had to acknowledge that it was her who touched
Him.

DA 347After healing the woman, Jesus desired her to acknowledge the blessing she had received.
The gifts which the gospel offers are not to be secured by stealth or enjoyed in secret. So the Lord
calls upon us for confession of His goodness. "Ye are My witnesses, saith the Lord, that I am God." Isa.
43:12. –

DA 347 Our confession of His faithfulness is Heaven's chosen agency for revealing Christ to the
world. We are to acknowledge His grace as made known through the holy men of old; but that which
will be most effectual is the testimony of our own experience. –

DA 348 It is for our own benefit to keep every gift of God fresh in our memory. Thus faith is
strengthened to claim and to receive more and more. There is greater encouragement for us in the
least blessing we ourselves receive from God than in all the accounts we can read of the faith and
experience of others. The soul that responds to the grace of God shall be like a watered garden. His
health shall spring forth speedily; his light shall rise in obscurity, and the glory of the Lord shall be
seen upon him. Let us then remember the loving-kindness of the Lord, and the multitude of His
tender mercies.

9:21 For she said within herself, If I may but touch his garment, I shall be whole.

9:22 But Jesus turned him about, and when he saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good comfort; thy faith
hath made thee whole. And the woman was made whole from that hour.

9:23 And when Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise,

9:24 He said unto them, Give place: for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed him to scorn.

9:25 But when the people were put forth, he went in, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose.

9:26 And the fame hereof went abroad into all that land.

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9:27 And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed him, crying, and saying, Thou Son of
David, have mercy on us.

9:28 And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them,
Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, Lord.

9:29 Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you.

9:30 And their eyes were opened; and Jesus straitly charged them, saying, See that no man know it.

9:31 But they, when they were departed, spread abroad his fame in all that country.

9:32 As they went out, behold, they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil.

9:33 And when the devil was cast out, the dumb spake: and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was
never so seen in Israel.

9:34 But the Pharisees said, He casteth out devils through the prince of the devils.

9:35 And Jesus went about all the cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the
gospel of the kingdom, and healing every sickness and every disease among the people.

9:36 But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion on them, because they fainted, and
were scattered abroad, as sheep having no shepherd.

9:37 Then saith he unto his disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few;

9:38 Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers into his harvest.

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Chapter 10
Reading
 Desire of Ages – Chapter The First Evangelists

10:1 And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits,
to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease.

10:2 Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew
his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;

10:3 Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and
Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus;

10:4 Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.

10:5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and
into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not:

10:6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

Why did Jesus choose this first method of working with the Jews? Jesus also knew that if He were to
win the Jews, the strength of that would help the gospel to go to the whole world. The 70 weeks was
fast coming to a close.

10:7 And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand.

The kingdom of God was here.

10:8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils: freely ye have received, freely give.

10:9 Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses,

10:10 Nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves: for the workman is
worthy of his meat.

What does this indicate? It indicated that Paul had a trade. What is the principle about gospel work?
When people give you food, money, etc, we deserve it because we are working full time in the
ministry.

10:11 And into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter, enquire who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye
go thence.

10:12 And when ye come into an house, salute it.

10:13 And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace
return to you.

By song and prayer, you can bless the house. By your testimony, etc. That is how we are to bless
them.

10:14 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house or

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city, shake off the dust of your feet.

10:15 Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of
judgment, than for that city.

10:16 Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and
harmless as doves.

Where do have any mention of the serpent in the Bible? Garden of Eden. Jesus did not say be as
deceptive as serpent. Why harmless as doves? They do not have any defense. It’s only defense is to
climb higher and higher and higher.

10:17 But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the councils, and they will scourge you in their
synagogues;

We should never trust man. Cursed is he that trusteth in the arm of flesh.

10:18 And ye shall be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them and
the Gentiles.

10:19 But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you
in that same hour what ye shall speak.

10:20 For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.

Parallel passage is found in Mark 13:11. That passage indicates that there will be the gift of
prophecy – it is God speaking through men.

DA 349 He had set before them the truths of Scripture in contrast with tradition. Thus He had
strengthened their confidence in God's word, and in a great measure had set them free from their
fear of the rabbis and their bondage to tradition.

DA 350 None were sent forth alone, but brother was associated with brother, friend with friend. –

When God sends out people, He sends out people together.

DA 351 If they had now preached the gospel to the Gentiles or the Samaritans, they would have lost
their influence with the Jews. By exciting the prejudice of the Pharisees they would have involved
themselves in controversy which would have discouraged them at the outset of their labors. Even the
apostles were slow to understand that the gospel was to be carried to all nations.

We must start with the church and deal with avoiding controversy.

DA 350 During His ministry Jesus devoted more time to healing the sick than to preaching.

Health will open doors which preaching cannot open.

10:21 And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the child: and the children
shall rise up against their parents, and cause them to be put to death.

10:22 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be
saved.

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10:23 But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not
have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come.

10:24 The disciple is not above his master, nor the servant above his lord.

10:25 It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master, and the servant as his lord. If they have called
the master of the house Beelzebub, how much more shall they call them of his household?

10:26 Fear them not therefore: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; and hid, that
shall not be known.

10:27 What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon
the housetops.

10:28 And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is
able to destroy both soul and body in hell.

Jesus told us that we shouldn’t fear man.

10:29 Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without
your Father.

10:30 But the very hairs of your head are all numbered.

10:31 Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows.

10:32 Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which
is in heaven.

10:33 But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven.

10:34 Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword.

“sword” – it represents the Word of God. The message that we bear has to do the cutting, not our
attitude or character.

10:35 For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother,
and the daughter in law against her mother in law.

10:36 And a man's foes shall be they of his own household.

10:37 He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth son or
daughter more than me is not worthy of me.

Jesus at His death, made sure His mother was taken care of. As long as the law is concerned, we
should obey our parents, but when it makes us at variance with the law, then we must obey Jesus.

10:38 And he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after me, is not worthy of me.

10:39 He that findeth his life shall lose it: and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it.

10:40 He that receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.

10:41 He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet's reward; and he that

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receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man's reward.

10:42 And whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a cup of cold water only in the name
of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose his reward.

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Chapter 11 – Prophet’s of God Rejected
Reading
 Imprisonment of John the Baptist
 Desire of Ages – Chapter The Invitation

11:1 And it came to pass, when Jesus had made an end of commanding his twelve disciples, he departed
thence to teach and to preach in their cities.

11:2 Now when John had heard in the prison the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples,

DA 214 For a time Herod feebly sought to break the chain of lust that bound him; but Herodias
fastened him the more firmly in her toils, and found revenge upon the Baptist by inducing Herod to
cast him into prison.

The hold that a woman can have on a man

DA 215 These questions were not without effect. Doubts which otherwise would never have arisen
were suggested to John. Satan rejoiced to hear the words of these disciples, and to see how they
bruised the soul of the Lord's messenger. Oh, how often those who think themselves the friends of a
good man, and who are eager to show their fidelity to him, prove to be his most dangerous enemies!
How often, instead of strengthening his faith, their words depress and dishearten!

John was alone. Sometimes the closeness of a friend can prove to be a downfall.

DA 216 There were hours when the whisperings of demons tortured his spirit, and the shadow of a
terrible fear crept over him…For the success of this mission his whole life had been sacrificed. Had it
been in vain?

The devil cannot force us to sin, but can induce thoughts which could lead to sin. Satan could
possibly have said to John “have you made a mistake?” Things to tempt him to doubt Jesus.The
parallel passage of Matt 11:2-11 is Luke 7:18-28.

Where was John the Baptist during this encounter? In prison.Who had imprisoned him? Why?

Mark 6:17-18

Herod. John had rebuked Herod for marrying his brother’s wife. What question did John the
Baptist ask Jesus through his disciples? He asked if Jesus was the one, meaning the Messiah. How
do we know? Matt 3:3 – John knew he was the forerunner for the Lord, the Messiah.

What had been confirmed in John the Baptist heart earlier?

John 1:29-34

John the Baptist testifies that he bore witness to baptism of Christ and was convinced that He was
the Son of God. He calls Jesus the Lamb that takes away the sin of the world, that is the Messiah.

Was John the Baptist really doubting Christ? What was he really trying to ask Jesus?

Mark 1:15

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Remember, John the Baptist was now in prison. He was hearing all the works that Jesus was doing.
He now heard that Jesus was preaching that now is the Kingdom of God at hand. If you were in
prison, and you heard that Christ was about to set up His Kingdom, what would you think if you
were John the Baptist?

Answer – why didn’t Jesus overthrow the Romans? More importantly, why didn’t Jesus save John
the Baptist if He was setting up His kingdom now? Was Jesus really the Messiah? Therefore, when
John the Baptist asked Jesus if “we look for another”, he wasn’t doubting Jesus, but he was asking
WHY? Why don’t you come to save me out of my persecution.

How does John the Baptist represent us? What personal application can we draw? John the
Baptist represents us when we feel like Christ has abandoned us. John the Baptist was expecting a
miracle from Christ for himself. Why hadn’t Christ overthrown Herod or the Romans and saved His
servant? PERSONAL APPLICATION QUESTION – don’t we often feel like this? Have you had such an
experience where you are being persecuted and you ask Christ, should I look for another? Not that
you are doubting Christ’s divinity, but you wonder whether he really cares about what you are
going through. (Ask for personal testimony)

11:3 And said unto him, Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?

11:4 Jesus answered and said unto them, Go and shew John again those things which ye do hear and see:

Jesus didn’t prove to them that He was the Messiah. He let the disciple watch Him as He began to
comfort and heal. That was the testimony that they were to bear back to John

What does Jesus ask John’s disciples to do? What application can we learn from this?

Hear and see. Basically, Jesus trusted that whatever John’s disciples saw Christ do, it would
encourage John the Baptist. Application: In our own Christian experience, its important for us to
hear and see. Hear what? Rom 10:17 – Faith comes by hearing, hearing by the word of God. So its
important for us to hear God’s voice through His word. This will build faith. See what? John 14:6-9
– Once hear God’s word, its important for us to see Jesus. By seeing Christ, we see the Father.

Spiritual Application: This is also the problem of the Laodicean church – Rev 3:18. They are
counseled to buy eyesalve, because they are blind. What will help them see? 1 Sam 9:9 – prophets
were/are called seers. Therefore the writings of the prophets are to help God’s people see.

What were John’s disciples to tell him that they had seen?

Matt 11:5

Blind can see, lame can walk, lepers cleansed, deaf hear, dead raised, gospel preached to poor. How
was this a comfort to John the Baptist? The words reminded John of the prophecies of Isaiah
regarding Christ.

Luke 4:18

Jesus said that the Spirit of the Lord was upon Him and His mission was to those things that John
was hearing. This is a quotation from Isa 61:1

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Isa 61:1

The word anointed. What does it mean? Messiah.

Isa 42:6-8

Verse 6 especially tells John that Jesus was to be a light to the Gentiles too.

Summary: Jesus gave John more insight into His mission, that as the Messiah, He was there as the
anointed one, to heal the blind, lame, lepers, deaf, dead, and bring light to the Gentiles.

What was Jesus gentle rebuke to John?

Matt 11:6

Blessed is he who shall not be offended in me. John the Baptist had felt he was unfairly treated,
because Christ had not helped to release him. Jesus gently rebuked him for his doubts and asked
him to have faith and accept his situation.

What did Jesus call John the Baptist after his disciples had left? Why?

Luke 7:27-28.

The greatest of all prophets. Why? Because he prepared the way for Christ. Application – How can
we be greater than John the Baptist? Preparing the way for Christ’s second coming. We too, as
Seventh-day Adventists, are a type of John the Baptist.

What type of character and appearance did John have according to Jesus? How does it apply
to us?

Luke 7:24-25

“Not to be a reed blown in the wind” = not blown around by every wind of doctrine (Eph 4:14)

Luke 7:25

“Not clothed in soft raiment” – not dressed like kings and queens. Application – How does this
apply to us who are a type of John the Baptist? In these last days, as we preach the coming of Christ,
we also should not be easily persuaded by every wind of doctrine, nor should we portray ourselves
as wealthy. John the Baptist lived a simple lifestyle and dressed simply, not according to the
fashions of his time.

How did Jesus prove His Messiahship to John's disciples? What important lesson can we
learn from that? Jesus didn't use His sermon or testimony. He used His works of healing.
Important Lesson: The greatest evidence that we are bearing a message from Christ is not in what
we preach, but in what we do. It is through the fruits of our labor that people will see whether we
are from God or not.

Conclusion: Sometimes we are in discouragement because we only have partial understand of God's

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will. Like John, he knew about the ministry of Jesus in righteousness yet John was hoping for the
earthly kingdom like others during his time. His misunderstanding of Jesus' spiritual kingdom made
him doubt the Messiahship of Jesus in the time of trials. Therefore in order for us to go through
trials in life, we need to understand God's word as whole and not partially.

11:5 The blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the
dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them.

11:6 And blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended in me.

This was the message to John. The rest was the testimony. Jesus was telling John not to be offended
in Jesus. Many people run well at the start, but fall right at the end. John made one mistake at the
end, he doubted Jesus.

DA 218 The Saviour's words, "Blessed is he, whosoever shall find none occasion of stumbling in Me,"
were a gentle reproof to John. It was not lost upon him. Understanding more clearly now the nature
of Christ's mission, he yielded himself to God for life or for death, as should best serve the interests of
the cause he loved.

As soon as John heard, he realized that he should live for the Lord. He was content at where he was.

11:7 And as they departed, Jesus began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out
into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken with the wind?

Jesus was not saying that John was a reed shaken in the wind, or else people would not have gone
out into the wilderness to see him. Pharisees who were swayed by the demands of other people –
that is what EGW says of a reed shaken in the wind. God does not like two camps, He likes only one.
There is only one truth – not multiple versions of them. If you have an adherence to one truth, you
will find that it will attract people – if you are known for believing one thing.

11:8 But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? behold, they that wear soft clothing
are in kings' houses.

11:9 But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet.

People didn’t go out to see his clothing or anything of that sort, but because that he was a prophet.
He was preaching the truth. People wanted to hear him because he was so singular – he was
peculiar. If you are different, that is interesting.

Why was he more than a prophet? Because he saw Jesus. There were 3 people that were called
more than a prophet Moses, John the Baptist, and Ellen G White. If John was more than a prophet to
prepare the way for the first coming, what sort of people should be preparing the way for the Lord

11:10 For this is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall
prepare thy way before thee.

11:11 Verily I say unto you, Among them that are born of women there hath not risen a greater than
John the Baptist: notwithstanding he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.

11:12 And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the
violent take it by force.

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From the time John the Baptist started preaching until now, the kingdom of Heaven suffereth
violence

“if ye will receive it” – This primary application if before the second coming. The problem of their
day, they wanted to see the leaders move to whatever they wanted. They called Jesus a
“winebibber” because he associated himself with the publicans and sinners. But that didn’t deter
Him.

Matt 14:1-2

Herod was scared that it was John the Baptist resurrected. When you have done nothing wrong, you
have nothing to fear. You only have fear only when you have some guilt in you, when you have done
something wrong.

Matt 14:3-10

We find this similar situation in Daniel. The king didn’t want to enforce it. But it was forced upon by
the temptation of the daughter in request of the mother. This brings us to Rev 17. But the mother
doesn’t tempt the father. So in application: The state doesn’t want to enforce it, but the children of
the mother of Harlots enforces it – the image to the beast (apostate Protestantism) on the wish of
the papacy. We see here that the king was also drunk with wine. Wine representing false doctrines.

11:13 For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.

11:14 And if ye will receive it, this is Elias, which was for to come.

11:15 He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.

11:16 But whereunto shall I liken this generation? It is like unto children sitting in the markets, and
calling unto their fellows,

11:17 And saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, and ye
have not lamented.

11:18 For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, He hath a devil.

11:19 The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a
winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her children.

11:20 Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they
repented not:

11:21 Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works, which were done in
you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.

11:22 But I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment, than for
you.

11:23 And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell: for if the
mighty works, which have been done in thee, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this
day.

11:24 But I say unto you, That it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment,

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than for thee.

11:25 At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because
thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes.

11:26 Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in thy sight.

11:27 All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father;
neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him.

11:28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.

Psa 38:4

The burden that we are bearing is the burden of sin and that burden is on our shoulders

DA 330 The yoke that binds to service is the law of God.

If we take Christ’s yoke upon us, we will go with Christ.

Ps 40:8

Doing God’s will and having His law written in our hearts is one and the same thing.

11:29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest
unto your souls.

When we learn from the school of Christ, we are to learn meekness and humility and then we shall
find rest for our souls.

Principles of true recreation:

DA 361 The rest which Christ and His disciples took was not self-indulgent rest. The time they spent
in retirement was not devoted to pleasure seeking. They talked together regarding the work of God,
and the possibility of bringing greater efficiency to the work.

11:30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

The Christian is called to sacrifice.

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Chapter 12 – The Blind, Dumb Demoniac
Reading
 Desire of Ages – Chapter Come Rest a While
 Desire of Ages – Chapter Who Are My Brethren?

12:1 At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungred,
and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat.

12:2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful
to do upon the sabbath day.

12:3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that
were with him;

12:4 How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to
eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?

12:5 Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the
sabbath, and are blameless?

12:6 But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple.

12:7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have
condemned the guiltless.

12:8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day.

12:9 And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue:

12:10 And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it
lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him.

12:11 And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall
into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out?

12:12 How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath
days.

12:13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored
whole, like as the other.

12:14 Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against him, how they might destroy him.

12:15 But when Jesus knew it, he withdrew himself from thence: and great multitudes followed him, and
he healed them all;

12:16 And charged them that they should not make him known:

12:17 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying,

12:18 Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; my beloved, in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put
my spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgment to the Gentiles.

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12:19 He shall not strive, nor cry; neither shall any man hear his voice in the streets.

