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Fourth International Conference

Plants & Environmental Pollution

8-11 December, 2010

Publication Committee

Dr. Nandita Singh

Dr. P.K. Shirke
Dr. Vivek Pandey
Dr. Pankaj K. Srivastava
Mr. Soumit K. Behera
Ms. Sarah Jamil
Dr. Abhilash P.C.
Ms. Deepika Sharma
Ms. Mugdha Srivastava
Ms. Vandana Singh
Ms. Anshita Raj
Ms. Anita Dube
Mr. Dilip Chakraborty
A host of urgent issues would fill their agenda, when world scientists and academia
from different nations meet in Lucknow for the “Fourth International Conference on Plants
and Environmental Pollution” (ICPEP-4). Among the pressing problems to be debated
would be global climate change, freshwater, dwindling forests, biodiversity losses, GM
food, emergent ecological disturbances on plants, environmental issues and other factors in
environment and plant relation.
This “ABSTRACT BOOK' is a compilation of five hundred forty-nine abstracts on
different environmental aspects, from renowned scientists having long working experience
in their corresponding field of expertise. The volume elucidates the plant-pollutant
relationship in a manner that defines not only the drastic effects of pollutants on plants but
concomitantly highlights the hitherto less focused areas namely phytotoxicity,
phytoremediation and GM Food, Waste/water management, stress tolerant bioaesthetic
development, thus concentrating more on plant than the pollutant.
The abstracts included in this volume are those, which were received within
prescribed date and found suitable for publication. All abstracts were peer-reviewed for
acceptance and then partitioned in different sessions for Oral and Poster presentation. Many
abstracts were not in desired formats as well as were long. Abridgement of such abstracts has
been done with care to include significant points. Late abstracts have been printed but un-
indexed and are appended. The basic purpose of this abstract book is to evaluate, identify the
knowledge gaps and provide direction for future research areas of environmental problems
and consequent changes and to develop desired management protocols.
We express our deep sense of gratitude to Dr. C.S. Nautiyal, Director NBRI and Dr.
K.C. Gupta, Director IITR, for their moral and material support. We thank Drs., Dr. P. Nath,
D.V. Amla, B.P. Singh, K.J. Ahmad, S.C. Sharma and P. Chandra for their encouragement
and valuable suggestions to structure this book. We are indebted to our contributors who
despite their various commitments acceded to our request to share their valuable expertise.
Thanks are due to the Scientific Program Committee for categorizing the abstracts
and editing them. We are also thankful to staff of Eco-auditing Group for their co-operation
in various ways.
We are also thankful to the various sponsoring agencies for financial support, which
made this publication successful. The publication plan finally crystallized through the
efforts of M/S Maruti Scanners and their team, we sincerely thank all these people.

- Publication Committee
Scientific Programme Committee

Prof. C.K. Varshney
Dr. R.D. Tripathi (Convener)
Prof. Madhoolika Agrawal
Prof. M. Iqbal
Dr. Nandita Singh
Dr. U.N. Rai
Dr. Sarita Sinha
Dr. S.N. Singh
Dr. Kamla Kulshreshtha
Dr. M.R. Suseela
Dr. Soumit K. Behera
Dr. Pankaj Kumar Srivastava
Dr. Anjum Farooqui
Dr. Seshu Lavania
Dr. Vivek Pandey
Dr. Shekhar Mallick
Dr. Prabodh Trivedi
Dr. P.K. Singh
Dr. Devashish Chakrabarty
Dr. D.K. Gupta (Spain)

Keynote Lectures i
Session SI Climate Change 1
Session SII Environment and Biodiversity 23
Session SIII Environmental Biotechnology 49
Session SIV Plant Response to 62
Environmental Pollution
Session SV Environmental Impact Assessment 100
Session SVI Bioindication and Bioremediation 119
Session SVII Plant Microbe Interaction 144
Session SVIII Waste/Water Management 157
Session SIX Environmental Issues 171
Late Abstracts 204
Author Index 206
Keynote Lectures

K-1 K-2
Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity with Agricultural Air Quality: Research, Policy, and
Special Reference to Medicinal Plants Regulations
P. Pushpangadan*, Vipin Mohan Dan and V. George Viney P. Aneja
Amity Institute for Herbal and Biotech Products Development Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North
(AIHBPD), 3, Ravi Nagar, Peroorkada P.O., Thiruvananthapuram – Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8208, U.S.A., Email:
695005, Kerala, INDIA, E-mail:palpuprakulam@yahoo.co.in Viney_Aneja@ncsu.edu
Climate change and its potential future threats on Agricultural emissions produce significant local and
environment have raised the concern of scientists across regional impacts, such as odor, Particulate Matter (PM)
globe. Variation in climate conditions has deep impact on the exposure, eutrophication, acidification, and exposure to
production of secondary metabolites in plants. Research toxics, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also
studies have brought into light that genomic expression of contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas
plants can be affected by such variation resulting in loss of emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and
secondary metabolites of human interest. Scientific time and in how they interact within the various processes
evidence is mounting proving that climate change is affecting and media effected. Most important in the US are ammonia
vegetation pattern, phenology and distribution. These (where agriculture accounts for ~90% of total emissions),
evidences seem to be of less importance at first sight, but it is reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM2.5 (~16%), PM10 (~18%),
nature's warning signal for future challenges for species methane (29%), nitrous oxide (72%); and odor and emissions
survival. These disturbances in seasonal cues has shown of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also
striking variation in phenological events like time of plants consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm
bud burst, initial leafing and flowering, fruiting events, time operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of
of seed/fruit dispersal. Studies reveal that climate change is nitrogen (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulates. Current
forcing plants to migrate. Plants' ranges show movement research priorities include the quantification of point and
towards poles and higher elevation in an attempt to restore non-point sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of
optimal growing conditions. Computer model programs ammonia, reduced sulfur compounds, volatile organic
predict that “range” shift of plants will gain acceleration in compounds, greenhouse gases, odor and pathogens, the
future due to continued climate changes. This migration of quantification of landscape processes, and the primary and
plants in hunt for appropriate growing conditions may secondary emissions of PM. Although European
eventually lead to extinction of many valuable medicinal policymakers have made progress in controlling these
plant species. Recent years have witnessed extreme weather emissions, regulations in the United States remain
events like storms, droughts and floods with more prevalence inadequate.
and intensity. Global warming, human activities and other Key words: Agricultural air quality, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Oxides
factors will tend to increase the occurrence of these events in of nitrogen (NOx), Sulfur oxides, Research, Policy, Regulations
future. Reports from many parts of the world stand tall
voicing the fact that these extreme weather events is
adversely affecting harvesters' and cultivator's requirements
and condition to grow/collect medicinal plant species. If
these climate impacts continue to grow uncontrolled, then the
very plants that helped in evolution of modern human
civilization may become extinct or will be devoid of its
nutritional/medicinal qualities thereby putting in hold the
well being of our future generation in jeopardy.
Key words: Climate change, global warming, medicinal plants,
secondary metabolites, phenology, genomic expression
Session SI

Climate Change

SI/L-1 hence, a rational strategy to sequester C must consider all the

Role of Shelterbelts in Carbon Sequestration and components of the terrestrial ecosystem. Single tree species
Climate Change of Dryland Ecosystems cannot be considered in isolation from other plant species or
from soil because of the interactions and interdependencies
H. Shivanna1* and P. Surendra2 among species in an ecosystem. Likewise, soil management
Department of Forest Biology and Tree Improvement, Forestry cannot be separated from plant productivity. Thus a study of
Collage, Sirsi, District Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, INDIA, Email: integrative strategy element-ecosystem dynamics is
shivanisir59@gmail.com; 2Agricultural Research Station, Sirsi, necessary.
Karnataka, INDIA,
Email: psurendra63@gmail.com Key words: C-sequestration, Forestry mitigation, Shelterbelt
Forests figure prominently in the climate change
negotiations under way in the United Nations Framework SI/L-2
Convention on Climate Change. Forests, in both Advances in Air Pollution and Climate Change
industrialized and developing countries are being singled out Impacts on Forests
of their crucial role in climate change mitigation. The Fourth
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Elena Paoletti
Istituto Protezione Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via
Climate Change estimates that the forestry sector is Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, ITALY,
responsible for 17.4% of total global greenhouse gas Email: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it
emissions, due in large part to tropical deforestation, but also
points that the C sequestration in boreal and temperate forests IUFRO (International Union of Forest Research
more than compensate for GHG emissions from tropical Organizations) is the global network for forest science
forests. The developing countries must undertake mitigation cooperation in the world. The Research Group 7.01.00 deals
action if the goal of limiting the average global temperature with the impacts of air pollution and climate change on forest
ecosystems and state of the art findings are presented at
increase to within 2oC is to be achieved. Forests are
biannual meetings. Interlinkages among air pollution,
acknowledged as part of the solution. Efforts are being made
climate change and forests are everywhere. Complex effects
to realize the mitigation potential of forests through
are in progress and affect all the main forest ecosystem
providing positive incentives to countries to carry out
services: protection (biodiversity, soil, water, air quality),
forestry mitigation actions. The on-going deliberations on
production and cultural services.
“reducing emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation in developing countries”, under way in the Ad In this paper, we summarise the main research needs
Hoc working group on long term Cooperative Actions under emphasized at the recent 24th IUFRO RG 7.01 Conference
the conventions, focus on the creation of an instrument to titled “Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and
provide incentives to developing countries to undertake Climate Change”, Antalya (Turkey), March 2010. One
forestry mitigation actions. The potential for sequestering C important point is the need for information on nutritional
in the terrestrial biosphere, aim of developing enhanced C status of forest stands for sustainable forest management. It
sequestration in the biosphere is to enable a rapid game in was suggested to maintain long-term monitoring programs
withdrawal of CO2 from the atmosphere over the next 50 and to account for the effects of extreme years, and past and
years. In order to allow time for implementation of other present management practices. Among air pollutants, O3 was
technological advances that will help mitigate CO2 recognised as the most damaging to plants. Plant protection
emissions. C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems is either regulations in the European Union are based on an exposure
the net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere or the prevention index derived from O3 concentration data, but the physical
of CO2 net emissions from terrestrial ecosystems into the parameter governing damage to vegetation is the uptake of O3
atmosphere. C sequestration may be accomplished by through the stomata. Such an approach should be tested on a
increasing photosynthetic C fixation, reducing wide range of species of conservation importance. More and
decomposition of organic matter, reversing land use changes longer duration open-air studies on mature trees in different
that contribute to global emissions, and creating energy forest types are critical if we are going to understand future
offsets through the use of biomass for fuels or beneficial changes to forest productivity.
products. In an experiment conducted in transitional zone of Air pollution can modify tree susceptibility to both
Karnataka, Acacia auriculiformis one among the six biotic and abiotic stressors, including climate. Knowledge
shelterbelt species as sequestered highest atmospheric about the mechanisms is still imperfect because of the many
carbon-oxide forward by Azadirachta indica. Among the tree variables involved. O3 alters leaf control on water losses, and
species planted in the shelterbelt in lower rain fall area of nitrogen and reduce the shoot/root ratio so that trees are more
Karnataka includes Tectona grandis, Pongamia pinnata, susceptible to drought, windstorms, fire and attacks by weak
Casuarina equisetifolia, and Dalbergia sissoo. It was parasites. Because their impacts are species-specific,
concluded that shelterbelt species in low rainfall transition nitrogen and O3 affect also plant biodiversity. O3 may alter
belt of Karnataka have performed better in sequestering tree leaf chemistry and insect herbivore performance.
highest atmospheric CO2, it helps in reducing the global At present, there are well established relationships between
warming on the other hand reduction in the greenhouse gases the exceedance of critical level/loads of pollutants and
2 ICPEP- 4

ecosystem degradation. Nevertheless, ecological vapor levels cannot be effectively controlled because it is
interactions between critical loads and other environmental produced by: (a) mostly evapo-transpiration, (b) fossil fuel
factors such as impact of increased concentrations of CO2 and combustion and (c) reactions in the atmosphere driven by the
O3, insects, pathogens, fire, drought, flooding, wind, and sunlight. Nevertheless, there is a feedback process between
extreme temperatures as well as ecosystem management increases in the air temperature and increases in atmospheric
practices, are still poorly understood. water vapor levels.
Modelling techniques should be improved to get more In as much as air temperature (growing degree days),
reliable results and estimations. Current process models are soil moisture and nutrients have a critical effect on crop
parameterized with data taken under steady state conditions, production, so do increasing CO2 levels (accounting for the %
yet environmental conditions in natural forest systems are offset by the negative effects of surface level O3). However,
highly dynamic. Focused research and model development all plants have a set functional carbon (C) to nitrogen (N)
incorporating stomatal responses and carbon balance under ratio. After a point, to absorb more CO2, plants (particularly
dynamic environmental conditions will improve predictive C3 species) will require increasingly more N. Increased
capabilities of models. Results should be available to public application of N can lead to increased N2O emissions, a
for taking action. A comprehensive assessment of the potent radiative gas. As is, atmospheric N deposition (effects
economic, human health and environmental impacts of on biodiversity) and agricultural ground water run off and
climate change and air pollution in countries in Asia, Latin hypoxia are of much concern. Further, global fresh water
America and Africa is still missing. supply will be a limiting factor for crop production. In the
Key words: Air pollution, Climate change, Forests, IUFRO final analysis, there is a need for a major reorganization of
crop production systems and global distribution of food
supply and security, particularly since significant population
Air Quality, Climate and Global Agriculture growth is expected in the developing countries during the 21st
Sagar Krupa century.
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, 1991 Key words: Climate change, Global warming, Trace gases,
Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA, Agriculture, Food security
Email: krupa001@umn.edu
Clearly the chemical climate of the earth has changed
since the onset of the industrial era. The concentrations of a Climate Change, Biodiversity and Urban
number of anthropogenic trace gases in the troposphere (~ 0 - Environmental Crisis: An Overview
10 km above the surface) have increased since the late 1800s. Ram Jee Srivastava*, Pratibha Singhand Pawan Kumar
There is also evidence that during the last millennium, the U.P. State Biodiversity Board, PICUP Bhawan, Gomti Nagar,
annual average global air temperature has increased by Lucknow – 226010, U.P., INDIA,
roughly 0.7oC. However, a detailed perusal of the Email: srivastava_ramjee@rediffmail.com
temperature data in the last 50 years shows that daily maxima The climate of the earth is changing. The climate has
(daytime) have not increased as much as daily minima always been variable, but what is alarming is that the
(nighttime) in N. America, W. Europe, the former Soviet unprecedented magnitude of changes in the climate that too
Union and China. because of increased anthropogenic activities like land use
Global climate change is of utmost international changes (brings about change in physical and biological
concern. However, global climate change and global properties), industrialization, population change, change in
warming are not the same. The former is an integrated system energy usage patterns etc. Ecosystem and species have
consisting of: (1) increases in the radiative trace gas always been changing with time. Many species have gone
concentrations in the troposphere, (2) loss in the thickness extinct over the time.
(column) of the beneficial stratospheric (~15 - 50 km) ozone Any change in climate would lead to destabilization of
(O3) layer, and the consequent increases in the deleterious environmental and social conditions all around the globe.
ultraviolet-B radiation (280-315 nm) at the surface, and (3) These disturbances could jeopardize the conservation of
increases in the air temperature and changes in other physical natural ecosystems. Our planet is kept warm due to the so-
climate parameters (e.g. precipitation patterns, aerosol called greenhouse effect. This effect consists of trapping the
optical depth) at the surface. energy-radiated by the earth into the atmosphere- instead of
There is a major international initiative to curb allowing it to escape into outer space.
anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), emissions because it is Now a days, the environmentalists are greatly
considered to be the main cause of global warming. concerned to check the emission of green house gases in the
However, other trace gases such as methane (CH4) and atmosphere chiefly responsible for climate change and
nitrous oxide (N 2 O) that occur in much smaller global warming effects. The major constituents of green
concentrations are orders of magnitude more radiative. More house gases are: CO2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, CFC's
importantly, water vapor contributes to 60% of atmospheric (Chloro Fluoro-Carbon), SF6 and water vapour etc. The
warming, much more than CO2 (~22%). However, water main constituent, CO2 intends to have maximum adverse

effect on environment. The sheer quantity of CO2 makes it the can serve as large C sink. Available information worldwide
most problematic of greenhouse gases. CO2 concentrations in regarding the soil CO2 flux and C sequestration capacity in
the atmosphere have also increased from 280 ppm in 1800's response to soil amendments is scanty and particularly
to about 386 ppm currently. Climate change affects lacking in tropical dryland agroecosystems, which are now
vegetation in a major way, for example with tree-line shifts becoming the focus of attention for 'evergreen revolution'. In
towards higher elevation as a response to increased drylands, application of organic resources has been
temperature. In that process, least-adapted vegetation and advocated for the enhancement of crop production as these
animal species will be the most adversely affected ones, and measures tend to conserve soil moisture as well as improve
eventually disappear. Several ramifications of warning of the soil fertility. We evaluated the effect of application of soil
climate system are now seen. inputs with varying resource quality on the CO2 flux and the C
Glaciers are melting worldwide, Changing sea-temperatures, sequestration in soil. CO2 flux varied with season and
and increased level of CO2 dissolved in the ocean are differing input quality (higher flux with low quality inputs).
adversely affecting corals, with bleaching in them has Significant increase in soil organic C, leading to C
become a more common features leading to their death, sequestration was found in combined input and high quality
Climate changes are forcing some plant and animal species to input treatments. In low quality input the loss of C (in form of
migrate, as they are unable to adapt to their changing CO2) was highest but the C sequestration was lower. In
environments, which poses a problem for the conservation of combined input, however, the level of soil organic C was
biodiversity hotspots. maximum inspite of higher soil CO2 flux. It is concluded that
Biodiversity refers to variety and variability among for sequestration of C, form of C (labile or recalcitrant) is
living organism, ecosystem and ecological complexes. It more important than the absolute amount of C added to the
represents the variety of genes, species and ecosystem found soil through exogenous inputs. There is a need to further test
on our planet. The species are quickly disappearing because such resource quality based soil input approach on long term
of gradual change in climatic conditions, human basis for improved agricultural sustainability in dry tropics.
encroachment and other human influences. Consequences of Key words: Agroecosystem, C sequestration, Soil CO2 flux, Soil
climate change on the species component of biodiversity fertility
include: changes in distribution, increased extinction rates, SI/O-3
changes in reproduction timings, and changes in length of
growing seasons for plants. A major international study has Role of Micro-Climate in Plant Community
warned that global warming may drive a quarter of land Association: A Case Study in Tropical Moist
animals and plants to the edge of extinction by 2050. Deciduous Forest of Uttar Pradesh, India
There is a need to introduce planning approaches that Ashish K. Mishra, Nayan Sahu, Amrit Kumar, Niraj Singh,
can help go a long way in achieving environmentally Omesh Bajpai, Anoop Kumar, Pankaj K. Srivastava, L.B.
compatible and sustainable development. Carbon Chaudhary, Nandita Singh and Soumit K. Behera*
sequestration through urban forestry/green belt development National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
may prove to be an effective tool, as well as attenuating air – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
Email: soumitkbehera@gmail.com
Key words: Biodiversity, Carbon sequestration, Climate change, Ecosystem level studies for phytosociological analysis
Green belt development, Urban environment have been undertaken at Katarniyaghat Wildlife Sanctuary of
Uttar Pradesh, a representative of Tropical Moist Deciduous
SI/O-2 Forest Ecosystems of Central India. The Katarniyaghat
Variation in Soil CO2 Flux and C Sequestration in Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) spreading over an area of 409
Tropical Dry Land Agroecosystem: Influence of km2 is located in Nanpara Tehsil of Bahraich district, U.P.,
Application of Organic Inputs India. This paper tries to reports that climatic variables play
major role in shaping the plant community association in the
N. Ghoshal* and K.P. Singh forest ecosystem. Plant community analysis of KWLS was
Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Department of Botany,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA,
done by laying of 145 random quadrate sampling plots of 400
Email: n.ghoshal@yahoo.co.in m2 each. Quantitative analysis of different phytosociological
attributes including the importance value (IVI) was done.
Global climate change and soil fertility, two major
Multivariate analysis (Cluster analysis and CCA-ordination)
concern of this century, are being influenced greatly by soil
of the forest community for association analysis was done
CO2 flux as soil has been recognized as a major source and
based on the tree species importance value (IVI). Cluster
sink for atmospheric CO2. The balance between C- analysis of the forest community were performed using
accumulation and its losses reflects the potential of C- chord distance and minimum variance with the help of PAST
sequestration. Management strategies of agroecosystems diversity analysis software (1999). Cluster analysis classifies
influence soil CO2 flux as well as its sequestration potential in all the tree species into five distinct forest community/forest
soil. Agroecosystems offer immense opportunities for types: dry miscellaneous; low land miscellaneous; sal mixed;
attaining substantial increase in soil C sequestration as they pure teak and savanna. Dry miscellaneous community is the
4 ICPEP- 4

fastest growing with highest stem density of 822.8 stem/ha years, there was a great surge in the floricultural activity in
and tree diversity richness of 58. Low Land forest is the production of flowers (cut and loose), ornamental plants
comparatively young community having 53 tree species. Sal (potted and cut-greens) and dry flowers (value added
mixed community is the mature community of KWLS products), besides marketing. The horticultural sector
having highest basal cover 77 m2/ha with 35 tree species. All contributed around 28% of the GDP annually from 13.08% of
the previous Teak plantations have now been naturalized and the area and 37% of the total exports of agricultural
stabilized in the form of pure teak forest having homogenous commodities (2004-05). Albeit, India's present contribution
teak dominated community with 25 tree species. Savanna is in the global floricultural export market is negligible (about
having lowest stem density 350 stem/ha and lowest species 0.4%) as compared to Netherlands (58%), Columbia (14%),
diversity with 15 tree species. Diurnal variations in Ecuador (7%), Kenya (5%), Israel (2%), Italy (2%), Spain
microclimatic parameters like ambient air temperature, (2%) and others 10%, it is not far when India will come up as
relative humidity, solar radiation (PAR) at shrub layer, a major grower/exporter by virtue of well planned policies
ambient CO2, soil temperature and soil moisture of the all the formulated by the Government of India backed with foreign
five forest communities were measured with LICOR-840 technologies for green house production. We have to plan the
portable weather monitoring system. There is very strong strategy to overcome the problems due to the climate change
positive correlation between microclimate parameters and with reference to floral crops.
respective forest communities. Microclimate plays a very Key words: Climate change, Floriculture
important role in formation of tree species association and
further giving platform for understorey community growth.
CCA analysis of different weather variables against the five Measuring and Modelling Stomatal Ozone Flux in a
forest community was done. Results indicated that patterns Mediterranean Forest
of these micro-climates are strongly correlated with S. Cieslik1*andE. Paoletti2
phytodiversity. Species composition and distribution of plant 1
Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi 2749, Ispra, ITALY; 2Istituto
community are shaped not only by environmental Protezione delle Piante, Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via
conditions, but also by spatial factors, anthropogenic Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, ITALY
disturbance, and species competition etc. It is concluded that Among air pollutants, ozone is recognised as the most
the potential importance of spatial factors, biotic interactions damaging to plants. Ozone risk to vegetation is particularly
and other stochastic factors must be considered to understand high in the Mediterranean area, where climatic conditions,
the relationship between the plant community and associated with strong man-made air pollution, favours
environmental factors. ozone formation. Plant protection regulations in the
Key words: Tropical forest, Plant community, Phytosociology, European Union are based on an exposure index derived
Micro-climate, PAR, Ambient CO2, Weather parameters, Cluster from ozone concentration data, but the physical parameter
analysis governing damage to vegetation is the flux of ozone through
SI/O-4 the stomata. In the Mediterranean area, water supply is
limited during summertime and plants avoid both ozone
Impact of Climate Change on Floriculture in India injury and water loss by closing the stomata. Correct
S.C. Sharma measurements and models of stomatal ozone uptake by
Former Head Botanical Garden and Floriculture Discipline, Mediterranean vegetation are thus essential to develop a new
National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., approach for plant protection.
INDIA, Email: scsharmagardener@gmail.com
We measured stomatal ozone fluxes over a Quercus
Climate change is one of the most important global ilex forest in central Italy and compared the results with those
environmental challenges in the history of mankind. Plants obtained with the DO3SE model (Emberson et al., 2000) and
are key components of the ecosystem and are greatly
the parameterization developed by Alonso et al. (2008) for Q.
influenced by climatic and geographical factors. Therefore,
ilex. The work was carried out at a CarboEurope site
climate change has a direct impact on agriculture and
(Lecceto), where ozone and water vapour fluxes were
horticulture as the basic factors for crop production are being
measured by the eddy covariance technique as well as the
influenced. Overall, a low production of horticultural crops is
main environmental parameters during July and August
feared due to the climate change. Assuming a global
2006. Spot measurements of instantaneous gas exchange
temperature rise of 4.4oC by 2080 over the cultivated areas,
were also carried out by means of a portable analyser.
India's agricultural output is projected to fall by 30-40%
which would be quite alarming unless proper remedial While the eddy covariance results showed that trees
measures are taken. Further, occurrence of new diseases, exchanged gases with the atmosphere, the model was unable
pests together with severity of the existing ones is also to detect any uptake of ozone for most of the time. In fact,
foreseen. Some of the well established commercial varieties water content of the upper soil layer (i.e. one of the functions
of fruits, vegetables and flowers will perform poorly in an affecting the modelled uptake) was very frequently below the
unpredictable manner. wilting point, suggesting that adult Q. ilex trees are able to
access water in the deep ground table over the dry periods. A
India is becoming a strong centre of commercial
new parameterization for Mediterranean forests in drought
floriculture in the international market. During the last 5-7

conditions should thus be developed. An empirical soil water SI/O-7

content function was developed here by using the Study of Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in a Managed Grassland
measurements of instantaneous stomatal conductance. The Ecosystem
ratio of hourly values of stomatal ozone flux measured by
Sangeeta Mukhopadhhyay* and Subodh Kumar Maiti
eddy covariance and those calculated by the new model was Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Centre of
0.4. This suggests that either the model underestimated the Mining Environment, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad – 826004,
uptake or the partitioning between stomatal and non stomatal Jharkhand, INDIA,
ozone flux was imperfect. Email: sangeeta.dccs@rediffmail.com
Key words: Ozone flux, Air pollution, Ecosystem health In recent years, the carbon cycle in terrestrial
SI/O-6 ecosystems has attracted considerable attention not only
among scientists but also among policymakers, owing to its
Assessment of Carbon Stock in Eucalyptus Agroforestry
potential for sequestering atmospheric CO2. There are
Plantations in Saharanpur District of Western Uttar
Pradesh evidences that some grasslands can be significant sources or
sinks of atmospheric CO2, while others are carbon neutral. In
R.H. Rizvi*, Deepak Maurya and S.K. Dhyani many types of grassland, high levels of soil organic matter,
National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi – 284003, U.P.,
INDIA, Email: rhrizvi@nrcaf.ernet.in
microbial activity, and root biomass make the rhizosphere a
potentially large source or sink for atmospheric CO2.
Agroforestry systems prevalent in north-western India Furthermore, land management practices such as mowing,
play an important role in sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in may alter carbon (C) fluxes and, thus, may affect the amount
the form of tree biomass. In western Uttar Pradesh, of C sequestered or released annually from grasslands. It has
Saharanpur district is a good example of agroforestry been reported that mowing and grazing attributed the
dominated area where poplar and eucalyptus trees are grown reduction to a decrease in canopy photosynthesis and
on farmlands. Farmers generally grow these tree species on reduced translocation of C to the rhizosphere.
the field boundaries at 2 m spacing. A survey was conducted
in Saharanpur district during July, 2010 and data on The study was carried out in a playground during the
eucalyptus boundary plantations of different age was month of July, 2010, at Indian School of Mines campus,
collected. Data on tree height, basal diameter, diameter at Dhanbad and ground was covered by Cynodon dactylon
breast height were recorded for 25-30 sample trees from 2 to grass. The soil CO2 flux was monitored using LICOR
10 years plantations. infrared gas analyser (non-dispersive) continuously for 24-h.
Data was taken in hourly interval. The FCO2 was measured
Wood volume of eucalyptus trees was estimated using
using a survey collar, which was inserted 5-cm into the soil in
volume equation given by Forest Survey of India. Then wood
mowed and unmowed sites but in disturbed sites. The grass
biomass was computed and converted into dry biomass using
along with roots were completely rooted out along with soil
dry to fresh biomass ratio. From dry wood biomass, carbon
then the collar was inserted 5 cm in the soil. Soil temperature
stored in wood of eucalyptus tree was estimated. From this
was recorded by Soil Temperature Probe and soil moisture
carbon stock in eucalyptus trees per ha was calculated by
was recorded by Soil Moisture Probe and total operation was
multiplying with tree density. Analysis revealed that wood
carried out by Palm Wireless Communication. Temperature,
volume and biomass of 3 years old eucalyptus plantation was
moisture, RH and ambient CO2 concentration (Ca) were
4.20 m3 ha-1 and 2.001 t ha-1, respectively. At the age of 7
monitored during the survey.
years, wood volume and biomass were estimated to be 42.00
m3 ha-1 and 20.042 t ha-1, respectively which is almost 10 times In this study measurements of CO2 flux were carried
that of 3 year old plantation. Wood volume and biomass were out in three sites- unmowed sites, mowed sites and disturbed
estimated to be 0.351 m3 ha-1 and 169.043 t ha-1, respectively sites (below 15 cm depth). Baseline properties of the soils in
for 10 year old eucalyptus boundary plantation. the 0-15 cm profile exhibited the following average values:
Carbon stored in wood biomass of eucalyptus trees 7.1 (pH), 1.20 g m-2 (bulk density), 25% (sand), 47% (silt),
was estimated to be 0.903 kg/tree at the age of 2 years and 28% (clay), 1.3% (soil organic carbon), 185 kg/ha (available
increases with the increasing age of trees. It reached to a level nitrogen), 7.8 kg/ha (available phosphorus) and 315 kg/ha
of 44.12 kg/tree at the age of 10 years. Carbon stock in (available potassium). The average ambient CO2 during the
eucalyptus boundary plantations varied from 0.181 t ha-1 for study period varied between 334 - 476 ppm, with an average
2-year-old plantation to 8.824 t ha-1 for 10-year-old value of 402 ppm. Inverse relation was observed between soil
plantation. Equivalent CO2 assimilation by eucalyptus CO2 flux and ambient CO2 concentration. The diurnal
boundary plantations varied from 23.158 to 32.355 t ha-1 for 8 variation of temperature was observed between 26oC to 39oC
to 10-year-old plantation. In this way, agroforestry is not only with an average value of 29oC. The average soil CO2 flux in
remunerative to the farmers but also contributing in tapping three sites were found as follows: unmowed sites (8.7 – 16.1
atmospheric CO2 vis-à-vis mitigation of green house gases. µmol m2 s-1), mowed sites (5.8 – 11.0 µmol m2 s-1) and in
disturbed sites (4.2 – 9.4 µmol m2 s-1). In all the sites positive
Key words: Agroforestry, Biomass, Carbon, CO2, Eucalyptus
correlation was observed between soil CO2 flux and soil
temperature (r = 0.71 to 0.93).
6 ICPEP- 4

