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AP Biology Name __________________________

Guided Reading Chapter 23

1. What is the smallest unit of evolution and why is this important to understand?
The smallest scale that evolution happens on is the population level. A population
is a group of one species in one place at one time.

2. Define the following terms:
a. Microevolution
a change in gene frequency within a population.[1] This change is due to four
different processes: mutation, selection (natural and artificial), gene flow and
genetic drift.
b. Population
all the organisms that both belong to the same species and live in the same
geographical area.
c. Population genetics
the study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the
four main evolutionary processes: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and
gene flow.
d. Gene pool
complete set of unique alleles in a species or population.

3. What is the Hardy-Weinberg Theorem and why does it appear to be an apparent
contradiction to evolution?
both allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant—that is,
they are in equilibrium—from generation to generation unless specific disturbing
influences are introduced. Hardy, Weinberg, and the population geneticists who
followed them came to understand that evolution will not occur in a population if
seven conditions are met.

4. What is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
A population shows no change.

(p+q)2 = p2 + 2pq + q2

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all mating is totally random 6. the population is infinitely large 4. 6. Gene duplication is any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene. b. it may occur as an error in homologous recombination. What are the five conditions for H-W equilibrium to maintained? 1. What is the impact of the following: a. or duplication of an entire chromosome. there is no migration in or out of the population 7. natural selection is not occurring 3. How can the H-W equation be used to today in terms of human health? 8. everyone produces the same number of offspring 7.5. a retrotransposition event. Use the blank diagram below to relate the H-W equation to a Punnett square. all members of the population breed 5. mutation is not occurring 2. Point mutation type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material. Page 2 of 5 . DNA or RNA. What are the two broad processes that make evolution possible? natural selection and genetic drift 9.

Give examples of phenotypical variation that is not inheritable. Bottleneck effect the reduction of a population’s gene pool and the accompanying changes in gene frequency produced when a few members survive the widespread elimination of a species. Sexual recombination The natural formation in offspring of genetic combinations not present in parents. 15. How do we measure genetic variation? Observing the multiple phenotypes in a specific population for a trait 16. A scar is a phenotypic variation that is not inheritable 14. by the processes of crossing over or independent assortment.unexpected variation of mutation rate across species. Why would we discuss adaptive evolution and what role does natural selection play? 13. one small nucleotides deletion or inversion. What is the relationship between mutation rates and generation span? both have in impact on the Mitochondrial DNA diversity patterns. c. Founder effect the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. Gene flow the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. can cause little. Explain the terms phenotypic polymorphism and genetic polymorphism in common terms giving an example from your own experience. How can very small differences in nucleotide sequences lead to such diversity in the human population? diversity of human phenotypes. 12. 10. 11. Genetic drift change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling. is mainly due to varying genetic make up. no or drastic effects on the Page 3 of 5 . d. c. Define the following: a. b.

19. What is different about the terms fitness and relative fitness? The commonly adopted fitness which evaluates the performance of individuals in co-evolutionary systems is the relative fitness. by the enviroment it is put in. Why is it said that evolution acts on phenotypes and not genotypes? Selection acts on phenotypes because differential reproduction and survivorship depend on phenotype. Use the diagram below to differentiate between the modes of selection. human phenotype can be altered and varyied alot. but as they say. 20. If the phenotype affecting reproduction or survivorship is genetically based. organism phenotype. 22. 17. The relative fitness measure is a dynamic assessment subject to co-evolving population. then selection can winnow out genotypes indirectly by winnowing out phenotypes. genetics is only the canvas and paint. How does balancing natural selection relate to the term balanced polymorphism? Page 4 of 5 . Why does diploidy preserve genetic variation? It allows recessive alleles that may not be favored in the current environment to be preserved in the gene pool by propagation in heterozygotes. the enviroment of up bringing is what paints the picture. What is geographic variation and how does the term cline relate? 18. 21.

Sexual dimorphism the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species.23. Neutral variation Variation in protein sequence that is not selectively important. and tradeoffs Page 5 of 5 . What are the limitations to Natural Selection lack of necessary genetic variation. d. constraints due to history. Define and give an example of the following: a. e. Heterozygote advantage the case in which the heterozygote genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygote dominant or homozygote recessive genotype. Frequency dependent selection an evolutionary process where the fitness of a phenotype is dependent on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population. c. b. Intrasexual selection the selection of a mate where several individuals compete with each other f. Intersexual selection the selection of a mate where an individual looks for special traits in the opposite sex 24.