12:20 A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send forth
judgment unto victory.

12:21 And in his name shall the Gentiles trust.

12:22 Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb: and he healed him,
insomuch that the blind and dumb both spake and saw.

Who was healed? One possessed with a devil, blind and dumb.

12:23 And all the people were amazed, and said, Is not this the son of David?

12:24 But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub
the prince of the devils.

Contrast the different reactions from the audience?

Matt 12:23-24

The common people were amazed and convicted enough to call Jesus the son of David. What did it
mean for the Jews to call Jesus the son of David?

John 7:42

Christ, the Messiah was to come from the seed of David. The Pharisees (the leaders) accused Jesus
of casting out demons by Beelzebub. NOTE: it was the common people in their simplicity who
believed that Jesus was the Messiah. Those who knew the prophecies condemned him.

12:25 And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is
brought to desolation; and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand:

12:26 And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand?

12:27 And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out? therefore they shall
be your judges.

How does Jesus discredit their thoughts?

Matt 12:25-27

It does not make sense for Satan to use his own name to cast himself out. He may use God’s name in
mockery, but he certainly will not use his own name to do it. If Jesus casts out devils in Beelzebub,
then how about their children, other Jews? They were willing to accept it from other Jews, but not
Jesus.

“They shall be your judges” – the common people who recognized Jesus as son of David were a
rebuke and judgment against the Pharisees. They should greater faith.

12:28 But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you.

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What is another name for the Spirit of God? Why do you think He is given this name?

Luke 11:20

Finger of God. Why? Because He acts as our conscience. Pointing out our sins so that we may repent
(like woman caught in adultery). Also in this case, casting out devils.

12:29 Or else how can one enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the
strong man? and then he will spoil his house.

12:30 He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth abroad.

What will be the actions of those for Jesus vs those against? For Jesus = gathers with Christ,
meaning participates in the gospel commission. Against Jesus = scattereth abroad. Those who do
not participate in the gospel work will eventually participate in pushing others away from Christ.

What sin cannot be forgiven? What is this related to in this encounter?

Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit = speaking against the Holy Spirit. It is related to saying Christ,
the Son of God was of Satan, even though the Pharisees felt the conviction of the Holy Spirit (how do
we know? The common people were convicted that Jesus was the Son of David).

Application: How can we commit the unpardonable sin? One way is to ignore the voice of the Holy
Spirit when He is convicting us of sin and we are convinced. Another way is to ignore the prompting
of the Holy Spirit and accuse the servants of God of being from Beelzebub, or constantly put down
God’s servants, Eg. Continual putting down Ellen White and her writings can lead us to committing
the unpardonable sin if we have been convicted that they are true.

12:31 Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the
blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men.

12:32 And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever
speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world
to come.

12:33 Either make the tree good, and his fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt:
for the tree is known by his fruit.

How can we tell those who are for Christ vs. those against? By their fruit.

What is fruit being related to?

Matt 12:34-37

The words from our mouth, which according to v34 come from the heart.

How important is our tongue? Please explain what the verses are trying to say.

Jam 3:3-6

The tongue is compared to a helm of a ship that controls its direction (v4). It has the ability to defile
the whole body just by what it says (v6).

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Application: Our tongue, the words we speak, help to steer the direction of our heart. If we speak a
lot of vulgar words, our heart will naturally gravitate towards vulgar things. If we are sarcastic with
our words, our heart will naturally criticize people all the time. Many times we think our heart
governs our tongue, but it seems from James 3, that our tongue can influence our heart too. Are
your words pure?

12:34 O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the
heart the mouth speaketh.

12:35 A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things: and an evil man out
of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things.

12:36 But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in
the day of judgment.

12:37 For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.

12:38 Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign
from thee.

What do the Pharisees then ask Jesus to do?

Show a sign. They wanted a miracle. What story does this remind you of? Remember the nobleman
who was also looking for outward proof.

12:39 But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and
there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:

12:40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three
days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

12:41 The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because
they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here.

What was the sign of Jonah? Compare this with Christ’s signs?

Matt 12:39-42

Jesus rebukes the Pharisees for being an evil and adulterous generation. Compare Jonah vs Christ.
Sign of Jonah = his preaching. This is what lead to the Ninevites repentance and conversion. What
was Christ’s sign to the Jews throughout his life? Healing the sick, casting out devils, preaching. And
yet what did the Jews do? They crucified Jesus.

Conclusion: As a result, the Ninevites and the queen of the south will condemn the Jews because
they simply believed on the servant of the Lord’s words. BUT the Jews were sent someone far
greater – The Son of God. And even with signs, wonders and preaching they would not believe.

12:42 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it:
for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a
greater than Solomon is here.

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12:43 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and
findeth none.

12:44 Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth
it empty, swept, and garnished.

12:45 Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they
enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also
unto this wicked generation.

How do we prevent our house from being empty so that it will not be in a worse state than
before?

Matt 12:43-45

Luke 11:24-28

Blessed are they that hear the word and keep it. We must keep the word. What does it mean to
“keep” the Word?

James 1:22-27

To keep the word = To be a doer of the word. What does it mean to be a doer of the word? 1. Bridle
the tongue. Why? We have already read in James 3. 2. Visit the fatherless and widows. Why?
Because true love for God is manifested in love for others and this translates into acts of love.
Fatherless and the widows are the 2 most challenging groups to care for. They need the most love.
A doer of the word puts his belief into action. 3. Keep himself unspotted from the world.

Why is this compared with filling our house? Because after conversion, God expects us to fill our
house with new habits. What kind of habits? Habits of good works listed in James 1:22-26. This will
prevent the demons from coming back. What kind of demons? Demons of our past wicked lives –
addiction of any kind – drugs, partying, alcohol, bad music, pornography. All these are overcome by
believing in Christ and then asking for His help to fill our lives with good habits, which are good
works stated in the Bible. This will keep us busy for the Lord and stop us from missing the ‘old’ life
we have been saved from.

12:46 While he yet talked to the people, behold, his mother and his brethren stood without, desiring to
speak with him.

12:47 Then one said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to speak
with thee.

His brothers heard of this, and also of the charge brought by the Pharisees that He cast out devils
through the power of Satan. They felt keenly the reproach that came upon them through their
relation to Jesus. They knew what a tumult His words and works created, and were not only
alarmed at His bold statements, but indignant at His denunciation of the scribes and Pharisees.
They decided that He must be persuaded or constrained to cease this manner of labor, and they
induced Mary to unite with them, thinking that through His love for her they might prevail upon
Him to be more prudent.

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It seems that Jesus’ brothers were older than Him. So this could be Joseph’s second marriage.

Matt 12:31

Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost is rejecting the promptings of the Holy Spirit unto repentance.

Matt 12:36

It’s very easy to say something you didn’t mean, but you start believing it anyways.

12:48 But he answered and said unto him that told him, Who is my mother? and who are my brethren?

12:49 And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my
brethren!

12:50 For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and
sister, and mother.

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Chapter 13 – Parables on the Kingdom
13:1 The same day went Jesus out of the house, and sat by the sea side.

13:2 And great multitudes were gathered together unto him, so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the
whole multitude stood on the shore.

As Jesus was sitting in the ship He saw all types of people: lawyers, doctors, partisans, merchants,
politicians, carpenters, farmers, tax collectors, fathers, mothers, etc. And He isn’t moved by the
external display. As He looks at this vast multitude of people He has one question in mind. “How do
they receive my words?” How do they respond to the Word of God? And because He is more than
just a man and has the ability to read hearts, He separates the multitude into four categories.

Four different types of hearts

Matt 13:2 …great multitudes…whole multitude.

Matt 13:3-9 – Multitude divided into 4 grounds: Wayside, stony, thorny, and good ground. App:
Every time the word of God goes forth there are four categories. Each of us is in one of these
categories. We want to believe I am a good ground hearer, but we would be naïve to believe that.

Matt 13:10-11, 13, 15 …mysteries of the kingdom…

This parable describes the mysterious working of God upon different types of hearts, and how come
they receive or reject the truth. In other words, I am speaking this parable to them because of the
condition of their hearts. And Jesus is warning them.

Prophetic in nature

Matt 13:13-14 ...in them is fulfilled the prophecy…

Who are them? The multitudes.

“prophecy” – The parable is prophetic in nature. At that time the multitude was fulfilling prophecy.
App: Many times we talk about what is about to take place in the future, but do you know we are
fulfilling prophecy now! The way you respond to the Word of God every time you hear it
determines how prophecy is being fulfilled.

Acts 13:26-27 …they have fulfilled [them] in condemning [him]…

Note: Parable also represents the condition of the church just prior to the Second Coming of Jesus.
Which Prophecy?

Isa 6:8-11

Prophesy until the land be desolate

Isa 6:9 …hear ye indeed…

[margin without ceasing] they are continually hearing. How long?

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Isa 6:11

Until the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon. (type of world). App: keep telling them, maybe
someone will listen. How long does God have. To keep sending people to tell us get your home right,
etc.
Conclusion/Appeal

Matt 13:16

Blessing two (show one today)

Mark 4:12

Perceive, understand, convert, sins forgiven. Blessing is that your sins will be forgiven. There are
conditions: Seeing, hearing, conversion, forgiveness of sins. Must meet the conditions to have the
full blessing. Tell me, how do you respond to the Word of God? He that hath ears to hear let him
hear.

Part 2: The farmer in this parable is planting field run crops. He is not planting raised bed crops.
There are a few differences with each. Field run crops are grown outdoors in soil that is not heavily
modified. While raised bed crops are grown in soils that are heavily modified. Those crops have the
advantage of receiving all the necessary nutrients in the soil. They have the right minerals, vitamins,
better moisture, pest control and climate control. Not so with the field run crops. They have
seasonal vagaries; they are susceptible to pests, climate, and weeds. And in this parable each
ground has an antagonist. The wayside is overcome by pests, the stony ground is overcome by
climate, and the thorny ground is over come by weeds. Only one survives.

Every ground has an antagonist (Represents those in the church)

Matt 13:3-9

Main objective is to bring forth fruit. Every stage in the development is stifled, except for the good
ground. Wayside germinates and is snatched; Stony ground spring up, has not root and withers
away; Thorny ground germinates, has root, and right when it is about to bring forth fruit it is
choked. Good ground endures all three and brings forth fruit.

Matt 13:19

Wayside & Wicked One

Luke 8:5

Human agencies and supernatural agencies are used to take away the Word. (people trying to force
truth, parents criticizing, friends coming and distracting from the message). The person gets
discouraged and is devoured up.

Matt 13:20-21

Stony place & the Sun. This person is very impulsive. This person doesn’t allow the fowls to
discourage him. But when persecution comes they can’t handle it

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Matt 13:21 …not root…

Col 2:6-7 Rooted and built p in him, and stablished in the faith.

They live by feelings instead of faith.

Matt 13:22

Seed in the Thorns. This person are able to dodge the fowls, don’t distract me, don’t take away the
Word from me. I don’t care if you persecute me for what I believe.

Mark 4:7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.

Luke 8:7 …the thorns sprang up with it.

Both the crop and the thorns are growing together.

1 Pet 1:23 Being born again...seed…word of God.

Is this the same seed as the parable of the sower? Yes

1 Pet 2:1-2

Milk = doctrines, they can explain with accuracy.

1 Pet 2:3

Gracious. How? V.1 All have to do with the heart. Thorny ground hearers have experienced the
grace of God. But they are not cultivating that grace. These are the weeds!

Matt 13:23

Seed bears fruit 30, 60, 100. They all endure the fowls, sun, and weeds.

Luke 8:15 …heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience”

Who does this refer to?

Rev 14:12 Here is the patience…

It is speaking about the 144,000. They endured the previous condition of each ground.

Mark 4:29 But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the
harvest is come.

When does this take place?

Rev 14:15 Thrust in thy sickle, and reap: for the time is come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the
earth is ripe.

Conclusion

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Jas 5:7 Behold, the husbandman waiteth precious fruit of the earth”

Appeal: Is this your condition, maybe you are a wayside, stony, or thorny ground hearer, but God
says I am waiting on you. His arms outstretched come to me. I will give you the early rain. That is
the working of grace in the heart and life. It is power to bear forth fruit, and then He’ll give the latter
rain so you will be complete.

COL 33 By the parable of the sower, Christ illustrates the things of the kingdom of heaven, and the
work of the great Husbandman for His people. Like a sower in the field, He came to scatter the
heavenly grain of truth. And His parable teaching itself was the seed with which the most precious
truths of His grace were sown. Because of its simplicity the parable of the sower has not been
valued as it should be. From the natural seed cast into the soil, Christ desires to lead our minds to
the gospel seed, the sowing of which results in bringing man back to his loyalty to God. He who gave
the parable of the tiny seed is the Sovereign of heaven, and the same laws that govern earthly seed
sowing govern the sowing of the seeds of truth.

Part 3: Jesus presented the parable as a warning to those who were listening because He knew what
would take place in the future.

Represents the condition of the church prior to the Second Coming

Luke 8:5

Wayside “trodden down” by who?

Lk 21:20, 24 …Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the gentiles…

If you continue to be a wayside hearer you will perish when Jerusalem is destroyed. For us that
represents the end of the world.

Matt 13:20-21 …stony places…offended…

Matt 24:10

Many in the church will be offended. They are stony ground hearers. They are over come by false
Christ’s and false prophets because they rely on their feelings and emotions instead of faith. And
persecution causes them to fall away.

Matt 13:22 …thorns…care of this world…

Lk 21:34 …hearts…cares of this life…

Thorny ground hearer overtaken by the day of the Lord.

Rom 13:12-14 …day is at hand…put on the armour of light”

1 Thes 5:4-8 …day should overtake you..breastplate of faith and love…

Note: Thorny ground hearers started out well, they escaped the fowls, endured persecution, and then
they got weary, they fell asleep because His coming seemed so far away. They got weighed down with
the cares of this life, they got drunk, they lost the armor, and made provision for the flesh.

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Matt 13:23 …good ground…beareth fruit….

Eph 5:9 …fruit of the Spirit [is] in all goodness and righteousness…

Picture of the Second Coming. What is He reaping? Fruit (144,000 called first fruits)

Majority will not go to heaven. PA: I realized I have been on all three grounds. 75% that I would not
make it. Same with the church because this shows their condition before the Second Coming. The
majority won’t make it.

Matt 7:13-14, 20-21

Many take the road to destruction, Few find road to life.

Con/Appeal. Sounds I want to hear

Isa 11:8 And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his
hand on the cockatrice' den.

Zech 8:4-5 …streets of Jerusalem..boys and girls playing…

EW 19 Mount Zion was just before us, and on the mount was a glorious temple, and about it were
seven other mountains, on which grew roses and lilies. And I saw the little ones climb, or, if they
chose, use their little wings and fly, to the top of the mountains and pluck the never-fading flowers.

Is 30:26 Moon as bright as the sun, sun sevenfold brighter.

See God face to face. God is waiting on us. We can only have this if we are ready. Do you want this
experience.

13:3 And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow;

EGW: says if you understand this parable, it will help you understand all other parables.

Why?
Luke 8:11

Matt 13:19

When we study parables, we have to first define the symbols that are being used. In Matthew it is
assumed that the seed is the Word of God. Why a seed though? Inside of a seed is life. The seed has
to die and has to find the right conditions.

1 Thes 2:13

The Word of God has power. It has self fulfilling power.

Matt 13:22

This plant being described does not die. It springs up but just does not bear fruit. What is fruit in the
Bible?

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Gal 5:22

Fruit of the Spirit

Prov 11:30-31

Parallel for the righteous is wise. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. So a righteous
man is a wise man. Winning souls is a fruit of the righteous. The primary reason of this parable is
about winning souls.

Matt 13:8

13:4 And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way side, and the fowls came and devoured them up:

13:5 Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because
they had no deepness of earth:

13:6 And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away.

13:7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them:

13:8 But other fell into good ground, and brought forth fruit, some an hundredfold, some sixtyfold, some
thirtyfold.

13:9 Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.

13:10 And the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables?

Why did Jesus speak in parables?

Matt 13:11-15

To reveal the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. Because they did not understand spiritual things.
To keep the truth from the enemy only those that had spiritual discernment could understand

13:11 He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the
kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given.

13:12 For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath
not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath.

13:13 Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not,
neither do they understand.

13:14 And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not
understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive:

13:15 For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have
closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand
with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.

13:16 But blessed are your eyes, for they see: and your ears, for they hear.

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13:17 For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things
which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.

13:18 Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower.

13:19 When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked
one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. This is he which received seed by the way side.

Who does the sower represent?

Matt 13:37

The Son of Man What does the ground and seed represent?

Matthew 13:19

Luke 8:11

“Ground” – heart

“Seed” – The Word of the God

What is the common characteristic in all the groups of people? They all hear the Word of God What
does the four different grounds represent, give Bible texts? Sown by the wayside

Matt 13:19

Hears the word of God. Understands it not. Then Satan (the wicked one) comes by takes the words
out of their hearts. Sown on the stony place

Matt 13:20, 21

Luke 8:13

Hears the word, receives it joyfully. Has no root. Believe for a while and when temptation comes
they fall away. Sown on thorny ground

Matt 13:22

Luke 8:14

Hears the word. Thorns choking seed = Cares of this world, deceitfulness of riches, and pleasures of
this life choke the Word. Becomes unfruitful, brings no fruit. Sown on good ground

Matt 13:23

Luke 8:15

Hears the word. Understands it. In an honest and good heart hear the word and keep it. Bares and
produces much fruit with patience. According to Scripture what does it mean when someone hears
the Word of God?

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Rom 10:17

They all have faith. Who else in the bible has faith and what lesson can we learn for that?

Jas 2:19, 20

The devils and believe and tremble. It is not enough to have faith, we must have faith that works.
Good ground contains manure, what does that mean if we want to have good ground?