This study compared the CO2 fluxes of natural, mowed show an increase in pest range and incidence under these two
and disturbed grassland ecosystem. The variation in CO2 phenomena. The impacts of these changes on African
fluxes of the managed grassland ecosystem was jointly agricultural productivity are expected to be significant. This
affected by air temperature and soil moisture. Ambient CO2 paper presents part of the results of a larger study to
concentration and temperature remains the primary factor investigate climate change induced environmental changes
influencing the spatial variation in net CO2 exchange in on crop protection and crop yield on selected crop species in
grassland ecosystems. High degree CO2 flux was observed Mauritius.
above 15 cm where a high percentage of roots and microbial Potted plants of various species were grown under
populations reside. While in below 15 cm depth, CO2 flux environmental stress, namely drought condition, as well as in
a normal water-sufficient condition. The plants were allowed
was contributed by fine grass roots, root exudates, and
to be infested by their respective pests, e.g. Liriomyza trifolii
consequently microbial activity in that region. The
and L. huidobrensis on potatoes, the diamond back moth,
production and release of CO2 from soil layers is an
Plutella xylostella, on cabbages, etc. Leaves from uninfested
environmentally sensitive and important component of the and infested plants grown in both environments were
carbon balance for most ecosystems and therefore relevant analysed in an olfactometer for their potential in attracting
for understanding and predicting the global carbon cycle. adults of the parasitoids of the respective pests.
Key words: Soil CO2 flux, Mowed and unmowed grassland, This particular paper presents the results for Liriomyza
Temperature trifolii and its parasitoids, Dacnusa sibirica and Diglyphus
SI/O-8 isaea. It was found that leaves of plants from the stressed
environment were less attractive to the parasitoid as
Long-Term Trends in the Total Ozone Column Over compared to those of plants from normal environment.
Indian Region Furthermore, plants growing under warmer
Ankit Tandon* and Arun K. Attri conditions, i.e. in summer, showed a higher degree of stress-
School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, effects on volatile production than those grown in cooler
New Delhi – 110067, INDIA, Email: ankit.tandon.jnu@gmail.com conditions.
Variations in Total Ozone content present in a column The results of this study have implications on pest
from the surface of the earth to the top of the atmosphere have attack, and biological control of pests, under conditions of
its impact on the life present on the earth through variations in climate change.
incoming Solar UV irradiance and affecting global climate Key words: Attractant, Insect herbivores, Olfactometer,
system. In the present study, we focused on the estimation of Parastitoid, Plant volatiles
long-term trends in the Total Ozone Column (TOC) content SI/O-10
over Indian region. Here, we used an additive time-series
decomposition approach to de-convolute the Multi Sensor Potentiality of Horticultural Crops for Carbon
Re-analysis monthly mean TOC time-series data-set, for the Sequestration Under Sodic Environment
time-span of January 1979 to December 2008, in to different V.K. Mishra*, Shefali Srivastava, D.K. Sharma, T.
components viz. seasonal variations, long-term linear trends, Damodaran and Md. Shahabuddin
inter-annual variations and random noise. Results from the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station,
present study show statistically significant declining trends Near Manywar Kanshiram Smarak, Jail Road, P.O. Alambagh –
of the magnitude of –0.80 to –1.50 percent per decade in the 226005, Lucknow, U.P., INDIA, Email: vkmishra_63@yahoo.com
TOC content over the Indo-Gangetic Plains and Himalayan Global warming is inescapable. A rapid increase in
region of India (25-40N). Whereas, no statistically green house gas (GHG) emissions after industrial revolution
significant trends were found over the peninsular part of has increased its effects and has led to climate change. The
Indian region (0-25N). level of CO2 in atmosphere is rising with an alarming rate.
Key words: Total Ozone Column, Time-series decomposition, Overloading of atmosphere with carbon tends to develop a
Long-term trends, Satellite data, Indian region sustainable approach for sequestration of it. For mitigation of
SI/O-9 climate change two strategies may involve that may be the
reduction in emission of GHGs or by increasing their sinks.
Climate Change Impact on Insect-Host Plant Soil may serve as a source sink for carbon sequestration.
Interactions - Environmentally Stressed Plants are Carbon sequestration through biomass seems to be a viable
Weaker in Attracting Parasitoids of Insect Herbivore and cheap option in sodic soil. In India it is estimated that
S. Facknath1* and B. Lalljee2 6.3million hectare is salt affected soil, out of which Uttar
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Pradesh covers 1.35million hectare. Land use may play a
MAURITIUS, Email: sunif@uom.ac.mu; 2Consultancy and significant role in sequestration as well as for rehabilitation
Contract Research Centre, University of Mauritius, Reduit, of degraded land. A study was conducted to assess the
MAURITIUS, Email: vinodl@uom.ac.mu potential of horticultural crops grown on sodic soils to
The main effects of climate change on tropical African sequester carbon in a long run experiments and also to study
agriculture are predicted to be drought and rising the effect of land use on soil quality. In the present study three
temperatures. Most climate change scenarios and models horticultural systems viz. guava (Psidium guajava L.),

karonda (Carissa carandas L.) and aonla (Phyllanthus SI/O-12

emblica L.) and barren sodic soil were taken for comparison. Carbon Turnover in Rice Cultivation Area by the
It was found that the sequestration potential was higher for DNDC-Rice Model
guava with 0.484t/ha.year followed by aonla
(0.395t/ha.year) and karonda (0.321t/ha.year) whereas, the Kruamas Smakgahn
carbon stabilization percent was recorded higher for karonda Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University
Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Kamphaeng Saen district,
plantation. Total carbon and microbial biomass carbon were Nakornpathom province, 73140, THAILAND,
also found to be affected with plantation and depth of soil. Email: smakgahn@yahoo.com
Among the aggregate fractions, meso-aggregates (0.25-
2mm) of soil contribute more for organic carbon fraction. Rice soil has been considered as greenhouse gases
The soil physico-chemical properties also improved emission source. Flooded rice soil provide anaerobic
significantly by the adoption of horticultural systems. condition suitable for methanogenic bacteria activity and
produce methane (CH4) gas. Enhancing soil fertility is energy
From this study it may be concluded that the plantation source for methanogen and CH4 emission from rice soil.
of horticultural systems particularly guava, aonla and
However, organic material such as rice straw (RS)
karonda not only improves the degraded sodic land but also
application was encouraged by environmental scientist to
may help in sequestration of carbon within the soil.
avoid air pollution from biomass burning. Rice straw
Key words: Carbon sequestration, Sodic soil, Horticultural systems incorporation into rice soil is useful for improving soil
SI/O-11 fertility and reduces soil salinity. However, adding soil
carbon content by applying RS into flooded rice soil intends
Predicting Distributional Range of a Globally
to raise CH4 emission.
Endangered Tree Species Lagerstroemia
Minuticarpa Debberm. ex P.C. Kanjilal in North In this presentation, turnover of soil organic matter in
East India in Two Future Climate Change Scenarios rice soil was emphasized by using the DNDC-rice model.
The model was validated against field observation in
D. Adhikari and S.K. Barik* Thailand and simulated influencing of RS incorporation on
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, North-Eastern Hill CH4 emission. In addition, soil organic carbon pools over 24
University, Shillong – 793022, Meghalaya, INDIA,
Email: sarojkbarik@gmail.com years in study area were considered. The results indicated
high soil fertility produced higher CH4 emission than less soil
The northeastern region of India contains two out of the three
fertility. Methane emission from RS application case was
hotspots of the country. They harbour many endemic and
~50% higher than cultivation without RS application.
threatened plant species. Habitat degradation coupled with
Methane production increased in proportion to RS
climate change is posing a serious threat to these elements of
application rate and CH4 emissions rate increased linearly
biodiversity. Studies demonstrating the impact of future
climate change on plant species populations are not with the amount of RS supplementation. Simulated results
available. The present study attempts to predict the impact of also showed that RS incorporated into soil significantly
future climate change on the distributional range of enhances CH 4 emissions due to RS incorporated
Lagerstroemia minuticarpa which is a globally endangered continuously supplied carbon sources for CH4 production;
tree species found in the Indian Eastern Himalayas. The soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), H2. However, RS
species was last collected in the year 1938. However, through incorporation in rice soil before rice growing season or
rigorous field visits it was rediscovered in the Lohit and remain RS after harvesting showed high benefit for soil
Bichom river basins of Arunachal Pradesh. To predict its carbon content in rice cultivation area.
current as well as future distributional range in northeast Key words: Carbon turnover, Greenhouse gas, Rice field, Soil
India, we have employed the ecological niche modelling SI/O-13
using Maxent program. Ecological niche modelling (ENM)
is a useful technique to depict the current as well as future Changing Climatic Scenario of Western Rajasthan
geographical distribution of species based on their ecological and its Impact on Agriculture
niche. To model its current distributional range, we used N.K. Bohra* and D.K. Mishra
different physiographic and bioclimatic variables. Prediction Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, INDIA,
of its future distributional range have been made under three Email: bohrank@rediffmail.com
climate change models viz. Hadley's, CSIRO and CCCM, The Indian hot arid zone extends in an area of 0.32
three time frames i.e. 2020, 2050 and 2080 and two change million km2 in parts of western Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana,
scenarios viz. A2 and B2. The models predicted significant Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.61% of hot arid region of
reduction in geographical range of the species in both the India lies in western Rajasthan. The climate of this region is
change scenarios. characterized by great extremes of temperature and long
Key words: Climate change scenarios, Distributional range, period of severe drought accompanied by high wind velocity
Ecological Niche Modelling, Globally endangered species, and low relative humidity. Annual rainfall varies from 400
Lagerstroemia minuticarpa, North-east India mm in the eastern Rajasthan to less than 100 mm in the
western part of the region. The distribution of this meager
8 ICPEP- 4

rainfall is also erratic during the monsoon period leading to substantial positive contributions to the health and social and
protracted drought. Drought is a recurrent phenomenon in economic well-being of the whole populations. Climate
Rajasthan. In every 100 years there are 7 years of acute change, therefore, should be addressed as part of the larger
drought, 27 years of scarcity, 63 manageable years and 3 challenges of sustainable development. Public health
normal years of drought and it is not as dramatic as other strategies, improved surveillance, mitigation of climate
disasters. It is slow and it impacts on very large population for change by reduced use of fossil fuels and uses of the
a long period of time. renewable energy technologies may improve the conditions
In the western Rajasthan the rural economy is by reducing exposure to pollution. There should be
predominantly based on agriculture and animal husbandry. international agreements on the “precautionary principle”,
Livelihood of people dependent on monsoon behavior, the principle of “costs and responsibility” (the cost of
production of crops and fodder for animals (that exceed the pollution or environmental damage should be borne by those
number of people) is entirely a variable of the frequency of responsible), and “equity”. Adherence to these principles
showers. Rains 16-25 % below normal lead to drought and would help prevent future global environmental threats and
scarcity. The study of last 10 years data of agriculture reduce existing ones. With climate change under way, there is
production and forestry sector change are the real witnessed need to assess vulnerabilities and identify intervention /
of the climate change and their role in the economy. The adaptation ones. The optimal solution, however, lies with
climatic parameters influence the socio economic condition governments, society and individuals – and requires change
of the region by affecting many ways. The main important in behaviour, technologies and practices to enable a
effect of change in climate is impact on agricultural transition to sustainability, we need to act with urgency to
production which directly affect the little forest area and reduce ecological disruption while simultaneously
livestock. Thus frequent drought and now changing pattern strengthening the resilience of populations to withstand the
of rainfall causes severe damage to traditional rainfed impacts of unavoidable environmental change.
agriculture and make life really harsh. Key words: Adaptation, Climate change, Human health,
Key words: Agriculture production, Drought, Socio economic Mitigation, Vulnerability
factors SI/O-15
SI/O-14 Climate Change on the Move - Climate Migration
Climate Change and Human Health Will Affect the World's Security
Md. Mahmood Alam A.V. Naga Varma1* and J. Chandra Prasad2
Department of Education & Training, Maulana Azad National Urdu Depatment of Economics, P.G. Courses & Research Centre, D.N.R.
University, Gachibowli, Hyderabad – 500032, A.P., INDIA, College, Bhimavaram – 534202, A.P., INDIA,
Email: mahmood_manuu@rediffmail.com Email: avnvarma@gmail.com; 2P.G. Courses & Research Centre,
“It is in the interest of the entire world that climate D.N.R. College, Bhimavaram – 534202, A.P., INDIA
changes are understood and that the risks of irreversible Fast forward to the year 2050. The world's population
damage to natural systems and the threats to the very will be up to 9 billion people according to the United
survival of man, be evaluated and allayed with the greatest Nations—an increase of one-third. More than 90 percent of
urgency” (His Excellency Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, this growth will take place in developing countries. Estimates
President of the Republic of Maldives, 1987). also predict that 200 million people will be newly mobilized
Human health and the environment are intimately as climate migrants by 2050 due to global warming's effects.
connected and depend on society's capacity to manage the This increased migration will very likely affect global
interactions between human activities and the physical and security, which makes it imperative for the United States and
biological environments in ways that safeguard and promote other nations to begin formulating responses to climate
health. Any disruption in the stability of climatic variables migration now. As Thomas Friedman so bluntly writes, the
and parameters are expected to have a broad range of health world in 2050 will be crowded and it will be hot. Even if
impacts. Most significantly, climatic disruption threatens the industrial and emerging societies were to reduce their
adequacy of the “building blocks” of health for large greenhouse gas emissions tomorrow and reach instant carbon
population around the globe. As climate change dismantles neutrality, existing pollution has locked into the atmosphere
these central elements, people with limited resources will be at least some unavoidable warming. No matter what steps the
forced to migrate to areas where they may not be welcome, global community takes to mitigate emissions, we will still
likely leading to increase civil instability and strife. Climate be forced to adapt to a warmer climate. Global warming's
change, like other human induced large – scale consequences will be felt much earlier than 2050. Climate
environmental changes, poses risks to ecosystems, their life scientists argue that extreme weather events and resource
support functions and, therefore, human health. If the balance shortages will affect millions of people in Africa, Australia,
between earth ecological and other bio-physical life support and Latin America by 2050. In Asia, warming will shrink
system decline, human population well being and health will freshwater resources from large river basins that could
be jeopardized. Planned adaptations to climate change and adversely affect 1 billion people. Parts of Africa could see
moving to a low-carbon economy can potentially make rain-fed agricultural yields fall by much as 50% from today's
output, threatening food insecurity on top of water insecurity.

Melting snow-caps in the Andean region will harm important forcing tends to warm the climate to continue climate crisis
agricultural regions in Latin America. means putting the billion of people into the edges of mass
The geopolitical consequences of climate change are starvation due to sharp drop of agriculture output, extinction
determined by local political, social, and economic factors as of plants and animals, erosion of cryogenic sphere, loss of
much as by the magnitude of the climate shift itself.” It is bio-diversity that likely to result increased mean surface
inevitable that as global warming intensifies hurricanes, temperature beyond 20C by 2100 compared as of today. The
drought adds to resource shortages. We will need to prepare global warming that results enhanced effect of GHG from
for extreme circumstances, including human migration. This power utilities, transport sector, manufacturing process,
includes thinking about new mechanisms and interagency deforestation, although the Earth put efforts to retain balance
solutions that incorporate economic development, due to interactions of naturally occurring atmospheric gases.
diplomacy, aid, and security. The goal is to muster effective The climate crisis has focus impact on ecological aspects,
responses, realizing that it is critical to set climate migration sustenance on living beings, on marine eco-system,
and international security agendas in the near future. Climate estuaries, wetlands, along the coastal regions. As the climate
change is in essence an attack on the shared interests or crisis affects the energy balance of the system, this GHG has
collective security of the world, and both climate change and to stabilize by deep cut of the GHG and maintaining of CO2
climate migration assault the well-being and safety of people, within 450 ppm to avert rise of temperature that would not
or human security. It will therefore test the ability of countries lead to catastrophe. Deep cut of CO2 would eventually
to preserve natural resources and protect people. Since we are support to halt accelerating disintegrating of planets ice
entering unknown territory we must expect the unexpected cover, creating a market based economy through global
and prepare for worst-case scenarios. transitions into low carbon path, stewardship of nature and
In response to these challenges the Center for the need to minimize the energy band of radiative forcing
American Progress is bringing together our energy and below 2 watt /m2. The break through in technology is green
national security teams to launch a project focused on the technology for building up competitive environment in
intersections between global warming, human migration, energy sector; the main cause of global climate change can
and national security. Our work will focus on better substantially be arrested by use of green technology. The
understanding the climate challenges at hand and articulating authors talk about major aspects and dimensions of the issues
a set of progressive policy recommendations aimed at and their effective tools to mitigate the effect of radiative
addressing these challenges. Ultimately, the proper response forcing through green technology options and taking
is likely to require new governance and management proactive steps to fight against the climate crisis to restore the
structures that can deal with the fallout at different levels and energy balance of the Earth and to stay away ecological
combine humanitarian and developmental policies along threats on coral reefs.
with public diplomacy and military assets. Key words: Ecological balance, Mass starvation
Key words: Climate migration, Global community, Global SI/O-17
Effect of elevated CO2 on quality of grain in diploid,
SI/O-16 tetraploid and hexaploid Wheat
Challenges of the Climate Crisis Adopting Green Pooja Gokhale Sinha1*, D.C. Upreti2 and A.K. Bhatnagar1
Technology 1
Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany,
Amarnath Bhadra1* and Suhendu Poddar2 University of Delhi, Delhi – 110007, INDIA, Email:
Government of West Bengal, 1, K.S. Roy Road, 8th Floor, N.S. gokhale_20@hotmail.com; 2Division of Plant Physiology, Indian
Building, Kolkata, W.B., INDIA, Email: psodder@yahoo.co.in; Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi – 110012, INDIA,
TECH, DPSC LTD. Salt Lake, Sector – V, Kolkata, W.B., INDIA Email: dcuprety@gmail.com
Global warming and resulting climate change are Global atmospheric CO2 in 2009 was 384 ppm which
among the most serious environmental challenges being is about 40% higher than estimated prior to the industrial
faced by human kind world over. The majority of climate revolution. It has been projected that by the middle of this
experts confirmed about the signs of climate crisis due to century [CO2] may reach up to 550 ppm and by its end as
increase in concentration of CO2 and other GHG gases into much as 700 ppm. Apart from affecting important plant
the atmosphere. While the experts projects this increasing processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, CO2
trends, the Obama administration is yet unacknowledged enrichment evaluating the effect of high [CO2] on the quality
reality of the posed danger to address the climate crisis and quantity of carbohydrates and proteins in wild and
through International intervention of agreements; truly U.S. cultivated species of wheat.
is the major contributor of GHG that accounts over to 25% of Seeds of diploid wheat Triticum monococcum L.,
the total global share. The experts established that the climate tetraploid T. dicoccoides Korn. and hexaploid T. aestivum L.
instability threatens ecological balance of Earth, the life var. PDW 273 were sown in free air CO2 enrichment facility
supporting system and is yet disruption of radiative forcing (FACE) in the division of Plant Physiology, Indian
through the enhance effect of GHG and that would result Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi wherein a [CO2]
imbalance to the order of 3.7 watt /m2. As positive radiative of 550 ppm was maintained throughout the growing period of
10 ICPEP- 4

the crops. Biochemical analysis of grains showed that CO2

states that sinks and sources of carbon should be accounted
for `taking into account uncertainties, transparency in
enrichment significantly increased the concentration of total
reporting and verifiability'.
soluble sugars and starch in grains. The observation was also
supported by ultrastructural investigations wherein a higher Soil carbon storage potential depends on climate, the
accumulation of starch was observed in chloroplasts ofnature of parent geological materials, vegetation type and
pericarp cells of wheat. Further analysis of soluble sugars by
land management practices. Soil sequestration of
HPLC revealed an alteration in the composition of non-atmospheric CO2 through land application of organic
structural carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, fructose
residues may have bene? cial effects to reduce the increase in
and lactose. The response varied among three species. As
the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The
compared to control, protein concentration in grains signi? cance of different variables on production of
decreased in FACE grown wheat plants. Analysis of amino
greenhouse gases' and soil carbon sink capacity can be
acids such as leucine, arginine and histidine by HPLC investigated by monitoring CO2 and N2O ? uxes from
revealed that CO2 enrichment led to a reduction in theamended soils. An increase of soil carbon pool of degraded
concentration of arginine in all the three wheat species.
cropland soils may increase crop yield as well as enhancing
Leucine concentration decreased in T. aestivum and T. food security, reducing global greenhouse gases' emissions.
monococcum but an increase was noticed in T. dicoccoides.
The soil carbon sequestration is a truly win–win strategy.
Grain proteins of the three wheat species grown in ambient
Modeling is a useful tool of measuring changes in soil
and elevated [CO2] were separated by SDS-PAGE. It was
carbon stocks and it has been used as an effective
observed that growth in elevated CO2 led to an alteration in
methodology for analysing and predicting the effect of land-
the protein profile of grains in all the tree species. However,
management practices on soil carbon stocks. A number of
the response varied among the species. process-based models have been developed in the last two
CO2 enrichment leads to an increase in the decades. Models are needed to estimate dynamics of carbon
concentration of carbohydrates and a reduction in the in different soil ecosystems, because changes in soil carbon
concentration of carbohydrates and a reduction in are laborious to measure every time, and future levels of soil
concentration of proteins leading to an increased C:N ratio.
carbon can only be predicted using models. Current process-
Differential response of three ploidies may be attributed to
oriented soil carbon models are not suitable to all land-use
their respective genomes. However, more experiments are
management related applications. This is because of
needed to conclusively assign a role to any one of three
requirement of speci? c input information that is not available
genomes A, B and D. for all types of ecosystems. Therefore dynamic soil carbon
Key words: Atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2], Wheat model which can be used in a variety of soil applications and
ploidies, C:N ratio land-use patterns should be developed.
Key words: Carbon sequestration, Climate change, Kyoto
protocol, Soil
Soil Carbon Sequestration: An Opportunity to
Combat Climate Change
Ashish K. Shukla*, Pankaj K. Srivastava, Soumit K. Vulnerability of Indian Tea Production to Global
Behera, Nandita Singh and Bajrang Singh Climate Change - Molecular Breeding Approaches
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg – 226001, to Face Future Challenges
Lucknow, U.P., INDIA, Email: shukla_ashishes@yahoo.co.in S. Gupta1*, R. Bharalee1, P. Bhorali1, B. Gohain1, T.
Carbon cycle has three distinct pools globally, as the Bandyopadhyay1, S.K. Das1, P. Ahmed1, P. Bhagwati1, N.
atmosphere, the ocean, and terrestrial ecosystems. Soils Bhattacharya1, R. Singh1, N. Agarwal1, S. Borchetia1, A.K.
contain a stock of carbon that is about twice as large as that in Handique2 and S. Das1
the atmosphere and about three times that in vegetation. 1Tocklai Experimental Station, TRA, Jorhat – 785008, Assam,
Global emissions of carbon occurred due to land use changes INDIA, Email: sushmitapakhi4u@rediffmail.com; 2Department of
affected by deforestation, burning of biomass and fossil Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati – 781014, Assam,
fuels, conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems, INDIA, Email: ahandique03@yahoo.co.in
drainage of wetlands and soil erosion. In other words, the The tea industry is India's main net foreign exchange
depletion of soil carbon is stressed by soil degradation and earner and source of income for the majority of labourers. Tea
aggravated by land misuse and soil mismanagement. Thus, yield is greatly influenced by weather, and especially by
rehabilitation and restoration of degraded soil ecosystems drought, which causes irreparable losses because irrigation is
can reduce the rate of enrichment of atmospheric CO2 as well seldom used on tea plantations. Under the circumstances, the
as having positive impacts on food security, agro-industries, tea industry in India is clearly vulnerable to predicted climate
water quality and the environment. Sustainable forest changes, and subsequently greater economic, social, and
management, crop and pasture management and re- environmental problems. This paper discusses the various
vegetation have been suggested under Article 3.4 of the aspects of adverse effects of climate change on Indian tea
Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks and sources can therefore industry and put forward different molecular breeding
be included under these activities as the Kyoto Protocol also strategies applied to improve abiotic stress tolerance in tea.