Phil 3:8

Count ourselves as dung will be good ground for the Word of God to produce fruit in our lives.
According to the parable how can we bring forth fruit? Hear, understand—have faith. Produce
works. We must have a faith that works. What does it mean to have a root experience?

Eph 3:17

Col 2:6-7

Root is in a dark place, no light, all by itself – means that our root experience needs to be personal,
nobody around, our own private devotion lives is important for us being rooted in Christ. We are to
be rooted and grounded in love. We are to be rooted in Christ and established in the faith

Summarize: There are 4 groups of people. One that hears the truth but doesn’t understand it and
losses interest and no fruit produced. Another group receives the truth but has no deep root so
when trials come they fall out of the faith. Another group receives the truth but the cares and
pleasures of the world take priority in the life and the people becomes unfruitful in the truth. The
last group has a honest and good heart when he hears and understand the truth, that he keeps the
truth and produces much fruit
Which group are you? In order for us to produce fruit we must: Have a faith that works, its not
enough to believe; we are to understand, believe and keep the words we hear. He are to count
ourselves as nothing. We must have a personal experience with Jesus (root experience). We are to
be grounded in Christ, in His love.

13:20 But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon
with joy receiveth it;

13:21 Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth
because of the word, by and by he is offended.

13:22 He also that received seed among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this
world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful.

13:23 But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it;
which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty.

Sower and Wheat & Tares (Must go together). Sower covers from the gospel seed up to 2nd Coming.
Wheat and tares covers from gospel seed to end of the millennium. Wheat and tares defines what
type of seed was used in previous parable. Wheat and tares focuses on the good ground and moves
forward.

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Wheat, Tares, and Servants

Matt 13:24-26 …good ground…forth fruit…

Explains good ground in previous parable. Wheat seed is what the previous farmer wanted to
produce

Matt 13:27-30

Focus on the attitude of the Servants. Servants = Front line workers. Wheat & Tares =
church
members.

Wheat & Tares

Matt 13:38 …children of the kingdom…children of the wicked one”

Children of the kingdom V.43 “righteous” (no iniquity, don’t offend).

Eph 1:4,7 Holy and without blame, live by Grace.

Rom 8:14 Led by the Spirit.

Children of the wicked one (devil) V.41 do iniquity and offend. 1 John 3:9-12 Seed remain in. Love
their brother.

Note: Tares have all the characteristics of the previous 3 grounds. Wicked one. Where did he get his
children? Wayside. All things that offend? Stony ground. Children of wicked one have problem with
lusts. Thorny ground.

Con/Appeal:

1 Jn 3:10 …loveth not his brother…

13:24 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man
which sowed good seed in his field:

13:25 But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way.

1. What do these represent? (give Bible text)


o Sower = son of man (V37)
o Enemy = devil (V39)
o Good seed = children of the kingdom (V38)
 Seed = Word of God (Luke 8:11)
o Tares = children of the wicked one (V38)
o Field = this world (V38)
 Specifically in the world where the Christian are. The church.

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o Harvest = the end of this world (V40)
o Reapers = Angels (V39)
2. Why is the kingdom of heaven likened to a man that sows good seed?
o Christ sought to turn their thoughts from the hope of an earthly kingdom to
heavenly kingdom.
3. What does the Bible say about the children of the kingdom Vs the children of the wicked
one?
o Children of the kingdom
 Converted (Mat 18:3)
o Children of the wicked one
 I John 3:8-24
4. When will the tares appear, and what makes the difference?
o The tares will not be recognized until wheat has sprung up and brought forth fruit
o That means the tares will grow together with the wheat and it will look just like the
wheat before the wheat has brought forth fruit
5. What do “blade was sprung up”, and “brought forth fruit” mean, and what do they
represent?
o “Blade was sprung up” means it is growing (Mark 4:26-28)
o After the seed is sown, there is a growing time taking place before its fruits appear.
o When we receive the word of God in our heart, we start growing spiritually. And
there may not be fruits right away, but there will come a point, when every
individual will bring forth his fruits.
o After we have received the Word of God. We shall produce fruits in 2 ways:
 Fruit of the spirit (Gal 5:22)
 One who is winning souls (Pro 11:30)
6. What did the servants ask, and what did they want to do?
o They asked why there were tares. Because they knew that only the good seed were
sown, but there were tares among the wheat in the field.
o The servants wanted to pluck the tares out.
7. Why can’t the tares be plucked, and how can it apply to us?
o Because both wheat and tares’ roots are intertwined together. If the tare is plucked
up, the root of the wheat will be injured
o If one of our family members committed a sin and God plucked him out of the
church right away, what will happen to our faith? It will shake. Right? God will not
judge His church right away because He gives us time and opportunity to change.
 Examples: God did not destroy Satan right away (optional)
8. When is the separation of wheat and tares taking place, and what does it represent?

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o In the harvest = end of the world
o In the end of the world, wheat and tares, righteous and wicked, will be separated.
The righteous will be gathered and those that do iniquity will be burned in the fire(V
39-43)
 Hell fire is not taking place right now.
9. Based upon the answer in question 8, what should we be expecting in our church today and
what should we do?
o Since the separation will not take place until the 2nd coming of Jesus or the close of
probation for God’s church, then we will have 2 groups of Christians in our church,
wheat and tares.
o Humanly speaking, there is no way that we can tell who is the wheat and who are
the tares outwardly in our church. And it is really not our job to try to find out who
is the wheat and who are the tares, because we can’t read people’s thoughts or
hearts. Therefore we can’t judge people outwardly
o There are people who you will never know what they will become when they are
converted.
 Example: one the preacher used to have different colors of hair and tattoos
all over, but after conversion, he is a great preacher (optional)
 So if we see someone who doesn’t look like wheat to us, what we can do is to
pray for him.
10. How does this parable relate to the parable of sower?
o The parable of the sower reveals the 4 conditions of the hearts.
 Way side, stony ground, thorny place, and good ground.
o Out of these 4 conditions of the heart, they can be divided into 2 groups. First, the
seed of the word of God will grow in their hearts and bring forth fruits. Second, the
seed of the word of God will grow and die with no fruits or it will not grow at all.
11. How do I know if I am wheat? And what should I do if I am a tare?
o When the wheat grows, we will see fruit (V26)
o If we know that we are not wheat, does that mean we are hopeless? No
 if any man [be] in Christ, [he is] a new creature (II Cor 5:17)
 Christ alone can help us to have a complete character transformation. And
he alone can help us to be fruitful.
13:26 But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also.

13:27 So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in
thy field? from whence then hath it tares?

13:28 He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go
and gather them up?

13:29 But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them.

13:30 Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers,

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Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my
barn.

13:31 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of
mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field:

What is the common lesson that Jesus is trying to illustrate in all these parables?

He is trying to illustrate the kingdom of Heaven

What must we first understand?

Matt 6:33

We must first seek the kingdom of God

What is the kingdom of heaven?

Luke 17:20-21

Kingdom of God is in you

Rom 14:17

Kingdom of God is righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost. How can we receive the
Kingdom of Heaven?

Matt 12:28

Luke 8:1-2

Luke 10:9

We must have devils cast out of us

Healing

Matt 21:43

Gal 5:22-25

Fruits of the spirit

How can we share the Kingdom of Heaven?

Matt 10:7-8

13:32 Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and
becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.

What are the details brought out in the parable of the mustard seed?
Least of all seeds, when grown is the greatest among herbs, becomes a tree and birds of the air

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come and lodge in it

What does a seed represent?

Luke 8:11

Word of God

What does a tree represent?

Psa 1:3, 6

Righteous man

What application can we draw from this and how does this help us to understand more the
kingdom of heaven? The growth of a Christian is brought out. It begins with faith through studying
the word of God (Rom 10:17). It begins in a humble manner in the soil where no one can see it.
Greatness/success is not measured by the stature of a man but his faith and dependence on God.
Only then will God exalt man.

13:33 Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman
took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.

What is leaven?

Matt 16:6-12

Luke 12:1

1 Cor 5:6-8

Is this leaven in the parable representative of good or bad things? GOOD

How does it apply to those that are preparing for the kingdom of Heaven? Leaven cannot be
seen and so growth in God takes place in the heart. Illustrate it being opposite to what was read in
question 11 – that is the principles of heaven – opposite to hypocrisy. Ask them what is opposite to
hypocrisy.

What is the common illustration of the mustard seed and leaven? They both are hidden. One in
the earth, the other in the bread.

Matt 13:33

Leaven in the Bible is a symbol of sin. But here leaven represents something spiritual.

1 Thes 2:13

So the leaven in the parable represents God’s word. Leaven in reality is a form of bacteria. When it
goes inside of something it eats the sugar and then produces carbon dioxide to make it rise. It was
his in three measures of meal .

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1 Thes 5:23

This represents a person, physical, mental, and spiritual.

13:34 All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not
unto them:

Jesus and Parables


Why did Jesus use parables?

Matt 13:34

Eg. “The kingdom of Heaven is like…” Jesus always came down to their level to help them
understand. Helps them bridge from the unknown to the known.

The Parables
1. Define the symbols first.

13:35 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in
parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world.

13:36 Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him,
saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field.

13:37 He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man;

13:38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children
of the wicked one;

13:39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are
the angels.

13:40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world.

When do the tares spring up? After the wheat has brought forth fruit. When Jesus taught parables,
they were full of meaning. When you study a parable never pass over anything as unimportant.
Everything that He gave was significant.

Matt 13:24-29

There are 2 groups, the man that sowed the seed and the servant. Define the symbols:

COL 70 (Chapter called “Tares”)

What does the field represent in the Bible?

Matt 13:37-38

It represents the world. In this world, where is God’s people to grow in the church

COL 70 “The field," Christ said, "is the world." But we must understand this as signifying the church
of Christ in the world. The parable is a description of that which pertains to the kingdom of God, His

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work of salvation of men; and this work is accomplished through the church. True, the Holy Spirit has
gone out into all the world; everywhere it is moving upon the hearts of men; but it is in the church
that we are to grow and ripen for the garner of God.

When will the church be purified? At the harvest at the second coming. So in the church, do we
expect there to be tares? Of course! Always until the end of time. Why does God say we should not
uproot the tares? None of us are given the work of uprooting the tares. We can’t tell on the surface.
Only God knows. Tares and wheat look the same. Growing side by side, the roots will be
intertwined. If He does it any sooner, He would lose a lot more than just the tares. Hell fire is at the
end of the millennium – verse 40. This clearly states that the destruction of the wicked are at the
end of the world. Eg: Laborer Union in bound to be burn. This parable is always used in Hell Fire
evangelistic sermons.

13:41 The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that
offend, and them which do iniquity;

13:42 And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

13:43 Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to
hear, let him hear.

13:44 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath
found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field.

What does the treasure represent: Treasure—the gospel

Prov 2:2-4

1 Cor 1:18-21

Rom 1:16

Col 2:3

Wisdom and knowledge

What is wisdom and knowledge compared to as?

Eccl 7:11, 12

John 14:6

Life – eternal life. Jesus

What does the field represent, that we may find Jesus and have eternal life?

John 5:39

The scriptures

How can we get this wisdom?

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1 Cor 1:30

Col 1:27

We have to be in Christ

How can we have Christ in us?

Gal 2:20

Where do we find the treasure in the field, where do we find the gospel?

John 5:39

In the Scriptures. Therefore the field = the Scriptures. How can we practically “sell all that we
have”?

Phil 3:7, 8

Counting everything loss

Mark 10:21

Rich young ruler. Take up the cross. Follow Christ. What was this man’s heart in? Make
application,

Matt 6:21

In the treasure, in the gospel it was on Christ. Main point of the Hidden treasure: Teaches us the
value of the heavenly treasure (the gospel) and the effort that should be made to secure it

What is the major difference between these 2 stories? Similarities: Something is being bought and
in both cases, that which is being bought is obscure. Both are talking about the kingdom of Heaven.
Everything is sold.

Difference: Second man – he seeks for goodly pearls. First man – he stumbled across it by accident.
Pearls were the single most valuable item in Jesus’ day. Today we can’t put our finger on what is the
most valuable thing in the world. But everyone is seekers. Everyone has different things which are
valuable to them. A pearl in the Bible represents Jesus – it is the pinnacle of perfection. The pearl is
the only type of precious thing which you don’t have to modify, to cut to make it better.

13:45 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls:

From the previous parable what does the Pearl represent? Pearl—Jesus Christ (Col. 2:3). What does
the merchant man represent. The class of people who were sincerely desiring truth. Why did Christ
use the parable of the hidden treasure and pearl? What are their similarities/differences? Both are
to teach us the value of the truth and how precious Christ is. Also how much effort we are to put in
to securing this treasure/Christ. Similarities/Differences: One man was going through a field one
day and came across the treasure, while the other parable the man was actually seeking for goodly
pearls and he found one of great price. Represent two groups of people that find Christ/truth, one
came across the truth by searching the other was just plowing and came across by accident. Main

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point of the Pearl: We are to giving everything that we have to receive the Pearl/Christ. However
this parable also shows Christ (merchantman) seeking His lost inheritance, that pearl of price was
lost humanity, which Christ came to seek.

What does the Bible regard as a great price?

1 Pet 3:4

Meek and quiet spirit

How can we get this pearl of great price?

Matt 11:28-29

We must go to Jesus

What is the difference between the man with the treasure and the man with the pearl? The
man with the treasure – he wasn’t looking for it, he stumbled upon it. The man with the pearl – he
was seeking for that pearl.

What is the similarity between the two? Both sold all that they had for what they found

How can we sell all that we have and what does it mean?

Mark 10:28-30

Mark 8:34-37

To deny ourselves and give up everything for the cause of Christ

How often do we need to apply this principle and why? How is it applicable to us today?

Luke 9:23

This parable can have dual application. The merchant can be us or Jesus. Jesus came from afar
looking for goodly pearls. What did Jesus sell in order to save man? He veiled divinity with
humanity. The merchant was searching for a goodly pearl.

1 Pet 3:4 …a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price.

How pearl is form. A piece of sand that irritate in the oyster, then it will form pearl from that
irritating piece. Why is the pearl as described as being of a great price? In heaven, it says that the
gates are of one pearl (Rev 21:21). Only those that have overcome sin in this life and formed the
character of Christ, only they will get into heaven.

13:46 Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.

13:47 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every
kind:

What does the fish represent? People. Jesus said I will make you fishers of men. What is the

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gathering at the end of time? What is the net? The net is the gospel that will gather the people at the
end of time. Why is the time up? Because every fish has been caught in the net. All the gospel has
been preached and every fish has made a decision. That does not mean that everybody will be
saved. How to become a good fish? If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature.

2 Cor 5:17

What does the following represent: Casting of the net—is the preaching of the gospel.What does the
net represent?What does this parable teach us about who are in church?There will be good and bad
in the church . This reminds us of the parable of the wheat and tares.The wicked with only be
destroyed after the judgment Main point of the Net: That the gospel will be preached and both good
and evil will be in the church

Who uses a net? Fishermen

What does a fisherman represent?

Matt 4:18-20

Disciples of Christ. What does a disciple of Christ use to fish for men?

Mark 1:15

Mark 16:15-16, 20

13:48 Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but
cast the bad away.

13:49 So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from
among the just,

13:50 And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

13:51 Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord.

13:52 Then said he unto them, Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is
like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.

There is a householder, a house with treasures. Luke 15, 16 has concurrent parables.

13:53 And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence.

13:54 And when he was come into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, insomuch that
they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works?

13:55 Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses,
and Simon, and Judas?

13:56 And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things?

13:57 And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, save in
his own country, and in his own house.

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13:58 And he did not many mighty works there because of their unbelief.

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Chapter 14 – Feeding of the Five thousand
Reading
Desire of Ages – Chapter Give Ye Them to Eat.

14:1 At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus,

14:2 And said unto his servants, This is John the Baptist; he is risen from the dead; and therefore mighty
works do shew forth themselves in him.

14:3 For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his
brother Philip's wife.

14:4 For John said unto him, It is not lawful for thee to have her.

14:5 And when he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a
prophet.

14:6 But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased
Herod.

14:7 Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask.

14:8 And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger.

14:9 And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he
commanded it to be given her.

14:10 And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison.

14:11 And his head was brought in a charger, and given to the damsel: and she brought it to her mother.

14:12 And his disciples came, and took up the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus.

14:13 When Jesus heard of it, he departed thence by ship into a desert place apart: and when the people
had heard thereof, they followed him on foot out of the cities.

Where did Jesus retreat with his disciples?

By ship to a desert place to rest a while. This means that Jesus and His disciples were tired from
their labors and wanted some relaxation time.

What happened when the people heard Jesus had gone?

John 6:2

Because they had seen the miracles Jesus had performed and probably others wanted His help.

How did Jesus react when He saw the people? Why? How can we have compassion on others?

Mark 6:34

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He had compassion on the people. Why? Because the people looked like sheep without a shepherd.
How can we have compassion on others? Learn to see others as Christ saw them – sheep without a
shepherd. They also decided to follow.

14:14 And Jesus went forth, and saw a great multitude, and was moved with compassion toward them,
and he healed their sick.

How did Jesus show compassion? What can we learn from this?

Jesus showed his compassion through the following things.

Matt 14:14

He healed the sick.

Mark 6:34

He taught them many things.

Luke 9:11

He spake unto them of the kingdom of God, and healed them that had need of healing.

Application: We can show Christian compassion to others by: 1. Teaching and preaching the
kingdom of God. 2. Healing the sick NOTE: these are the 2 most important lines of gospel work that
Christ did without fail wherever He went. These 2 are the most effective methods that we can share
Christ with others.

14:15 And when it was evening, his disciples came to him, saying, This is a desert place, and the time is
now past; send the multitude away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves victuals.

What did the disciples ask Jesus to do at the end of the day? Why? Can you relate?

They asked Jesus to let the people go. Why? The disciples were probably tired from the day’s work,
irritated that the people had taken away their private time, hungry themselves. They just did not
want to entertain people. Can you relate? Do you sometimes feel this way? Especially after your day
of work (which isn’t even maybe gospel work?) – too tired to feed the sheep?

14:16 But Jesus said unto them, They need not depart; give ye them to eat.

What was Jesus response to the disciples?

He asked the disciples to feed the crowd. The sequence of the order of the bread and how it reached
the people: It went from: Jesus, to the Disciples, then to the People. Christ will continue to supply as
you are providing the bread to others.

14:17 And they say unto him, We have here but five loaves, and two fishes.

How did the disciples react? What evidence had Christ given them to react otherwise?

John 6:5-9

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They doubted their ability to feed everyone. NOTE: their description of the meal – “small fishes”.
They were saying to Jesus, look how little resources we have. How are we going to feed everyone?
Reason to react this way: They did not have enough resources.

Christ’s evidence to react otherwise: Remember, what had Jesus been doing all day? Healing the
sick. Weren’t these miracles? How could the disciples have witnessed such an occurrence all around
them, and yet doubt the resources and ability to fulfill Christ’s command to them.

Application – How does this apply to us? Sometimes we feel that as long as we have helped the sick
or taught Bible studies, this should be enough – like the disciples we say let the people find their
own food, haven’t we helped them enough?
God’s people are sometimes much better at giving spiritual food, but lack the compassion and love
necessary to provide physically for others.

14:18 He said, Bring them hither to me.

14:19 And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the grass, and took the five loaves, and the two
fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake, and gave the loaves to his disciples, and the
disciples to the multitude.

14:20 And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the fragments that remained twelve
baskets full.

What did Jesus do next? What can we learn from the order in which Christ distributed the
food?

Matt 14:18-20

1. Jesus asked the disciples to bring the loaves and fishes to Him.
o Application – if you feel that you have too little resources to help others, bring them to
Christ and He will provide for you and them.
2. Jesus prayed for the blessing on the food.
3. Jesus broke the bread and fishes and gave it to the disciples, and the disciples gave it to the
people.
4. Everyone was filled.

Question – what is the order that the bread is distributed? Christ > Disciples > lost sheep.

Spiritual Application – what spiritual application can we learn from this? Christ distributes His
word through His people, who are then to take it to others. This should be the structure for
outreach and evangelism – the apostles / evangelists / pastors are to train the church members –
especially those that are newly baptized, the more experienced should work with the less
experienced to reach those who have never heard the truth.

What does bread represent? And what are we to do with the bread according to this story?

John 6:35

Jesus = Bread of Life.

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Matt 4:4

Bread = Word of God. Therefore, Jesus, the Bread of Life is found in God’s word. What is His
promise? If we go to Him, we will never hunger or thirst. If you have received from Christ, the living
Bread today, what are we to do with Him? Share Him, distribute Him to the crowd so that they may
be filled.

How many baskets were left over? What was Jesus trying to teach the disciples and us?

Matt 14:20

John 10:10

How many baskets left over? 12. How many disciples were there? 12. So there would have been 1
basket for each disciple. Christ wanted to not only show he could provide for each of the five
thousand and the disciples, but that there would be more than enough left over. Application – a life
in Christ is a life in abundance. When we follow God’s command, He will not only take care of our
needs, but will give us more than we need.

Compare and contrast the 3 different groups in this story. Which group might you belong to?
1. The crowd – desiring to be with Jesus, sheep without shepherd.
2. Disciples – helpers of Christ, wanting the people to leave by the evening, tired of helping.
3. Jesus – had compassion on the people, teaching and healing the sick, desiring also to feed
them physically.

Which group do you belong to? Discuss. Encourage sharing testimony.

According to this story, what does it mean when Christ asked Peter (and us) to feed His
sheep in John 21:15-17?

Feed my sheep. What does this include?

1. Sharing God’s word – spiritual food (Luke 9:11)


2. Healing the sick – health message (Luke 9:11)
3. most important from this study – feeding people physical food.

Many times we neglect the work of hospitality.

14:21 And they that had eaten were about five thousand men, beside women and children.

14:22 And straightway Jesus constrained his disciples to get into a ship, and to go before him unto the
other side, while he sent the multitudes away.

14:23 And when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a mountain apart to pray: and when
the evening was come, he was there alone.

14:24 But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, tossed with waves: for the wind was contrary.

14:25 And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea.

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14:26 And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and
they cried out for fear.

14:27 But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid.

14:28 And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water.

Why didn’t Peter just step out? Peter knew that if Jesus told Him to come, He would make it
possible. All of Christ’s biddings are sure. He enables us to do that which He asks. Obedience to the
law of God is impossible except only through faith. If we lose our focus on Jesus Christ, we will not
be able to walk by faith.

14:29 And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go
to Jesus.

Jesus and Peter walking on the water

Matt 14:22-33

Why did Peter ask Jesus before walking out on the water? Jesus said “Come”. Peter knew that if
Jesus said so, it will be done. All Jesus’ biddings are enabling. What made walking on the water
possible? The Word of God. Faith does the impossible. If God promises something, then it is
possible. Peter was familiar with water (Peter knew how to swim) and knew that it was not
possible to walk on water. But when Jesus said Come, he knew it was possible by faith. With the
power of God’s Word, we can do it. Carnal heart can’t do it, but God can do it for us. When we take
our eyes of Jesus, we lose our faith. The waves went in between. What gets us away from God?
Seeing the fault of others (murmuring). By seeing the fault of others, we fall easily. When we do, we
started to sink. The prayer that Peter prayed: “Lord, Help me!” God will be more than happy to help
you!

14:30 But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord,
save me.

14:31 And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little
faith, wherefore didst thou doubt?

14:32 And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased.

14:33 Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of
God.

14:34 And when they were gone over, they came into the land of Gennesaret.

14:35 And when the men of that place had knowledge of him, they sent out into all that country round
about, and brought unto him all that were diseased;

14:36 And besought him that they might only touch the hem of his garment: and as many as touched
were made perfectly whole.

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Chapter 15
15:1 Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem, saying,

15:2 Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they
eat bread.

15:3 But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your
tradition?

15:4 For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and mother: and, He that curseth father or mother,
let him die the death.

15:5 But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest
be profited by me;

Jesus fulfilled His role as a son on the cross. He gave His mother to the care of John (the disciple
whom Jesus loved). Our duty to our parents, it doesn’t matter how old you get. Jesus asked John to
take care of his mother, this act is an example for us. It doesn’t matter whether they have made
mistakes or not, we must honor them as much as we can within the laws of God.

15:6 And honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye made the commandment of
God of none effect by your tradition.

Matt 16:6, 12

The traditions and commandments of men is the doctrines of the Pharisees and Sadducees. It can be
related to false doctrines in the Bible. If you add leaven to wine (fresh grape juice), what happens, it
becomes alcohol. Wine represents doctrines in the Bible. If the whole world drinks the wine from
the whore that makes them drunk (it is fermented). A error that will mix with God’s
commandments, the Sunday law.

15:7 Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying,

15:8 This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their
heart is far from me.

15:9 But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.

15:10 And he called the multitude, and said unto them, Hear, and understand:

15:11 Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this
defileth a man.

15:12 Then came his disciples, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, after
they heard this saying?

15:13 But he answered and said, Every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be
rooted up.

15:14 Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into
the ditch.

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15:15 Then answered Peter and said unto him, Declare unto us this parable.

15:16 And Jesus said, Are ye also yet without understanding?

15:17 Do not ye yet understand, that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth goeth into the belly, and is
cast out into the draught?

15:18 But those things which proceed out of the mouth come forth from the heart; and they defile the
man.

15:19 For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness,
blasphemies:

15:20 These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man.

15:21 Then Jesus went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon.

15:22 And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have
mercy on me, O Lord, thou Son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.

This woman was not a Jew. And because she was not a Jew, they basically looked down on those
that weren’t Jews. Jesus acted towards her that would teach forever a lesson to the disciples about
prejudice. How did she know about Jesus? She heard about Him. Her faith began to grow when she
heard about Jesus whom healed diseases no one else could cure. People come to Jesus either first or
last choice. Jarius’ daughter they came first, they had faith. Woman with an issue of blood she came
last. After all hope runs out, then they come to Jesus.

15:23 But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away;
for she crieth after us.

15:24 But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

15:25 Then came she and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me.

If Jesus does not answer our prayers, we must plead even more to Jesus. The woman who goes to
the Judge, she pleads until the judge does something.

15:26 But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs.

He didn’t answer her to treat her like how the other Jews treat her. He was acting out what He
never wanted them to do.

DA 401 The woman urged her case with increased earnestness, bowing at Christ's feet, and crying,
"Lord, help me." Jesus, still apparently rejecting her entreaties, according to the unfeeling prejudice
of the Jews, answered, "It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs." This was
virtually asserting that it was not just to lavish the blessings brought to the favored people of God
upon strangers and aliens from Israel. This answer would have utterly discouraged a less earnest
seeker. But the woman saw that her opportunity had come. Beneath the apparent refusal of Jesus, she
saw a compassion that He could not hide. "Truth, Lord," she answered, "yet the dogs eat of the
crumbs which fall from their masters' table." While the children of the household eat at the father's
table, even the dogs are not left unfed. They have a right to the crumbs that fall from the table
abundantly supplied. So while there were many blessings given to Israel, was there not also a
blessing for her? She was looked upon as a dog, and had she not then a dog's claim to a crumb from
His bounty?

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Mark 7:28-29

Because I have believed, therefore have I spoken. This woman believed that Jesus grant her request.

DA 402 This was the only miracle that Jesus wrought while on this journey. It was for the
performance of this act that He went to the borders of Tyre and Sidon. He wished to relieve the
afflicted woman, and at the same time to leave an example in His work of mercy toward one of a
despised people for the benefit of His disciples when He should no longer be with them. He wished to
lead them from their Jewish exclusiveness to be interested in working for others besides their own
people.

DA 403 Caste is hateful to God.

“Caste” class system in India.

These two cities were 8 hours apart. Jesus is willing to travel to such distances just to minister to
one person. If you’re only friends of the same race, something is wrong.

15:27 And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table.

This woman would not be turned back by anything.

DA 400 But although Jesus did not reply, the woman did not lose faith. As He passed on, as if not
hearing her, she followed Him, continuing her supplications. Annoyed by her importunities, the
disciples asked Jesus to send her away. They saw that their Master treated her with indifference, and
they therefore supposed that the prejudice of the Jews against the Canaanites was pleasing to Him.
But it was a pitying Saviour to whom the woman made her plea, and in answer to the request of the
disciples, Jesus said, "I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

Other sheep have I that are not of this fold. This statement does not exclude the woman that was
pleading.

15:28 Then Jesus answered and said unto her, O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou
wilt. And her daughter was made whole from that very hour.

15:29 And Jesus departed from thence, and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee; and went up into a
mountain, and sat down there.

15:30 And great multitudes came unto him, having with them those that were lame, blind, dumb,
maimed, and many others, and cast them down at Jesus' feet; and he healed them:

15:31 Insomuch that the multitude wondered, when they saw the dumb to speak, the maimed to be
whole, the lame to walk, and the blind to see: and they glorified the God of Israel.

15:32 Then Jesus called his disciples unto him, and said, I have compassion on the multitude, because
they continue with me now three days, and have nothing to eat: and I will not send them away fasting,
lest they faint in the way.

15:33 And his disciples say unto him, Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fill
so great a multitude?

15:34 And Jesus saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven, and a few little fishes.

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15:35 And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground.

15:36 And he took the seven loaves and the fishes, and gave thanks, and brake them, and gave to his
disciples, and the disciples to the multitude.

15:37 And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven
baskets full.

15:38 And they that did eat were four thousand men, beside women and children.

15:39 And he sent away the multitude, and took ship, and came into the coasts of Magdala.

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Chapter 16
16:1 The Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and tempting desired him that he would shew them a
sign from heaven.

16:2 He answered and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is
red.

16:3 And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowring. O ye hypocrites, ye
can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?

16:4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it,
but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed.

Is this principle true today about the weather? Yes.

“Good sunset” – good day tomorrow; red & lowering sunrise = bad weather. Is the sign of Jonas
talked anywhere else in the New Testament?

Matt 12:39-40

When did the 3 days and 3 nights begin for Jesus? Was Jesus in the earth 3 nights?

“in earth” is not always referring to the grave.

Matt 6:10

Thursday night was the night that Jesus decided He would bear the sins of man. It was from that
point on that He would be in the heart of the earth.

16:5 And when his disciples were come to the other side, they had forgotten to take bread.

16:6 Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the
Sadducees.

16:7 And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have taken no bread.

16:8 Which when Jesus perceived, he said unto them, O ye of little faith, why reason ye among yourselves,
because ye have brought no bread?

16:9 Do ye not yet understand, neither remember the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many
baskets ye took up?

16:10 Neither the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many baskets ye took up?

16:11 How is it that ye do not understand that I spake it not to you concerning bread, that ye should
beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees?

16:12 Then understood they how that he bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the
doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.

16:13 When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men
say that I the Son of man am?

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16:14 And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of
the prophets.

16:15 He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am?

16:16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.

16:17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath
not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.

16:18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the
gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

If a Catholic said that Peter is the first Pope, what would you say? What is the strongest evidence
that the rock was not Peter?

“Peter” – Petros means small pebble or rolling stone.

“Rock” – Petra means a stone.

It is always only ever used in regard to Jesus.

1 Cor 10:4

Rock is using the Greek word Petra. So Jesus is going to be the foundation of the church.

Matt 16:23

Sometimes we tell people that they don’t have to do it, it’s extreme. If we lighten the obligation of
Jesus upon a person, that is Satan’s job.

16:19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on
earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

John 20:21, 23

The disciples that were sent by Jesus would also be sent the same way as the Father sent Jesus onto
the earth. Jesus never spoke of His own words but except that the Father gives it to Him.

2 Cor 5:18-21

God has given to us the ministry of reconciling people. We are dealing with the forgiveness of sins.
Jesus’ reconciliation was not imputing their trespasses unto them.

16:20 Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ.

16:21 From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem,
and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the
third day.

16:22 Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not be
unto thee.

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16:23 But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for
thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men.

16:24 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up
his cross, and follow me.

16:25 For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: and whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find
it.

16:26 For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a
man give in exchange for his soul?

16:27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward
every man according to his works.

16:28 Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the
Son of man coming in his kingdom.

Did Jesus have an earthy human nature? Yes It is not natural for any person to want to suffer and to
choose rejection, pain, etc. We must deny ourselves. The natural heart desires to have the easy way.
The old man, unconverted heart. What evidence do we have that Jesus denied Himself?
Gethsemane. Not mine will but thine will be done. It’s one thing to do something for someone, but
even harder when they do not appreciate it. What does it mean to take up the cross? First is to deny
your natural inclination. To give up your desire for evil comfort. One thing we don’t talk about much
is the cross. Because it is unpopular. Taking up your cross—simply endure suffering etc. God tests
His people; the last 2 tests are money & power. Vs 26, if we have the whole world, and lost eternal
life, it is not worthy at all! Can have wealth? Yes, like Abraham and Job. But God will test us.

None of the disciples are alive today. So how do we comprehend this statement? Matt 17:1-4

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Chapter 17
Two extreme in ministry: High mountain, never minister to other. Might have great devotion, but
never share with others. Being with other, but not really minister to them. We might doing a lot of
things, but not really have personal time with Jesus.

17:1 And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an
high mountain apart,

“After six days” – so He was transfigured on the seventh day. Moses represents those who were
faithful to Jesus but died and were resurrected to Heaven. He can sympathize with Jesus because he
had the same experience. Elijah represents those who didn’t see death and were taken to Heaven.
He specifically represents the 144,000. Jezebel persecuted Elijah, he went through the difficult
times as well. He fell so great, and he asked for forgiveness, and he was taken to heaven after
he anointed other 3 workers of God. We have nothing to fear for the future, unless we forget the
blessings that God had given us. Peter, James and John were the ones that saw Jesus transfigured.
After 6 years the lands should rest and slaves could go free. No matter how you do for the time
sequence, we are really close now. Time setting is always wrong. After 6, 7 is rest. We need to be
ready at all time.

17:2 And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as
the light.

17:3 And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with him.

17:4 Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, let us make
here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias.

17:5 While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud,
which said, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him.

17:6 And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid.

17:7 And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Arise, and be not afraid.

17:8 And when they had lifted up their eyes, they saw no man, save Jesus only.

17:9 And as they came down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, saying, Tell the vision to no man,
until the Son of man be risen again from the dead.

17:10 And his disciples asked him, saying, Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come?

17:11 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things.

Is that a reference to anything that is written before?

Mal 4:5-6

Luke 1:16-17

When we talk about the Elijah message, it is not about the restoration of the home family. It is
specifically concerning the children of God back to the Heavenly Father. John the Baptist achieved

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this by causing a great revival in Israel

17:12 But I say unto you, That Elias is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him
whatsoever they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer of them.

Malachi was referring to the great and dreadful day. But Jesus made a secondary application
referring to John the Baptist. That is not the primary application though because Elijah will come
before the great and dreadful day of the Lord.

17:13 Then the disciples understood that he spake unto them of John the Baptist.

17:14 And when they were come to the multitude, there came to him a certain man, kneeling down to
him, and saying,

17:15 Lord, have mercy on my son: for he is lunatick, and sore vexed: for ofttimes he falleth into the fire,
and oft into the water.

Satan’s purpose has always been to destroy the image of God in man. Piercing etc..

Mark 9:19-29

Mark 9:21

Why did Jesus ask the question? To make it more visibly the power of God.

Mark 9:22

The father doubted – “if you canst do anything”

Mark 9:23

The only thing that can limit the power of God.