Drought tolerance is a complex character resulting from the fodder and water.
interaction of many quantitative component traits. Marker On land near sea shore due to increase in salanity
assisted selection can be used to pyramid the major genes resulting into higher rate of crop failure.
including resistance genes, with the ultimate goal of
Up to the end of last millennium, there was uncertain
producing tea varieties with more desirable characters.
agriculture and minus agro growth rate in many years in
Identification and association of differentially expressed
agriculture of Gujarat.
TDFs between drought tolerant and susceptible genotypes
using cDNA-AFLP technique was done and 38 TDFs Commencing from the new millennium due to well
associating with the traits were cloned, sequenced and thought out policy well planned and properly implemented
validated using RT-PCR. PCR-based suppression subtractive efforts by Gujarat Govt. by involving Agro scientists and
hybridization was used to identify genes that are farmers up to the farm level by the help of newer agro
techniques and agro management devices. Gujarat today is
differentially expressed in response to drought. Out of total
6000 ESTs generated 12% showed no significant similarity one of the leading state in development of agriculture, having
in the database while 23% showed similarity with unknown average growth rate of 11% which is sustainabily higher than
proteins. Variation of expression was observed using RT- national growth in any other states of India, in last 10 years.
PCR and transcripts were identified as early responsive and By implementing the new experiment of Gujarat Agro model
late responsive. Mapping of the TDFs and differentially it is observed that the public leadership both –elected and non
expressed genes is being carried out in the linkage map for elected-participated in Krishi Mahotsav (Agriculture
identification of QTLs. Association studies will be carried festival),whole heartedly from CM to village Sarpanch and
out to see whether effects on phenotypic variation are from Chief Secretary to VLW.They went from Village to
observed for specific alleles, particular combinations of Village met farmers at their doorstep. The farmers have
become the centre of all activities of almost 18 different
alleles at one locus (in heterozygous state) or at several loci
Govt. Departments. Here, it is committed leadership which
interacting and involved in the adaptive traits targeted. In our
studies we summarize available domain knowledge on these has played the significant role in making sustainable
genes, acknowledging the fact that genomic studies of agriculture development in Gujarat.
drought stress in plants reveal large numbers of potential Moreover, Gujarat has encouraged and implemented
candidates that ultimately constitute complex regulatory alternative resources of energy, like solar energy, wind
networks. energy, bio mass energy, natural gas, techniques protecting
Key words: Drought, Genes, Linkage map, Molecular breeding, and promoting soil health, rain water harvesting
SSH, Tea management, for use in household, public and private
transport, agriculture and industry wherever it is required, by
the way controlling the proportion of carbon in air, resulting
Global Climate Changes and Gujarat Model in into minimizing the effect of global warming to attain the
Sustainable Development of Agriculture in New goal of sustainable and eco friendly development in
Millennium agriculture.
K.M. Patel Key words: Climate change, Sustainable agriculture, Gujarat Agro
Principal (Retd), Muni. Arts & U.B. Science College, Nagalpur, - Model, Public Leadership
Mehsana, Gujarat, INDIA SI/P-1
The most important challenge of today is global Climatic Risks in Agriculture
warming and providing G. Anu Lavanya*, M. Ganapathy and G. Baradhan
Sustainable livelyhood through development process Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai
and maintaining it. This challenge is more in our rural areas University, Tamil Nadu, INDIA, Email: gdanu2005@yahoo.com
where agriculture which includes Animal Husbandary and Climate assumes much significance in nearly every
Fisheries, is a major ways of livelihood, Major threat to phase of agricultural activity. In spite of much technological
sustainable development is impact of global warming on advances in modern era of agricultural sciences, climate has
agriculture which occupies 60% our population and majority remained an uncontrolled factor in crop production expect
of our people of rural areas. some artificial modification on a very limited scale.
There has been considerable concern on global climate Consequently, there are year to year variations from normal
changes among all the nations on our planet. The change in values in various climatic elements leading to excessive and
climate results into uncertain monsoon, scarcity of water, untimely rains, scanty rains, hot and cold waves, dust storms,
excess evaporation of water, cyclonic storm etc. This has a thunder storms, hailstorms, high winds, etc. such weather
direct effect on our day to day life and agriculture. abnormalities occur under extremes of any or combinations
So the impact of climate changes due to global of more climatic elements which can cause damage to crops,
warming will be on followings. animals, and agriculture and are termed as hazards. In
general, the extremes of temperature, precipitation and wind
On cropping pattern and on product on seeds due to are responsible for most of the hazards. However, worst type
increase in heat. of hazard is created when combination of two extremes of
On various methods of storage of food grains, seeds, climatic elements act adversely. Significant hazards affecting
12 ICPEP- 4

agriculture due to climate are floods, tornadoes, tropical of minimization of environmental CO2, we have proposed an
storms, hailstorms, dust storms, lighting, blizzards, droughts, adsorption method and economical and efficient adsorbent to
frost and high temperatures. minimize the environmental CO2. For that a 4 feet high, 2 ft
Heavy rainfall over a small area within shot time, snow diameter adsorption column was fabricated using cast iron
melting with high temperature and warm rain and rainfall sheet. The activated charcoal powder (300 mesh size) and
lasting for many days cause floods. Rate of arrival of water at biochar (crushed fine powder) were used as adsorbent to
a surface of the earth is much higher than the infiltration rate adsorb CO2 from the mixture of air and CO2 (99.5% air and
into the soil. Floods cause heavy damage to agricultural 0.5% CO2). The experimental observation was taken for the
crops, animals, building, life and property. % CO2 removal from the mixture used, amount of CO2
When speed of wind exceeds 150 kilometer per hour adsorbed per Kg of charcoal powder and biochar, capacity of
over a small area, there would be most violent storm called adsorption column in terms of volume of air cleaned per hour,
tornado which can cause much damage to agricultural crops, optimum bed height required for the 100% CO2 removal from
animals, etc. Tropical storms which mostly occur in Bay of the mixture used for the given flow rate of air mixture.
Bengal and Arabian Sea, also cause much damage to Since CO2 environment is favorable for the plant
agricultural crops except when they bring needed rain to growth, experiments are to be conducted to test the exhausted
drought affected areas. Hailstorms and thunderstorms cause charcoal powder and biochar as a biofertilizer to check the %
a great damage to agricultural corps, oftenly at harvesting increase in the height of crop.
stage in the months of March and April. Dust storms at a
Key words: Biochar, CO2 capture, Environmental pollution, Global
speed of about 100 km per hour occur when atmospheric
warming, Pollution control
pressure decreases suddenly causing great damage to fruit
trees generally during summer season. Forest fires are caused SI/P-3
by lighting. The combination of very low temperatures, Validation of Spot-Vegetation Product of NPP for
strong winds and snow storms forms blizzard. At high Agro-Ecosystem
latitudes they cause heavy damage to life and property. A
period of moisture deficiency (drought) is caused when the Manoj Kumar
Ecosystem Analysis Laboratory, Department of Botany, Banaras
supply of water becomes inadequate for the optimum
Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA,
requirements of plants. Permanent drought is found in deserts Email: bhu.manoj@gmail.com
where rain fall is much below the needs of plants and rained
agriculture is not possible. Irrigation is most essential to raise Primary productivity is the fundamental process in
crops. Seasonal drought will occur when there is no rainfall biosphere functioning. It is an important component of the
daring rainy season irrigation could help to raise coops in a global carbon cycle because it provides a measure of the
particular season of drought. However, agricultural crops amount of CO2 removed from the atmosphere through net
will be grown during the rainy season without irrigation carbon exchange. Therefore, it needs to assess the carbon
when rainfall is irregular and variable especially in sub- balance of regional and global scale. Agroecosystems
humid and humid regions, it causes contingent drought at any provides not only food security but also mitigate the climate
season, may be at a time when water need is much more to change due to atmospheric enrichment of CO2 and other
agricultural life leading to severe damage to crops due to greenhouse gases. Since agroecosystem covers major
wilting. When daily supply of water does not balance the proportion of earth land surface (37.3%), thus estimation of
daily need for water of a plant, invisible drought occurs agricultural productivity is an important issue, regarding
which is very harmful to crops leading to huge reductions in carbon sequestration. The quantification of agricultural net
yield. Under such conditions, irrigation to crops becomes primary productivity (NPP) through harvest method is very
imperative for getting optimum yields. arduous and time consuming. For this, remote sensing could
Key words: Agricultural crops, Natural hazards be an important tool for assessing NPP for vast agriculture
land. Therefore, present study intends to develop a regression
SI/P-2 model between harvest and the remotely sensed data of Indo-
Secure the Future using Biochar: A New Proposed Gangetic plains as well as Vindhyan highland. For this,
Method to Minimize the Global Warming and agricultural NPP of dominant crop varieties (rice and wheat)
Environmental Pollution were estimated on the basis of peak biomass and this value
was amalgamated with SPOT – Vegetation NPP product. The
P.R. Tayade*, S.H. Amley, A.P. Pardey, S.K. Deshmukh, conventional method yielded 10.8 and 7.6 t C ha-1 yr-1
P.R. Chavan, P.G. Bansod and V.U. Ambalkar respectively for Indo-Gangetic plains and Vindhyan
Department of Chemical Engineering, Jawaharlal Darda Institute of
highland while corresponding for these two system SPOT-
Engineering and Technology, Lohara MIDC, Yavatmal,
Maharashtra, INDIA, Email: prashanttayade1@rediffmail.com Vegetation satellite produced 7.2 and 3.6 t C ha-1 yr-1. Further
result indicated that SPOT-Vegetation satellite
The magnitude of global warming implies that an
underestimated by 32.9% for Indo-Gangetic plains and
efficient and economically viable CO2 minimization process
52.4% for Vindhyan highland.
has to be assessed in order to reduce the concentration of CO2
Key words: Agroecosystem, Indo-Gangetic plains, NPP, SPOT-
in the environment and hence global warming. In this study Vegetation, Vindhyan highland

SI/P-4 Rahul Bhadauria

Ecosystem Analysis Laboratory, Department of Botany, Banaras
Effect of Climate Change on Bryophyte Diversity Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA,
Pooja Bansal* and Virendra Nath Email: rahulbhadouriya2@gmail.com
Bryology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, On global basis, 52% of total forest are tropical and
Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
Email:pooja07_ag@rediffmail.com over 42% of these forests have been classified as dry forest
(TDF). They play an important role in conservation and
It is assumed that Bryophytes evolved approximately maintenance of biodiversity. In India, TDF accounts for
350 million years ago, somewhat between lower silurian and 38.2% of the total forest cover and is largely threatened by
lower carboniferous period. The first bryophyte appeared lopping, burning, overgrazing and clearing for cultivation.
during a period when the climate was much warmer than it is Like all tropical forests, TDF is in danger of disappearing
today. Throughout this time frame, the climate has unless steps are taken for restoration and conservation.
continuously changed and bryophytes continued to evolved Restoration usually requires plantations of native species.
and diversify, because they have a high fidelity to For most plants mortality rate is higher at seed and seedling
environmental gradients such as moisture, pH, light, stages and vegetation recovery is often very slow. Seed
nutrients etc. This can be proved by limitation and collection, limited time of sowing, seed viability,
replacement of some species, such as Drepanocladus germination and dormancy are the factors which limits the
fluitans, Meesia triquetra, Calliergon trifarium, Scorpidium restoration of dry tropical forest at seed stage. Seedlings are
scorpioidis and Tomenthypnum nitens by stress tolerant the very sensitive stage of plant life and the main
species such as Sphagnum warnstorfii, S. fuscum, Mylia determinants of tree seedling growth are light, temperature,
anomala, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum strictum, soil nutrients, soil moisture availability, fire, herbivory,
which act as a good bioindicator species. Effects of climate expansion in agricultural land which limits the restoration of
change on bryophytes can be monitored by two means 1) forests. Natural events such as temporary drought, flood may
effects on their growth rate, and 2) effects on the distribution also influence the regeneration of tropical dry forests. Large
pattern of individual species, community association and the areas need to be brought back under forest cover in order to
ecosystem which they represent. The effect of climate change reserve the current trend of deforestation and to conserve
appears in the form of change in global distribution of biodiversity. In India for the restoration of TDF, integrated
species, death rate fluctuation, change in reproduction and knowledge on seed characteristic such as seed size, seed
maturity duration etc. Recent survey in Scotland beautifully viability and requirements of germination and seedling
exemplifies the effect of climate change on bryophytes, in stages is crucial for region specific restoration of plants.
which its being reported that some species of bryophytes, viz. Trees act as a carbon sink by removing the carbon and storing
Acrobolbus wilsonii, Bartramia stricta, Lejeunea mandonii, it as cellulose in their trunk, branches, leaves and roots. While
Petalophyllum relfsii etc. are tolerant to climate change and releasing oxygen back into the air so we can say that
doesn't get influenced because of it, while species such as restoration of forest can mitigate the problem of global
Andreaea frigida, Bryum calophyllum, B. neodamense, warming.
Buxbaumia viridis, Herbertus borealis, Pohlia scotica and
Key words: Determinants, Plantations, Restoration, Seedling, TDF
Sphagnum bafticum are pretty sensitive and disappears due
to climatic changes. SI/P-6
As mentioned earlier, bryophyte species are very Flood Disaster in India and its Management
sensitive to climate change and henceforth called as Richa Arya1*, Mohd. Muzamil Bhat1, A.K. Gupta2 and M.
bioindicators of Global warming. Changes in bryophyte Yunus1
species composition and distribution can be used as a 1
Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao
warning signal of climate change. It is likely that bryophyte Ambedkar (Central) University, Lucknow, U.P., INDIA,
monitoring study of peat lands would produce quickly and Email: richaarya09@gmail.com; 2National Institute of Disaster
valuable results in determining the potential effects of Management, Govt. of India, New Delhi, INDIA
warming on the vascular flora. An important utilization of Last three decades have seen around three million
bryophyte indicator species would be to predict the migration
deaths worldwide due to natural disasters. On an average,
of climatically sensitive ecosystems that is causing the India is affected by severe floods every third year. Out of the
destruction of about 20-30% species from biodiversity. Thus
total geographical area of 329 mha more than 40 mha of land,
it becomes necessary to conserve this important group of roughly 1/8th of the country is prone to floods. India is the
plants and utilize them as a potential source of bioindicator.
most flood affected country in the world after Bangladesh.
Key words: Bryophytes, Climate change, Ecosystem, Global The economy also gets severely affected due to damage of
warming crops directly affecting the agriculture sector. In India two
SI/P-5 types of flood disaster measures are adopted viz., structural
measures and non-structural measures, also called long term
Restoration and Development of Tropical Dry measures and short term measures respectively. Albeit
Forests in India for Mitigation of Global Warming Disaster management plans are active at national level, state
14 ICPEP- 4

level and district level and also the disaster management act Other important components i.e. Geraniol formate, pulegol,
was introduced in 2005, still there are plenty of loopholes linalyl formate and other compounds also showed significant
which need to be plugged. Efficient implementation of non variations after sUV-B treatment. These findings are of
structural measures is a key requirement. The country needs a particular importance as the potential of supplemental UV-B
better and effective disaster mitigation system to ensure the dose to increase secondary metabolites i.e. phenolics,
safety of its people and economy. flavonoids, as well as stimulation of oil cell production vis-à-
Key words: Disaster, Flood, Non-structural measures, Structural vis positive involvement in volatile oil yield and its quality,
measures may offer the opportunity to produce plants commercially
with increased health benefits.
Key words: Cymbopogon citratus, Essential oil, Growth,
Effect of UV-B supplementation on growth, Phenolics, sUV-B
development and secondary products of
commercial importance in Cymbopogon citratus
(D.C. Staph.) Stress Adaptive Potential of High Light Acclimated
Rima Kumari* and S.B. Agrawal
Wheat Seedlings to Water Stress During Senescence
Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Sandip Kumar Behera1*, Geet Govind Sinam1, P.N. Joshi2,
Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – L.K. Nayak2 and Basanti Biswal3
221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: sbagrawal56@gmail.com 1
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg,
Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Staph.) commonly Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
known as lemongrass are used as herbal drugs in the Email: lifesc_sandip@gmail.com; 2Department of Physics,
treatment of various digestive disorders, diabetes, Padampur College, Padampur, Bargarh, Orissa, INDIA, Email:
inflammation, fever, nervous disturbance and stress related padmanava.joshi@gmail.com; 3 School of Life Sciences,
Sambalpur University, Jyotivihar, Orissa, INDIA,
problems. In present study, a field experiment was conducted Email: basanti_b@hotmail.com
to examine the effect of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B) on
growth, physiological functions and metabolism of C. In nature plants may experience environmental stress
citratus. The study mainly emphasize on its principle factors operating either simultaneously or in sequence. In the
objective to evaluate the effect of sUV-B on commercially present study, the developing primary leaves of wheat
most important product; yield of essential oil and its seedlings have been acclimated to high light stress and their
qualitative analysis. Treatments involved placing UV-B photosynthetic response to polyethylene glycol (PEG)
lamps over plants that increase the levels of biologically mediated water stress has been examined, during different
effective UV-B by either +1.8 kJ m-2 d-1 (sUV1) or by +3.6 kJ developmental phases including senescence. The high light
acclimated leaves show higher level of total chlorophyll,
m-2 d-1 (sUV2) above ambient. Plants growing under higher
carotenoids and proteins as compared to their non-
dose sUV-B (sUV2) had 17.6% less total biomass than those acclimated counterparts experiencing osmotic stress during
under control but at lower dose (sUV1) biomass being senescence. The acclimated plants retain significantly higher
unaffected. sUV-B did not affect plant height; however, level of â-carotene and lutein, in particular, as compared to
specific leaf area was significantly increased assessing non-acclimated plants. They also exhibit greater membrane
increase in leaf thickness. Photosynthetic measurements stability as indicated by the measurements of fluorescence
indicated that there was no significant inhibition in net polarization, energy transfer efficiency in photosystem I
photosynthesis at sUV-B exposure suggesting protection of (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) and lipid peroxidation. From
the photosynthetic processes possibly by phenolic the data of DCPIP photoreduction, oxygen evolution,
compounds and antioxidants. UV-B radiation can activate thermoluminescence and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM)
the self-protective secondary metabolism system like fluorimetry, a similar trend is observed for PS II
flavonoids, total phenolics, alkaloids. Concentrations of UV- photochemistry of the leaves experiencing osmotic stress
B absorbing total phenolics and flavonoids values increased during senescence. These results may suggest that the stress
up to 45 and 53% higher under sUV-B than under control, adaptive potential induced by one stress during development
with corresponding increase in phenylalanine ammonia lyase is retained by the leaves and helps to mitigate another stress
(PAL) activity. Quantification of essential oil showed 25.7% effect operating in sequence during other developmental
higher essential oil yield at enhanced UV-B level (sUV1) phases including senescence.
compared to control. Analysis of volatile oils by Gas Key words: Adaptive potential, High light, PEG, Senescence,
chromatographic -mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) in Stress
fresh leaf samples of control and sUV-B exposed sample
showed the significant change in qualitative and quantitative SI/P-9
composition of oil constituents. Z-Citral the major bioactive Lichenometric Studies in India
compound of C. citratus is found be significantly stimulated Santosh Joshi*, D.K. Upreti and S. Nayaka
(up to 117.56%) by sUV-B exposure as compared to control). Lichenology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute,
Higher percentage of Z-Citral in sUV-B treated samples Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email:
suggests the improvement in quality of oil after treatment; as sj_lichenology@rediffmail.com
this compound have multiple pharmaceutical importances.

Lichens are the composite organisms which have an environmental conditions. The study would help us to know
ability to colonize on a variety of substrates including rock, the fate of some important glaciers in the nearer future, which
soil, trees and man-made structures in diverse environmental feed the life line rivers of India. So that necessary action can
conditions. The thallus of the organisms comprises of fungus be taken to control anthropogenic activities and conserve
and algae growing in a symbiotic association. The slow nature.
growing and sensitive nature of lichens can be utilized as an Key words: Debris flow, Glacier moraines, Lichenometry, Lichens,
indicator of environmental changes, load of atmospheric Rhizocarpon geographicum
fallout of metals and dating the rock surfaces on which they
are growing. Lichenometry is one of the chronological tools
that have appeared to estimate the elapsed time ranging from Ameliorative Effect of Ethylenediurea against Ozone in
decades to millions of years by utilizing different lichen three Cultivars of Black Gram (Vigna mungo L.)
species. Lichens grow on rock surfaces at relatively uniform Shalini Singh* and S.B. Agrawal
rates over time scales of centuries. Once attached to a Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology
substratum (including rocks and trees), lichens do not change Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University,
their place during entire lifespan. Hence, the age of lichen is Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA,
an alternate for the minimum exposure time of a substrate to Email: sbagrawal56@gmail.com
the atmosphere and sunlight. The orbicular lichens are Rapid economic growth, industrialization,
usually preferred for performing the lichenometric studies. urbanization, increased use of motor vehicles and lack of
The lichen species such as, Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norm., proper implementation of environmental regulations lead to
Lecanora muralis var. muralis (Schreb.) Rebenh. em. Poelt, serious air pollution problem in India. High level of O3 in
Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC., and Xanthoria elegans biosphere could be detrimental to all living and non-living
(Links.) Th. Fr., have orbicular thallus. Most of the lichens objects as it is a potent oxidant. Ozone is very phytotoxic and
have a peculiar type of thallus comprising of crust forming regarded as one of the most damaging air pollutant to which
areoles in the centre and small lobes at the periphery. The R. plants are exposed. Tropical countries including India are at a
geographicum, X. elegans and D. oriena grow on the rocks greater risk due to their meteorological conditions (high solar
frequently in the proximity of glaciers in upper temperate and radiation and temperature) being conducive to the formation
alpine regions. These lichens have ability that they can of tropospheric O3. Several studies have been conducted for
inhabit rocks which are usually covered by the snow during the last few decades to study the potential for protection of
winters. Most of the work regarding lichenometric studies in vegetation from O3 injury using chemical applications.
India and other regions of the world are performed with the Chemicals used for plant protection are mainly fungicides,
help of R. geographicum due to its luxuriant growth, wide insecticides, herbicides, growth regulator and various
distribution, easy identification, radial growth circumscribed antioxidants. The most effective antiozonant chemical is N-
by hypothallus, slow and constant growth rate and long life [2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl) ethyl]-N-phenylurea or
span. ethylenediurea (EDU). Due to its specific characteristics,
The lichenometric technique is mostly applied in EDU has been used in the field as a phytomonitoring agent to
dating surfaces, glacier moraines, debris flow due to land- assess crop losses due to O3. Field experiments were
slide and earthquakes, old monuments, buildings and conducted on three cultivars of black gram (Vigna mungo L.
graveyards. It gives easily an estimate for their minimum age cv. Barkha-1, Shekhar-2 and TU-94-2) grown under natural
of exposure and establishment or formation. Glaciologist and field conditions in a suburban area of Varanasi, Uttar
geologist in different regions of the world have worked upon Pradesh, India during July October 2007 to determine the
various aspects of lichenometry. The study not only helps to impact of O3 on various growth and yield parameters. Mean
date the geomorphic changes occurred in the past but also O3 concentration at the study site for the experimental period
analyses the frequency and intensity of the hazards. was 51.0 ppb. EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was
The technique has been greatly appreciated world- applied as soil drench (100 ml plant-1) 10 days after
wide but not much research investigation on this aspect of germination (DAG) at an interval of 10 days. EDU treatment
lichens is perused in India. However, some geological positively affected various growth and yield parameters with
activities in Gangotri and Chorabari Glacier of Uttarakhand distinct variations among test cultivars. EDU-treated plants
and Pawari landslide zone of Himachal Pradesh have been showed significant increase in shoot and root lengths of
noticed. Few Indian lichenologists have shown their interest Barkha-1 whereas number of leaves and leaf area increased
in correlating lichens with dating surfaces (of Pindari Glacier in Barkha-1 and Shekhar-2. Reduction in biomass of non-
in Uttarakhand). In developing countries like India, melting EDU-treated plants of Barkha-1 and Shekha-2 indicated that
of glaciers, glacial lake outburst floods, landslides and O3 induced suppression in growth and EDU treatment helped
earthquakes could be an additional stress on ecological the plant to alleviate the O3 stress. Significant increment in
processes that is already under tremendous pressure due to net assimilation rate (NAR) and specific leaf weight (SLW)
rapid urbanization and industrialization. Therefore, it is was observed in EDU-treated plants of Barkha-1 and
necessary to undertake lichenometric studies to estimate the Shekhar-2 but not in TU-94-2. Yield (g plant-1) was
rate of such natural disasters accelerated due to changing significantly higher by 36.4% and 35.6% in EDU-treated
16 ICPEP- 4

cultivars Barkha-1 and Shekhar-2 as compared to non-EDU- MALDI-TOF-TOF, Stress responsive protein
treated ones. However, non-significant effect of EDU was SI/P-12
observed for cultivar TU-94-2. EDU, thus proved its
usefulness in screening the sensitive/resistant cultivars of Morpho-physiological characterization of wheat
black gram in an area experiencing higher concentrations of cultivar under water stress conditions
O3. S.L. Khapke1*, R.K. Aher1 and B.A. Patil2
Key words: Biomass, Black gram, EDU, Ozone, Yield New Arts, Commerce and Science College, Parner – 414302, Dist.
Ahmednagar, M.S., INDIA, Email: vijayk_nsk@rediffmail.com;
SI/P-11 2
New Arts, Commerce and Science College, Ahmednagar – 414
A Proteomic Approach to Analyze Drought- 001, M.S., INDIA
Responsive Proteins in Cotton Leaf A study was conducted to characterize the morpho-
Farah Deeba, Ashutosh K. Pandey, Vivek Pandey and U.V. physiological parameters in wheat during FC (Field
Pathre capacity) percent treatment at the seedling stage. Wheat
Plant Physiology Lab, National Botanical Research Institute, cultivar (Var. 2496) was subjected to water stress (FC)
Lucknow –226001, U.P., INDIA, Email:vivekpandey@nbri.res.in percent treatment in pot culture. The study revealed that plant
Effect of drought was studied on cotton (Gossypium height, shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight
herbaceum var. RAHS 187) plants with reference to leaf decreased with increasing water stress at seedling stage in the
protein expression changes using two-dimensional wheat. The concentration of proline increased significantly
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). Cotton with an increase in the degree of water stress. Similarly
plants were subjected to gradual drought and leaves were phenolic contents also increased along with increased water
sampled at different relative water content (RWC) stages viz. stress level. However, photosynthetic pigments were highly
75%, 50% and 35%. Proteins from different samples were reduced with increasing water stress at seedling stage.
extracted and separated on first dimension (Iso-electric Key words: Chlorophyll, Proline, Root length, Shoot length, Water
focusing) and then second dimension (SDS-PAGE). Silver stress, Wheat
stained gels were scanned and analyzed using ImageMaster 2 SI/P-13
D Platinum Software. The interesting spots were excised and The Role of Bamboo in Carbon Sequestration and Global
trypsin digested. The resulting peptides were analyzed on Climate Change
MALDI TOF/TOF (4800, ABI). The data was searched
against NCBI nr/SWISS prot protein sequence database with L.B. Singha1*, M.L. Khan1 andR.S. Tripathi2
MS/MS ion search (www.matrixscience.com). Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of
Science & Technology, (Deemed University), Nirjuli – 791109,
Analysis of at least 3 replicated gels revealed that 387 spots
Arunachal Pradesh, INDIA, Email:lbsingha@hotmail.com;
were matched to all the gels. Sixteen spots were up-regulated 2
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg,
while 6 spots were down-regulated. Many up-regulated Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email: rstripathi@hotmail.com
proteins were associated with stress signaling e.g. 14-3-3
'Bamboo' also known as 'the green gold' is the only
protein, similar to cdc2 protein kinases and ethylene-
giant grass which has been recognized as fast carbon
responsive transcription factor. Some up-regulated proteins
sequester among the woody and non-woody terrestrial
were associated with stress response and detoxification e.g.
plants. Due to the rapid growth rate during the initial phase,
probable glutathione S-transferase, peroxiredoxin type 2,
bamboos generally achieve their full height up to a maximum
putative and polyphenol oxidase. Other up-regulated
of forty metre within three months after the induction of
proteins were identified as ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit,
tender shoot. It is well evident in case of Bambusa balcooa,
phosphoribulokinase, cytochrome P450 90 D2, acetyl-
Bambusa arundinacea, Dendrocalamus giganteus, D.
coenzyme A carboxylase, GTP-binding protein G alpha hookerii, D. sikkimensis, Gigantochloa macrostachya etc.
subunit. One protein identified as Serine carboxypeptidase
These bamboo species can sequester environmental CO2 and
was significantly reduced at 75% RWC however at 35%
accumulate up to 100 Kg per individual within a period of 3-4
RWC its expression was more than control leaves. The down
years. Bamboo can accumulate the aboveground standing
regulated proteins included mitochondrial ATP synthase
biomass up to 290 tonnes/ha with a net primary productivity
subunit (energy metabolism), Rubisco subunit binding-
up to 47 tonnes/ha/yr, which is almost double the rate
protein beta subunit (photosynthesis), magnesium and cobalt
exhibited by eucalypt clones. The total standing biomass of
efflux protein, putative Translation initiation factor IF-2,
mature Bambusa spp. with 149 t C/ha at 6 years is even higher
putative cadmium/zinc-transporting ATPase 2, Glutamyl-
than that of teak at 40 years with only 126 t C/ha. Bamboo
tRNA reductase 2, chloroplastic (chlorophyll biosynthesis).
being the grass, can withstand various environmental stress
A protein which expressed only in drought stressed leaves
including different types of metallic and nonmetallic
was identified as pentatricopeptide repeat-containing
pollutants up to quite higher concentrations, at which other
protein, putative (involved in cell cycle). Further proteomic
plants are killed. Due to multiple applications, valued
studies are going on cotton varieties differing in drought
products and high commercial value, bamboo is in high
sensitivity to identify drought responsive proteins.
demand all over the world. Therefore, its luxuriant growth is
Keywords: Gossypium herbaceum, Drought stress, 2-D PAGE, also linked with socio-economic conditions of the people.