Matt 15:38

Our lack of faith is what prevents the power of God from manifesting in our lives.

Matt 17:20 If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed.

DA 431 If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed," said Jesus, "ye shall say unto this mountain,
Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove." Though the grain of mustard seed is so small, it
contains that same mysterious life principle which produces growth in the loftiest tree. When the
mustard seed is cast into the ground, the tiny germ lays hold of every element that God has provided
for its nutriment, and it speedily develops a sturdy growth. If you have faith like this, you will lay hold
upon God's word, and upon all the helpful agencies He has appointed. Thus your faith will strengthen,
and will bring to your aid the power of heaven. The obstacles that are piled by Satan across your
path, though apparently as insurmountable as the eternal hills, shall disappear before the demand of
faith. "Nothing shall be impossible unto you.

Luke 17:6

There are 2 obstacles:

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“Mountain” – it is big. It is visible to all.

“Tree” – a tree has roots, it is a deeper seated problem. We need a faith like mustard seed to
get rid of all the bad habits in our lives.

17:16 And I brought him to thy disciples, and they could not cure him.

17:17 Then Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you?
how long shall I suffer you? bring him hither to me.

17:18 And Jesus rebuked the devil; and he departed out of him: and the child was cured from that very
hour.

17:19 Then came the disciples to Jesus apart, and said, Why could not we cast him out?

17:20 And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a
grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall
remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.

17:21 Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting.

They had neglected to pray while Jesus was up in the mountain. They had started but they fell
asleep.

17:22 And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them, The Son of man shall be betrayed into the
hands of men:

17:23 And they shall kill him, and the third day he shall be raised again. And they were exceeding sorry.

17:24 And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received tribute money came to Peter, and
said, Doth not your master pay tribute?

If Jesus didn’t pay it would show disloyalty. If Jesus paid it, it would show that He was not a rabbi, or
a religious leader as it was free for them.

17:25 He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest
thou, Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, or of
strangers?

17:26 Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free.

17:27 Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up the
fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that
take, and give unto them for me and thee.

Peter was a fisherman so that was not unusual. Jesus was going to pay the tribute but it was not
really by Him. The way that Jesus got His money was proof for His divinity. Jesus paid the tribute
but also showed evidence of His divinity as well.

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Chapter 18
18:1 At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus, saying, Who is the greatest in the kingdom of
heaven?

Who is the greatest? Judas is the one who rouse up the discussion “who is the greatest?” among the
disciples.
The humble souls that trusted in God will succeed. Why did Jesus need 12 disciples? 12 personality
types. For every true, there are counterfeit. Jerusalem has 12 gates. Biblical basis of personality
type—12. Jealousy is the cruelest, is bondage. He needs everyone of us, we reflect God in different
ways. Each one of us is essential to God. Some are using they talents, some are hiding in the earth.

Real greatness

DA 437 Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of
heaven." The simplicity, the self-forgetfulness, and the confiding love of a little child are the attributes
that Heaven values. These are the characteristics of real greatness.

18:2 And Jesus called a little child unto him, and set him in the midst of them,

18:3 And said, Verily I say unto you, Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not
enter into the kingdom of heaven.

Who is the greatest? In characteristics of a child is what Jesus considers great: simplicity. self-
forgetfulness, and confiding love.

18:4 Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of
heaven.

Being born again and converted has to do with a characteristics of a child: Humble themselves as a
little child. When working with children, we must always be careful in how we portray the
character of Jesus Christ to them.

18:5 And whoso shall receive one such little child in my name receiveth me.

18:6 But whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better for him that a
millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea.

Child Training
DA 515 As the mother teaches her children to obey her because they love her, she is teaching them
the first lessons in the Christian life.

We are to teach them obedience because of love.

DA 515 We should teach them to bring their sins to Jesus, asking His forgiveness, and believing that
He pardons and receives them as He received the children when He was personally on earth.

DA 515 He did not use one unkind or discourteous expression.

DA 516 Parents, in the training of your children, study the lessons that God has given in nature. If
you would train a pink, or rose, or lily, how would you do it? Ask the gardener by what process he

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makes every branch and leaf to flourish so beautifully, and to develop in symmetry and loveliness. He
will tell you that it was by no rude touch, no violent effort; for this would only break the delicate
stems. It was by little attentions, often repeated. He moistened the soil, and protected the growing
plants from the fierce blasts and from the scorching sun, and God caused them to flourish and to
blossom into loveliness. In dealing with your children, follow the method of the gardener. By gentle
touches, by loving ministrations, seek to fashion their characters after the pattern of the character of
Christ.
Working with young people, we need repetition.

DA 516 Encourage the expression of love toward God and toward one another. The reason why there
are so many hardhearted men and women in the world is that true affection has been regarded as
weakness, and has been discouraged and repressed.

Showing appreciation to someone is not wrong.

DA 516 Do not weary them with long prayers and tedious exhortations, but through nature's object
lessons teach them obedience to the law of God.

DA 517 As you win their confidence in you as followers of Christ, it will be easy to teach them of the
great love wherewith He has loved us.

Approach them as one who desires their good, then you win their confidence and then big them
follow you.

18:7 Woe unto the world because of offences! for it must needs be that offences come; but woe to that
man by whom the offence cometh!

Did Jesus need to die? Yes. But does that mean Judas had to betray Him? No

18:8 Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for
thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into
everlasting fire.

18:9 And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life
with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire.

Jesus was not speaking of literal dismemberment. How do we know that it is figurative? We can still
sin with one leg or arm or eye.

DA 439 Any habit or practice that would lead into sin, and bring dishonor upon Christ, would
better be put away, whatever the sacrifice. That which dishonors God cannot benefit the soul. The
blessing of heaven cannot attend any man in violating the eternal principles of right. And one sin
cherished is sufficient to work the degradation of the character, and to mislead others. If the foot or
the hand would be cut off, or even the eye would be plucked out, to save the body from death,
how much more earnest should we be to put away sin, that brings death to the soul!

Anything that you are holding on to. E.g.: relationship. You never know what God has prepared for
you.

18:10 Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, That in heaven their
angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven.

This proves to us that everyone is assigned an angel.

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18:11 For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost.

18:12 How think ye? if a man have an hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave
the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray?

This sheep could represent this earth and the ninety nine the other unfallen worlds.

18:13 And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto you, he rejoiceth more of that sheep, than of the ninety
and nine which went not astray.

18:14 Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should
perish.

18:15 Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him
alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.

Tell him in private. You must pick someone that is not partial to a particular person. Pick someone
who is mutual, has clear discernment judgment. You treat them like heathen, gentiles, as you want
to win them back.

18:16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three
witnesses every word may be established.

18:17 And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let
him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican.

18:18 Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever
ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

18:19 Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall
ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven.

18:20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.

18:21 Then came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive
him? till seven times?

18:22 Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times: but, Until seventy times seven.

Does Jesus mean that you just forgive them 490 times? No, it just meant to never stop forgiving.
Jesus also gave the Jews a time of probation. After 490 years, God’s forbearance to them would
close. But it doesn’t mean that you only forgive 490 times. There is a limit to God’s forbearance.

18:23 Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king, which would take account of his
servants.

What was the reason why Jesus gave this parable? They thought that there was a limit to
forgiving somebody. They didn’t realize that forgiveness was more than just a one off event

Who does the king represent?

Matt 18:35

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King = Heavenly Father

Psa 78:38

God is full of compassion, forgives, and does destroy us

Psa 86:5

God longs to forgive all our debt. He is merciful. God forgives us completely 100% of what
we confess

18:24 And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand
talents.

18:25 But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children,
and all that he had, and payment to be made.

18:26 The servant therefore fell down, and worshipped him, saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I
will pay thee all.

18:27 Then the lord of that servant was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and forgave him the
debt.

18:28 But the same servant went out, and found one of his fellowservants, which owed him an hundred
pence: and he laid hands on him, and took him by the throat, saying, Pay me that thou owest.

How much did the first servant owe as compared to the fellow servant? What was the difference in
today’s value?

Note: the ratio of 10,000 talents to 100 pence = 1 million to 1 (1 pence = 1 day’s wage). 1 talent =
10,000 pence. Therefore 10,000 talents = 100 million pence. Today’s wage = $100 per day.
Therefore 10,000 talents = $10 billion (first servant). 100 pence = $10,000 (fellow servant)

What was the attitude of the first servant at the beginning with the king?

Matt 18:26

Humble, Meek, Begging.

18:29 And his fellowservant fell down at his feet, and besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I
will pay thee all.

18:30 And he would not: but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the debt.

What was the attitude of the first servant with his fellow servant?

Matt 18:28-30

Unforgiving, Unmerciful, Violent.

What was the plea of the first servant to the king and the plea of the fellow servant to the
first servant? They were exactly the same. When the fellow servant pleaded to the first servant, the
first servant should have been reminded of his own words that he spoke to the king and how the

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king responded

How should the first servant have reacted to his fellow servant and why should he have
reacted that way? He should have had mercy on his fellow servant because the king forgave him

What is the important lesson that we must learn as we look at the first servant and how he
reacted? We must remember the mercy of God upon us and how much we were forgiven

Where is the root of the problem when we see someone who has an unforgiving spirit? They
either have never experienced true forgiveness from God, or they have forgotten that God has
forgiven them.

Where must forgiveness come from?

Matt 18:35

From the heart

What does it mean to forgive from the heart? Can we forgive someone NOT from the heart?
Discuss. Forgiveness is also emotional, not just a principle. There is emotional healing as well.
When people hurt us, it leaves an emotional scar. And that scar can only be healed if we learn to
forgive them. Forgiving not from the heart is surface forgiveness. We remember what they did to us
and still hold it against them and as a result we act differently towards them.

What are the consequences of cherishing an unforgiving spirit?

Matt 6:14-15

Jer 31:34

We will not be forgiven.

18:31 So when his fellowservants saw what was done, they were very sorry, and came and told unto
their lord all that was done.

18:32 Then his lord, after that he had called him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all
that debt, because thou desiredst me:

18:33 Shouldest not thou also have had compassion on thy fellowservant, even as I had pity on thee?

18:34 And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due
unto him.

18:35 So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one
his brother their trespasses.

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Chapter 19
19:1 And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and came
into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan;

19:2 And great multitudes followed him; and he healed them there.

19:3 The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put
away his wife for every cause?

19:4 And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning
made them male and female,

19:5 And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they
twain shall be one flesh?

19:6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not
man put asunder.

19:7 They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her
away?

19:8 He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your
wives: but from the beginning it was not so.

19:9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry
another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery.

19:10 His disciples say unto him, If the case of the man be so with his wife, it is not good to marry.

19:11 But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given.

19:12 For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb: and there are some
eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs
for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to receive it, let him receive it.

19:13 Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray:
and the disciples rebuked them.

19:14 But Jesus said, Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for of such is the
kingdom of heaven.

19:15 And he laid his hands on them, and departed thence.

19:16 And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have
eternal life?

“What shall I do to inherit eternal life?” – There is an idea of works in the statement.

Background of the rich young ruler:

DA 520 He was a member of the honored council of the Jews, and Satan was tempting him with
flattering prospects of the future.

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He was part of the Sanhedrin council. If he was young and already part of the council, he must have
been very bright. This young man, he pretty much had it all. However, in every heart, no matter how
great, if Jesus does not reside there, there is always a feeling of emptiness. We know this because he
approached Jesus.

19:17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if
thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.
He didn’t acknowledge Him to be the Saviour. Jesus replied to test him. To see how this ruler
viewed Him. How did Jesus teach people to the way to eternal life? Obedience to the 10
commandments.

19:18 He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery,
Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,

What was the major problem the with rich young ruler? The love to God in the soul. The
commandments hang on two things: Love to God. Love to man. Jesus left out the first four
commandments. It would have made him question.

The order of the commandments that Jesus mentioned them in.

“Thou shalt do no murder” – commandment 6.

“Thou shalt not commit adultery” – commandment 7. Etc…

He left out commandment number 10. He also left out the first four as well.

19:19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

19:20 The young man saith unto him, All these things have I kept from my youth up: what lack I yet?

He was sincere in his reply:

DA 519 Christ was drawn to this young man. He knew him to be sincere in his assertion, "All these
things have I kept from my youth." The Redeemer longed to create in him that discernment which
would enable him to see the necessity of heart devotion and Christian goodness. He longed to see in
him a humble and contrite heart, conscious of the supreme love to be given to God, and hiding its lack
in the perfection of Christ.

We could be sincerely deceived to the state of our righteousness.

19:21 Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and
thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me.

Character perfection is possible. If he had sold all that he had, he could have been perfect. It was
possible to achieve. Here was the man’s dilemma: He was an honored member of the Sanhedrin
council. He was rich. He had ambitious projects. He had to give up everything! But Jesus promised
that he would have treasure in Heaven. There are many that are looking for their treasure on earth.
He was sorrowful because he wanted both. The conditions are exclusive, you have only have one or
the other.

19:22 But when the young man heard that saying, he went away sorrowful: for he had great possessions.

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19:23 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily I say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into the
kingdom of heaven.

19:24 And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich
man to enter into the kingdom of God.

“eye of a needle” – It was a door of one of the cities in Jerusalem. It only allowed the camel to get
through without anything on its back. Money is not the root of all evil, it is the love of money. We
can only cherish one idol before we lose eternal life.

19:25 When his disciples heard it, they were exceedingly amazed, saying, Who then can be saved?

19:26 But Jesus beheld them, and said unto them, With men this is impossible; but with God all things
are possible.

19:27 Then answered Peter and said unto him, Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee; what
shall we have therefore?

19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the
regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve
thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

The heavenly reward is not comparable to the reward on earth. When we give up something, it will
mean nothing when given up for the cause of Christ and to follow him. We count it dung.

19:29 And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or
children, or lands, for my name's sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life.

19:30 But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first.

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Chapter 20
 Blind Bartimaeus (Son of David) (29-34)

20:1 For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which went out early in the
morning to hire labourers into his vineyard.

Who did Jesus encounter before the telling of this parable?

Matt 19:16

Luke 18:18

Mark 10:17

Jesus encounter with the rich ruler who wanted to follow Him.

What was the man’s problem?

Mark 19:21-22

He was covetous. He could not give up everything to follow Jesus. See also Mark 19:18-19 –
Jesus purposely does not mention the 10th commandment, which deals with covetousness.

What is Peter implying from his question to Jesus? What kind of spirit is he showing?

Matt 19:27

Peter is asking what is in it for him and the other disciples since they have forsaken all to follow
Jesus. Peter is showing a pharisaical spirit. Its all about works and reward. But Peter's question,
"What shall we have therefore?" had revealed a spirit that uncorrected would unfit the disciples to
be messengers for Christ; for it was the spirit of a hireling. While they had been attracted by the
love of Jesus, the disciples were not wholly free from Pharisaism. They still worked with the
thought of meriting a reward in proportion to their labor. They cherished a spirit of self-exaltation
and self-complacency, and made comparisons among themselves. When one of them failed in any
particular, the others indulged feelings of superiority. {COL 396.1}

What issue do you think Jesus tried to address with the parable that followed? Peter’s spirit.

COL 396 Lest the disciples should lose sight of the principles of the gospel, Christ related to them a
parable illustrating the manner in which God deals with His servants, and the spirit in which He
desires them to labor for Him.

From previous parables, who is the householder, the laborers and the vineyard?

Householder = God. (Isa 5:7)

Vineyard = Israel, or spiritual Israel. (Isa 5:7)

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The laborers = fellow laborer in gospel of Christ. (1 Thess 3:2)

What does the householder do throughout the day? What are the differences between the
laborers and what do they all have in common? He hires laborers throughout the day.
Difference: The laborers work for different lengths of time. Common: The laborers are all promised
one pence.

What did the laborers receive at the end of the day? The householder gave everyone one pence.

What was the attitude of the first laborers when they came to receive their wages? What was
their reaction when they received the same amount?

Matt 20:10-12

The first supposed they should receive more because they had been working longer. They
murmured against the householder.

What was the response of the householder?

Matt 20:13-15

He was fair in what they had agreed upon. It is not for the first laborers to judge if out of the
goodness of His heart He decides to reward those who joined at the end with the same reward since
all the wages are His to give.

What does the householder mean when He says “Is thine eye evil, because I am good”? They
looked upon the goodness of the householder / God because He saw fit to give everyone the same
reward, and accused God of being unfair (or evil). They were seeing this through their evil eyes.

Who do the first laborers represent today? They represent those who feel that because they
worked in the vineyard longer should be entitled to a bigger reward or wage. This is why the
Pharisees went out of their way to show the public their good deeds. They wanted recognition for
their perceive piety. What could the wage represent today? Recognition from others. Bigger roles in
ministry. Bigger mansions in heaven.

(You can read this passage if all Adventists)

COL 399-400 The first laborers of the parable represent those who, because of their services, claim
preference above others. They take up their work in a self-gratulatory spirit, and do not bring into it
self-denial and sacrifice. They may have professed to serve God all their lives; they may have been
foremost in enduring hardship, privation, and trial, and they therefore think themselves entitled to a
large reward. They think more of the reward than of the privilege of being servants of Christ. In their
view their labors and sacrifices entitle them to receive honor above others, and because this claim is
not recognized, they are offended. Did they bring into their work a loving, trusting spirit, they would
continue to be first; but their querulous, complaining disposition is un-Christlike, and proves them to
be untrustworthy. It reveals their desire for self-advancement, their distrust of God, and their jealous,
grudging spirit toward their brethren. The Lord's goodness and liberality is to them only an occasion
of murmuring. Thus they show that there is no connection between their souls and God. They do not

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know the joy of co-operation with the Master Worker...There is nothing more offensive to God than
this narrow, self-caring spirit. He cannot work with any who manifest these attributes. They are
insensible to the working of His Spirit.

What spirit should we have instead?