Although, gregarious flowering in bamboo is an high), erratic rainfall etc. leading to reduced grain yield in
undeciphered natural phenomenon having serious ecological most of the crops. It is well established fact that productivity
implications, because this causes sudden and large-scale of chickpea suffers when temperature goes beyond 34-35oC
decline in large population of bamboos due to mass death of at reproductive stage i.e. flowering and podding stage. An
clones followed by the gregarious flowering, resulting in empirical estimate suggest varying degrees of losses (8-12%)
withdrawal from the sequestered carbon in productivity of chickpea during 2009-10 in different parts
Key words: Bamboo, Carbon sequestration, Climate, Flowering, of the country including Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya
India, Pollution Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Bihar due to high
temperature. The losses due to heat stress can be even more
when crop is sown late and there is sudden rise in temperature
Influence of Rising Temperature on Rice at reproductive stage. The reduction in seed size, forced
Production and Potential of Greenhouse Gases by maturity leading to shriveled and varying colour grains, poor
the DNDC-Rice Model: Case Study at Samutsakorn biomass production etc. can be seen in response to high
Rice Field in Thailand temperature in this crop.
Kruamas Smakgahn The efforts were made at Indian Institute of Pulses
Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University Research (IIPR), Kanpur and International Crops Research
Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Kamphaeng Saen District, Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru
Nakornpathom Province, 73140, THAILAND, independently to study the variability present for tolerance to
Email: smakgahn@yahoo.com heat stress. Accordingly large numbers of advance breeding
The site mode of the DNDC-rice model was tested lines were evaluated heat stress both at IIPR and ICRISAT.
against field observation for rice growth, rice yield and The selected breeding lines along with ICCV 92944, which is
methane (CH4) emission from irrigated rice fields in various known as heat tolerant genotype, were sown on 14th January
ambient temperatures. Field observation data under 2010 in replicated trial and observations were recorded on
continuous water management regime at Samutsakorn rice phenological and yield attributes at IIPR, Kanpur. The
field in the central plain of Thailand were was used as diurnal temperatures (minimum and maximum) were also
baseline. Carbon content of harvest part, root residue, and recorded during entire crop duration. IPC 2007-94, IPC
shoot were decreased when rising temperature from 29 to 31 2006-84, IPC 2004-53, JG 130, ICCV 7102, ICCV 89314,
and 35ºC. N uptake by crop, gross mineralization, ICCC 37, ICCV 92944, IPC 2008-89 and IPC 2006-53
assimilation of N, and net mineralization were also produced good number of pods at high temperature (>35oC).
decreased. Total CH4 and soil CO2 emissions were decreased Out of these, ICCV 92944, ICCV 2006-84 and ICCC 37 were
under rising temperature from 29 (baseline) to 31 and 35ºC. found promising at both locations. The minimum reduction
But CO2 emission from rice root was similar from all in biomass, seed size and number of pods per plant was the
treatments. The results from this study suggest that rising main reason for higher yield in tolerant genotypes. However,
temperature effect on rice growth, rice yield, and CH4 the early maturity has been found as another important trait
emission from rice cultivation. contributing towards better yield. On the basis of preliminary
Key words: Methane, Rice field, Rice growth, Rice yield, Rising study it can be suggested that transfer of genes conferring
temperature heat tolerance in genotypes having higher biomass and early
maturity will be desirable to mitigate impact of climatic
SI/P-15 change on chickpea. All these breeding lines are being
Mitigating Impact of Climate Change on Chickpea subjected for detailed physio-genetic analysis to test their
Yield worth with respect to heat tolerance. This preliminary study
has clearly indicated the scope for mitigating effect of
Neelu Mishra1*, S.K. Chaturvedi1 and P.M. Gaur2
1 climate change, heat stress in present context, on chickpea
Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur – 208024, U.P., INDIA,
Email: nlmishra9@gmail.com; 2International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru – 502324, A.P., Key words: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), Climate change, Heat
INDIA stress, Productivity
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the major SI/P-16
pulse crops covering 7.97 m ha area contributing about 50% Climate Change and its Impact on Aquatic
(7.06 m t) to the total pulses production (14.57 m t) in India
registering all time high productivity of chickpea (885 kg/ha)
during 2008-09. This has become possible due to Anita Nigam
development and popularization of high yielding varieties Department of Geography, D.B.S. (P.G) College, Govind Nagar,
insulated well against various biotic and abiotic stresses Kanpur, U.P., INDIA, Email: anitanigam1975@gmail.com
along with matching crop management technologies for Aquatic ecosystems include lakes and streams, non-
different agro-ecological regions of the country. Climate tidal wetlands, coastal environs, and oceans. Temperature
change can be seen as abrupt change in temperature (low or increase caused by climate change may reduce the diversity
18 ICPEP- 4

and geographical distribution of species, the productivity of different effects on the water environment, that is, paddy
organism in ecosystem and the mixing priorities of lakes. fields and wetlands can effectively remove nitrogen (N) from
Increase in air temperature can shift the geographic range of strongly contaminated water, and moorland fields can be
species by about 150 km. Pole ward. Most favourable effects serious N pollutant sources, to construct the N flow from
of warming will be felt at high latitude, where biological moorland fields to paddy fields should be effective to reduce
productivity and species diversity are likely to increase. Most N load outflow from the agricultural catchment. Further, to
significant negative effect will be experience by cold or cool construct recycling systems for agricultural drainage and
water species in low latitudes where extinction is likely to domestic effluent within rural areas are effective to
increase and biodiversity will decline. Climate change will contribute the water environment conservation. The paper
affect biological, biogeochemical and hydrological functions concludes that the indigenous knowledge and technology
of wetlands. An increasing temperature could affect the mutually support to plan innovative idea and relationship
wetland by thawing permafrost, which is crucial for between sustainable agriculture and climate change
maintaining the water table in ecosystem. Climate change adaptation which used for sustainable agriculture for future
effects, such as sea level rise, changes in atmospheric generations.
temperature and variation in the rainfall patterns. And many Key words: Biotechnology, Climate change, Indigenous
valuable economic and ecological functions including knowledge, Sustainable agriculture
tourism, fisheries, storm and floodwater protection and
biodiversity would be threatened by climate change. The
greatest impacts of climate change on many aquatic Assessing impacts of ambient O3 a component of
ecosystems would be the exacerbation of already existing global climate change on sensitivity of three wheat
stresses resulting from human activity. In this paper harmful cultivars
effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystem are discussed. Richa Rai* and Madhoolika Agrawal
Key words: Aquatic ecosystems, Increase in air temperature, Low Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change,
latitudes Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi –
SI/P-17 221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: richarai81@gmail.com
The current concentrations of O3 have been shown to
Climate Change vs. Sustainable Agriculture
cause significant negative effects on crop yield. The present
Rakesh Kumar Sinha* and Meera Dubey study was conducted to evaluate the O3 sensitivity in wheat
Centre for Environmental Science and Technology, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi - 221005, U.P., INDIA,
cultivars (M 234, PBW 343 and M 533) at a rural site in the
Email: yourraksh@gmail.com IndoGangetic plains of India, using open top chambers. The
experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block
The development of agriculture during the “Green and
design within the plot with three replicates of filtered
Gene revolution” led to dramatic increases in productivity,
chambers (FCs), nonfiltered chambers (NFCs) and open
but unfortunately, it is not sustainable as a result number of
plots (OPs) of different cultivars. Photosynthesis rate (Ps),
negative impacts arises such as Starving people in poor
stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthetic pigments, number
nations, obesity in rich nations, changing food prices, on-
of leaves, leaf area, relative growth rate (RGR), net
going climate changes, increasing fuel and transportation
assimilation rate (NAR) and leaf area ratio (LAR) were
costs, flaws of the global market, worldwide pesticide
assessed at vegetative and reproductive phases. Yield and
pollution, loss of soil fertility and organic carbon, soil
grain quality was quantified at the time of harvest. In the
erosion, decreasing biodiversity, desertification, and so on.
present study, AOT 40 value was 0 ppm.h in FCs and 6.2
The objective of the study was to identify the most
ppm.h in NFCs. O3 concentration frequently exceeded above
appropriate mechanism for sustainable agriculture with
respect of climate change that used long term development of 40 ppb during reproductive phase. Percent inhibition in Ps
nation without harming environment. rate and gs was highest in M 234. Highest inhibition in
number of leaves and leaf area was recorded in M 533 during
Sustainable systems avoid dependence on synthetic
vegetative phase and in M 234 during reproductive phase in
fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and livestock feed
NFCs compared to FCs. Percent inhibition in RGR was
additives. Instead, they rely mainly on crop rotation, crop
higher in M 533 during vegetative phase but at reproductive
residues, financial support to farmers who implement the
phase RGR increased. NAR showed higher value for M 533
environmentally-sound agriculture, and sufficient treatment
than PBW 343 and lowest in M 234 during reproductive
of livestock waste, animal manure, legumes, green manure,
phase, however, percent inhibition in leaf area ratio was
off-farm organic waste, mechanical cultivation and mineral-
higher for former than latter in NFCs. The ozone resistance
bearing rocks to maintain soil fertility and productivity, and
was higher in M 234 during vegetative phase and in M 533
on natural, cultural and biological controls to manage insects,
and PBW 343 at reproductive phase in NFCs compared to
weeds and other pests. Indigenous knowledge and
FCs. Reductions in number of grains, test weight and yield
biotechnology must be implement for managing soil fertility,
were lowest in M 533 followed by PBW 343 and highest in M
controlling pests and diseases, weeds, soil preparation,
234 in NFCs. Concentrations of starch and protein in grains
diagnosis of plant and animal diseases, planting materials,
decreased significantly in all cultivars in NFCs.
harvesting and storage. In agriculture every land use has

The study concludes that under ambient O3, the three All ecosystems will experience climate change but
cultivars responded differently. M 533 adapted under O3 ecosystems of the high mountain are considered to be
stress by reducing number of leaves and leaf area, increasing particularly sensitive to warming because they are regulated
NAR and RGR during environmentally sensitive by low temperature conditions. After expedition of different
reproductive phase, favouring assimilate translocation high altitude landscape the Nagtibba Mountain (3000-3500
towards developing ears and maintaining yield. Cultivar M m) has been selected for ecological study. The mountain zone
234 was found to be most sensitive showing maximum yield comprises real wilderness habitat with ecosystem
reduction. undisturbed by direct anthropogenic impact. This allows the
Key words: Ambient O3, Growth, Photosynthesis, Translocation, study of impact caused by climate change without effect
Wheat cultivars, Yield caused by human land use. GLORIA a standardized method
has been used. The data of plant density, diversity, biomass
SI/P-19 and energy contents has been compared. The density m-2,
Community Level Adaptation to Climate Change: A biomass gm m-2 and energy value gm-1 of some important
Case Study of Garhwal Himalayas sensitive species has decreased in 2009 as compared to the
Uday Nand Gaur * and A.B. Bhatt 2 1998. It is very strong indicator of climate change and
Outdoor Education Center, Government College Ghorakhuri, Nainbag
temperature rise in mountain site.
Tehri, Uttarakhand, INDIA, Email: gurmountain@yahoo.com; Key words: Anthropogenic impact, High altitude landscape, Plant
Department of Botany, HNB Central University, Srinagar, density, Plant diversity
Uttarakhand, INDIA SI/P-21
The Himalayan region is one of the most dynamic and
Biophysical Non-Invasive Screening of Cucumber
complex mountain ranges in the world due to tectonic
activity, and they are vulnerable to global climate change and Germplasms against Chilling Stress
increasing human activities. In addition to the already Ramwant Gupta1*, Rishendra Kumar2 and K.P. Singh1
existing threats and pressure on mountain ecosystem, climate Biophysics Unit, C.B.S.H, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and
change can be an additional burden to bear by the mountain Technology, Dist. U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand – 263145, INDIA,
ecosystem, species and people. Mountain people have lived Email: ramwantgupta@rediffmail.com; 2Molecular Biology and
with and survived great hazards for thousand of years, but Genetic Engineering, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Dist. U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand – 263145, INDIA
current rates of climate change are among the most rapid
known and they are superimposed on serve and, equally, Biophysical techniques viz., Chlorophyll fluorescence
uncertain socioeconomic pressures. The poor people are and infra-red gas analyzer has been routinely used for many
most vulnerable to climate change, which will increase the years to monitor the photosynthetic performance of plants
Poor's vulnerability and make pro-poor growth more non-invasively. The relationships between chlorophyll
difficult. While poor people are contributing less to the fluorescence parameters and leaf photosynthetic
climate change with simple living, they are most likely to performance are reviewed in the context of applications of
suffer the problems of heat stroke, water scarcity, and less fluorescence measurements to screening programme, which
food. seek to identify improved plant performance. The potential
role of chlorophyll fluorescence is screening of plants for
The Impacts of climate change are not evenly
tolerance to environmental stresses and for their
distributed in intensity within the region, nor among different
improvements. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an
communities and sectors of society. However, the poorer
important vegetable crop plant for many parts of the world,
more marginalized, people are likely to suffer the earliest and
Asian countries in particular. For these crop, chilling or low
temperature (0-15°C) is unfavorable as it affects growth and
Over the years communities have developed and development and limits their ability to survive. Low
practiced their own mechanisms to cope with adverse climate temperatures slow down the electron transport chain and
and other stresses beyond their control. The Aim of this paper inhibit alternative energy dissipation paths. In present
was that documentation of such local examples from investigation 27 germplasms of cucumber was collected
mountain areas would develop feasible and effective from different region of Uttarakhand and grown in
adaptive strategies to cope with climate change. polyhouse; the temperature range was ca. 4-15°C.the
Key words: Adaptive strategies, Impacts of climate change, observations were recorded at different growth stages using
Mountain ecosystem plant efficiency analyzer (PEA meter) and net photosynthetic
SI/P-20 rate by infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA). We observed the net
photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal
Effect of Climate Change on Mountain Biodiversity conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter viz.,
and Ecosystem Functioning: A Case Study of Fo, Fm and Fv/Fm at three different plant growth stages i.e.,
Nagtibba Hill in Central Garhwal Himalaya vegetative, flowering and maturity stages. The germplasms
Uday Nand Gaur collected from high hill region of Uttarakhand had shown
Biology Department, Government College Ghorakhuri, Tehri some level of tolerance to low temperature as compare to
Garhwal, Uttarakhand, INDIA, Email: gaurmountain@yahoo.com other germplasms collected from plane region. An Fv/Fm
20 ICPEP- 4

value and net photosynthetic rate were found to higher in Email: rajpeerless@yahoo.com
tolerant germplasms of cucumber. As per the findings of the South-western Bangladesh has been experiencing
data the 18 out of 27 cucumber germplasms showed the cold severe negative impacts due to frequent attacks of natural
tolerance and rest were cold susceptible. calamities (Aila and Sidr Cyclone). Over the years changing
Key words: Chlorophyll fluorescence, Cucumber, chilling, IRGA, climatic condition has its negative impacts in different forms
Transpiration rate (saline water intrusion, storm surge) at the south-western
SI/P-22 coastal area of Bangladesh (Satkhira and Khulna District).
The negative impacts were also reflected on the floral
Effect of Acute Drought and Temperature Stress on composition and biodiversity of south-western region and
Phytochemistry of Plumbago zeylanica L. over the years the composition of Sundarbans, the largest
Mangal Ashok Yewale and M.K. Rahman mangrove area in the world, has been changing significantly.
YMT Ayurvedic Medical College, Kharghar Navi Mumbai, M.S., Negative impacts also impose appalling impacts on
INDIA, Email: drmkrahman@rediffmail.com freshwater fisheries resources and socio-economic sectors of
The purpose of this paper a study carried out to the south-western Bangladesh. This paper highlights and
evaluate the effect of acute drought temperature stress on relates negative impacts on live and livelihood options of
phytochemistry of medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L. south-western coastal Bangladesh due to climate change
Plants has two types of metabolites i.e. primary metabolites focusing ecological perspectives.
and secondary metabolites. Primary metabolites like Key words: Biodiversity, Calamity, Ecology, Sea level rise,
glucose, protein etc. has dietary importance besides Sundarbans
secondary metabolites are useful in medication. Plant SI/P-24
produces secondary metabolites like alkaloids, glycosides
etc with the help of primary metabolites. All these process Accumulation of Proline to Screen Genotypes in
has an impact of abiotic facto temperature, humidity, soil etc. their Ability to Tolerate Osmotic Stress
We have chosen medicinal plant known as Plumbago P. Theriappan* and P. Dhasarathan
zeylanica L. (Shweta chitrak) to access the effect of drought Department of Biotechnology, Prathyusha Institute of Technology
temperature stress on phytochemistry i.e. total % of alkaloids and Management, Aranvoyalkuppam, Tiruvallore – 602025, Tamil
Nadu, INDIA, Email: ptheriappan@yahoo.com
and glycoside.
Drought and salinity are major abiotic stress factors
The phytochemistry Plumbago zeylanica L. are
that severely affect agricultural systems and food production.
significantly influenced by acute drought temperature Stress.
Many plant species including most important crops are
In this study, plants were subjected to brief drought and
subjected to growth inhibitions under high NaCl conditions.
temperature stress. Roots of Plumbago zeylanica L. collected
In the present study, ten different rice seeds were allowed to
from herbal garden of YMT Aurvedic Medical College,
germinate and grow in the absence (control) and presence of
Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. Roots and Flower collected in
different concentrations (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200
different temperature shade and dried, powdered and used for
mM) of NaCl. Seed germination was observed after 5 days.
further study. During both flower and development periods
The varieties ASD-16, ADT-36 and ADT-43 show higher
exhibited. Experiment D-1: Plants that received drought
percentage of reduction of germination than IR-50, JGL-
stress during the period of flowering [collected root and
1728 and MDU-5. After 5 days, 10 days and 15 days of salt
flower] Experiment D-2: Control plants that received
treatment, the plants were harvested and measured the shoot
adequate water during the period of initial flowering.
lengths and root lengths. Many eubacteria, algae and higher
In this study phytochemicals plumbasgin plants accumulate free proline in response to osmotic stress.
concentration are studied in drought- temperature stressed Ten days old seedlings were transferred to 50mM and
plants as compared to well-watered control plants. 100mM of NaCl and accumulation of proline was monitored
Acute drought and temperature stress decreased after 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The rice varieties IR-50,
flower dry weight significantly during both drydown JGL-1728, MDU-5 and ADT-43 show better tolerance once
periods, vegetative parameters (height, root dry weight leaf against other varieties. Utilization of genetic variation in
dry weight and stem dry weight) were not adversely affected. tolerance level against salinity to improve salt tolerance of
While acute drought stress significantly altered the chemical rice may benefit from an improved understanding of
yield in the root and flowers. response of rice to salinity stress.
Key words: Drought stress, Plumbago zeylanica (Shweta chitrak) Key words: Abiotic stress, Proline, Rice, Salinity
SI/P-23 SI/P-25
Climate Change in South-Western Bangladesh: An Monsoons of 2010 in Northern India: A Climatic
Ecological Perspective Shift!
Shahriar Rahman Droupti Yadav1*, Sachin Tewari2, Sanjay Shukla3, Richa
Water Resources and Environment Division, Center for Mishra4 and Vibhuti Rai1
Environmental and Geographic Information Services, House no. 6, 1
Geology Department, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007,
Road no. 23/C, Dhaka-1212, BANGLADESH,

U.P., INDIA, Email: droupti.yadav@gmail.com; 2Department of are completed.

Environmental Science, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Key words: 2010, Climate-shift, Floods, Impact assessments,
Lucknow – 226026, U.P., INDIA; 3Geology Department, BSNV Monsoon
P.G. College, Lucknow, U.P., INDIA; 4Zoology Department,
University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, U.P., INDIA SI/P-26
Amongst the several natural disasters, flood remains Floristic Composition and Climate During Siwalik
as a fore-runner in the Indian scenario. Most of these floods Periodin the Himalayan Foot Hills of West Bengal,
are related to monsoonal cycles which represent an annual India
ritual by climatic controls. The excessive downpour leads to
A.K. Kannaujia1*, Alok2, Mahesh Prasad3 and N.
other disasters as well amongst which, landslides, soil
erosion, weathering, flash floods and mass wasting are the Upadhyay1
Botany Department, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007,
key disasters. This year (2010), the rather late monsoon in
U.P., INDIA; Email: ankit_kannaujia24@yahoo.com; 2D.A.V. Post
India had made climatic managers in a state of confusion and G r a d u a t e C o l l e g e , K a n p u r, U . P. , I N D I A , E m a i l :
shock. Nevertheless, the spate of massive downpours in the alok.sharma13@gmail.com; 3 Birbal Sahni Institute of
Himalaya and adjacent regions let to massive flood like Palaeobotany, Lucknow – 226007, U.P., INDIA,
conditions so much so that the national capital “Delhi” was Email: mahesh_bsip@yahoo.com
partially submerged under the Yamuna waters! The Siwalik groups attains an average thickness of
It was not only Yamuna, but all other major rivers and 6000m and are exposed all along the Himalayan foot hills
their tributaries of the Ganga plain that had gushing waters. covering a distance of 2400 Km in length. The Siwalik foot
That led to massive flood in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The hills of the West Bengal vary considerably in thickness and
excessive rains in the lower Himalayan region in do not occur continuously. Acharya (1972) sub divided the
Uttarakhand, Himanchal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir Siwalik sequence of this area into three units. 1. Upper
witnessed some of the worst monsoonal conditions of all pebbly sandstone and conglomerate units. 2. Middle
times that have disrupted the life of people and destroyed sandstones units. 3. Lower clay stone unit. The lower unit
their buildings, roads and other infrastructural networks. As a well exposed in Ghish river however, the middle unit is
side effect of these rains, mountainous roads were destroyed exposed along Lish and Ghish River in Oodlabari area. The
due to onslaught of landslides and process of mass wasting. plant fossils including petrified woods, leaf, fruit and seed
The excessive downpour on some of the major national impressions found abundantly in both lower and Middle
highways in the mountains left thousands of vehicles units of Siwalik.
stranded and left most of the travelers staying back on the The upper unit usually devoid of plant megafossils.
roads for a few days. Normal life was disrupted.
A comparative study of morphological features
Another impact related to excessive physical between the fossils and extant taxa reveals the presence of 20
weathering due to the rains was the removal of large amounts new taxa belonging to 12 angiospermous families. On the
of rock mass and soil from the lower Himalayas as the basis of present data as well as already known data from
sediment load in these mountain rivers. This load was carried there. The palaeoclimate of the area during the Siwalik
forward southward by various rivers systems and got period (Mio-Pliocene) has been deduced. The dominance of
dumped as a deposit where the water-flow energy was low. It evergreen element (64%) in present fossil assemblage
is envisaged that the floods of this year would have deposited indicates the prevalence of tropical warm humid climate with
enormous sediment load that would give rise to river shifting, plenty of rainfall during the deposition of sediments. The
generation of ox-bow lakes and formation of new land-forms analysis of present day distribution of all the recovered taxa
and soil profiles. from the Siwalik foot hill of Darjeeling District in West
On the environmental front, most of the river basins in Bengal shows that they are mostly known to occur in
northern India were able to get de-polluted as a consequence Northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Malayan region
of the rains where 3-4 decades of filth, pollutants and toxic wherever favourable climatic conditions are available. About
materials had become a permanent source of pollution 30% taxa of total assemblage found to grow presently in the
causing agents. The erosion of the old river bed and Himalayan foot hills of the region and remaining 70% taxa
deposition of new soil/ sediments would recharge the soil are locally extinct. This indicates that the climatic changes
cover and may become from bane to boon for crop must have taken place after Mio-Pliocene.
productivity for the next few years/ decades. Key words: Darjeeling District, Palaeoclimate, Plant diversity,
This year's (2010) excessive monsoonal rains seem to Plant fossils, Siwalik Group, West Bengal
represent a major climatic shift from the past few decades and SI/P-27
needs deep investigation, proper climatic modeling and
understanding of the probable causes with its correlation Soil Carbon sequestration: Challenges and future
with similar events of the past to comprehensively research perspectives
understand the process of this meteorological oddity that has Pankaj Srivastava and Nandita Singh*
affected large parts of the country. The final verdict about its National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
exact cause would only be possible after these investigations – 226007, U.P., INDIA, Email: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in
22 ICPEP- 4

Global warming due to increasing green house gases SI/P-28

emission and the subsequent global climatic changes are the Antioxidant System Response in Moss Barbula
most serious environmental challenges faced by indica under Water Stress
environmental scientist, academicians, regulatory agencies
and policy makers worldwide. Among the various green Ashutosh K. Pandey1*, Farah Deeba1, Ashvarya Mishra1,
house gases, CO2 constitutes a major share and its Ashish Asthana2 and Vivek Pandey1
concentration is increasing rapidly. Therefore, there is Plant Physiology Lab, National Botanical Research Institute,
perhaps an urgent need to formulate suitable policies and Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email:vivekpandey@nbri.res.in;
Bryology Lab, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow –
programs that can firmly reduce and sequester CO2 emissions
226001, U.P., INDIA
in a sustainable way. In order to combat the predicted disaster
due to rising CO2 level, several CO2 capture and storage Possibility of desiccation tolerance in a common leafy
moss Barbula indica was investigated for its ability to
technologies are being widely pursued and deliberated.
process reactive oxygen species which are generated during
Among the various carbon capture technologies, soil carbon
desiccation and rehydration. Fv/Fm and relative water
sequestration is gaining global attention because soil is the
content (RWC) were used for sampling of desiccation and
most stable and long-term surface reservoir for carbon and is
rehydration stages. De1 (0.49Fv/Fm, 35%RWC), De2
a natural, low cost and eco-friendly process to combat
(0.26Fv/Fm, 23.5%RWC), De3 (0.05 Fv/Fm, 13.5%RWC)
climate change. Apart from the carbon capturing, the process
rehydration stages as Re1 (0.182Fv/Fm,78%RWC), Re2
of soil carbon stabilization also provides other tangible
(0.45Fv/Fm, 85%RWC), Re3 (0.72Fv/Fm, 100%RWC) in
benefits including, achieving food security by improving soil
laboratory conditions. Moss collected from institutes moss
quality, wasteland reclamation and preventing soil erosion.
house. Moss recovered rapidly upon rehydration its, Fv/Fm
Even if a handful of legally binding international treaties are
value 0.05 (De3) reached 0.18 (Re1) in 24 minutes and to
formulated to reduce the CO2 emission, majority of the
0.45 (Re2) in next 20 minutes.
signatory countries irrespective of their economic status are Desiccation enhanced production of superoxide radical and
reluctant to come forward with a clear cut emission cut-off. In H2O2. Lipid peroxidation also increased more under
this context, soil carbon sequestration gains special attention
dehydration than in rehydration. However, electrolytic
as an innovative technique to capture atmospheric CO2, and
leakage was more pronounced during rehydration than
every country can sequester a lions share of their per capita dehydration. Proline content increased more than 3 fold at
emission without any legal obligation. Furthermore, the De2 stage. SOD activity decreased with respect to control in
economic benefit of the soil carbon sequestration i.e. carbon dehydrated and rehydrated stages. CAT increased in
credit will enable the countries to meet their expenditure dehydrated and rehydrated stages and maximum activity
towards the sequestration process. The present article aimed increased by 136% in De3 stage. APX showed a significant
to address all these concerns and provide strategies and increase of 80% in De3 and maintained higher level in
critical research needs to implement soil carbon dehydration and rehydrated stages. GR activity decreased in
sequestration as a mitigation option for increasing both dehydrated and rehydrated stages. Total ascorbate and
atmospheric CO2 level and ensuring global food security by glutathione content increased during course of dehydration
sustainable soil management practices and its future and maintained higher level even after rehydration.
directions. Chlorophyll a/b ratio remained constant during dehydration
Key words: Carbon credit, Climate change, Food security, Global and rehydration stages while, carotenoid content increased
warming, Green house gases, Soil carbon sequestration, Soil significantly by 43% in De3 stage and upon rehydration its
management, Sustainable development level decreased. Anthocyanin level increased throughout the
dehydration and rehydration stages maximum by 143% in
Re2. The results indicate that APX and CAT, ASC and GSH
together with stable pigment-protein complex played an
important role during desiccation and also helped in quick
recovery upon rehydration.
Key words: Antioxidants, Desiccation, ROS, Fv/Fm, Barbula
Session SII

Environment &

SII/L-1 developed during the present investigation can be used for

Biotechnological Applications for Conservation of rapid multiplication of this endangered species. Various
an Endangered Forest Tree Givotia Rottleriformis – factors including growth regulators concentrations and
combinations for the formation of multiple shoots and also in
Important in Toy Making Industry vitro and ex vitro rooting are presented.
Rama Swamy Nanna*, Rambabu Marda and Ujjwala Key words: Forest tree, Endangered, Givotia rottleriformis,
Dasari Conservation, Toy making, Industry
Plant Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Department of
Biotechnology, Kakatiya University, Warangal–506009, A.P., SII/L-2
INDIA, Email: swamynr.dr@gmail.com Are the Sacred Groves of Meghalaya Still Remnant
Forest trees are an integral part of human life, and vital of Climax Vegetation: Diversity and Distribution of
component of biodiversity. Forest trees are in particular
renewable sources of food, fodder, fuel wood, timber and
Woody Vegetation along Disturbance Gradient
other valuable products. Due to the rapid growth of B.P. Mishra
population and the human desire to progress, depletion of Department of Environmental Science, Mizoram University,
genetic resources coupled with escalating human needs, Tanhril Campus, Aizawl – 796004, Mizoram, INDIA;
E-mail: mishrabp111@yahoo.com
there has been a tremendous reduction in forest cover from
the earth's surface. To maintain and sustain forest Since time immemorial the sacred forests of
biodiversity, conventional approaches have been exploited in Meghalaya are protected and conserved by local indigenous
the past for propagation and improvement. But conventional tribal communities on religious and cultural ground, and
breeding is rather slow and less productive and can't be used representing treasure house of plant diversity as well as
efficiently for the genetic improvement of trees. Hence there climax vegetation. Some economically important species are
is need to apply biotechnological strategies for genetic restricted to the groves only and size of groves varies from
improvement of economically, commercially and 0.1 ha to 900 ha. The tribal communities of the area perform
endangered forest tree species. In view of this, we have some cultural events inside the groves. The collection of
attempted to conserve the species which play a major role in plants or plant parts from such groves is allowed only for
toy making industry. religious and cultural purposes. But, during last two decades,
The species Givotia rottleformis (ver. Thella poniki, anthropogenic activities such as extraction of timber,
white catamaran tree) is a medium sized tree. The wood of collection of fuel-wood and cattle grazing have been
this tree is valuable and is used for making toys, fancy, extended even inside the sacred groves, despite of religious
lacquered articles, catamarans and carving figures. Seeds and cultural boundaries. The decline in religious beliefs
yield a valuable oil for lubricating fine machinery and used as associated with such groves could be attributed due to
medicine for curing psoriasis. The wood of this tree is very population pressure, as there is enormous growth in human
soft, light white and used in toy making industry by artisans population, leading to continued struggle between needs and
in Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, and Karnataka. Due to over resource availability. The survey depicts that majority of
exploitation of the species and difficulty in seed germination, groves are under threat and facing different degrees of
the species is almost on the verge of extinction. The artisans disturbance. Only few sacred groves (2-3) are still intact and
depending on this industry for their lively- hood are put to a protected.
major set back for want of wood. So, there is an urgent need to The ecological investigation was carried out in the
conserve and multiply this endangered tree using Swer sacred grove (altitude, 2030 m asl; area, 40 ha; location,
Biotechnological approaches. 28 km south of Shillong, in the East Khasi Hills district),
In view of the potential importance of this endangered characteristically representing undisturbed (15 ha),
species, the protocols have been developed for rapid in vitro moderately disturbed (15 ha) and highly disturbed (10 ha)
multiplication and plantlet establishment through mericlone, forest patches. The study depicts that anthropogenic
clonal technologies and also somatic embryogenesis. activities have led to massive destruction of grove
Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet establishment was vegetation, resulting into change in community organization
achieved on MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg/L NAA and alteration of botanical composition. There is progressive
+ BAP followed by shifting them on to 0.25 mg/L BAP reduction in tree density and basal area from undisturbed to
+NAA for germination of somatic embryoids. For mericlone highly disturbed stand. This indicates illicit felling of mature
technology, shoot tip explants were cultured on MS medium trees. The dominance of species is positively linked to
fortified with different concentrations of BAP/Kn/Zeatin disturbance stress. The shift in position of families, genus and
individually. For clonal propagation, nodal segments were species in trees of their dominance seems to be linked with
used. These were cultured on BAP/Kn. the level of anthropogenic disturbance. The mild disturbance
For in vitro rooting the micro shoots developed after favored species turnover, colonization and persistence of
shoot tip and nodal cultures were transferred on to MS high species richness and diversity. The dominant growth
medium supplemented with NAA/IBA/IAA. A break forms were trees, shrubs and herbs in the undisturbed,
through was also achieved in inducing the ex vitro rooting in moderately disturbed and highly disturbed stands,
G.rottleformis. The invitro regenerated plants were hardened respectively. The shrubs present in undisturbed stand
and successfully transferred to field. Thus the protocol appeared to have greater ecological amplitude with respect to
24 ICPEP- 4

degree of disturbance. The tree species absent in disturbed strongly controlled by a balance in competitive potential of a
stands appeared to be more vulnerable to disturbance. few key species. Responses of individual species and the
Heptapleurum khasiana, the secondary species restricted to developmental stage of the ecosystem at the time of stress are
highly disturbed stand only, indicating that it cannot compete key determinants of competition response. Plant diversity
with primary tree species in undisturbed and moderately loss is implicated in altered host-parasite relationships, plant-
disturbed stands. The thinning of woody layer and change in pollinator relationships, plant-pathogen relationships, etc.
forest microclimate from undisturbed to highly disturbed Loss in diversity has many unfavorable implications related
stand resulted natural regeneration. The sciophilic species to ecosystem functions such as energy flow and
showed better regeneration under tree canopy, however, biogeochemical cycles. The current problems of air pollution
heliophilic species in gaps created due to disturbance. Log- and global climate change have clearly emphasized the need
normal dominance-distribution curves in the undisturbed to understand the biodiversity response to these
stand indicates climax vegetation and community stability, anthropogenic stress factors.
however, biodiversity in terms of species richness was Key words: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Biodiversity,
maximum in the moderately disturbed stand. Natural ecosystems
Key words: Anthropogenic activities, Community stability,
Cultural and religious beliefs, Natural regeneration, Sacred grove
Survey of Phytotherapic Tree Species of Jogimatti
Air Pollution and Global Climate Change: Threats
Forest, Chitradurga District, Karnataka, India
to Biodiversity
V.T. Hiremath* and T.C. Taranath
Madhoolika Agrawal Environmental Biology Laboratory, P.G. Department of Studies
Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – in Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad – 577501, Karnataka,
221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: madhoo.agrawal@gmail.com INDIA, Email: hiremath2047@gmail
The continued functioning of ecosystems is dependent India has one of world's richest medicinal plant
on the constituent species and their distribution, as well as on heritages. The wealth is not only in terms of the number of
genetic variations within the species and the dynamics of the unique species documented, but also in terms of the
interactions that exist between different species and the tremendous depth of traditional knowledge concerned to
physical environment. Alteration of the chemical status of the human and livestock health.
atmosphere has the potential of adversely affecting plant
diversity at the local, regional and global scale. Emissions of Present investigation was undertaken to study ethno
gases such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, chlorine, medicinal tree species of Jogimatti Forest, Chitradurga
ammonia, etc. and particulate containing toxic metals district, Karnataka, Local traditional knowledge associated
adversely affect the vegetation structure and function locally with the tree species of Jogimatti forest was collected
around large polluting sources. Regional-scale impact on through questionnaire and interaction with local healers. The
vegetation may be ascribed to secondary air pollutants local health healers found to use 27 tree species belonging to
formed as a result of different transformations of primary 19 families for the treatment of 25 diseases with 47
pollutants present in air masses traveling long distances. formulations either in single/multiple applications. The
Global-level effects of changes in atmospheric composition study reveals that among the families, Mimosaceae claims
on biodiversity are due to increases in persistent pesticides highest number of species (04), with 22.2 percent, followed
and trace metals, greenhouse gases, and stratospheric by Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae (03 species), with 16.6
depleting gases, etc. percent, Moringaceae, Myrtaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae,
Arecaceae (02 species) with 11.1 percent and Santalaceae
Disruption of the carbon cycle due to increase in the with a single species of 5.5 percent. These medicinal trees
concentration of CO2 in atmosphere and the nitrogen cycle species include, Acacia Arabica, Emblica officinalis, Melia
due to human-induced nitrogen fixation leading to increase azadirachta, Eugenia jambolana, Phyllanthus acidus etc,
in nitrous oxide emissions and higher levels of N depositions were used to treat snake bite, antifertility, dental problems,
may cause drastic changes in species diversity. A change in menstrual cycle, Jaundice etc. Analysis of the data revealed
climate faster than the migration of most species will reduce percent contribution of different plant parts viz., bark was
the suitable area for a large number of species, leading to frequently used (29.8%), followed by leaves and fruit/seeds
drastic reduction in global species diversity. Depositions of (21.2%), root (8.5%), stem and meristem (6.3%), and flowers
atmospheric S and N compounds of anthropogenic origin 4.2 of least percentage.
affect the ecosystem functioning in forests and grasslands by Key words: Ethnomedicinal, Jogimatti forest, Traditional
acidifying the water and soil through N and S enrichment. practitioners, Hakki-pikki, Kuruba
These perturbations have been found to affect biodiversity
severely. Air pollution thus constitutes a major evolutionary SII/O-2
challenge for biodiversity in managed and natural Clonal Plantations Conserve Natural Forests in
ecosystems. India
Forest systems, while resilient to stresses, may be Piare Lal

Pragati Biotechnologies, P.O. Dholbaha, District - Hoshiarpur, deployed clones and regular replacement of existing clones
Punjab, INDIA, Email: piarelal@eucalyptusclones.com with new superior clones.
Forests in India cannot meet national demand for Key words: Clonal plantations, Poplars, Eucalyptus, Productivity,
firewood, timber and wood based products on sustainable Genetic diversity
basis because of low growing stock, poor increments,
unbearable biotic pressures and serious degradation of forest
resources. Substantial improvement in productivity of forest An Overview of Phytocaps and the Suitability of
resources and promotion of large scale farm-forestry Plant Species for Australian Landfills
plantations are most essential for meeting these national Margaret Greenway*, Pia Benaud, Hossein Ghadiri, Ruby
needs. Success stories covering development, testing and Michael, Nanjappa Ashawa and Sam Yeun
large scale deployment of genetically improved clones of School of Environmental Engineering, Griffith University,
eucalypts and poplars are discussed in this paper. Brisbane, Qld, AUSTRALIA,
Trials of various exotic species of poplars Email: m.greenway@griffith.edu.au
(Populus sp.) were carried out in the Tarai areas of Landfill phytocaps are a recent ecotechnology for
present Uttarakhand state since 1961. Genetically capping municipal garbage dumps. Phytocaps are a
improved and field tested fast growing clones of vegetated phytocover designed to use the principles of plant-
Populus deltoides like G3 and G48, supported with soil water balance to minimise percolation of water into the
competent technical extension services, improved landfill and prevent environmental contamination from
package of practices, long term bank loans and buy- leachate. A porous soil layer stores the precipitation, whilst
back guarantees played crucial role in success of the vegetation pumps out the water by transpiration. To
poplar plantations project launched by Wimco Limited ensure that landfill phytocaps are effective in maintaining the
in 1984. By the year 1999- 2000 planting of poplars site water balance, the most appropriate soil type and depth,
under agro-forestry system on private farm lands plant species and planting densities must be identified.
increased to 15 million plants annually covering Five trial locations with differing rainfall patterns and
nearly 30,000 ha. evapotranspiration were selected: Townsville (tropics),
ITC Bhadrachalam Paperboards Limited launched an Lismore (subtropics), Melbourne (temperate), Adelaide
ambitious programme in 1989 for development, testing and (temperate) and Perth (mediterranean).At each site the
commercial scale deployment of fast growing, high yielding phytocaps plots (10 by 20 m) were comprised of different
and disease resistant clones of eucalypts in Andhra Pradesh local soil types and native plant species. One of the main aims
state. True to type, uniform and genetically improved clonal was to determine which of the plant species at each site
planting stock of Eucalyptus, Poplars and Acacias has performed best over time with respect to: (1) survival rate, (2)
transformed the productivity and profitability of plantations. root and shoot growth.
Average yields from such clonal plantations are 20 to 25 The Townsville phytocap had the greatest diversity
times higher compared to the average productivity of natural and survival of plant species (32 tree species). The best
forests in India. Many farmers have achieved record growth performing trees at Lismore were Acacia melanoxylon,
rates of 50 m3. ha1.yr1 even under rain-fed conditions making Melaleuca saligna and Eucalyptus tereticornis, and at
clonal eucalyptus plantations an economically attractive land Melbourne were Acacia meamsii, Melaleuca ericifolia and
use option both for reforestation projects and ago-forestry Eucalyptus tereticornis. At Lismore after 2 years the roots
plantations. had extended 110 cm into the soil profile whereas at
Current levels of clonal Eucalyptus and poplar Melbourne root distribution was largely confined to the top
plantations produce nearly 5 million cubic meters wood 40 or 50 cm of the soil profile. Only grasses were planted at
annually. Plantations sustain most of the wood based pulp Adelaide Austrodanthonia racemosa, Bothriocholoa macra,
and paper mills and plywood/ veneer factories in the country and Dicanthium sericeum had the greatest performance. At
saving precious foreign exchange. Short rotation clonal Perth 3 Eucalyptus sp E.gomphocephala, E. utilis and E.
Eucalyptus plantations can meet country's fuel-wood needs decipiens and 3 Acacia sp A. saligna, A. cyclops and
on sustainable basis. High yielding clonal plantations help A.lasiocarpa had the best performance. The leguminous
conserve our bio-diversity rich natural forests, promote local Acacias appear to play an important nitrogen fixing role
processing and value addition, and ameliorate the during phytocap establishment.
environment through carbon sequestration simultaneously The results of our trials to date indicate that as the
generating vast employment opportunities along with larger plants become established the phytocaps can be highly
sustainable incomes. Therefore clonal plantations on effective in controlling percolation of rainfall into the buried
degraded forest lands and under agro-forestry system should municipal waste thereby reducing the potential for leachate.
be encouraged through innovative policy support and At the same time phytocaps provide enhanced biodiversity
efficient extension services. Continuous research and compared to conventional landfill covers.
development support is most essential for any clonal Key words: Phytocaps, Landfill cover, Plant suitability,
plantations programme for widening the genetic diversity of Evapotranspiration
26 ICPEP- 4

Fragmented Habitat Often Leads to Loss of utilization of geospatial tools, (ii) limited field survey and
Biodiversity in Matha Protected Forest, Purulia, (iii) landscape analysis; formed the basis of rapid assessment
West Bengal, India of biologically rich areas.
Saroni Biswas* and Dilip Kumar Khan Satellite image interpretation using hybrid
Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, P.O. classification approach provided spatial distribution of
Kalyani, Nadia – 741235, W.B., INDIA, vegetation types (corresponding to ecological habitats), with
Email: sbiswas_5@yahoo.co.in 92% accuracy. The vegetation type map showed 29 classes,
Causes for loss of biodiversity are manifold. Habitat which is further sub-divided into 13 natural and 4 semi-
fragmentation is the prime factor in most of the cases, which natural forest, 4 shrub/ scrublands, 3 grasslands/ herbs and 5
literally means breaking apart of a large habitat into smaller orchard classes, with other land use/ land cover classes.
patches accompanied by habitat loss or its destruction. Matha Landscape analysis was done using various quantitative
Protected Forest at Purulia is one of the most biodiversity rich indices that measured the heterogeneity and evaluated the
areas with undulating topography, which has been subjected patch characteristics. Biotic disturbance buffers (i.e.,
to repeated maltreatment by human. Biotic factors like fire, proximity zones around roads and human settlements) along
grazing by cattle, forest felling, sweeping of forest floor; with landscape parameters were combined to calculate
illegal hunting contributes to loss of habitat. In addition, disturbance index (DI), which in turn became an intermediate
certain demographic changes in the concerned area cause surrogate for BR assessment. Species diversity patterns
destruction. Thus potentiality of the habitat decreases and along fragmentation and biotic disturbance gradients were
consequently affects biodiversity. Habitat fragmentation is adjudged to derive relative weights for DI computation.
also based on patch size, patch shape, patch isolation and Species diversity (Shannon's index), ecosystem uniqueness
patch interaction depicting fragmentation. Habitat becomes (endemism status) and biodiversity value (BV) (total
smaller patches, decreasing the core area that supports importance value (TIV)) were enumerated quantitatively that
smaller population causing reduction in species richness, provided relative weights for BR computation. Terrain
composition and diversity. Apparently, ecotones are created. complexity (TC) was generated by calculating variance of
Due to non availability or scarcity of resources, species in the the elevation image. BR index of the state was presented in
habitat either become extinct or emigrate to other habitat as five qualitative levels. Forest managers can use the DI and
the available habitat becomes critical for the survival of wild BR maps for gap analysis and prioritization of conservation
species. Therefore, three major effects of habitat activities viz., introduction of locale-specific species, thus
fragmentation are found: reduction in the total area of habitat; protecting the forest habitats in situ. The geospatial
increase in the amount of edge; decrease in the amount of biodiversity database prepared for the sate will serve as (a)
interior habitat accelerating loss of biodiversity that baseline data for forest managers and conservationists and
ultimately leads to nature imbalance. The aim of the study is (ii) will have implications for long term biodiversity studies
to identify the causes of habitat fragmentation that affects in lieu of 'climate change'.
biodiversity, which will provide added information for the Key words: Vegetation type, Remote sensing, GIS, Disturbance
habitat restoration and conservation. index, Biological richness
Key words: Habitat fragmentation, Patch size, Patch shape, Patch SII/O-6
isolation, Patch interaction, Species diversity
Estimation of Genetic Variability and Population
SII/O-5 Structure in Sapindus emarginatus Vahl.
Geospatial Modelling of Biodiversity in Uttar (Sapindaceae)
Pradesh State Kamalesh S. Mahar1*, Baleshwar1, T.S. Rana1 and S.A.
S. Matin1*, V.S. Chitale1, M.D. Behera1 and P.S. Roy2 Ranade2
1 1
Spatial Analysis and Modeling Lab., CORAL IIT Kharagpur-721 Conservation Biology and Molecular Taxonomy, National
302, W.B., INDIA, Email: Shafiquematin@gmail.com; 2Indian Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow –
Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSC), ISRO, Dehradun – 248001, 226001, U.P., INDIA; 2Plant Molecular Biology (Genomics)
Uttarakhand, INDIA Laboratories, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap
Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA
Biodiversity conservation necessitates not only
preservation of single or multiple species but also the habitat Sapindus emarginatus is an economically important
as a whole along with its environment. Biological richness tropical tree species sparsely distributed in different
(BR) is a cumulative property of an ecological habitat and its geographical provinces like Gangetic Plains, Western Ghats,
surrounding environment, which has emerging implications Deccan Plateau in India. In the present paper estimation of
in terms of management and planning. Six biodiversity genetic variability within and among five populations
attributes (i.e., spatial, phytosociological, social, physical, representing forty one genotypes was carried out using three
economical and ecological) were attributed to stratify single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods viz.
biological richness of forest vegetation in the state of Uttar RAPD, DAMD and ISSR. The cumulative data analysis was
Pradesh using customized software, SPLAM. This simple carried out for all three SPAR methods, and showed 82.32%
idea of integrated 'three-tier modeling approach' of (i) polymorphism across all the genotypes of S. emarginatus.

The pair wise distance matrix calculated by NJ method using Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Ulmaceae.
Jaccard's coefficient showed a distance range from 0.15 to Key words: Aeropalynolog, Durham sampler, Pollen grain, Pollen
0.49 with an average value of 0.37 among all the 41 calendar, Pollen allergy, SEM
genotypes. The intra-population genetic diversity study
revealed highest values of Nei's genetic diversity (0.19,)
Shannon information index (0.29) and polymorphic loci Biophilia
(55.18%), among the genotypes of GJ population, and the M. Jaya Kumar Jacob
lowest values of genetic diversity (0.10), Shannon Department of Humanities and Basic Sciences, Chirala Engineering
information index (0.15) and polymorphic loci (26.40 %) College, Ramapuram Beach Road, Chirala – 523157, A.P., INDIA,
among the accessions of RJ population. The maximum inter- Email: jayakumarjacob@rediffmail.com
population average distance (0.20) was between KA and RJ, Biophilia means a love of life and the living world or
while the corresponding least distance (0.06) was between affinity of human beings for other life forms. An appreciation
AL and VS populations. These results suggest that genetic of life and the living world. In 1984, sociobiologist Edward O
diversity is corroborating with the geographical diversity. Wilson first used the term Biophilia to describe his belief that
The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed humans inherently enjoy the diversity of life on earth, and
maximum percentage of variation among individuals of that much of our well being comes from that enjoyment.
populations (72%) followed by 16% among regions and 12% While a constructive view, it is also a physical fact that our
among populations. Principal coordinate analysis (PCA) of survival as a species depends on preserving biodiversity. The
cumulative data also supported the clustering pattern in the primary mission of the Biophilia is to support efforts that
UPGMA dendrogram. Mantel's test was performed which protect, restore, enhance, and preserve wildlife habitat for all
revealed a highly significant correlation between cumulative species of native plants and animals.
vs RAPD, and showed the maximum (0.93) correlation Our secondary mission is to help reconnect
coefficient, followed by cumulative vs ISSR (0.78) and individuals with nature. We believe that once individuals
cumulative vs DAMD (0.91) respectively, and this clearly become aware of the value of preserving biodiversity they
indicates that the SPAR methods (RAPD, DAMD and ISSR) will work toward its preservation, especially if conflicts
are sufficiently informative and are suitable to analyze the between conservation and their economic interests can be
genetic variability within and amongst the populations of S. minimized, and conservation opportunities are made easier
emarginatus. to obtain. Invitation to all to support this type of work and to
Key words: DAMD, Genetic diversity, ISSR, Sapindus make a personal and continuing commitment to
emarginatus, RAPD, UPGMA understanding and preserving biodiversity, the web of life of
SII/O-7 which we are a part and which sustains us.
Aeropalynological Investigation in Kermanshah Biophilia compacts the distance between subject and
Area (West of Iran) object, inside and outside. Where "the reproductive value of
certain signs is dependent upon processes of symbiotic or co-
Sayedmohammad Masoumi1*, Foruzan Hayati2, Afsaneh evolutionary signification and communication." Likewise
Rostami3, Behzad Yari1 and Nshmyh Fathi4 Biophilia creates hybrid forms, which emerge through the
Deportment of Plant Protection, Razi University, Imam high way, complex interaction between, theory and practice, matter and
67155, Kermanshah, IRAN; 2Nemoneh High School, Chamran representation.
street, 6761736987, Islam Abad, IRAN; 3Amalbnyn High School,
Delghosha street, Kermanshah, IRAN; 4Herbarum Razi University, Over the greater course of human evolution, the
Imam high way, 67155, Kermanshah, IRAN survival of our species relied heavily on learning to coexist in
A Durham sampler has used to study atmospheric delicate balance with nature. But our dependence on a deeply
pollen in Kermanshah area during three years. Also allergic interwoven relationship with the natural world has lessened,
pollen of 120 species from this area were undertaken by using and our drive to connect with nature has diminished. It has
light microscope (LM) and 40 of them species by scanning been overcome by an even more intense human drive, one
electron microscope (SEM). marked by the desire to build, to develop a systematic
knowledge of things. This is technophilia, a side of human
Pollination of studies plants begin from the first week intelligence that represents our conquest of nature.
of February, and the maximum concentration of pollens in
atmosphere registered between the end of March and the first Depending on one's perspective, we have either
two weeks of April and the lowest observed during autumn. intentionally or inadvertently succeeded in alienating
Pollens were present until the last week of December. ourselves from other forms of life by introducing
technologies that utilize, replace, or manipulate the natural
The vegetation surrounding the sampling point world. In developed countries, a common worldview is one
includes ornamental, non-ornamental trees, shrubs and of human dominance over all other lifeforms. Why live
herbaceous species. The main pollen types were Aceraceae, susceptible to the whims of the natural world when we can
Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae Chenopodiaceae, control nature with technology? This type of thinking, which
Compositae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, is controlled by our technophilia, has driven us further from
Gramineae, Juglandaceae, Moraceae, Oleaceae, animals and plants.
28 ICPEP- 4

Through our agricultural and industrial technologies, Key words: Traditional knowledge/medicinal plants, CBD, TRIPS,
we have caused nature to become unbalanced, which MDGs, Biodiversity conservation, Customary rights
facilitates outbreaks of disease and the loss of species. Today, SII/O-10
we have reached a point where in order to fulfill our human
drives without destroying the world we depend upon we must Distribution of Woody Species of Vindhyan
productively unite technophilia with biophilia. However, in Highlands on the Basis of Functional Traits
light of the damage that we continue to inflict upon nature, it R.K. Chaturvedi* and A.S. Raghubanshi
is difficult to argue that all humans possess an innate love of Ecosystem Analysis Laboratory, Department of Botany, Banaras
living systems. In fact, biophilia most likely surfaces through Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA, Email:
learning, and therefore the optimal time in life to develop an ravikantchaturvedi10@gmail.com
appreciation and respect for the natural world occurs in During recent decades, plant geographers are
childhood. attempting to describe and predict the distribution of plant
Key words: Education, Gurukulam, Kibbutz, Moral species on the basis of plant function and its relationship with
teachings the abiotic environment. The traditional approach to
accomplish this aim was the categorical representation of
SII/O-9 plant species as plant functional types. However, to
Local Communities, Medicinal Plants and understand the ecological implications of trade-offs in plant
Sustainable Biodiversity (The Intellectual Property form and function, functional ecologists are attempting to
Rights Perspective) refine categorical functional types through quantitative
functional traits. Here, we analyzed the composition and
Vinita Krishna distribution of the woody species in five experimental sites
F-150, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi – 110076, INDIA,
Email: vinitakrishna@rediffmail.com
located in the forests of Vindhyan highlands. We measured
various abiotic environmental parameters of the
The continuous exploitation of several medicinal experimental sites and also estimated morphological and
plant species either by the local people or by the patent physiological traits of the woody species present in those
holders for commercial purpose in the market has led to the sites. We sought to ask: (1) is there a relationship between the
extinction of many species with medicinal value and many abiotic environment and the distribution of woody species?,
more becoming endangered. The natural cum anthropogenic (2) are the distribution of the woody species changing
pressure on these bioresources has disturbed the delicate according to their functional trait values? and (3) is there a
balance between the environment and the plant as well as it strong relationship between the abiotic environment and the
has also raised intellectual property rights issues. For distribution of functional trait values in the forest sites?. The
example, the responsibility for conservation of the medicinal results showed variations in the distribution of woody
plants remains undefined between patent holders and holders species according to their functional trait values and these
of traditional knowledge associated with medicinal plants. distributions were strongly related to the abiotic
Amidst such ambiguity, the sustainable management of these environmental conditions. We also detected a high
biological resources suffers. All these factors have affected correlation of the functional trait distributions with abiotic
Goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set to environmental parameters of the experimental sites and
ensure sustainable environment. concluded that the distribution of woody species of Vindhyan
The paper is based on a literature survey to evaluate highlands can be described and predicted on the basis of
how far the community rights over plant genetic resources, as combination of functional traits in which specific leaf area,
envisaged by Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) would help leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration are
in biodiversity conservation and maintenance of a most important.
sustainable environment. Most of the background Key words: Important value index, Leaf chlorophyll concentration,
information is sourced from research projects/reports/case Leaf relative water content, Photosynthetic rate, Plant functional
studies and policy texts. traits, Relative growth rate, Specific leaf area
The paper is divided in four sections. First section SII/O-11
deals with introduction dealing with traditional knowledge
associated with medicinal plants and its treatment in the two Diversity in Tree Deciduousness, Phenological
important international instruments, CBD and Trade Related Traits and Phenology in Indian Tropical Deciduous
Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).The second Forests
part deals with case studies to highlight the role of C.P. Kushwaha1*, B.D. Tripathi1 and K.P. Singh2
communities in conserving biodiversity and environment 1
Centre for Envrionmental Science & Technology, Banaras Hindu
through sustainable management of medicinal plants. The University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA, Email:
third part focuses on the main issue in this paper i.e. the kushwahacp@yahoo.com; 2Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu
possible intellectual property rights options in dealing with University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA, Eemail:
the management of medicinal plants while the fourth section kpsingh.bhu@gmail.com
includes the steps for checking biodiversity erosion and ends Seasonally dry tropical forest trees are characterized
up with a conclusion based on the findings in this paper. by functional traits like deciduousness (~leaflessness) and