1 Cor 6:20

Our life is not ours. It is bought with a price. The penny represents the blood of Jesus that paid for
our lives. Therefore whatever we do is in gratitude, not for greater reward.

Jer 9:23-24

Boasting in ourselves has no merit.

Eph 2:8-9

The penny also represents the grace of God by which we are saved, not our works lest any man
should boast.

Rom 4:1-5

We work because of our debt to grace, not for reward.

COL 402 The first and the last are to be sharers in the great, eternal reward, and the first should
gladly welcome the last. He who grudges the reward to another forgets that he himself is saved by
grace alone. The parable of the laborers rebukes all jealousy and suspicion. Love rejoices in the truth
and institutes no envious comparisons. He who possesses love compares only the loveliness of Christ
and his own imperfect character. This parable is a warning to all laborers, however long their service,
however abundant their labors, that without love to their brethren, without humility before God,
they are nothing. There is no religion in the enthronement of self. He who makes self-glorification his
aim will find himself destitute of that grace which alone can make him efficient in Christ's service.
Whenever pride and self-complacency are indulged, the work is marred.

What did Jesus mean when He said the first shall be last and the last shall be first? How does
that apply to us today? The first = those that have worked the longest for God. Why were they
last? They had the tendency to want more reward for their works, working their way to heaven. The
last = were the 11th hour workers. They were happy with whatever they got. How does this apply to
us today? Its those that have been working for God the longest and that can count their good works
for God, that have the most tendency to try to work their way to heaven – Pharisaism.

20:2 And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard.

20:3 And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace,

20:4 And said unto them; Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they
went their way.

20:5 Again he went out about the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise.

20:6 And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, and saith unto them, Why

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stand ye here all the day idle?

20:7 They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard;
and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive.

20:8 So when even was come, the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the labourers, and give
them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first.

20:9 And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny.

20:10 But when the first came, they supposed that they should have received more; and they likewise
received every man a penny.

20:11 And when they had received it, they murmured against the goodman of the house,

20:12 Saying, These last have wrought but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, which
have borne the burden and heat of the day.

20:13 But he answered one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me
for a penny?

20:14 Take that thine is, and go thy way: I will give unto this last, even as unto thee.

20:15 Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good?

20:16 So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen.

20:17 And Jesus going up to Jerusalem took the twelve disciples apart in the way, and said unto them,

20:18 Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests and
unto the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death,

20:19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third day
he shall rise again.

20:20 Then came to him the mother of Zebedee's children with her sons, worshipping him, and desiring a
certain thing of him.

20:21 And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit,
the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom.

20:22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall
drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able.

20:23 And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I
am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to
them for whom it is prepared of my Father.

20:24 And when the ten heard it, they were moved with indignation against the two brethren.

20:25 But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise
dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them.

20:26 But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister;

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20:27 And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant:

20:28 Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a
ransom for many.

20:29 And as they departed from Jericho, a great multitude followed him.

20:30 And, behold, two blind men sitting by the way side, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried
out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David.

20:31 And the multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace: but they cried the more,
saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David.

20:32 And Jesus stood still, and called them, and said, What will ye that I shall do unto you?

20:33 They say unto him, Lord, that our eyes may be opened.

20:34 So Jesus had compassion on them, and touched their eyes: and immediately their eyes received
sight, and they followed him.

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Chapter 21
21:1 And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, unto the mount of Olives,
then sent Jesus two disciples,

21:2 Saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway ye shall find an ass tied,
and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them unto me.

21:3 And if any man say ought unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need of them; and straightway he
will send them.

21:4 All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying,

21:5 Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and
a colt the foal of an ass.

21:6 And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them,

21:7 And brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon.

21:8 And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; others cut down branches from the
trees, and strawed them in the way.

21:9 And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David:
Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest.

21:10 And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this?

John 12:17-19

People that were thronged there were the people that Jesus had healed in some way or another.

Luke 19:39-40

It tells us that in the course of time, that a time would come when there would be an event that
would draw the people to the crucifixion. Prophecy would have been fulfilled one way or another.
Today, if we do not turn people to the event of the coming of Jesus, people out in the world will start
to cry out. The stones will cry out. The nature of prophecy, it has to be fulfilled.

“who is this?”

DA 578 Adam will tell you, It is the seed of the woman that shall bruise the serpent's head. Ask
Abraham, he will tell you, It is "Melchizedek King of Salem," King of Peace. Gen. 14:18. Jacob will tell
you, He is Shiloh of the tribe of Judah.Isaiah will tell you, "Immanuel," "Wonderful, Counselor, The
mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace." Isa. 7:14; 9:6. Jeremiah will tell you, The
Branch of David, "the Lord our Righteousness." Jer. 23:6. Daniel will tell you, He is the Messiah. Hosea
will tell you, He is "the Lord God of hosts; the Lord is His memorial." Hosea 12:5. John the Baptist will
tell you, He is "the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." John 1:29. The great
Jehovah has proclaimed from His throne, "This is My beloved Son." Matt. 3:17. We, His disciples,
declare, This is Jesus, the Messiah, the Prince of life, the Redeemer of the world. And the prince of the
powers of darkness acknowledges Him, saying, "I know Thee who Thou art, the Holy One of God."
Mark 1:24.”

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21:11 And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee.

21:12 And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple,
and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves,

21:13 And said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it
a den of thieves.
What was the reason why Jesus cleansed the temple the second time?

DA 590 He who had Himself given these prophecies now for the last time repeated the warning. In
fulfillment of prophecy the people had proclaimed Jesus king of Israel. He had received their homage,
and accepted the office of king. In this character He must act. He knew that His efforts to reform a
corrupt priesthood would be in vain; nevertheless His work must be done; to an unbelieving people
the evidence of His divine mission must be given.

Because they had pronounced Him king, then He had to do the duties of a king.

DA 591 They had felt that it was impossible for their undignified surrender to be repeated. Yet they
were now more terrified than before, and in greater haste to obey His command.

21:14 And the blind and the lame came to him in the temple; and he healed them.

21:15 And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children
crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the Son of David; they were sore displeased,

21:16 And said unto him, Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus saith unto them, Yea; have ye never
read, Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise?

21:17 And he left them, and went out of the city into Bethany; and he lodged there.

21:18 Now in the morning as he returned into the city, he hungered.

21:19 And when he saw a fig tree in the way, he came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves only,
and said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. And presently the fig tree withered
away.

The fig tree represented the Jewish nation. What was the problem? This tree had leaves but had no
fruit. Fig trees, when it has full leaves, it should have figs. Leaves represent outward righteousness.
Fig leaves served to cover the sins of Adam and Eve – self-righteousness. Then God covers them
with His righteousness. Fruit represents winning souls and the fruit of the spirit.

Matt 23:38

The act of cursing the tree was an act to show what would happen to the Jewish nation.

21:20 And when the disciples saw it, they marvelled, saying, How soon is the fig tree withered away!

21:21 Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, If ye have faith, and doubt not, ye shall
not only do this which is done to the fig tree, but also if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed,
and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be done.

21:22 And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive.

21:23 And when he was come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came unto

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him as he was teaching, and said, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this
authority?

The reason they were trying to trip Him up by His words because they couldn’t trip Him up by His
works.

DA 594 With intense interest the multitude awaited the decision. They knew that the priests had
professed to accept the ministry of John, and they expected them to acknowledge without a question
that he was sent from God. But after conferring secretly together, the priests decided not to commit
themselves. Hypocritically professing ignorance, they said, "We cannot tell." "Neither tell I you," said
Christ, "by what authority I do these things…Scribes, priests, and rulers were all silenced. Baffled and
disappointed, they stood with lowering brows, not daring to press further questions upon Christ. By
their cowardice and indecision they had in a great measure forfeited the respect of the people, who
now stood by, amused to see these proud, self-righteous men defeated.

What is the reason why Jesus gave this parable? It was dealing with the authority of Jesus. It was
also dealing with the baptism of John, whether it was from heaven or not

What is the reason why the chief priests and elders were not willing to answer Jesus about
John’s baptism? They didn’t want to acknowledge that John was heaven sent because Jesus would
ask them why they didn’t acknowledge Him. They didn’t want to reject him because many people
believed that John was a prophet

Why didn’t the chief priests want to acknowledge that John’s baptism was from heaven?
What would be the implication if they did acknowledge it?

John 1:29

Matt 3:13-17

They didn’t want to acknowledge because if they accept John, then they must accept his testimony
of Jesus that He was the Lamb of God that was to take away the sin of the world. They must also
accept the baptism that he did for Jesus and how a voice came from heaven saying that Jesus was
the Son of God. Who does the father represent in the parable?

Matt 6:9

Represents God the Father. What does the vineyard represent?

Psa 80:8, 15

This is speaking of Israel

Isa 5:7

The vineyard is Israel. Who is Israel in our day? The church

What do we understand about the first son and who he represents by his initial response, “I will
not?” He was rebellious. He was living in open transgression. He refused to obey the words of God.
What happened with the first son after he said , “I will not?”

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Matt 21:29

Matt 3:1-2

He repented. How is John the Baptist brought into the picture? He preached the message of
repentance. So the first son was one of those that heard the message of John the Baptist and
repented, which shows that John’s baptism was of heaven

What do we understand about the second son by his initial response, “I go, sir,” and the
actual outcome of his actions? He said that he was willing to go but his actions proved his words
worthless. A lot of people know how to talk but they don’t put their actions where their mouths are.
They like to pray, to act big and talk spiritual in front of others, but they do not do put it into
actions. They just have theory.

Who do the first and second sons represent?

Matt 21:31

First son represents the harlots and publicans. Second son represents the chief priests and elders.

What was the father asking the sons to do?

Matt 21:28, 31

Work in the vineyard. Do his will.

What is the will of the Father?

Psa 40:8

Heb 10:16

To delight to do his law, which is to keep the commandments because it is written in the heart

Practically speaking, how can we have the law written in our hearts and how can we keep it
there? Discuss.

Psa 1:2

The way that we can delight in the law and as a result have it written in our hearts is to meditate on
it day and night. Generate discussion about how we can keep it there. How do we make it practical?
It now governs our actions and decisions. The law cannot be in there and remain if we go to movie
theaters and clubs or listen to rock music, etc. Our thoughts are not on God. The law does not
remain there

What was the basis of the actions of why the first son obeyed and the second son didn’t obey?

Matt 21:32

John 14:15

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The first group repented and believed. The second didn’t believe because they didn’t repent. The
reason why they didn’t believe it because they didn’t love God. And that is why they didn’t obey.
Obedience it the basis of all our actions.

Is belief enough? What else must we have?

Jas 2:19-20

Belief is not enough. We must have works that correspond to our belief. But the basis of our works
is built upon our belief. And if we have no works, it shows that there is something wrong with our
belief/faith. What is the main lesson that we can learn from this parable?

John 13:17 …if ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them

Words are of no value unless they are accompanied with appropriate deeds.

21:24 And Jesus answered and said unto them, I also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell me, I in like
wise will tell you by what authority I do these things.

21:25 The baptism of John, whence was it? from heaven, or of men? And they reasoned with themselves,
saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say unto us, Why did ye not then believe him?

21:26 But if we shall say, Of men; we fear the people; for all hold John as a prophet.

21:27 And they answered Jesus, and said, We cannot tell. And he said unto them, Neither tell I you by
what authority I do these things.

21:28 But what think ye? A certain man had two sons; and he came to the first, and said, Son, go work to
day in my vineyard.

21:29 He answered and said, I will not: but afterward he repented, and went.

21:30 And he came to the second, and said likewise. And he answered and said, I go, sir: and went not.

21:31 Whether of them twain did the will of his father? They say unto him, The first. Jesus saith unto
them, Verily I say unto you, That the publicans and the harlots go into the kingdom of God before you.

21:32 For John came unto you in the way of righteousness, and ye believed him not: but the publicans
and the harlots believed him: and ye, when ye had seen it, repented not afterward, that ye might believe
him.

The Lord’s Vineyard (33-44)


21:33 Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it
round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into
a far country:

What was the context of why this parable was given? Jesus has just addressed the issue of why
the chief priests and elders did not believe John the Baptist and why they had rejected Him. Jesus
had also just given the parable about the two sons and He had shown how the chief priests and
elders were like the second son who said he would go and did not. They didn’t have fruits to show
for their profession. He had just showed them through the parable of the two sons the importance
of obedience

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Who does this householder represent that built the vineyard and went into a far country?
And who does the vineyard represent?

Isa 5:7

The householder represents the Lord, which is God the Father. The greek word actually means
master of the house. The vineyard represents the house of Israel.

What does the hedging about represent? Hedging about means fence, enclosing barrier or
partition

Zech 2:5

The Lord is the wall and the glory is manifested in them.

Exo 33:18-19

Glory is the transcript of God’s character

Rom 7:12

The law is also the transcript of God’s character. Therefore, the law = glory = the wall

Why is a winepress built? The owner was obviously expecting good quality grapes to produce
good wine.

What does the tower represent?

2 Sam 22:3

God in the midst of them. How did the Israelite’s have God in the midst of them? – It was the
sanctuary.

21:34 And when the time of the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the husbandmen, that they might
receive the fruits of it.

Who do the servants represent that were sent to receive the fruits of the vineyard?

Matt 21:34-36

2 Ki 17:13

Jer 25:4

Amos 3:7

The servants represent the prophets

What sort of environment is being described in Matt. 21:33 about the vineyard and how does
this apply to Israel?

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Isa 5:2

God who had planted the vineyard gave them every opportunity to develop good fruits. He put a
fence around it. He built a tower for it. God had given Israel every opportunity to bear fruit. Note: A
winepress is just a trough to hold the wine/fruit that is harvested

What do the fruits represent?

Gal 5:22-23

Prov 11:30

The fruits represented the character of God. Also souls won to the kingdom.

21:35 And the husbandmen took his servants, and beat one, and killed another, and stoned another.

21:36 Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they did unto them likewise.

21:37 But last of all he sent unto them his son, saying, They will reverence my son.

21:38 But when the husbandmen saw the son, they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us
kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance.

Who does the son represent?

Matt 21:37-38

John 3:16

Heb 1:2

The son represents Jesus

What is the reason why the husbandmen killed the son? Link this also to the previous
parable. They wanted the inheritance without producing fruit. What kind of inheritance? The
promised land – Canaan. They were looking for the wrong inheritance. They wanted the inheritance
without the son and the householder. They wanted the inheritance without obedience.

What will the winepress be used for at the end?

Rev 14:19, 20,

Rev 19:15

Those who failed to produce fruit (God’s character) for the winepress will themselves be used in
the winepress. God will tread on the wicked. They shall feel His wrath.

What was this parable foreshadowing?

Matt 21:43

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It was foreshadowing the destruction of Jerusalem and the reason why it would be destroyed.

Contextually speaking, what is the result of disobedience or faith without works? Lack of
fruits. Rejecting the prophets. Crucifying the Son for the inheritance. How? People today are doing
the same thing by claiming the inheritance of God without actually believing the need for obedience.
End up in the winepress of the wrath of God (Rev. 14:20).

21:39 And they caught him, and cast him out of the vineyard, and slew him.

21:40 When the lord therefore of the vineyard cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen?

21:41 They say unto him, He will miserably destroy those wicked men, and will let out his vineyard unto
other husbandmen, which shall render him the fruits in their seasons.

21:42 Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected,
the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?

Heavenly kingdom of God.

DA 597 In quoting the prophecy of the rejected stone, Christ referred to an actual occurrence in the
history of Israel. The incident was connected with the building of the first temple. While it had a
special application at the time of Christ's first advent, and should have appealed with special force to
the Jews, it has also a lesson for us. When the temple of Solomon was erected, the immense stones for
the walls and the foundation were entirely prepared at the quarry; after they were brought to the
place of building, not an instrument was to be used upon them; the workmen had only to place them
in position. For use in the foundation, one stone of unusual size and peculiar shape had been brought;
but the workmen could find no place for it, and would not accept it. It was an annoyance to them as it
lay unused in their way. Long it remained a rejected stone. But when the builders came to the laying
of the corner, they searched for a long time to find a stone of sufficient size and strength, and of the
proper shape, to take that particular place, and bear the great weight which would rest upon it.

DA 597 Should they make an unwise choice for this important place, the safety of the entire building
would be endangered. They must find a stone capable of resisting the influence of the sun, of frost,
and of tempest. Several stones had at different times been chosen, but under the pressure of
immense weights they had crumbled to pieces. Others could not bear the test of the sudden
atmospheric changes. But at last attention was called to the stone so long rejected. It had been
exposed to the air, to sun and storm, without revealing the slightest crack. The builders examined
this stone. It had borne every test but one. If it could bear the test of severe pressure, they decided to
accept it for the cornerstone. The trial was made. The stone was accepted, brought to its assigned
position, and found to be an exact fit.

When the ground freezes the soil will contract. If it contracts, the foundation will move
down. When it heats up again, it will move up again. If a stone cannot resist frost, it will
crumble to pieces. It teaches us about the ministry of Christ. Christ has so long been
rejected, but the stones of man have proved to be insufficient.

We are stones that need to be chiseled at and worked at before being placed as part of the
temple of Matt 22:23-40

If Jesus answered incorrectly, it would show the folly of believing in a resurrection.

DA 605 Should He agree with them, He would give still further offense to the Pharisees. Should He
differ with them, they designed to hold His teaching up to ridicule.

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They wanted to make this doctrine look silly. What is the source of erring? Not knowing the Bible.
Therefore Jesus says, “sanctify them through thy truth, thy word is truth.” Jesus brings us something
we know about Heaven – there is no more marriage. Your decisions that you make here, affect you
for eternity. The person that you decide to marry could decide whether you are saved or lost.

Matt 21:31-32

DA 606 God counts the things that are not as though they were. He sees the end from the beginning,
and beholds the result of His work as though it were now accomplished… The dead live unto Him.