drought tolerance. In these forests deciduousness (reciprocal L.B. Chaudhary*

to growing season length) is an important tree strategy to National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
survive in water stress period. Quantitative phenological – 226 001, U.P., INDIA, Email: dr_lbchaudhary@rediffmail.com
studies in Indian Vindhyan tropical forest revealed the co- The present study highlights the assessment of
existence of four phenological tree functional types (one diversity of tree species occurring in the forest of
semi-evergreen and three deciduous ones) showing Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KWS). Katerniaghat
progressive increase in deciduousness. Differing Wildlife Sanctuary, a moist deciduous forest is situated
deciduousness in tree species exhibited substantial between 270 41' – 27o56' N and 81o48' – 81o56' E with
differences in their leafing (vegetative growth) patterns. elevation ranges from 116 – 165 m along the international
Deciduousness showed significant positive relationship with border of Nepal in Bahraich district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
leaf strategy index (LSI, reflecting resource use patterns) and The forest is spread over an area of 40 km long and 10 km
strong negative relationship with both stem wood density wide range. The present study has documented ca.139 tree
(SWD) and leaf mass per area (LMA). In dry tropical trees species from the study site contrary to the earlier report of 91
deciduousness reflects integrated effect of seasonal drought, which belongs to 78 genera under 33 families. Leguminosae
tree characteristics and soil moisture conditions, resulting in (nom. alt. Fabaceae) is the largest family with 12 genera and
minimized activity during unfavorable season, and growth 15 tree species. Among various genera Ficus of the family
resumption with variable rates of resource use during the Moraceae occupies first position with 9 tree species.
short favorable season. However, the area is predominant with Shorea robusta,
Variation in flowering time relative to leaf flushing, a Tectona grandis, Mallotus philippensis, Syzygium cumini,
least studied aspect, revealed several flowering types in dry Ficus racemosa, F. hispida, Streblus asper, Terminalia alata,
tropical tree species. Winter flowering with the onset of leaf Lagerstroemia parviflora, Mallotus nudiflorus and Ehretia
fall in leaf exchanging species and dry-season flowering on laevis. The different vegetations of forest exhibit differences
leafless shoots of species having maximum extent of in tree dominance and diversity: sal mixed forest is
deciduousness, indicated predominant role of leaf shedding dominated by Shorea robusta, Mallotus philippensis and
in triggering flowering. Species with intermediate duration Terminalia alata; pure teak forest by Tectona grandis,
of deciduousness showed summer, rainy and autumn Mallotus philippensis, Shorea robusta and Lagerstroemia
flowering. Wide range of time lag between the start of parviflora; miscellaneous forest by Mallotus philippensis,
vegetative (first-leaf-flush) and reproductive (first-visible- Syzygium cumini, Ficus rasemosa, F. hispida and Mallotus
flower) phases was recorded in deciduous species; this time nudiflorus and savannah grass land by Bombax ceiba,
lag showed significant negative relationship with SWD, S t e rc u l i a v i l l o s a , L a n n e a c o ro m a n d e l i c a a n d
LMA and fruiting duration and significant positive Hymenodictyon excelsum. The presence of different tree
relationship with deciduousness and LSI. In these flowering species belonging to different genera and families indicate
types duration of fruiting phenophase varied considerably. the heterogeneous nature of the forest. Further, the
Since environmental characteristics affect flowering and dominance of some plants like Ficus spp., Syzygium cumini
fruiting either directly (e.g. through conditions in the habitat) and Mallotus nudiflorus exhibit the moist nature of the forest.
or indirectly (e.g. through deciduousness, LMA, wood All tree species have been provided with detail taxonomic
density), thus, the impact of probable climate change will information like correct nomenclature, description,
have long implications on future reproductive success of dry phenology, local name, distribution and voucher specimens.
tropical trees. The entire area has also been divided into 8 permanent and
The impact of impending climate change (e.g. many random plots (ca. 150) to record the ecological data
changes in precipitation and temperature) on phenology of like phenology, frequency, density, abundance and
tropical tree species can be better assessed through functional dominance which are further used to calculate Importance
types based on the duration of deciduousness and timing of Value Index (IVI), similarity indexes, diversity indexes and
bud break because tropical dry forests represent greater cluster analysis of tree species. Shorea robusta, Tectona
diversity of phenological patterns and a mosaic of several grandis, Mallotus philippensis, Syzygium cumini, Ficus
phenological functional types adapted to seasonal drought in racemosa, F. hispida, Streblus asper, Terminalia alata,
different ways. Lagerstroemia parviflora, Mallotus nudiflorus and Ehretia
laevis showed maximum IVI. Simpson index ranged
Key words: Quantitative phenology, Tree functional types,
between 0.09 (miscellaneous forest) to 0.72 (teak forest)
Flowering type, Leaf strategy index, Stem wood densit, Climate
change showing highest heterogeneity in miscellaneous forest.
Cluster analysis grouped all plant species into five categories
SII/O-12 which represent five different types of vegetation occurring
Assessment of Diversity of Tree Flora of in the forest. The detail phenological studies of Ficus hispida
Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, and Shorea robusta have been initiated.
India Based on Taxonomy and Ecological Studies Key words: Diversity, Tree species, Taxonomy, Ecology,
Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary
Omesh Bajpai, Anoop Kumar, Ashish K. Mishra, Nayan
Sahu, Niraj Singh, Amrit Kumar, Soumit K. Behera and SII/O-13
30 ICPEP- 4

Influence of Anthropogenic Activities on Plant crops in Mediterranean landscape, olive (Olea europaea), a
Diversity and Regeneration Status of Sal (Shorea typical stenomediterranean species has a primary role not
robusta) Forest of Assam only because huge portions of the territory in the coastal, in
the lowland and in the hilly districts show abundant olive tree
Gitamani Dutta1* and Ashalata Devi 2 crops, but also for a great symbolic value that this tree has in
Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Napaam
– 784028, Tezpur, Assam, INDIA, Email: gitamon@tezu.ernet.in
the Mediterranean culture.
Plant species diversity varies from place to place or In the last period olive farming it's always more
forest to forest. The present study was carried out in Hojai conducted in an intensive way, nevertheless some districts
reserve forest of Nagaon district of Assam, which is a Sal with a traditional farming, more extensive, still exists. It's
(Shorea robusta) dominated forest. The study was carried out well known how monocultures are dangerous for
to understand the plant diversity, regeneration status of tree biodiversity conservations for implications that limit
species and affects by the existing disturbance in the forest. possibility for habitats. Puglia region, a southern eastern
Community study was carried out by quadrate methods using Italian region is the most important area for olive farming in a
fifty quadrates of (10 × 10) m for tree species and (5× 5) m country, Italy that is the second producer of olive oil in the
size for shrub species. Hundred numbers of (1×1) m size world.
quadrate were laid for herbs. For tree species DBH was Abundance of coastal plane and good soils for the
mapped at 1.3 m height. Tree individuals having girth ≥30 cm crops has encouraged olive farming in great part of the
Regions. Just some portion of the olive fields are still
was considered as an adult, <30 to ≥10 cm was considered as
conducted in a traditional way as it happens in the coastal
a sapling and <10 cm at the base was considered as a seedling. plane between Monopoli and Ostuni where really very old
Highest number of species was recorded in herbs having 49 stands survive, modelling in an amazing way the landscape
species followed by tree with 19 species and least number of of the considered area, but the general trend is the
species was obtained in shrub species having 15. The density intensification in olive farming.
of the adult, sapling and seedling of tree species were 240 ha-
, 636 ha-1 and 7794 ha-1, respectively. Whereas the basal area Signal of this process are: substitution of less
of the adult, sapling and seedling of the tree species were 67 productive variety;substitution of crops in the recent past
spread in the olive fields such as almond tree (Prunus dulcis)
m2 ha-1, 1.44 m2 ha-1 and 0.94m2 ha-1, respectively. The density
and other minor crop species (Eriobotria japonica,
and basal area of shrub and herbs were 5816 ha-1 and 1.66 m2
Crataegus azarolus, Ficus carica, Ceratonia siliqua, Sorbus
ha-1 and 217200 ha-1 and 1.58 m2 ha-1, respectively. The domestica); use of irrigation; use of mechanical harvesting;
dominant tree species Sal (Shorea robusta) revealed good intensification in the plant density; elimination of
regeneration status showing the trend that number spontaneous vegetation.
individuals of seedlings > sapling > adult. The regeneration
status of all the plant species, particularly the tree species is Results of this process cause a strong reduction of
largely affected by the degree of human and animal habitat possibility with a great loss of biodiversity contents.
disturbance. The forest is largely disturbed for various These aspects are more important if the considered processes
purposes like fire wood collection, artificial fire, grazing by is spread in a very huge area as happens in the northern
domestic animals, etc. which may affect the productivity of portion of low Murgia Plateau, district which include great
the forest and regeneration potential of species thereby, the in part of the central-northern district of Province of Bari and
due course of time, forest as a whole may be under threat of the southern portion of the new Province of Barletta-Andria-
loss. The study analyzes the plant species diversity and Trani
regeneration status of the tree species with reference to the Key words: Olive tree, Intensive farming, Murgia Plateau,
human and animals' disturbance exist in the forest. Biodiversity, Crop substitution
Key words: Plant diversity, Shorea robusta, Regeneration, SII/O-15
Distribution of Epiphytic Lichens on Three Major
SII/O-14 Trees of Aalo Town, West Siang District, Arunachal
Solutions for Enhancing Biodiversity in Rural Areas Pradesh
in Mediterranean Context: The Case of the Area of Jayashree Rout1, Urvashi Dubey2* and D.K. Upreti2
Intensive Olive Farming in the Low Murgia Plateau 1Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Assam University,
(Puglia region – South Italy) Silchar – 788001, Assam, INDIA; 2Lichenology laboratory, Plant
Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Division, National
Rocco Carella Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
Landscape Analysis and Landscape Planning, Indipendent Email: udnbri@rediffmail.com
Researcher, ITALY, Email: roccocarella@yahoo.it
The Eastern Himalayan region of India shows
Agriculture is one of the most important economic excellent diversity of phorophytes. Among the different trees
sector in the scenery of Mediterranean countries where great Castanopsis indica, Terminalia myriocarpa and
parts of the territory has been transformed in rural land Artocarpous heterophyllous grows abundantly in different
already in the historical period. Among the most important regions of Arunachal Pradesh. The Aalo town in West Siang

district of the state also shows luxuriant growth of all these of Technology, Akure, NIGERIA, Email: vajadekunle@yahoo.com
trees. Most of the trees are smooth barked, semievergreen This study was carried out in three different in-situ
and tall and provides excellent habitat for different epiphytes
methods for biodiversity conservation in Nigeria namely
to colonise including lichens. Together with some epiphytic Strict Nature Reserve, Biosphere Reserve, and the Forest
orchid and ferns orchid, the lichens also grow abundantly on Reserve. The aim of the study was to consider the present
these trees. status of these forest ecosystems in terms of plant species and
The epiphytes on a particular tree are dependent on a microbial diversity and the effects of anthropogenic
wide range of complex interrelated factors. The activities on biodiversity and environmental conservation in
topographical situation, the microclimate experienced by the study area. Data were collected from four equal sized (25
different parts of a tree and the nature of bark are importantx 25m) plots centrally located in each forest type. Within the
factors in determining the lichen growth on a tree. The age ofplots, all tree species encountered were identified. Two 1 x
bark, smoothness, or roughness, fissured or ± spongy nature 1m quadrants were also laid in each plot where all
at base, pH, nutrient status, water-holding capacity and undergrowths and lianas were identified. Soil samples were
buffer capacity are other important bark properties affecting collected from three locations in each plot at a depth of 0-
the lichen growth on trees. 15cm. Fungi and bacteria were isolated and characterized
Lichens are excellent bioindicators of atmospheric using standard methods. The results show that the highest
pollution and environmental changes. After Orchids the number of tree species (72 in 27 families) was present at the
epiphytic lichens are considered as most sensitive organisms SNR, followed by the Biosphere reserve with 51 species in
to the microclimatic changes in an environment. To 26 families and the least in the forest reserve. Highest number
investigate the epiphytic lichen diversity of Aalo town of individual stems per hectare (742) was recorded for
occurrence of lichens on 45 trees are recorded. A total of 117Biosphere reserve, followed by the SNR with 393 stem/ha
species are reported found growing on different parts of the and lastly the forest reserve (148). Greatest diversity of
trees from base to the twigs. species using the Shannon-Weiner (H') index was at the SNR
(3.34) while the values for Biosphere and the forest reserves
Among the different phorophytes growing in and were 3.31 and 3.01 respectively. Highest evenness value of
around Aalo town C. indica has maximum diversity of 0.78 was also recorded for SNR and the least evenness value
lichens represented by 42 species followed by T. myriocarpa for the Forest reserve (0.47). The most prominent species in
and A. heterophyllous with 21 and 20 species respectively. C. the three locations were those in the Sterculiaceae family.
indica shows growth of 29 species exclusively on its trunk The results of the one-way ANOVA revealed that there were
while 11 and 8 species of lichens exclusively grows on T. significant differences (P < 0.05) in the number of species,
myriocarpa and A. heterophyllous respectively. Most of the total number of stems per hectare, and the diversity indices.
trees growing in the area have similar bark characteristics The population of these undergrowths in the site was
thus exhibits maximum sharing of lichen species. C. indica estimated to be 135,000 per hectare. Capolobia lutea had the
shares 7 species with T. myriocarpa, 9 species with A. highest relative density (25.93), followed by Bulcholzia
heterophyllous. T. myriocarpa and A. heterophyllous have 6 corinacea and Diospyros spp with relative density of 22.22
species in common. Only 3 species Hemithecium lamii and 15.74, respectively. The least relative density of 3.70 was
(Redgr.) V. Tewari and Upreti, Sarcographa labyrinthica recorded for Draceana manii. The forest undergrowth plants
(Ach.) Müll. Arg. and Malcolmiella granifera (Ach.) Kalb & were characterized by a Shannon- Wiener diversity index of
Lücking were growing on all the phorophytes. Though the 1.90 and species evenness of 0.16. For microbial diversity,
major lichen bearing trees of the area have more or less the diversity of fungi ranged between 12 and 15 species while
similar bark pH and water holding capacity but Castanopsis that of bacterial was between 11 and 23 with SNR having the
indica bears maximum diversity of lichens. The probable highest diversity. The general Aspergillus and Bacillus were
reason of luxuriant growth of lichens may be due to its tall the most abundant fungi and bacteria respectively in the
trunk, thick, smooth, fleshy bark which retains more forest ecosystems. The least values recorded for the forest
moisture for a longer time than the other trees. The present reserve was attributed to the anthropogenic activities of rural
distribution of lichens on different trees will act as a baseline
dwellers and loggers. These activities have adverse effect of
data to study the biomonitoring studies in the area in future.biodiversity and environmental conservation. SNR and
Key words: Epiphytic lichens, Castanopsis indica, Hemithecium Biosphere are effective means of biodiversity conservation.
lamii However, if activities are controlled in the reserves, it could
SII/O-16 also serve as a way of biodiversity and environmental
Plants and Microbial Diversity Conservation in
Key words: In situ conservation, Biosphere reserve, Undergrowth,
Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem of South West Microbial diversity
Nigeria: A Case Study of Three In situ Methods
V.A.J. Adekunle1,2
Biodiversity and Taxonomy Division, National Botanical Research
Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA;
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University
32 ICPEP- 4

Genetic Variation, Character Association and obtained in tree girth 42.24% followed by number of primary
Selection for Early Fruiting in Pongamia pinnata branch 37.63% and in tree height 29.87%. Tree height had
(L.) Pierre significantly high positive correlations with all other traits.
Similarly the tree girth had significantly high and positive
S.P. Ahlawat*, S. K. Pandey, Rajeev Ranjan, M.K. Khare correlation with number of primary branches, canopy
and Garima Gupta diameter, leaf length, and leaf width and branch angle. The
National Research Centre for Agroforestrty, Jhansi, U.P., INDIA,
Email: ahlawatsp@gmail.com variance found in different accessions can be very useful in
genetic improvement of this species. Based on overall
Pongamia pinnata (L) commonly known as Karanja is performance of morphological traits and early flowering and
a moderately fast-growing, leguminous tree with the fruiting the four genotypes viz. CPT- 2, CPT-7, CPT- 16 and
potential for oil seed production and added advantage to CPT- 21 were selected for use in future selection and
grow on marginal land and in semi arid conditions. Karanja breeding programme.
seed is used for biodiesel production and hence there is need
Kew words: Biodiesel, Candidate plus tree, Correlation, Genetic
to identify elite genotypes with high oil content and seed variation, Pongamia pinnata
yield to make it sustainable and economically viable.
Keeping this in mind, the present study consisted of the 16 SII/O-18
candidate plus trees (CPT) of Karanja, which were collected Ecological Study for Submergent Macrophyte
from different areas of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Communities in the Central Part of the Marshes of
Rajasthan and Haryana during May-June 2005. Their nursery
Southern Iraq
was raised during July 2005 and then progeny of each 1
genotype was planted in July, 2006 at 5x5 m distance in Fikrat M. Hassan , Mohammed A.H. Al-Kenzawi1* and
randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The 1Barry G. Warner
each plot consisted of five trees of each genotype under each Department of Biology, College of Science for Women,2University
replication. The field has red gravelly, poor quality soil and of Baghdad, IRAQ, Email: Fik.has@googlemail.com; Faculty of
low soil depth. The area is rain fed. All the accessions were Earth and Environmental studies, University of Waterloo, IRAQ,
evaluated for various morphological traits i.e. tree height, Email: bauo78@yahoo.com
tree girth, number of primary branches, leaf length, leaf The environment of submerging macrophytes in the
width, branch angle and canopy diameter. The data was central part of the marshes of southern Iraq were described by
analyzed to estimate ANOVA, GCV, PCV, heritability and the study of their standing crop biomass and vegetation cover
correlation coefficient. Analysis of variance revealed percentage in relation to 14 environmental +2
variables (WT,
- = -1
significant differences among the 16 genotypes for all the EC, Sal., pH, WD, LP, Tur., DO, TH, Mg , Cl , NO3 , NO2 ,
traits (p-0.01). The maximum tree height (322.91cm) was PO4 ). Five submerging macrophytes communities were
recorded in CPT- 21 followed by CPT - 7 (315.10 cm), while determined in the different three stations during the study
the minimum tree height was recorded in CPT-5 (199.42 cm). period, which are Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton
The maximum basal girth was recorded in CPT -15 (33.15 lucens, Potamogeton crispus, and Najas armata. These
cm) followed by CPT-14 (32.29 cm). The minimum basal communities are dominant submerging communities. While
girth of 15.92 cm was recorded in CPT-12. The maximum the community of Ranunculus sphaerospermus observed at
number of primary branches per tree were recorded in CPT- spring season only. Six associated submerging macrophytes,
23 (3.86) followed by CPT-14 (3.85) and minimum branches are occurred with the dominant communities; including
were recorded in CPT-1 (2.55). Maximum canopy diameter Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus,
of 418.75 cm was recorded in CPT-15 and this was followed Potamogeton perfoliatus, Najas minor, Hydrilla verticillata,
by CPT-10 (379.51 cm), while minimum canopy diameter and Vallisneria spiralis. The Pearson's Product Moment
was recorded in CPT-5. Maximum leaf length was recorded Correlation Coefficient (r) and CANOCO ordination
in CPT-19 (11.33 cm) while minimum leaf length was programs (CCA) were used to analyses the data. N. armata
recorded in CPT-12 (8.58 cm). The maximum branch angle and R. sphaerospermus appeared in the station one only as
of 51.27o was recorded in CPT-1 followed by 49.630 in CPT- communities, while P. crispus disappeared in this station.
13 and minimum branch angle of 36.17o was recorded in The station one has four submerging macrophytes
CPT-2. Among 16 genotypes, seven genotypes were communities, while the other stations have three submerging
recorded for early flowering and fruiting viz. CPT-7, 10, 15, macrophytes communities, which are C. demersum, P.
16, 19, and CPT-22. Moderate genotypic coefficient of lucens, and P. crispus. The results showed that the station 3
variation (GCV) was observed for tree height, tree girth, has standing crop biomass and vegetation cover percentage
number of primary branches, canopy diameter and similarly more than other stations; also the growth was in its peak at
moderate phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was summer season (warm season). The vegetation growth
recorded in leaf width and branch angle. The values of PCV increases with decreasing water depth and turbidity, and
were slightly higher than GCV, indicating the presence of increasing nutrients and light penetration. There is positive
environmental components of variation (ECV). Heritability significant effect for WT on the growth of submerging
varied from a minimum of 0.2082 in leaf length to maximum macrophytes (standing crop and vegetation cover
of 0.6054 in branch angle. Maximum genetic advance can be percentage), while pH value has negative significant effect.

Key words: Ecological Study, Macrophyte Communities, becomes easier and can make conservation more eco centric
Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton lucens through this movement. Case studies in this regard will be
SII/O-19 presented.
Floristic and Ecological Studies of Bakhira Bird Key words: Flora for fauna, Monophagous and oligophagous
Sancturary: A Wetland of International Importance SII/O-21
V.M. Tripathi* and D.D. Tewari Dew: Boon or Bane for Himalayan Plants
Ecology and environmental biology Laborotary, Department of S.C. Joshi1* and L.M.S. Palni2
Botany, M.L.K. (P.G.) College, Balrampur, U.P., INDIA, 1
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development,
Himachal Unit, Mohal-Kullu – 175126, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA,
Bakhira bird sanctuary is situated in the Santkabir Email: joshisc@hotmail.com; 2G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan
Nagar district, recently carved out of district Basti of eastern Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora- 263643,
U.P. with cartographic coordinates 26° 25' 30" - 26° 55" 15' Uttarakhand, INDIA, Email: lmspalni@rediffmail.com
north latitude to 83° 5' 30" - 83° 10' 30" east latitude, it covers Water, the wonder of life, is vital for the survival and
an area approximately. Bakhira bird sanctuary an important metabolism of all living organisms from bacteria to plants to
ecotourism spot. It have rich biodiversity of both flora and humans. Life cannot be expected without water. It is one of
fauna. Bakhira bird sanctuary is the best during the winter the most important factors influencing the occurrence,
months as most of the birds tend to leave in march. During the distribution, composition, growth and productivity of plants
survey of this lake 97 species was collected which are and vegetation. It has been reported that the growth and
belonging to 42 genera and 38 families out of which 22 productivity of plants and ecosystems can be constrained by
families of dicots and 16 families of monocots are deficits of water more than by any other factor. A vast
represented by 58 and 39 species respectively. It comprises majority of area in the Indian Himalayan region is rainfed.
numerous floating and submerged aquatic plants like Precipitation is the most important source of moisture. It
Alternanthera seuilis, Ipomea aquatica, Potamogeton occurs in various forms such as rain, drizzle, snow, hail, fog,
pectinatus, Potamogeton nodosus, Trapa bispinosa, Eclipta frost and dew. Formation of dew is a common phenomenon
prostrata, Hygrophilla auriculata, Polygonum glabrum, during October to February for plants growing in the tropical
Cerratophyllum demursum, Eicchornia crassipes, Typha and subtropical Himalaya. Occurrence of dew for such a
elephantina, Colocassia esculenta, Eleocharis dulcis, lengthy period may have important implications on
Hygroryza aristata, Eragrostis tenella etc which are growing physiological and biochemical processes that contribute to
in their natural condition. This wetland is suffering from the growth, survival and productivity of plants. There is
eutrophication, activity of cultivation, grazing animals, conflicting evidence in respect to the impact of dew
hunting, solid waste dumping, surface drainage and cattle formation on plants. While artificial and/or natural dew has
wading. Only few literatures are available on the wetland been reported to improve water potential, photosynthesis,
vegetation of this bird sanctuary. The vegetation of this growth and survival of plants, others have found negative
wetland was not studied so for before this survey was effect of dew formation on photosynthesis and growth.
conducted. Therefore, it was very important to study the However, such studies are lacking for Himalayan plants. The
wetland vegetation of the area in order to make inventory of present paper deals with the effects of dew on photochemical
the plants. The present research paper deals with taxonomy, efficiency, photosynthetic capacity, relative water content,
habit, habitat and economic importance of angiospermic osmoprotectants and chlorophyll content in three
plants occurring in this wetland. multipurpose agroforestry tree species of central Himalaya.
Key words: Ecotourism, Eutrophication, Submerged Two year old healthy seedlings of the three species were
SII/O-20 divided into two sets of 60 plants each during November; one
set of plants of each species were shifted to a glasshouse
Flora for Fauna Movement could be the Right (control plants) and the other set was left in the botanic
Approach to Check the Depletion of Biodiversity in garden (dew exposed plants). Measurements were made on
the Developing Countries the youngest fully expanded leaves during November to
M.A. Mannan*, A.K. Saha and M.G. Mortuza February. The dew exposed plants of all the three species
Department of Zoology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi – 6205, showed significant reduction in photosynthetic rate,
BANGLADESH, Email: man_bangla@yahoo.com transpiration rate and stomatal conductances for CO2 and
Flora for fauna movement in the developed countries water vapour. The reduction was more prominent in
especially Scotland (UK) has been proved to be a right Boehmeria rugulosa Wed. and Olea glandulifera Wall.ex G.
measure to protect and augment the biodiversity. Don than in Grewia optiva Drummond. The dew exposed
Ecologically the approach is well accepted. To maintain plants of B. rugulosa and O. glandulifera showed significant
more biodiversity; much biodiversity must be protected. Co reduction in water use efficiency. A significant reduction in
evolutionary links are interwoven into the Nature is a fact. the Fv/Fm ratio and chlorophyll content was also recorded in
Monophagous and oligophagous species existence depends B. rugulosa and O. glandulifera dew exposed plants which
only on availability of one particular or a few species of also contained more total soluble carbohydrates but less
plants respectively. Compartmentalized use of resource proline content. Further, dew also did not seem to improve
34 ICPEP- 4

the water status of plants as the relative water content of dew Ruchi Mishra,1* A.K.S. Rawat,2 Priyanka Dubey,2 Adarsh
exposed plants did not differ from that of control plants. Pratap Singh2 andMansi Gupta2
Based on the data it may be suggested that dew, a form of 1
Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, Banasthali, Tonk
precipitation, could not be useful to the Himalayan plants at – 304022, Rajasthan, INDIA,
least for the three species studied. Email: ruchimishra_0209@rediffmail.com; 2Pharmacognosy and
Key words: Dew, Fv/Fm ratio, Himalayan plants, Photosynthetic Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research
response, Relative water content Institute, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
Email: pharmacognosy1@rediffmail.com
SII/O-22 Gymnema sylvestre a plant used in the Ayurvedic
An Introduction of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants medicine of India for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus has
in Pine Forest of India: A Sustainable Technique been known from antiquity also to have an antisaccharin taste
effect. The active principles are glycosides (several
Chandra Shekher Sanwal1, Sushma2* and Nilay Kumar1
Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, Dr. Y. S. Parmar
Gymnemic acid) which shows selective anaesthetic effect.
University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173 230, Arial part of Gymnema sylvestre Linn. were collected from
Himachal Pradesh, INDIA; 2Department of Forestry, Wildlife & their natural habitats from three different zones of India
Environmental Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, including Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and
Bilaspur – 495009, C.G., INDIA, Email: sushmabhel@yahoo.com different microscopic studies, physicochemical studies and
In a scenario of decreasing availability of good lands phytochemical screening were performed. Comparative
for agriculture in one hand and declining forest and tree cover anatomic study of Gymnema sylvestre leaf and stem of
throughout the world on other, with degrading soil and water different zone showed variation in various parameters but
resource, increasing pollution hazards and threats to the main variation was shown in the rosette crystals of calcium
environment and ecosystem, innovative approaches in oxalate which were maximum in the Rajasthan region and
cultivation are required to meet food, fodder, medicines and minimum in the Chhattisgarh region where as moderate in
many other wood and non wood products for the 21st century. the Madhya Pradesh region, trichomes also showed variation
With this concept in view a trial was undertaken to introduce which were maximum in the Rajasthan region and minimum
seven medicinal and aromatic plants in Chir pine forest of in the Madhya Pradesh region where as moderate in the
mid hills of western Himalayas in India using agro-forestry Chhattisgarh region. Physicochemical parameters were also
technologies which were developed as per the topography of varied in all the three regions which include - estimation of
the area in Dr. Y.S. Parmar university of Horticulture and total ash in GC, GM, GR was 9.60-10.10%, 10.03-10.05%,
Forestry, Solan, H.P. (India) where seven medicinal and 13.89-14.14% respectively, acid insoluble ash in GC, GM,
aromatic plant species namely Andrographis paniculata, GR was 9.45-13.15%, 0.82-0.93%, 0.775-0.99%
Mucuna pruriens, Solanum khasianum, Spilanthes acmella, respectively, extractive value (water soluble) in GC, GM, GR
Withania somnifera, Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum was 26.85-27.50%, 27.95-29.50%, 27.25-28.99%
basilicum were grown during the year 2006-2007 and 2007- respectively, extractive value (alcohol soluble) in GC, GM,
2008 on three aspects (Northern, Northwestern and Western) GR was 7.92-9.98%, 8.07-12.37%, 8.23-12.98%
and under three tillage practices (Minimum, medium and respectively, moisture content in GC, GM, GR was 7.55%,
deep) in both understorey of Chirpine and in open conditions. 9.12%, 8.66% respectively. Estimation of Lupeol and
From an economic point of view Andrographis paniculata, Stigmasterol in the drug was performed with the help of
Mucuna pruriens, Solanum khasianum and spilanthes HPTLC, the percentage of Lupeol in GC, GM, GR was
acmella were found to be better yielding and more 0.114%, 0.239%, 0.105% respectively and percentage of
remunerative in comparison to Withania somnifera, Stigmasterol in GC, GM, GR was 0.059%, 0.117%, 0.062%
Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum basilicum. The findings of respectively analyzed in the sample of different places which
the present investigation indicate that raising medicinal plant were collected from the Chhattisgarh, (GC) Madhya
with Chir pine is a viable option for enhancing the Pradesh, (GM) and Rajasthan (GR). Hence the given study of
diversification and rise in income from Chir pine forest. ecological variation of different region plants play an
Hence these silvi-medicinal systems with agroforestry important role in identifying the best habitat of plant for
technologies can act as a key for utilization of unutilized land selection of crude drug for preparation of herbal drugs/their
in and outside of Chir pine forest of India for socio-economic products.
development of the rural people besides conservation of Key words: Gymnema sylvestre, HPTLC, Rosette crystals, Lupeol,
medicinal plant resources under in-situ conditions. This is Stigmasterol
likely to help in the sustainable development of the natural SII/P-2
resources of the country.
Comparison of Phyto-Diversity Status in Three
Key words: Agro-forestry, Tillage practices, Aspects,
Diversification, Silvi-medicinal
Different Types of Tropical Forest
Ecological Variation in Gymnema sylvestre Leaves
from Three Different Zones of India

Ashish K. Mishra*, Nayan Sahu, Amrit Kumar, Niraj conservation of historical rural landscape.
Singh, Omesh Bajpai, Anoop Kumar, Pankaj K. Srivastava, In Western Europe anthropogenic influence is strong
L.B. Chaudhary, Nandita Singh, Bajrang Singh and as well in natural and semi-natural area. For examples in Italy
Soumit K. Behera selection in cutting has modelled forest compositions
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow encouraging some species and causing disappearing of
– 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email: ashishmishramlg@gmail.com
others. Some relevant aspects are great expansion of chesnut
Use of Forest policy in our country has shifted its (Castanea sativa), important as food source for the ancient
focus from exploitation aimed at maximising financial populations of Appennines Mountains, or always in
returns, to sustainable management and protection. The Appennine the almost total disappearance of silver fir (Abies
present study highlights biodiversity assessment in three alba) that with beech (Fagus sylvativa) covered the original
different types forests, viz. natural forest, manmade mountain forest fringe Abieti-Fagetum.
conserved forest and degraded reserve forest.
Historical aspects become still more important in rural
For natural forest, Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, areas. Wide areas of the southern Italy interested by pastures
situated between 28° 6' to 28° 24' N and 81° 24' to 81°19' E at are the effect of old regulation (Regia Dogana delle Pecore)
district Bahraich UP, was selected. While, Banthara Forest which has maintained for centuries pastures where a great
(80° 45–53 E, 26° 40–45N, at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh) and number of flocks of sheeps came from the central southern
Kukrail Reserve Forest areas represented man-made Appennine Mountains to flat and hilly areas of Puglia
Conserved forest on reclaimed sodic land and reserve forest Region. Part of these pastures still survive and are important
of State Forest Department being utilized for recreational and for conservation of biodiversity since they are habitats
crocodile rehabilitation centre, respectively. included in the Annex I of 92/43/EEC (Habitat Directive).
The ecological study revealed that natural forest has The territory of Puglia Region is characterized by a
more than three times tree diversity and basal cover value great rate of agricultural land use. Not just olive trees which
compared to man-made and reserve forests. Natural Forest are extremely spread along the coastal plain and in the lowest
has 58 tree species richness, Manmade Forest has 27 and part of the hilly districts, but also wheat, widespread in the
Reserve Forest occupied only 17 tree species richness. Tavoliere di Foggia alluvial lowland and in the Fossa
Mallotus philippensis, Syzygium cumini and Shorea robusta Bradanica valley and also grapes, cherries, peaches,
are dominant tree species of natural forest. Syzygium cumini orchards. Processes of land use substitutions with relevant
and Termenelia arjuna are dominant species of man-made consequences on landscape have interested some crops
forest. Pongamia pinnata is dominant tree species in the (tobacco, barley, almond tree) and cultivars with a general
Reserve Forest. scheme which has preferred the more profitable crop.
It can be concluded that man-made and reserve The importance to preserve an historical agricultural
forests, which were developed at degraded sites, are now landscape in Puglia appear a relevant task for several reasons
been progressive towards attaining similar phytodiversity of which can be conducted to sustainability of system, multi-
a native natural ecosystem, subjected to more conservation functionality, conservations of signs and architectural
efforts. elements and conservation of traditional agricultural
Key words: Natural forest, Man-made forest, Reserve forest, practices.
Phytosociology, Tropical forest Here are explained some aspects to be considered to
SII/P-3 evaluate an historical agricultural landscape; the following
Proposal for a Classification and Interpretation of scheme is modelled on the rural landscape of Puglia
Region:presence of typical historical architectural elements
Historical Rural Landscape: The Case of Study of of Puglia region (muretti a secco, pozzi, cisterne, specchie,
Puglia Region (South Italy) masserie, pagghiari, fogge); presence of historical crops
Rocco Carella (crop which shows an historical permanence);presence of
Landscape Analysis and Landscape Planning, Indipendent historical cultivars (this aspect is important cause in Puglia
Researcher, ITALY, Email: roccocarella@yahoo.it some cultivars are disappearing or in great
Biodiversity conservation is one of the most important regression);presence of historical agricultural practices
pillars for the future. Erosion of biodiversity, destruction of (hand-picking of olives; cereals crop rotation weath-
forests, increasing in the extinction rate of species of flora barley);traditional plantations (number of plants per hectare
and fauna caused in the last years a great attention to the – population density);presence of historical crops in the peri-
conservation all over the world. urban fringe (urban orchards).
Efforts have conducted to several actions, plans, The presence and the richness of the considered
directives, studies all over the world to achieve the goal of aspects can help to individuate and classify the different
conservation of biodiversity at all levels (ecosystems, historical agricultural landscapes of Puglia. This process in
species, genes). However is important to observe how necessary to obtain a conservation of the landscape values
conservation involves a broad sense which goes over the and this becomes fundamental in a moment where great
concept of conservation of biodiversity. In land with great transformations of rural landscape occur in some districts of
historical tradition, it becomes important to think about the
36 ICPEP- 4

the region, as consequence of building of wind farms and Biodiversity of Mushrooms in Pathariya Forest of
photovoltaic parks. Sagar
Key words: Rural landscape, Land use, Conservation, Puglia Anjuli Chaubey*, Poonam Dehariya and Deepak Vyas
SII/P-4 Laboratory of Microbial Technology and Plant Pathology,
Department of Botany, Dr H.S. Gour University, Sagar, M.P.,
Soil Seed Bank in Grassland of Moist Tropics of INDIA, Email: anjuli83@yahoo.co.in
Uttar Pradesh Pathariya forest is situated on Vindhyan ranges at
Upama Mall* and G.S. Singh about 457.2-533.4 m above msl. Forest is mixed and dry
Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – deciduous type, dominated by Tectona grandis, Butea
221005, U. P., INDIA, Email: upamaysingh@gmail.com monosperma, Acacia species, and ground flora consisted of
The present study has been carried out on soil seed Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus, Euphorbia
bank of grassland present near airport of Gorakhpur district geniculata, Heteropogon contortus, Cynodon dactylon,
of north eastern Uttar Pradesh. Data related to seed bank in Biophytum sensitivum, Cassia tora etc. During the period of
grassland shall be presented here out of as part of whole study study (July 2008 to July 2009), a total 40 species of
of soil seed bank composition in different ecosystems of mushrooms were collected in which 28 species belonging to
moist tropics. The result highlights significantly higher seed 16 families have been identified i.e. 1. Clavariaceae-
bank of annuals, grasses, sedges, and forbs in comparison of Clavulina cristata; 2. Sprassidaceae- Sparassis crispa; 3.
dominant perennial grasses. Average seed bank of one annual Coprinaceae- Coprinus attramentarius, Panaeolus
cycle comprising of rainy and winter seasons through sphinctrinus; 4. Tricholomataceae- Mycena leptocephala,
seedling emergence method recorded as 16050 m-2 in 0-10cm Lepista nuda, Calocybe species, Omphalina ericetorum,
and 9200 m-2 and 3200 m-2 in 10-20cm and 20-30cm depth, Collybia butyracea; 5. Ganodermataceae- Ganoderma
respectively. There is higher contribution of annual grasses in lucidum, G. appalantum, G. tsugae; 6. Xylariaceae- Daldinia
soil seed bank composition as compare to perennial grasses, concentrica; 7. Agaricaceae- Lepiota cristata, Agaricus
forbs and sedges. Dominant species were Blumea lacera, brassiliensis, Macrolepiota rhacodes; 8. Hymenochataceae-
Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus kyllingia, Cyperus rotundus, Coltricia perennis; 9. Polyporaceae- Polyporus varius,
Desmodium triflorum, Dicanthium annulatum, Digitaria Tremetes versicolor; 10. Lycoperdaceae- Langermannia
ciliaris, Euphorbia hirta and Oplismenus burmannii. This gigantea, Bovista nigriscens; 11-Amanitaceae- Amanita
paper will discuss around various attributes of soil seed bank citrine; 12. Nidulariaceae- Cyathus striatus; 13.
of grassland of moist tropic of north eastern UP. Coriolaceae-Fomes fomentarius, Tyromyces lacteus; 14.
Key words: Soil seed bank, Grassland, Annuals, Perennials, Tremellaceae- Tremella mesenterica; 15. Coniphoraceae-
Seedling emergence, Moist tropics Conifera puteana and 16. Strophoriaceae- Hypholoma
elongate. These were categorized into edible (Clavulina
SII/P-5 cristata, Sparassis crispa, Coprinus attramentarius, Lepista
Study of Important Medicinal Plants from Parner nuda, Agaricus brassiliensis, Calocybe sp., Collybia
Tehsil, Dist. Ahmednagar, India butyracea, Macrolepiota rhacodes,), medicinal (Ganoderma
S.K. Aher lucidum, G. appalantum, G. tsugae, Tremetes versicolor,
Department of Botany, New Arts, Commerce and Science College Tremella mesenterica, Polyporus varius, Langermannia
Parner, Dist. Ahmednagar– 414 302, INDIA, gigantea) and poisonous (Panaeolus sphinctrinus, Mycena
Email: dr.skaher@yahoo.com leptocephala, Omphalina ericetorum, Daldinia concentrica,
The present study deals with exploration of Lepiota cristata, Coltricia perennis, Cyathus striatus,
medicinally important plants from Parner tehsil of Tyromyces lacteus, Conifera puteana, Amanita citrina, and
Maharashtra. Parner is bordering the west part of Hypholoma elongate, Bovista nigriscens, Fomes
Ahmednagar district. The tehsil has hilly as well as plain aeas fomentarius) forms.
with its distinct flora. 170 medicinally important plants Key words: Biodiversity, Mushrooms, Medicinal mushrooms,
belonging from 58 families have been recorded with their Poisonous mushrooms
botanical name, vernacular name, family and plant part used SII/P-7
in the medicines. Family Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Physiological Study to Assess Seed and Seedling
Papilionaceae, Apiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae were the richest in Quality of Multi Purpose Trees
medicinal plants. It has been found that in 50 plant species
leaves are found to be medicinally important, in 39 species Sunil Kumar Dhanda
fruits are found to be medicinally important, in 26 species CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Krishi Vigyan Kendra,
Pandu Pindara, Jind – 126102, Haryana, INDIA,
seeds are medicinally important, in 16 species stem, in 13 Email: dhanda.sunilkumar7@gmail.com
species flowers whereas in 10 species whole plant body is
medicinally important. The material for present study comprised of seeds and
seedlings of three multipurpose tree species viz., Albizia
Key words: Medicinal plants, Parner tehsil
lebbek (L.) Benth., Acacia catechu wild and Melia azadirach
SII/P-6 L. Seeds of these species were categorized on the test weight

basis viz., large, medium and small sized and subjected to hot Ludhiana – 141004, Punjab, INDIA,
and cold water treatments. Seedlings were raised in mist Email: gargrk72@rediffmail.com; 2Department of Forestry, CCS
chamber having controlled temperature and humidity. The Haryana Agricultural University Hisar, Haryana, INDIA,
germination was high after 21 days after hot weather Email: kulvirsb@yahoo.com
treatments as compared to cold water treatments. The first The present investigation was conducted to evaluate a
mature leaves of seedlings were observed for relative set of twenty clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis planted at two
humidity (%), Stomatal resistance (cm/s), leaf transpiration sites viz. Bithmara in district Hisar (latitude 29°10N,
(g/cm2/s) and leaf temperature (oC). These observations were longitude 75°46E and altitude 215.2 m above mean sea level)
recorded after 120 and 140 days of seedling growth using Li- and Seonthi in District Kurukshetra (latitude 29°59N,
Cor 1600 Steady State Porometer different time of day i.e. longitude 76°50E and altitude 258 m above mean sea level)
0800h, 1000h, 1200h, 1400h and 1600h. The variation in and generate information on genetic variability, heritability
relative humidity was more due to species character rather and genetic advance as percentage of mean for different
due to treatments. Relative humidity was more in morning characters in these clones. The estimates of phenotypic
hours as compared to evening hours. Not much variation in coefficients of variation and genotypic coefficients of
leaf temperature was evident among different species. The variation clearly reflected the presence of large amount of
variation in leaf temperature are within physiological limit genetic variability for clear bole height and unforked height
and its ranged between 21.4oC and 33.1oC. Stomatal and their increments and reasonable amount of genetic
resistance varied significantly except for 140 days old variability for total height and diameter at breast height.
seedling of Melia azadirach. Stomatal resistance decreased Heritability estimates (in broad sense) reflected the
as the day progressed. An inverse relationship between predominance of heritable variation for most of the
stomatal resistance and transpiration was evident. characters under study. The estimates of genetic advance as
Key words: Albizia lebbek, Acacia catechu, Melia azadirach, percentage of mean clearly suggested the potentiality of the
Relative humidity, Transpiration, Stomatal resistance, Seed weight, clonal material for improvement of clearbole height and
Seed size unforked height. Index score analysis indicated the
superiority of clone number 132 and 147. Correlation
SII/P-8 coefficients estimates revealed highly significant and
Histopathologhical and Biochemical Evidence of positive correlations among clear bole height and unforked
Antihepatotoxic Activity of the Leaves of Cassia tora height indicating the positive associations of these characters
L. with each other.
Kumud Upadhyaya1*, B. Abhishek2 and K. Mamta3 Key words: Genetic parameters, Eucalyptus Tereticornis Smith,
1 Correlation coefficients
Department of Pharmacy, Kumaun University, Bhimtal Campus,
Bhimtal, Uttaranchal, INDIA, Email: upku@gmail.com; SII/P-10
Department of Pharmacognosy, Himachal Institute of Pharmacy,
Ethno Botanical Survey of Catunaregum uliginosa
Poanta Sahib, H.P., INDIA; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Dev
(Retg.) Sivarajan: A Historical Religious Plant of
Boomi Institute Of Pharmacy, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, INDIA
Antihepatotoxic activity of Cassia tora L. Sivasagar District, Assam (India)
(Leguminoseae) was evaluated using in-vivo screening of Bhanu Prova Saikia
ethanoilc extract and its ethyl acetate and butanoilc fractions. Department of Botany, Moran College, Sivasagar – 785670, Assam,
Histopathological studies were also carried out. The INDIA
biochemical parameters selected were estimation of SGOT, Assam as well as the North Eastern regions of India is
of special bio-geographical interest. The floras of this area
SGPT and SAPT. The enzyme levels compared with control
are very rich in having some important religious, endangered
showed significant protection. The protective percentages
was maximum for butanolic fraction which was 82.92%,and medicinal plants, for which the botanists of various
places of the world have attracted this regions of India.
83.49% and 75.8% respectively. In histopathological finding
of butanolic fraction also a remarkable recovery wasCatunaregum uliginosa (Retg) Sivarajan is a historical plant
found at Bokata in Sivasagar district of Assam. It is a very
observed with distinct hepatocytes, prominent nucleus and
nucleolus. There were no lesions. The data justify strange plant locally known as Bakhor Bengena which is
etanopharmacological application of Cassia tora. about 800 years old and has a long history. It was planted by
Key words: Antihepatotoxic, SGOT, SGPT, SAPT, CCl4, the king (Borahi Rajya) Mahamanikya (1200-1400)
Histopathology, Enzyme level, Extracts, Fraction Catunaregum uliginosa under the family Rubiaceae is
SII/P-9 a branched tree with green leaves and thorns. The height of
the plant is about 30ft. The beautiful, dazzling flowers
Studies on Estimate of Genetic Parameters and appeared in the month of April and May. It is an unique
Correlations among Different Clones of Eucalyptus historical religious plant and during the survey it was
Tereticornis Smith observed that the people of the area worship the plant.
Rakesh Kumar1* and K.S. Bangarwa2 Key words: Catunaregum uliginosa, Bakhor Bengena, Historical
Department of Forestry & NR, Punjab Agricultural University, religious plant, Endangered species
38 ICPEP- 4

SII/P-11 Source Variation in Fruit, Seed and Seedling Traits

Community Characteristics, Biomass of Hippophae salicifolia
Accumulation and Soil Properties in a Rehabilitated Anita Tomar* and Vidya Rattan
Silviculture Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun,
Forest on Sodic Land in North India Uttarakhand, INDIA, Email: anitatomar@rediffmail.com
Kripal Singh1, K.P. Tripathi2*, N.N. Gautam1, B. Singh1 and Hippophae salicifolia D.Don (Vernacular – Chuk.
T.S. Rahi1 Tarwa) is a deciduous tree species restricted to the Himalayan
Restoration Ecology, National Botanical Research Institute, region, between 1500-3500 m a.s.l. It has been reported as
Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA; 2Dolphin (PG) Institute of one of the best species of genus Hippophae in terms of high
Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Manduwala, Chakrata Road,
Dehradun – 248007, Uttarakhand, INDIA quality fruit, high yield and fewer thorns. Quality seed has
been recognized as an important input in forestry and is
Forest communities often show dynamic changes considered essential for increasing production and also seed
over a period of time. In this study community structure, polymorphism has been found to play great role in seed
biomass assessment and soil properties were observed in a germination, survival and seedling growth. Source variation
subtropical man-made forest ecosystem (40-50-yr-old) tests are necessary to screen the naturally available genetic
developed on barren sodic land at Lucknow, north India over variation to select the best planting material for higher
a period of 10-yr interval. Plant population decreased productivity. However to achieve higher productivity and
between ten years whereas the basal area increased slightly select suitable genotypes for future breeding programmes,
over the period. Number of species remained almost same. seed source testing is important. In this study, an effort has
Equitability increased in overstory and understory been made to evaluate the extent of variation among the seed
vegetation; and Shannon Wiener index (H) of species sources with respect to different fruit, seed and seedling
diversity increased only in overstory vegetation. These traits.
differences have influenced the biomass accumulation in the
forest stands which has increased almost 10% (342 to 378 The seeds of H. salicifolia were collected from three
Mg/ha) in ten years for overstory species and 25% (27 to 34 districts of Uttarakhand in India in the month of October
Mg/ha) in understory vegetation. The composition of 2008 from twelve seed sources. Initially fruits and seeds were
different species in the forest community shows the measured for length and width and also 100 seed weight.
dominance of Albizia lebbeck, Ficus sp., and Terminalia Seed germination test involved 4 replications of randomly
arjuna which contributed nearly 60% of biomass in the forest selected 25 seeds each, from the working sample.
community and other few species namely Azadirachta The present investigation reports the variation in fruit,
indica, Bauhinia variegata, Cassia siamea, Syzygium seed and seedling characters of Hippophae salicifolia. The
cumini, Syzygium heyneanum contributed 20%, while rest of maximum fruit length (7.15 mm), seed length (5.20 mm), and
the species (30) contributed in minor proportions (<1% each) 100 seed weight (2.83 g) were observed in S9 seeds source of
in remaining 20% biomass contribution. It is observed that Chamoli district. The 100 seed weight in S9 seed sources was
biomass accumulation in ten years has increased in Ficus sp. found to be highest (2.83 g) and lowest among S5 seed
and Terminalia arjuna and decreased for Albizia lebbeck in sources (1.30 g) respectively. Germination percentage
overstory vegetation. Understory dominance was observed observed in seeds of S9 is highest (96.25 %). length of radicle
in few species namely Syzygium cumini, Syzygium (2.3 cm) and plumule (4.43 cm) under laboratory condition
heyneanum, Lantana camara, Bauhinia variegata and also showed maximum values in S9. From the present study,
Leucaena leucocephala. Contribution of Syzygium S seed source can be recommended for large scale plants
heyneanum reduced to less than half during ten years. A large production of the species from this locality for afforestation
number of species contributed <1% of the understory programme.
biomass which increased from 17 to 42% after ten years.
Key words: Seed sources, Variation, Radical, Plumule,
Biomass contribution in different plant components Germination percentage
consisted of greatest contribution in branch in overstory
vegetation followed by stem, root and leaf components but in SII/P-13
case of understory, branch and stem contributions were Influence of Plantation Location and Seed Sources
almost similar. Changes in diagnostic soil properties were in Dalbergia sissoo
noticed at the interval of ten years for pH, electrical 1 2 3
conductivity (EC), organic carbon, available phosphorus, 1Jitender Singh Bamel , K.S. Bangarwa and O.S. Dahiya
nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Significant Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sonepat.CCS Haryana Agricultural
University, Hisar, INDIA, Email: bameljs@yahoo.co.in;
differences were observed in upper depth (0-15 cm) for pH, 2
Department of forestry, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
EC, phosphorus, nitrogen and MBC and in lower depth (15- Hisar, INDIA; 3Department of Seed Science and Technology, CCS
30 cm) for electrical conductivity only. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, INDIA
Key words: Vegetation analysis, Diversity indices, Biomass,
Seed quality parameters and seed production potential
Overstory species, Understory species, Soil properties
of eleven clones of Dalbergia sissoo established at Dehradun
SII/P-12 and Hisar by transplanting plants raised using cuttings from
plus trees growing in different regions of northern India were

worked out during January 2001 and January 2002..The of lichens. The Parmelioid lichens contribute the maximum
analysis of variance in individual environment along with in production of lichen biomass together with the members of
data pooled over all the four environments indicated the family Physciaceae.
significant clonal differences for 100-seed weight, electrical Key words: Lichen biomass, Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve,
conductivity of seeds, seed density, tetrazolium test, Himalayan region
respiration rate, oil content, protein content, seed production
potential, standard germination, vigour index-i, vigour
index-ii, speed of germination, accelerated aging, seed length Algal Database: An Online Resource for Fresh
and seed breadth. Environments were found significantly Water Algal Flora of Chattisgarh, India
different for electrical conductivity of seeds, seed density, Poonam Singh*, Kiran Toppo and M.R. Suseela
tetrazolium test, respiration rate, protein content, seed Algology laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute,
production potential, standard germination, vigour index-ii, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
accelerated aging, seed length and seed breadth. The Email: poonam.ibt01@gamil.com
magnitude of these characters varied considerably over the Biodiversity is a gift of nature to man. Nature through
years and over the locations in same year. Year to year it animate and inanimate process has not only given rise to
variations were observed less in comparison to location to this diversity, but has also given it a self-generating
location. Hisar location was found favorable for tetrazolium characters. India is one of the world's top mega biodiversity
test, protein content, seed production potential, standard countries. Preservation of this rich diversity is important for
germination, seedling dry weight, seed vigour index-II and sustainable development. The rich biodiversity and
speed of germination, whereas for seed length, seed breadth, ecosystem at species level is due to its varied climatic
100-seed weight, seed density, electrical conductivity, conditions and geographical physical features.
dehydrogenase activity, accelerated aging, respiration rate, Organization and presentation of biodiversity data is
oil content, seedling length and seed vigour index-I, greatly facilitated by databases that are specially designed to
Dehradun location was found better. The environmental allow easy data entry and organized data display. Such
indices suggested that the magnitude of different characters databases also have the capacity to serve as Laboratory
varied considerably at different locations and in different Information Systems. At NBRI Algal Database is designed to
years. showcase specimens collected mainly from Chhattisgarh
Key words: Dalbergia sissoo, Seed quality, Location, Vigour state and other part of India, enabling users around the world
SII/P-14 to compare their specimens with our specimen photographs.
It is our hope that ecologists and taxonomists from the India
Lichen Biomass Estimation in Some Sites of Nanda and around the world will find this database useful for
Devi Biosphere Reserve, Chamoli District collaborative and comparative work on large biogeography
Uttarakhand scales.
Shobha Rawat1, D.K. Upreti2 and Rana P. Singh1 In this connection the present investigation has been
Department of Environmental Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao carried out from the Plateau and plan regions of Chhattisgarh,
Ambedkar University, Lucknow – 226025, U.P., INDIA, Email: which will help in preparing distributional map as well as
shobharawat1981@gmail.com; 2Lichenology Laboratory, Plant algal diversity. The sea-horse shaped Chhattisgarh state came
Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Division, National
Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – in to existence on 1st Nov 2000 by the bill “Madhya Pradesh
226001, U.P., INDIA reorganization Act 2000”passed in the parliament. It is
situated between 17046' to 24005' N latitude and 80015' to
The lichens play an important role in the nutrient
cycling of the forest ecosystem by contributing to structural 84026 E. comprising an area about 1,35,194 sq km.
complexity, ecological functions and biodiversity. The lichen Chhattisgarh is abundantly endowed with natural resources.
litter fall available on the forest floor contributes vital role in This state lies in the valley of rivers Mahanadi and Sheonath.
humus production of the forest. Lichens grow luxuriantly in Thus the whole region has got a unique assemblage of flora
the alpine and temperate areas in the Himalayan region. and fauna.
Though, much more is known regarding the taxonomy of the Fresh water algal samples were collected from
lichens of the Himalayan region, however the biomass different water bodies of Chhattisgarh. These were preserved
estimation studies are by and large neglected in the country. in 4% formalin and deposited at Algology laboratory of
Thus in the present research paper an account of the lichen National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow.
biomass available on the forest floor of five temperate and Microscopic observation was done in Leica ATC 2000
alpine regions of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve is provided. research microscope and microphotographs were taken with
The Lata Khark and Malari are the localities in alpine region the help of Nikon Coolpix-4500 digital camera. A total of 52
of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve exhibit higher biomass taxa belonging to class-Chlorophyceae, Order-
ranges of 0.80-53.17 g/m2 of lichen biomass while Valley of Chlorococcales and family-Hydrodictyaceae, have been
Flowers, Jammu Malari, and Belta in temperate region has studied on the basis of morpho-taxonomic observation. Out
the lichen biomass range of 0.52-11.39 gm/m2. The higher of 52 taxa genus Pediastrum was dominant in occurrence
temperate and treeless alpine areas exhibit the more biomass followed by Closterium and Hydrodictyon. Genus
40 ICPEP- 4