When He says He is the God of Abraham, He means that he has already been redeemed.

Rom 4:17, 19

God counts those things that are not, as though they were. When God made the transition from
Abram to Abraham, he had zero children. God counts those things that aren’t, as though they were.

Matt 21:35

What do we know about this lawyer? He discerned in Jesus’ teaching as being truth.

DA 608 The heart of Jesus went out in pity to the honest scribe who had dared to face the frowns of
the priests and the threats of the rulers to speak the convictions of his heart…The scribe was near to
the kingdom of God, in that he recognized deeds of righteousness as more acceptable to God than
burnt offerings and sacrifices.

Matt 21:37-38

The first commandment is the greater. You cannot have true love to your neighbour unless you love
God supremely first. If you have love, you will be in obedience to everything.

DA 606 The Pharisees had exalted the first four commandments, which point out the duty of man to
his Maker, as of far greater consequence than the other six, which define man's duty to his fellow
man. As the result, they greatly failed of practical godliness. Jesus had shown the people their great
deficiency, and had taught the necessity of good works, declaring that the tree is known by its fruits.
For this reason He had been charged with exalting the last six commandments above the first four.

Mark 12:32-34

The lawyer saw the truth in what Jesus said, but the one thing he was missing was to
recognize Christ as the Saviour. He knew the purpose of the law was for obedience and not
all these ceremonial services.

21:43 Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation
bringing forth the fruits thereof.

21:44 And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind
him to powder.

21:45 And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, they perceived that he spake of
them.

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21:46 But when they sought to lay hands on him, they feared the multitude, because they took him for a
prophet.

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Chapter 22
22:1 And Jesus answered and spake unto them again by parables, and said,

What was the context of why this parable was given? It was still a continuation of what Jesus
was saying to the chief priests and elders from the previous chapter. Jesus was still addressing the
issue of why the Jewish nation didn’t bring forth any fruits.

Who do the king and the son symbolize in this parable?

1 Tim 1:17

King = God the Father

Matt 8:29

Son of God = Jesus

What does this marriage represent? Who is the son marrying?

Rev 19:7

There will be a marriage supper of the Lamb in the future.

Eph 5:23-25, 32

Christ is marrying His church, it is called a mystery.

Eph 1:9-10

The mystery is how God will unite Heaven and Earth. So this marriage is how God is going to unite
Heaven and Earth, Divinity with humanity. The son is marrying the church, those that are faithful to
Him.

What is the difference between the first call and the second call to the marriage?

Matt 22:3-4

The first call is just a general call which we are not given much detail. The second call is given after
the dinner is prepared and the oxen and the fatlings are killed.

What does the dinner and the oxen and fatlings being killed represent?

Jer 11:19

The killing of the oxen was the same as the killing of a lamb.

Isa 53:7

Jesus was that Lamb that was killed for us. This dinner represented the death of Christ. Communion.

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Who do the kings servants represent? From the previous study it represents the prophets. These
are the texts that were used previously. Only go through them if there are people that missed the
previous study (Matt. 21:34-36; 2 Kings 17:13; Jer. 25:4; Amos 3:7). Contextually speaking it
represents the disciples before Christ died and also the apostles that gave the gospel message after
Christ died. What did the destruction of the city represent?

Matt 22:7

It represented the destruction of Jerusalem in the future. Note: The first part of this study is related
to the Jews and then not bearing fruit, which we looked at already in the previous parable. But now
we are going to look at the second part which is much more relevant to us.

What happened next? Who do the new invitees represent? The invitation was extended to
those out in the highways. Those whom an invitation had not previously been given. Application:
These represent the gentiles. The gospel was extended to them after the persecution of Stephen.
(Acts 8:4)

What was wrong with the man in verse 11?

Matt 22:11-12

This man received an invitation, but he chose not to wear a wedding garment. From verse 12 we
can see that the king was insulted and angered that someone had dared to enter the wedding feast
without a wedding garment. From the king’s response we can see that everyone who had received
an invitation would have been told that they need to wear a wedding garment.

What does the wedding garment represent? Who is the giver of this garment?

Rev 19:8

It represents the righteousness of the saints.

Eph 5:27

It represents the church as being pure.

Psa 119:172

It represents the church in obedience to the law of God which is righteous.

Rom 13:14

Putting on the garment means to put on Christ. In what way do we put on Christ? We put on
His righteousness/character. Christ supplies this garment. The king and his son.

Why is it so important for us to wear that wedding garment?

Isa 64:6

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All our righteousness is as filthy rags

How can one practically wear that garment?

Gal 3:27

We must be baptized.

Rom 6:4-7

We must die to self and crucify self.

Who does that man represent in our world today that came in without a wedding garment?
Discuss. He represents those that claim to be Christian and want the benefits offered to the
followers of Christ, yet they do not feel the need to have a transformation of character. They feel no
need to obey the very thing that will change their characters, the law of God. They have never felt
true repentance of sin. They didn’t feel like they needed Christ’s righteousness. They are merely
hearers of the word.

Why was the man without the wedding garment speechless? How is that applicable to us
today? He was speechless because he didn’t have any excuse. At the end of time when we come
before God, we are not going to have any excuse as to why we didn’t form characters like Christ.
Like the previous parable, Christ has given us all the blessings to us that we may develop Christ-like
characters. Opportunities are given us, but it was up to us to make right use of those opportunities.

According to this parable, what will we be judged by at the end of time? Whether or not we put
on the wedding garment. Whether or not we obeyed the law of God. Whether or not we attained to
the character of Christ.

How can we be chosen today?

Matt 22:14

Many are called but few are chosen.

2 Thes 2:13

We have been chosen through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth.

1 Pet 1:2

Elect (chosen) by sanctification and obedience.

John 17:17

We are sanctified by the truth. Therefore, we are chosen by whether or not we obey the
truth or not.

22:2 The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain king, which made a marriage for his son,

22:3 And sent forth his servants to call them that were bidden to the wedding: and they would not come.

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22:4 Again, he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have prepared my
dinner: my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come unto the marriage.

22:5 But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandise:

22:6 And the remnant took his servants, and entreated them spitefully, and slew them.

22:7 But when the king heard thereof, he was wroth: and he sent forth his armies, and destroyed those
murderers, and burned up their city.

22:8 Then saith he to his servants, The wedding is ready, but they which were bidden were not worthy.

22:9 Go ye therefore into the highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage.

22:10 So those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they found,
both bad and good: and the wedding was furnished with guests.

22:11 And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding
garment:

22:12 And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he
was speechless.

22:13 Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into
outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

22:14 For many are called, but few are chosen.

22:15 Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk.

DA 602 He had rebuked their hypocrisy and presumption, and in doing this He had stated a great
principle, a principle that clearly defines the limits of man's duty to the civil government and his duty
to God. In many minds a vexed question had been settled. Ever after they held to the right principle.
And although many went away dissatisfied, they saw that the principle underlying the question had
been clearly set forth, and they marveled at Christ's far-seeing discernment. Christ's reply was no
evasion, but a candid answer to the question. Holding in His hand the Roman coin, upon which were
stamped the name and image of Caesar, He declared that since they were living under the protection
of the Roman power, they should render to that power the support it claimed, so long as this did not
conflict with a higher duty. But while peaceably subject to the laws of the land, they should at all
times give their first allegiance to God.

22:16 And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou
art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not
the person of men.

22:17 Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?

22:18 But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites?

22:19 Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny.

22:20 And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription?

22:21 They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things

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which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.

22:22 When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

22:23 The same day came to him the Sadducees, which say that there is no resurrection, and asked him,

22:24 Saying, Master, Moses said, If a man die, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and
raise up seed unto his brother.

22:25 Now there were with us seven brethren: and the first, when he had married a wife, deceased, and,
having no issue, left his wife unto his brother:

22:26 Likewise the second also, and the third, unto the seventh.

22:27 And last of all the woman died also.

22:28 Therefore in the resurrection whose wife shall she be of the seven? for they all had her.

22:29 Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God.

22:30 For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God
in heaven.

22:31 But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by
God, saying,

22:32 I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the
dead, but of the living.

22:33 And when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at his doctrine.

22:34 But when the Pharisees had heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, they were gathered
together.

22:35 Then one of them, which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying,

22:36 Master, which is the great commandment in the law?

22:37 Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and
with all thy mind.

22:38 This is the first and great commandment.

22:39 And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

22:40 On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.

22:41 While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them,

22:42 Saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The Son of David.

22:43 He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying,

22:44 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool?

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22:45 If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?

22:46 And no man was able to answer him a word, neither durst any man from that day forth ask him
any more questions.

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Chapter 23 – Warning to the Scribes and Pharisees
Jesus was speaking to His followers as well as the multitude (Matthew 23:1) In the last week of His
ministry it is important that He speak plainly The people depended on the leadership without
studying out what they were taught Jesus removed the mask of those they were following.

Chapter Outline
 Position of the Scribes and Pharisees (1-12)
 Condition of the Scribes and Pharisees (13-31)
 Solution, Warning, and Final Judgment (32-39)

Position of the Scribes and Pharisees (1-12)

23:1 Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples,

Speaking to the disciples and the multitude, all His followers. Necessary for Jesus to speak plainly so
the people wouldn’t be following their leaders who were leading them to eternal ruin

23:2 Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat:

Verses 2 to 10 Authority & Power. Observation: Moses Seat, Rabbi, Master, Father, Bid-instruct,
Bind burdens.
Moses a very prominent individual, a leader of God’s people, used to build sanctuary. (App: NT
Pastors)

“Seat” – authority and power (Rev 13:2). Jesus recognized these were in power and authority
(Master, Rabbi,

“Father” – all terms of authority among Jewish people). They believed they had to instruct the
people to lead them to understanding salvation

23:3 All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works:
for they say, and do not.

“Observe and do” – In chap. 15:1-10, Jesus exposed the false teachings of the Pharisees. Is this
contradiction? As long as they taught things according to the Word or Law of God we have
responsibility to follow that truth God can use all avenues to distribute His truth. The more light we
have, the more accountable or responsible we are for it.

“They say and do not” – Don’t live like them, but observe and do the teaching if it’s in harmony
with God’s will. We are to obey and follow the word of God

23:4 For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they
themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.

“Bind heavy burdens” – Requiring things to do or keep which God never had told should be kept
or followed
Sabbath forms and ceremonies

Isa 58:3

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Fasting and afflicting their soul (DOA: 1. Garments; 2. Work; 3. Afflict Soul). Sanctuary language

Isa 58:4-6

“True fast” – let go of heavy burdensPharisees know about sanctuary but miss the heart experience

Isa 58:12

Prophecy of restoring the breach, the Sabbath. Sabbath is one of 10 commandments

“Law of God” –Most Holy Place

“True fast” – loosing heavy burdens, true Sabbath-keepers

Gal 6:2

Bearing burdens of one another

1 Jn 3:23

Love one another. How to keep the law of Christ? Bearing one another’s burdens and manifest love of God
toward each other. This is the experience of the true fast

Matt 11:28-30

Heavy laden, burden is light. Jesus example of true fast.

23:5 But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge
the borders of their garments,

23:6 And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues,

23:7 And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi.

23:8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.

Matt 20:25

Gentile exercise Lordship. This should not be among you.

23:9 And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.

23:10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ.

23:11 But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.

“servant” – Leaders held up Moses in high position. They forgot one thing about Moses.

Num 12:3

Moses was the meekest man. They forgot the humility of Jesus. Also notice that Jesus speaks
to them in this way so that they can feel their need of Him once again.

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23:12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be
exalted.

What does this mean?

Lk 18:12-14

Pharisee is standing up. Publican is bowed down very low—humbling himself

“Shall be exalted” – justified

“Abase” – condemned

Dan 8:14

“Cleansed” = justified. God is looking for those who are humble like the publican and not proud like
Pharisees and Scribes Humility? Are they listening to the prophets? Are they experiencing the love
of Christ and manifesting it to others? Do we have righteousness of Jesus Christ? Where do we
stand?

Condition of the Scribes and Pharisees (13-31)


23:13 But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against
men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in.

23:14 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence
make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.

“Long prayer” – Anyone pray long prayers? Jesus not condemning the duration of the prayer but
the motivation. A Pharisee’s Prayer

Lk 18:9-11

Believing you are righteous but despising others at the same time

23:15 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one
proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.

Do you Scribes and Pharisees win souls? Yes.

“Proselyte” – a convert. They even had zeal “compass sea and land.” But they make that soul
twofold more a child of hell than themselves. Both children of heaven and hell win souls, but what’s
the Difference? Child of hell makes hypocrites like himself. Child of heaven makes sons and
daughters of God.

23:16 Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but
whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor!

23:17 Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold?

23:18 And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is
upon it, he is guilty.

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23:19 Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift?

23:20 Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon.

23:21 And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein.

23:22 And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon.

23:23 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin,
and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have
done, and not to leave the other undone.

“Weightier matters” – Judgment, Mercy, Faith. Even if our money is helping to bring souls into the
kingdom we are lost because we don’t exercise compassion and love for our brother.

23:24 Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.

23:25 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of
the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.

23:26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them
may be clean also.

“Blind” - Church of Laodicea = Pharisaism

“Cleanse first the inside” – Fix the heart first and the rest will come, don’t put long dress first, they
will still be in their sins

23:27 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which
indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness.

23:28 Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and
iniquity.

23:29 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and
garnish the sepulchres of the righteous,

23:30 And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in
the blood of the prophets.

How many of you would’ve killed Isaiah? Put Christ on the cross? Every time we sin we do this. A
voice, walk ye in it – you disobey the prophet and thus slay them. Concealed sin – God gives us a
warning – exposing it in public – we want to slay them

23:31 Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the
prophets.

Solution, Warning, and Final Judgment (32-39)


23:32 Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers.

23:33 Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?

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23:34 Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall
kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to
city:

“Prophets” – Given to help change the inside. 95% of Ellen G Whites writings discusses character
development.

“wise men and scribes” – Send one of your own rank to help you understand where you’re off the
path. Will we change? Will we listen?

23:35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous
Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.

23:36 Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

23:37 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee,
how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her
wings, and ye would not!

23:38 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.

23:39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the
name of the Lord.

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Chapter 24
DA 628 In mercy to them He blended the description of the two great crises, leaving the disciples to
study out the meaning for themselves.

Jesus was describing the end of the world and the destruction of Jerusalem.

DA 627 As Christ's attention was attracted to the magnificence of the temple, what must have been
the unuttered thoughts of that Rejected One! The view before Him was indeed beautiful, but He said
with sadness, I see it all. The buildings are indeed wonderful. You point to these walls as apparently
indestructible; but listen to My words: The day will come when "there shall not be left one stone
upon another, that shall not be thrown down.

This was literally fulfilled

24:1 And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to shew him
the buildings of the temple.

24:2 And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left
here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.

24:3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when
shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?

The destruction of the temple was equivalent to being the end of the world for them.

24:4 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you.

Matt 24:4, 5, 24

Jesus had a lot of emphasis about this issue of deception. Barabbas and Jesus were stood next to
each other and people were asked to choose. There was a false and a truth represented. At the end
of time the papacy will be the major anti-Christ

24:5 For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.

Read over. As we continue to read these texts we will see how many will be deceived. When we
read this text we think that many people shall come in the name of Christ, and many will be
deceived because they will believe that they are Christ. But for us that is pretty easy. If someone
where to come to us and say they are Christ you will probably have a hard time holding back your
laughter. So for good Bible students perhaps that kind of deception will not work. Perhaps it will be
more subtle than that. But notice what happens from verse 6 and onward.

24:6 And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must
come to pass, but the end is not yet.

“And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars” – I contribute this event to false Christs. False
Christs are behind wars and rumors of wars. And the Bible says

“see that ye be not troubled” – I am sure that many Seventh-day Adventist that lived during
World War 1 and World War 2 were tempted to think that the end is here. But the Bible says

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“for all [these things] must come to pass, but the end is not yet” – Side Note: Just connect that to
Revelation 17 and you will have something very interesting.

24:7 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and
pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.

“For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom” – Right here it shows the
condition of the world. It is simply saying that the nations and kingdoms are not united. They are
divided. And then the Bible says

“and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places” – Take these
three words: Famines, pestilences, and earthquakes and we are looking at natural disasters, or you
can just simply say disasters. Verse 8 the Bible says after the natural disasters

24:8 All these are the beginning of sorrows.

24:9 Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations
for my name's sake.

Read over

“Then shall they…of all” – For my what? Verse 9 is very important. Notice what is happening here.
Who are they? Who are they? It is based upon the previous texts. They is referring to those who
come in the name of Christ and they is referring to the nations. So some how there is mixture
between the religious bodies and the political bodies and they are combined together. Perhaps
Church & State

“Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all
nations for my name's sake” – Shall be hated of how many nations? All nations. For my name's?
Sake. Right here we see that all nations are united. They are united to persecute. Before they were
divided but now they are united. What took place in the middle? Natural disasters. So then they are
being hated for what? One thing is for sure that the nations were divided, and then you have
disasters, and some how those disasters bring the nations together as one. Are we seeing something
like this today? Yes Are we seeing global warming bringing nations together? Yes Are we seeing
terrorism bringing nations together? Yes. So the Bible says they are all united to HATE those who
uphold the name of God. Why? If I can read between the lines they are being HATED because all
nations are thinking that they are the ones who are causing these natural disasters. Do we see any
other place in the Bible that gives us a similar example? Was there a time when the people of God
were blamed for natural disasters? Yes, Elijah. Are thou the one who troubles Israel. You are the
one that is causing the heavens not to poor out the rain. You are causing this natural disaster, and
they wanted to kill him. But it is very interesting the Bible says

They are being HATED of all nations. For whose name? My name's sake. The name of God. What is
God's name? If we compare this with the book of Revelation since we know that Matt 24 & 25 is a
miniature picture of the book of Revelation. The name of God based upon the book of Revelation if
you look at chapter 14 you have a picture of the 144,000 and they have the Father's name written in
their foreheads. And Jesus said if you have seen me you have seen the Father. And then in Rev 7 you
have the 144,000 and they have what in their forehead? The Seal of the Living God. Therefore the
Name of God is connected to the Seal of the Living God. And the Seal of the Living God is what? The
Sabbath, within the 10 Commandment the Sabbath is the only commandment that has the name of
God. So they are being HATED for upholding the Name of God by keeping the 7th Day Sabbath. So

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that HATRED will come from the outside of the church. And it will then come into God's church.
Next verse

24:10 And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another.

“And then shall many be offended” – Shall many be what? Offended. Who are the many? People
who are in the church. The people who are in the church shall be offended. And shall do what?
Betray. Those who are offended. Guess what they are going to do?

“betray one another” – That phrase one another gives us a picture of fellowship. One another.
They are together. So within a close group they are HATING each other. HATRED comes from the
outside, and then the people inside begin to HATE each other. But who are hating each other? Those
who are OFFENDED. And those who are Offended they will BETRAY. And then the Bible says
“and shall hate one another” – And while they are HATING one another. Now they are prepared
for another deception. Verse 11

24:11 And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.

“shall deceive MANY” – Because when you are HATING each other, you are looking for direction,
you are looking for a leader. So then Satan sends false prophets to mislead the people who are
hating each other. But my question is. Why are the people in the church so easily offended? And I
begin to discover what the Bible has to say about why we so easily get offended. Do you remember
the parable that Jesus gave regarding the 4 grounds? The wayside, stony place, thorny place, and
the good ground. When you look at that parable the sower is spreading the seed in all 4 places. If I
was the farm manager I would fire him because 75% of the seed is going to the wrong place and
only 25% is going to the right place. And you ask yourself why is the sower wasting his seed on
these places that cannot produce any fruit.

Most likely the waste side is right next to the field that is the only way the seeds can go there. No
farmer would look at the way side and say this looks good let me put them there. Most likely he is
throwing the seed to the good ground, but perhaps the lighter seeds are carried by the wind. And
some how they land on the way side. And you ask why is he throwing his seed on the stony places.
Perhaps it is located somewhere between the waste side and the field. Why? Because when you
work on the farm not only do you harvest potatoes, but you also harvest stones, and what do you do
with them? You throw them to the edge of the field. And you ask yourself what are these thistles,
where are they growing? Perhaps right next to or close by the stony places because you cannot get
to them. They are growing between the stony place and the field.

Some people are in the way side. And I will illustrate this: Some people in the church they like to sit
way back there. And you know how it is. They like to sit way back there because they do not want to
be fully involved in the church. And then some people sit somewhere in-between. Perhaps that is a
plain illustration, but it is just to let you know we have 4 conditions of the heart. But I want to
concentrate on one ground and that is the stony place. This is what Jesus said

Matt 13:5-6 [5] Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they
sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth: [6] And when the sun was up, they were scorched;
and because they had no root, they withered away.

“sun was up they were scorched” – they were what? Scorched because they had no? Root (they
withered away). Let us consider the interpretation that Jesus gave.

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Matt 13:20 But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and
anon with joy receiveth it;

“But he….heareth the word” –Stop right there. Question: Those who are in the stony places. Are
they hearing the word? Are they listening to sermons? Are they studying the Bible? Yes they are.
And because of that they should respond with Faith, because the Bible says that Faith comes by
hearing, and hearing by the Word of God. (Rom 10:17). So they should have faith. So it is very
possible that they have some elements of faith.

“But he…joy receiveth it” – What is the attitude of those who receive the word in the stony places?
JOY. Is that positive or negative? Positive. They get all excited! Did you hear that? That was so
powerful! That was soo good! Man that was wonderful! That is exactly what we need to hear. This is
what my elder needs to hear, my deacon needs to hear, my family needs to hear, this is what we
need to hear. They get all joyful and excited. But based upon the parable of Jesus what was the
problem? There was no root. Not that there wasn't literally any root. But it was not deep enough.
Next verse

Matt 13:21 Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or
persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended.

“Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution
ariseth” – Yet hath he not what? Root But dureth for a what? While. Tribulation or persecution,
next word? Ariseth. In the parable what rises? The Sun rises. Question: Is the Sun for the plant or
against the plant? For the plant. Question: Is persecution and tribulation against you or for you? For
you. PERSECUTION AND TRIBULATION IS ONLY FOR YOU, IF YOU HAVE THE ROOT (CONNECT
WITH JAMES AND 1 PETER) . IF YOU DON'T HAVE THE ROOT IT IS AGAINST YOU!! WITH THE
ROOT EITHER YOU WILL WITHER AWAY OR EVEN GROW MORE STRONGER!! These people when
they hear the word they get all excited and joyful they have these emotional highs. But they do not
know who they are inside.

“when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended” –


because of the what? Word By and by he is? Offended. Now let me ask you a question. In Matthew
24 when God's church is being persecuted by the nations of the world, and the Bible says people in
the church are offended. Tell me from the bible why are they offended? Because they have no root.
Question: What is that root?

Eph 3:17 That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love.

“dwell in your hearts by faith” – By what? Faith

“rooted and grounded in love” – So tell me from the Bible what is that root? Love. It is so easy to
have a sprout, steam, and leaves: dress reform, diet reform, recreation reform, it is so easy to have
these beautiful green leaves, devotional life, and educational reform, etc. But it is very possible that
it is only a display and there is no root. There is no true love inside. How do we know if we have that
love or not? Here is how. A root is something that you don't display. And that you cannot see. It is
beneath the earth. No farmer will show off his roots. Come here and look at these roots. He only
shows off the fruit. So the ROOT represents who you are when people cannot see you. it represents
who you are in the dark cold room. Do you have the Love of God when no one is watching you? Who
are you when you are alone? If we have that root. When persecution or tribulation comes to us it
will only increase our love to God even more. Just knowing the prophecies of the Bible will not

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prepare us, although it is very important. Just having the reforms will not prepare us although they
are very import to protect our faith experience in God. Just because we have true education. True
education that is only a form without the power will not prepare us. There must be a heart work.
Searching our hearts deeply that we know that we truly love God. And at the end the words of
Christ will prove true. If ye love me keep my commandments! May that be our experience today.

24:12 And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.

24:13 But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.

24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations;
and then shall the end come.

24:15 When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand
in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)

24:16 Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains:

24:17 Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house:

24:18 Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes.

24:19 And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days!

Intro: 4 Case studies on the family (divorce and dysfunctional homes)

Warning to the Family

Matt 24:12

Love of many (family) waxes cold

Matt 24:15-19

Woe to the family why?

Matt 24:10

Mk 13:12

Family betrays each other

Lk 21:16, 12

Cause to be put to death, how? Church/State. Mystery of God (Restoring the Family).

Rev 10:6-7

Rev 11:15, 19

Mystery of God complete from 1844

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Eph 1:9-10

Mystery of God (Unity between Heaven and Earth)

Eph 5:31-32

Two become one flesh Mystery of God

PK 678

Every institution restored. Family Counsel

Eph 5:25-29

1 Tm 5:8

Counsel to Husband.

Prov 31:10-11, 16, 26-27, 29-31

Wife needs to be virtuous

Prov 4:3, 14-19

Listen to Father’s instruction.

Appeal:

Mal 4:5-6

3rd Elijah will turn hearts of the fathers to the children. The scriptures present the condition of two
types of families in the last days. Families that have been restored. Families that are betraying each
other and causing them to be put to death.

EGW: How you live in the home shows if you are ready for heaven or not.

Will you do your part to complete the mystery of God in your home and heed the warning of Christ?

Woman

Prov 24:27 Prepare thy work without, and make it fit for thyself in the field; and afterwards build
thine house.

Prov 14:1 Every wise woman buildeth her house: but the foolish plucketh it down with her hands.

Prov 24:3 Through wisdom is an house builded; and by understanding it is established…

EGW Quotes

5T 541 Restrain Children -- The Lord Jesus, on the Mount of Olives, plainly stated that "because
iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold." He speaks of a class who have fallen from a
high state of spirituality.. The false idea entertained by many, that the restraining of children is

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an injury, is ruining thousands upon thousands. Satan will surely take possession of the children
if you are not on your guard. Do not encourage their association with the ungodly. Draw them away.
Come out from among such yourselves, and show them that you are on the Lord's side.

AH 15 Home Is the Heart of All Activity.--Society is composed of families, and is what the heads of
families make it. Out of the heart are "the issues of life"; and the heart of the community, of the
church, and of the nation is the household. The well-being of society, the success of the church,
the prosperity of the nation, depend upon home influences. The elevation or deterioration of the
future of society will be determined by the manners and morals of the youth growing up around us.
As the youth are educated, and as their characters are molded in their childhood to virtuous habits, self-
control, and temperance, so will their influence be upon society. If they are left unenlightened and
uncontrolled, and as the result become self-willed, intemperate in appetite and passion, so will be
their future influence in molding society. (1) The company which the young now keep, (2) the habits
they now form, and (3) the principles they now adopt are the index to the state of society for years to
come.

PK 678 Every Institution to be Restored -- In the time of the end every divine institution is to be
restored.

24:20 But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day:

24:21 For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time,
no, nor ever shall be.

24:22 And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake
those days shall be shortened.

24:23 Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not.

24:24 For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders;
insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.

24:25 Behold, I have told you before.

24:26 Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, he is in the
secret chambers; believe it not.

24:27 For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the
coming of the Son of man be.

24:28 For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together.

24:29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not
give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:

24:30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the
earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great
glory.

24:31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his
elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

24:32 Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye
know that summer is nigh:

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24:33 So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors.

24:34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.

24:35 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.

24:36 But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.

24:37 But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

24:38 For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving
in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark,

24:39 And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of
man be.

24:40 Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

24:41 Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

24:42 Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.

24:43 But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he
would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up.

24:44 Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh.

24:45 Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give
them meat in due season?

Which season does the faithful and wise servant give meat in? We have two passages that give us an
indication.

Matt 24:12 And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.

This shows us that we are in a part of earth's history where iniquity will continue to abound. It will
get worse and worse. But out of the 4 seasons of the earth, which one is the coldest? Winter. So
these faithful and wise servants will be giving meat to in inhabitant of the earth during the winter.

Extra: Meat in due season meaning. When this part of the season comes, there is a specific type of
food that you should be given. This is what we call present truth.

Matt 24:32 Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth
leaves, ye know that summer [is] nigh…

What is before summer? Spring and Winter. Note: The leaves during spring are like the signs of the
times. Investigative judgment happens during winter and spring. During the end of spring you see
the leaves growing back. This tells you that summer is around the corner. But what happens during
the summer time? The harvest. So at the second coming Christ is coming with a sickle in His hand
because He is going to do what? Reap (Rev 14:14) Christ's second coming is likened to the summer.

But the question is who is the wise and faithful servant? Those who are giving the 3 angel's
messages (but ultimately the 144,000). These messages prepare the harvest.

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Extra: Fear God and give glory. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom Psalms 111:10 They
are the wise servants.

But there are two harvest (Rev 14:14; 14:15, 19-20) The righteous and the wicked. (The wise
servant and the evil servant). The evil servants say Jeremiah 8:20 "The harvest is past, the summer
is ended, and we are not saved."

24:46 Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.

24:47 Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods.

24:48 But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming;

24:49 And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken;

24:50 The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is
not aware of,

24:51 And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be
weeping and gnashing of teeth.

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Chapter 25
25:1 Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went
forth to meet the bridegroom.

Matt 25 is a continuation of Christ’s sermon beginning in Matt 24. With this in mind what theme do
you think this parable is related to?

Matt 25:13

The time of the end, just before Jesus’ second coming.

Who were the virgins looking forward to meeting? Who does he represent? The bridegroom.
The bridegroom represents God

Isa 62:5

Specifically Jesus

Eph 5:23

The bridegroom is coming for the bride. Who does she represent?

Eph 5:23

The bride = church = God’s people. Christ is coming back for His people

What were the intentions of the virgins? Who do the virgins represent?

2 Corin 11:2

They were waiting to meet the bridegroom. They were part of the bridal party. Background: In
middle eastern weddings, the bridegroom would come to the bride’s house to receive her and bring
her back to the bridegroom’s house for the wedding feast. These virgins represent God’s people at
the end, who are part of the bridal party, waiting for Christ’s coming.

“chaste” = pure. These are people who profess to have a pure faith, a pure heart.

What do the lamps held by the virgins represent?

Psa 119:105

Lamps = word of God. These people professed their faith and purity on the word of God. They kept
the word.

What do the foolish and wise virgins have in common? What are their differences? Common:
Both are virgins, All have lamps, All fell asleep, All are woken up at midnight. Difference: The wise
virgins had extra oil in their vessels.

What does the oil represent?

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Zech 4:2-4, 12

Zechariah asks what the candlestick and oil represents.

Zech 4:6

The angel answers that it represents the spirit of the Lord = Holy Spirit.

When did it become obvious that the foolish virgins were different from the wise?

Matt 25:5-7

After the delay. Whilst both fell asleep, lamps went out. When the midnight cry came.

What happens after the midnight cry? What does this represent in the end of time?

Matt 25:6

The coming of the bridegroom = Coming of Christ, that happens at the darkest hour of earth’s
history. Because the foolish virgins had no oil, what were they not able to do with their
lamps? What does this represent?

Matt 5:16

The foolish virgins were not able to keep their lamps lighted. Light = good works. These foolish
virgins were not shining with good works to glorify God. What parable have we studied that teaches
us how to shine with good works for God? Parable of talents.

Matt 25:14-30

What happened to the foolish virgins when they tried to enter the wedding feast?

Matt 25:12

He said he did not know them.

Who do the wise and foolish virgins represent in context of the end of time?

Matt 25:31-46

The wise virgins = those who shine the light of good works in a sin darkened world. They shine
their good works by helping others. From the parable of the 10 virgins, we know that this light is
powered by the oil, which represents the Holy Spirit.

The foolish virgins = Those who in time of delay lost their faith and failed to allow the Holy Spirit to
power their life. It’s only by being baptized by the Spirit as well as of water that we can be saved.
Baptism of the spirit shows itself in a converted life that sacrifices self and shines the light of good
works. As a result, they show no light = good works, during the time of darkness.

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CONCLUSION: If we are to see Jesus at the end of time, the wise Christians must have that oil, which
is the Holy Spirit, which will sanctify us, transforming us so that our light will shine the light from
the Sun of righteousness. This will allow Jesus to recognize us when He comes for His bride.

25:2 And five of them were wise, and five were foolish.

25:3 They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them:

25:4 But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps.

25:5 While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept.

25:6 And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him.

25:7 Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps.

25:8 And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out.

25:9 But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to
them that sell, and buy for yourselves.

25:10 And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to
the marriage: and the door was shut.

25:11 Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us.

25:12 But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not.

25:13 Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh.

25:14 For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country, who called his own servants,
and delivered unto them his goods.

What was the context of why this parable was given? See chapter before. Note: This parable is
a continuation of Jesus message to His disciples in Matt 24. Matt 25 is a continuation of Matt 24.
Matt 24 is Jesus’ last instruction to His disciples before His death about the end of the world.
Therefore, this parable is given in relation to the time of the end.

Who does the man going to a far country symbolize in this parable? Note: Who is mentioned
returning later in the parable?

Matt 25:19, 31

Jesus.

When did the ‘certain man’ leave to go to a far country?

Acts 1:9

Rephrase question: When did Jesus leave? Jesus left this earth when He ascended into heaven, after
His resurrection.

Who do the servants represent?

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John 12:26

Servants = followers of Christ.

Why is the concept of servants used? What lessons can we learn from this?

1 Cor 6:20

A follower of Christ is not his own. We have been bought with a price. All of Christ’s followers have
been bought with a price.

1 Pet 1:18-19

What price? The blood of Christ. His life. The prince of heaven, Heaven’s precious Son was
sacrificed.

2 Cor 5:15

Who did Jesus die for? Everyone. That means, that everybody, believers or unbelievers, are the
Lord’s property. But in this parable, only those who accept Christ are represented as His servants.

What does the man going to a far country do before he leaves? What does this symbolize?

Matt 25:14-15

He leaves his goods with his servants. Goods = talents.

Eph 4:8

Left behind gifts = apostles, pastors, etc.

John 16:7

When Jesus left, He left behind the Comforter, the Holy Spirit. What are the gifts of the Spirit?

1 Cor 12:8-11

Talents represent gifts of the Spirit.

How are the talents distributed? What does this mean?

Matt 25:15

According to his several ability.

“several” means one’s own. Gifts are given according to man’s ability to use them and handle them.
Some servants are more capable to handle larger responsibilities. APPLICATION: Sometimes we are
not as talented because God knows our capacity to use them. This does not mean we are not as
blessed as others. With more talents come more responsibility. But at the same time, the one with
just ONE talent is expected to use the little that he has as well.

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According to the parable, how are talents multiplied? Discuss.

Matt. 25:16

By trading them. By putting them to work. What does it mean to hide your talent? Discuss. To
not use them, having them sit idle. To knowingly have it, but intentionally hide it.

What was the servant’s excuse for hiding his talent?

Matt 25:24

He had a false perception of who God really was:

“hard” – difficult God, harsh, judgmental.

“reaping where thou hast not sown and gathering where thou has not strewn” – asking
impossible things. The servant believes that he has been given an impossible task.

What is the real reason that is pointed out by the Lord to why this servant hid his talent?

Matt 25:26

Lord’s perception = “wicked” and “slothful.” Slothful means indolent, lazy, wanting to avoid activity.
He was lazy, not afraid. Being afraid was just an excuse.

In the context of this parable, what is an unpr