Pediastrum with 16 species 22 variety and 5 forma while SII/P-17

genus Closterium with 3 species and genus Hydridictyon Assessment of Diversity and Distribution of
with 2 species were reported. Systematic enumeration, Dominant Acrocarpous Moss Families in
morpho-taxonomy, occurrence and diversity of the green
algal taxa of Chattisgarh has been digitized in Algal database Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, India
of PADAP, NBRI, Lucknow. Reesa Gupta*, Virendra Nath and A.K. Asthana
Bryology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute,
Key words: Algae, Database, Biodiversity, Chhattisgarh, India Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
SII/P-16 Email:reesaz44@rediffmail.com
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve (PBR), situated in
Exotics in Chhattisgarh
1 2
Madhya Pradesh, India is well known for its biodiversity in
M.L. Naik and Sanju Sinha general and bryo-diversity in particular. PBR is an important
Life Science, Pt. RS University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, INDIA, biodiversity hotspot of central India and covers three civil
Email: mlnaik1943@gmail.com; 2Chhattisgarh Council of Science districts of Madhya Pradesh - Chhindwara, Betul and
& Technology, Lokash Plaza, Shankar Nagar, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, Hoshangabad, undertaking an area of 4987.38 square km.
This region is of great importance due to the fact that this area
Exotics are species invading a defined area from is the part of, what was known in the past as Gondwanaland.
outside i.e. the species has not originated within that defined The flora and fauna of the region thus hold much importance
area. However, the term is used generally for the species of phylogenetically. Further, the region also forms a link
recent invasion and generally causing some environmental between the biodiversity of the southern Indian region and
problems. Chhattisgarh region is divisible in to three that of the Himalayan region, and this makes the Biosphere
physiographic regions: The Northern Hills, Central Plain and Reserve a connecting link between the two belts. The
the Southern Plateau. Area of the state is covered more than bryophyte diversity in India is considerably sound in general
40% by forests. Some of the exotic plants of the State are: and very well in some zones, PBR being one of them. Nearly
Alternanthera tenella, Axonopus compressus,Cassia sericea, 57 species of liverworts, 37 species of epiphytic mosses and
Chromolaena odorata, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea 46 species of terrestrial mosses have been reported from
carnea, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus, Pistia there so far. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve has not been
stratiotes, Prosopis juliflora, Ricardia scabra. explored to a satisfactory extent previously for the
Spread and distribution of the exotics is not uniform in the assessment of Bryophyte diversity. Moss flora of the region
state. Notorious weed Parthenium hysterophorus, so is immensely significant considering the fact that mosses are
common in several parts of the state is almost rare to observe abundantly found here. Among the moss families: Bryaceae,
in Bastar region. Chromolaena odorata is another example Pottiaceae, Dicranaceae and Fissidentaceae are the most
of irregular distribution. Although, the species is reported to abundant ones being represented by 30 taxa in total. Among
be widely distributed in India but in Chhattisgarh state, so far, these, Bryaceae is represented by 9, Pottiaceae by 8,
it has invaded only the Bastar region. It may co-exist with Dicranaceae by 7 and Fissidentaceae by 6 taxa. Interestingly,
Lantana camara but ultimately dominates the Lantana. Most all the four moss families are acrocarpous indicating the
spectacular of the occurrence of Chromolaena odorata dominance of erect mosses in the region. Further, Fissidens
species is the Kanger Valley National Park, near Jagdalpur, Hedw., Bryum Hedw., Campylopus Bridel. and Hyophila
where the species has made extensive and thick growth, (Hook.) Jaeg. are the most abundant genera of these families.
inside as well as outside the National Park area. While Pottiaceae is dominant in terms of frequency of
Alternanthera tenella, has invaded the area of the state, not occurrence of its genera in different localities of PBR,
long ago, but is replacing many of the local plants. Most to Bryaceae shows maximum representation with 9 members.
suffer are the plants of the wet places like the A. sessilis and The mosses account for both epiphytic and terrestrial
Echonochloa colonum. Together with the wet places it is members and contribute substantially to the ecology and
occupying also the open grounds. It makes gregarious, carpet diversity of PBR.
like growth in large patches. Riccardia scabra, although, has Key words: Bryophytes, Acrocarpous mosses, PBR, Madhya
become widely distributed in the state, but has so far not Pradesh, India
become a nuisance. Most recently introduced species of
plants, to Chhattisgarh region is, Axonopus compressus, a SII/P-18
grass. Starting its growth as a sporadic plant, very rapidly it Algal Biodiversity of Girna Dam Water from Nashik
replaces all other herbaceous plants from the grassland. District (Maharashtra)
Control of the exotics has always been a scientific challenge.
However, at one place a good example of control of Ujwal Magar1*, S.N. Nandan2, S.V. Sakhala1 and More
Parthenium by the legume species Cassia sericea, was Ratnakar3
observed. Attempts to control Eichhornia crassipes has been Nanasaheb YAshwantrao N. Chavan, ASC college, Chalsigaon –
made with the help of some weevils (insects) but has so far 424101, Maharashtra, INDIA,
not proved to be practicable. Email: ujwalm2000@rediffmail.com; 2L.K. Dr. P.R. Ghogrey Sc.
Collge, Dhule, Maharashtra, INDIA; 3B.P. Arts, SMA Sc. and KKC
Key words: Exotics, Chhattisgarh, Bastar, Axonopus Com. College, Chalisgaon, Maharashtra, INDIA

Water is life-supporting system; each type of water has diverse and speciose group.
their own communities. They have their specific flora and India possess a large area with unique assemblage of
fauna. Algae constitute the main autotrophic component of rich floral communities and is one of the 12 mega
the aquatic ecosystem. They constitute about 40 % the total biodiversity countries of the world.The biogeographical
carbon fixed annually on this planet and thus is an important zones have been divided into eight bryogeographical regions
component of the ecosystem. The undisturbed and stable viz Western Himalayas, the Eastern Himalayas, the Punjab
ecosystem normally allows growth of a large number of and West Rajasthan, the Gangetic Plains, the Central India,
species, which are distributed with a quite equal dominance. the Western and the Eastern Ghats and the Deccan Plateau,
For the biodiversity study of Algae, analysis was done on and the islands of Andaman and Nicobar.The Western Ghats
water of Girna Dam from Nashik District (Maharashtra) and Eastern Himalayas are identified as 'hotspots' in the
during the years 2005- 07. The diversity was studied world. The bryophytes diversity of Western Ghats is high
quantitatively, qualitatively and periodically. Six stations which consists of about 850-1000 species. Of these, 682
viz. GDS- I, GDS- II, GDS- III, GDS- IV, GDS- V and GDS- species are mosses, 190 of them are endemic. Among the 280
VI of Girna Dam were selected based on human interference, species of liverworts and 14 species of hornworts, there are
inlet and outlet of the water body. Monthly samples for algal 121 and 2 endemic species respectively.The Idukki district
analysis were collected. In present study, 363 taxa belonging specially the hilly areas of Munnar, Wayanad region,
to 94 genera, from four groups of algae were recorded. The Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve,Aralam Wildlife
population density and algal composition followed the same Sanctuary, tropical rain forests of Silent valley in Kerala,
trend in present study i. e. Chlorophyceae > Cyanophyceae > Nilgiri hills, Palni hills, Kanyakumari District,Tirunelveli
Bacillariophyceae > Euglineneae. In algal species District, Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary, Coorg area of
composition among Chlorophyceae genera Scenedesmus, Karnataka, Eravikulam National Park are some regions of
Tetraedron and Pediastrum were dominant. From desmids Western Ghats which has a rich diversity of bryophytes.
Cosmarium were dominant. Among Cyanophyceae the Key words: Bryophytes, Western Ghats, Hotspots, Mosses,
dominant genera were Oscillatoria, Gloeocapsa and Liverworts, Hornworts
Phormidium. In Diatoms dominance was shown by centric
diatom genera Cyclotella followed by pinnate diatoms SII/P-20
genera Navicula, Gomphonema and Cymbella. The Biological Meltdown and Cedrus Biodiversity in
dominant genera among Euglenineae were Phacus and North Sikkim Himalayas
Euglena. The total phytoplankton population shows bimodal
Pratibha Kumari, Prabha Sharma* and P.L. Uniyal
pattern of variations. The first peak was observed during Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110007,
summer and another in winter. INDIA, Email:, sharmaprabha3@rediffmail.com
Key words: Water, Algae, Biodiversity, Qualitative, Quantitative, Mountains provide a special habitat for the survival of
many plant species. The life support systems of the earth are
SII/P-19 under pressure of human activities and biological meltdown
An Overview of Bryophytes Diversity in Western is accelerating leading extinction of various species. Many
Ghats important species on earth has already been wiped off and
one in every five of the world's 3,80,000 plant species is
Divya Dandotiya, H.Govindapyari and P.L. Uniyal threatened with extinction.
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110007,
INDIA, Email: d.dandotiya@gmail.com Teesta river basin in Sikkim has deep valleys and
ravines to gentle slopes in glaciated valley floors in north
Bryophytes are the simplest and most primitive of the
making it rich in floristic diversity and recognized as a part of
land plants but occupy an important place in the plant
Indo-Burma hot spot. The region also harbors the elegant
kingdom. They are pioneers to colonize terrestrial habitat
conifers which are still less researched or untouched aspect in
from aquatic environment. Bryophytes are seen growing on a
particular line of investigation. Cedrus is one of the
wide range of substrata. They grow on rocks, pebbles and
important taxa among conifers which is taken as the study
stones, fallen logs, river banks and road side cuts.They
material for mapping.
inhabit many microclimatic niches like old
discarded/abandoned leather, rubber and wooden goods, Only one species Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don has
tiled and asbestos roofs. They also grow as epiphytes on been reported from this region. Cedrus is extensively
barks of trees and on leaves of other plants. exploited for railway sleepers, construction timber, some
furniture making and firewood uses and its biomedical
Bryophytes are one of the rich group which consists of
actions are reported to be carminative, antispasmodic,
nearly 20,000 species and about 960 genera distributed all
creates sweating, urination, increase digestive function,
over the world. In India 850 species of liverworts belonging
remove toxins from the bowel, alleviate coughing, and cure
to 140 genera and 52 families, hornworts with 37 species and
skin disorders such as eczema and psoriasis. Its applications
6 genera and mosses with 2300 species belonging to 342
cover soap perfumes, household sprays, floor polishes and
genera and 54 families are reported. Mosses are the most
42 ICPEP- 4

insecticides, antifungal and clearing oil agents. Trophic state indices of Nygaard's (1949) are used to set
The study aims to priorities and formulates action and meaningful evaluation of the extant of eotrophication of Aner
organize awareness and conservation programs to save such dam and Aner River.Trophic state indices like
an ecologically and economically significant species in Myxophycean, Chlorophycean, Diatoms, Euglenineae and
North Sikkim Himalaya. Compound indices are used for assessing the eutrophication
Key words: Biodiversity, Biological meltdown, Cedrus deodara, of six stations of Aner dam and river. The most eutrophic
Evolution, Eastern Himalaya form like Microcystis were recorded in the form of water
SII/P-21 Key words: Eutrophication, Dam, River, Algae, Shirpur, Dhule
Studies on Genetic Diversity and Convergence in
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Purvanchal
Region (U.P.), India Cyanobacterial Diversity at World Heritage
Monuments of Uttar Pradesh, India
Preeti Sonkar*, Beenu Raj, K.K. Mishra, Vinit Kumar and
Shree Ganesh Kiran Toppo* and M.R. Suseela
Institute of Bioenginering and Biological Science, Varanasi, U.P., Algology laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute,
INDIA, Email: preetisonkar1@gmail.com Lucknow – 226001, INDIA, Email: toppokiran@yahoo.com
An epidemic of vascular wilt caused by Fusarium Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Sikandra Fort and Fatehpur
oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is currently occurning on Sikri are the world heritage monuments in Uttar Pradesh,
Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Tomato) in region of India. Stone monuments and historic buildings are constantly
purvanchal. The population selected for this study included exposed to the physical, chemical and biological factors.
Fol. Isolates which show pathogenisty.The causel agent of These monuments would be colonized by different groups of
Fusarium wilt of tomato, analyzed the morphological, micro-organisms including bacteria, algae and fungi.
cultural, and genetic variability existing within and among 16 Knowledge of these microbial populations living on the
known pathogenic race of this fungus. RAPD analysis of stone material of monuments is the starting point of
isolates of the pathogen was undertaken to elucidate its successful conservation strategy. Algae especially
genetic complexity. The genetic similarity coefficient range cyanobacteria are considered the pioneering inhabitants in
was from 0.20 to 0.90, indicate that no any two or more the colonization of monumental stone substratum.
isolates were 100% similar. RAPD profiles revealed up to Identifying the colonized algae involves in bio-deterioration
20% genetic diversity among ten isolates. which is one of the most important steps in the study of the
Key words: Fusarium wilt, Tomato, Genetic diversity, RAPD, algal ecology of monumental stones. It helps to understand
Pathogenic the diversity, the phase of colonization and the relationship
among population on the surface and between algae and the
SII/P-22 substrata.
A Comparative Study of Eutrophication with A total of 64 Cyanophyceaen taxa belonging to three
Relation to Algal Biodiversity of Aner Dam & Aner different orders namely Chroococcales, Nostocales,
River of Dhule District of Maharashtra Chamaesiphonales were identified from the collected
M.R. Kumavat1*, D.S. Jain2, N.H. Aher3, S.N. Nandan1 and samples from these heritage monuments. Out of these three
N.H. Babu4 orders Chroococcles represented with 10 genera and 33
P.G. Dept. of Botany, S.S.V.P.S's. L.K. Dr.P.R. Ghogrey Science species, order Nostocales with 12 genera 30 species and
College, Dhule – 424005, Maharashtra, INDIA, Email: order Cheamosiphonales with 1 genera with 1 species. At
Mrk7869@gmail.com; 2Dept. of Botany, Gangamai Arts, Com. and Sikandra Fort, Microcystis, Gloeocapsa, Chroococcus were
Science College, Nagaon, Dist. Dhule – 424005, Maharashtra, found dominant. Calothrix, Aphanocapsa, Chroococcus,
INDIA, Email: jaindevendras@rediffmail.com; 3Department of were dominant at Taj Mahal fort. Microcystis, and
Botany, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Sakri – 424304, Dist. Chroococcus were dominant at Red Fort and Gloeocapsa,
Dhule, Maharashtra, INDIA, 4S.P.D.M. Arts, Com. & Science Merismopedia, Phormidium, Calothrix were dominant at
College Shipur – 425405, Maharashtra, INDIA Fatehpur Sikri. While Synechocystis, Homeothrix,
Eutrophication refers to the continuous enrichment of Pseudocapsa, Anabaena, Spirulina, were found rarely in the
water by the addition of substances that provide for the entire study. In the present investigation the Microcystis,
increasing growth of aquatic life. The enrichment of nutrients Aphanothece, Calothrix, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya and
either by natural or artificial means. Algae are closely Scytonema were common cyanobacterial species found
correlated for eutrophication. The nitrogenous compounds, predominantly on the surface of monumental walls.
Phosphorous and carbon are occurred by the addition of Colonization and distribution of cyanobacterial flora on the
organic substances and drainage from agriculture lands, and world heritage monuments of Uttar Pradesh, India are
addition of organic pollutants in these water bodies. When described in dehe present communication.
gross eutrophication is reached large visible aggregation of Key words: Cyanobacttail in teria, Colonization, Heritage
floating algae which forms it to water blooms or growth. In monuments, Taj Mahal; India
present study six station of Aner dam aner River was selected
for study of eutrophication and biodiversity of algal flora. SII/P-24

The Diversity of Daedaloid and Hexagonoid Bonda Hill Area of Malkangiri District of Orissa,
Polypores Form the Forest of Western Ghats and India as Influenced by the Environment
Satpura Ranges of Western Maharasta Sushil Pradhan
Mulchand M. Rathod1* and K. Bendare2 Department of Botany, Balimela College of Science & Technology,
S.S.M.M. Arts, Science and Commerce College, Pachora, Dist: Balimela – 764051, Orissa, INDIA,
Jalgaon, Maharashtra, INDIA, Email: vanmul@rediffmail.com; Email : drsushilpradhan@gmail.com
Nanasaheb Y. N. Chawan Arts, Science and Commerce College, Preservation and conservation of various life forms
Chlisgaon, Dist: Jalgaon, Maharashtra, INDIA especially higher groups of plants and animals is the cry of
In the present study the diversity of Daedaloid and the present day so called Environmentalists, Policy makers,
Hexagonoid polypores from the forests of Western Ghats and Administrators as well as the conscious citizens of the entire
Satpura ranges of western Maharashtra, were carried out. The globe. With this in mind the present International Conference
collections were made from twelve different sites and sixty on Plants and Environmental Pollution is being organized
five specimens were critically examined with respect to their from various angles for the sustainable use of the natural
external and internal characters of basidiocarp and cultural resources thereby conserving the biodiversity. The sub-
behaviour. On the basis of these observations they are placed theme number five under which of the present field survey
into four genera namely Daedalea Fr., Daedaleopsis and participatory research was alone is “Environment and
Schroetl., Lenzites Fr. and Scenidium (Klotzsch.) O. Kuntz. Biodiversity” as a Rice Research Worker the author became
and fifteen species. The collected samples of all these species tempted to present a research paper on “Rice germplasm
are cultured on artificial media and their cultural characters biodiversity and environment” in and around his place of
are studied. These are the economically important wood work, Balimaela College of Science and Technology. In this
rotting fungi. piece of field work Bonda Hill area was chosen because they
Key words: Diversity, Daedaloid polypores, Hexagonoid are the most primitive ethnic group of tribal people having
polypores, Cultural studies, Wood rotting fungi their distinct tradition in agriculture and social culture. The
group of tribal people having their distinct tradition in
SII/P-25 agriculture and social culture. The genetic biodiversity of
Destruction of Mangrove Diversity due to High Pace rice (Oryza sativa L. – Family Poaceae) was recorded
Development at Kochi Coasts, Kerala through participatory research in the Bonda Hill area of
C.M. Joy Mudulipada Panchayat in Khairput Block of Malkangiri
Botany Department, Sacred Heart College, Thevara, Kochi – District. Methodology followed in the use investigation was
682013, Kerala, INDIA, Email: jcheenikkal@yahoo.com to collect the paddy grains from the local marginal tribal
The mangrove stands are the salient victims of the farmers and interact with them for their cultivation practices,
development boom in Kerala, especially, Kochi. Present duration of paddy harvest (yield per hectare, cooking
study was conducted at different developmental sites of qualities, taste as well as scented aromatic properties. After
Kochi city, such as Valanthakkad, Edakochi, Mulavukkad, collection the grains were brought ti the Department of
Vyppeen and Puthuvypeen. Mangroves of these places are Botany Laboratory, Balimela College of Science and
facing threats of extinction due to the proposed Hi-Tech city, Technology, Balimela. Agronomic characters such as length
coastal road, cricket stadium, container terminus, and and breath of the grain, colour, one thousand grain weight
LPG&LNG storage tanks. A detailed survey was conducted were recorded. Healthy and uniform seeds were selected for
at the study areas and data were compared with the earlier further investigation and the germplasm preservation in gene
studies using statistical methods. A heavy decline in the banks. Different characters were studied. Infection and other
species such as Rhizophora apiculata, Brugiera sexangula, entomological studies were not undertaken during this
Kandelia candel, Sonneratia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris and investigation. It was observed that aromatic scented rice was
Aegiceras corniculatum are noted due to the developmental moderately popular among the tribal people of the area under
activities. Developmental activities conducted evidently are report. The Bonda Hill Area is a small patch of Hill land and
against the biological diversity rules (2002) of National the forest cover is being lost gradually due to intensive
Biodiversity Authority and Biological diversity rules (2004) agriculture through shifting cultivation which affects
of Kerala State Biodiversity Board. Violation of Coastal adversely to the environment. It is suggested that both the
Zone Regulation (CRZ) act, 1991 and 2001 are also noticed. rice genetic biodiversity and in general plant species
Immediate steps to protect the mangrove diversity of this area biodiversity (especially higher plants) must be conserved for
should be taken by the government of Kerala and India a clean, green and healthy future.
through the application of law is necessary to safe guard Key words: Agriculture, Rice, Biodiversity, Germplasm, Genetic
further destruction. environment
Key words: Mangrove diversity, Developmental activity, Violation
of rules, Implementation of laws
Agricultural Rice Germplasm Biodiversity in
44 ICPEP- 4

SII/P-27 in fresh form.

Biodiversity of Freshwater Hyphomycetes form Key words: Mushrooms, Biodiversity, Germplasm collection,
North Maharashtra (M.S., India) Vitamins and minerals

S.Y. Patil1*, V.R. Patil1 and L.C. Nemade2 SII/P-29

P.G. Department of Botany, S.S.V.P. Sanstha's L.K. Dr. P.R. Biodiversity of Chlorophyceae in Mosam River of
Ghogrey Science College, Dhule – 424005, Maharashtra, INDIA, Baglan (Maharashtra)
Email: sambhajiyp@rediffmail.com; Shri V.S. Naik Arts, Science
and Commerce College, Raver – 425508, District Jalgaon, N.H. Aher1*, D.S. Jain2 and M.R. Kumavat3
Maharashtra, INDIA, Email: Mayapatil3@yahoo.com Department of Botany, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Sakri
– 424304, Dist. Dhule, Maharashtra, INDIA, Email:
The present paper deals with submerged aquatic jaindevendras@rediffmail.com; 2Department of Botany, Gangamai
hyphomycetes, it represents a heterogeneous assemblage of Arts, Com. and Science College, Nagaon – 424005, Dist Dhule,
fungi growing on submerged decaying plant materials. Most Maharashtra, INDIA; 3P.G. Department of Botany, S.S.V.P.S's
of the species are found on wood litter blocked by rocks in L.K.Dr.P.R. Ghogrey Science College, Dhule – 424005,
fast flowing streams or babbling brooks. Maharashtra, INDIA
Eight species of submerged aquatic hyphomycetes A critical study has been made on the diversity of
belonging to seven species were found during October 2008 Chlorophyceae in Mosam river of Baglan during the period
to October 2009 one year investigation. Two species viz. from July 1998 to June 2000. Algal samples were collected at
Canalisporium exiguum Goh and Hyde and Trichocladium first week of monthly intervals from 3 stations of Mosam
angelicum Roldan and Honrubia are being reported for the river during the period of two years of investigation. Line
first time form India. Four species viz. Bactrodesmium drawings of Chlorophyeae were made by camera lucida.
indicum Udaiyan Centrospora acerina (Hartig) Newhall Forty one taxa of Chlorophyceae were identified with the
Sporidesmium altum (Preuss) Ellis and Sporoschisma help of standard monographs and recent literature. In present
saccardoi Mason and Hughes are being reported for the first study this class consists of mainly species of Gonium,
time form Maharashtra state. Chlorococcum, Pediastrum, Hydrodictyon, Tetradedron,
Key words: Biodiversity, Aquatic hyphomycetes, North Chlorella, Quadrigula, Colestrum, Crucigenia,
Maharashtra Scenedesmus, Uronema, Cladophora, Stigeoclonium,
Schizomeris, Oedogonium, Mougeotia, Spirogyra, Zygnema
Cosmarium and Staurastrum. The member of
Biodiversity of Mushrooms in Eastern Uttar Chlorococcales were found to be dominant as compared to
Pradesh other forms of green algae. The desmids were also variable in
R.C. Ram their composition. All these forms were observed from 3
Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of stations of Mosam river. In the present study 41 taxa of
Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – belonging to 21 genera are Chlorophyceae were studied
221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: rcrbhumpp@yahoo.com taxonomically.
The use of wild mushrooms for food in all probability Key words: Biodiversity, Freshwater, Green algae, River
began with the prehistoric man. During the long period
human as a hunter gathered the fungi of the forest that has
served as an important source of nourishment. Mushrooms Biodiversity of Magnicolous Fungi from Mangroves
have been found in fossilized wood that are estimated to be in Mahanadi Delta, East Coast of India
300 million years old and almost certainly, prehistoric man K.N. Borse
has used mushroom collected in the wild as food. These are S.S.V.P.'s L.K. Dr. P.R. Ghorey Science College, Dhule – 424002,
invariably high protein rich and have been considered as Maharstra, INDIA, Email: kingborse@rediffmail.com
potential source of proteins, amino acids, vitamins and Samples of dead and decaying mangrove wood
minerals. Besides, they are valued for food and medicinal belonging to 11 host plants were collected from Mahanadi
properties by people. delta (Orissa) east coast of India yields 59 fungi. These
Several mushrooms grow wild in Eastern Uttar include 41 Ascomycetes (69%), 2 Basidiomycetes (3%) and
Pradesh forest during the rainy season on dead and decaying 16 Mitosporic fungi (27%). Maximum number of species
plant or animal remains. Local tribes collect a number of (38) were recorded from Avicennia marina, followed by
mushrooms and eat during rainy season. The traditional Avicennia officinalis(16), Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora
identification knowledge among the tribes are followed from apiculata (14 each), Heritira fomes (07), Ceriops decandra,
generation to generation. The bio-diversity in the mushrooms Excoecaria agallocha, Kandelia candel, Sonneratia
is least documented in India. The germplasm collection of griffithii (06 each), Aegioceros corniculatum (05), Aegialitis
such mushrooms is very poor. Field survey was conducted rotundifolia (01). Verruculina enalia was recorded on 10 out
for collection of various mushrooms from different localities of 11 host plants, followed by Periconia prolific on 7 host
of the Eastern Uttar Pradesh forest. The collected mushrooms plant examined.
were studied for their macroscopic detail pertaining the habit, Key words: Biodiversity, Mangnicolous fungi, Mangroves
habitat, morphology and other phenotypic parameter noted

SII/P-31 major factors responsible for diversity of lichens in a

Biodiversity of Euglenineae of Sonvad Dam and particular area. The Areca trees provide three distinct niches
Devbhane Dam of Dhule within a single tree. The base of tree with thick furrowed and
soil laden bark has more moisture than the trunk at the chest
D.S. Jain1*, M.R. Kumavat2, N.H. Aher3 height, while the trunk above the chest height is more smooth
Department of Botany, Gangamai Arts, Com. and Science College, and receive more sunlight than the basal and middle region.
Nagaon – 424005, Dist Dhule, Maharashtra, INDIA, Email: The nature of the substratum, smoothness or roughness
jaindevendras@rediffmail.com; 2P.G. Department of Botany, nature at different parts of the tree, pH and water holding
S.S.V.P.S's L.K.Dr.P.R. Ghogrey Science College, Dhule – 424005,
Maharashtra, INDIA; 3Department of Botany, Arts, Commerce and
capacity are important bark properties which affect the lichen
Science College, Sakri – 424304, Dist. Dhule, Maharashtra, growth on trees.
INDIA; The tree in its upper parts show growth of light loving
Biodiversity of algae from different aquatic habitats lichens belonging to the family Graphidaceae. The middle
were studied extensively in India but very few workers have part bears growth of foilose lichen genera Dirinaria and
paid attention on biodiversity of euglenioids in Maharashtra. Pyxine while the basal region having higher moisture content
The present investigation was carried out by selecting due to shade provide substratum for shade loving lichen
Sonvad dam and Devbhane dam of Dhule district of species.
Maharashtra. So far the distribution of lichen on Areca catechu in
In present study 32 taxa of euglenineae were reported India are not available. The present enumeration of lichens
from study area of both dams. Out of 32 taxa of euglenoids 15 on Areca catechu will be helpful to know the status of
of Euglena, 01 taxa of Petalomonas and 16 species of Phacus epiphytic lichen diversity of Indian trees in general and also
have been reported from the study area first time. The species provide information for preparation of floristic account of the
of Phacus were dominant as compared to other taxa of lichen flora of the Cachar district in particular.
euglenoids in present study. Key words: Areca catechu, Lichen, Biodiversity
Key words: Euglenineae, Biodiversity, Petalomonas SII/P-33
SII/P-32 Mycorrhizal Association in Forest Trees in Sarguja
Distribution of Lichens on Areca Catechu in Cachar District (C.G.)
District of Assam Shama A. Baig1*, Anshumala Asthana*,2 and Kiran Jain3
Jayashree Rout1, A. Bichitra Singha1*, D.K. Upreti2 and Microbiology, Govt. Eklavya Mahavidyalaya, Dondi-Lohara,
Urvashi Dubey 2 Durg, C.G., INDIA, Email: shamaabaig@gmail.com;
1 Biochemistry, Maitri Dental College, Anjora, Durg, C.G., INDIA;
Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Assam University, 3
Silchar – 788011, Assam, INDIA, Prof. Botany, Govt. Eklavya Mahavidyalaya, Dondi-Lohara, Durg,
Email: routjaya@rediffmail.com; 2Lichenology laboratory, Plant
Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Division, National Mycorrhizal fungi are often thought to be determined
Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, by their host plant, but mycorrhizal fungi tend to be
Email: upretidk@rediffmail.com generalists. The diversity of mycorrhizal fungi does not
Areca catechu, commonly known as Betel palm or follow patterns of plant diversity. Samples of roots and soil of
Betel nut is an erect, unbranched tree reaching heights of 15- different trees from different sites of Mainpat region were
30m with a trunk of 20- 30cm in diameter, depending upon collected, examined for VAM fungi. A very wide range of
the environmental conditions. Betel nut is grown for its %colonization, spore count was recorded, indicating the
economically important seed crop, the betelnut. It however richness of mycorrhizal fungi with plants. Altogether, 17
thrives in areas of high rainfall and low altitudes. Being a different VAM species are identified from different sites;
shade loving species, it shows its excellent growth in a mixed minimum of 03 species from one site to maximum of 09
forest with fruit trees. It is sensitive to drought and therefore species from another site. The most frequent genus was
irrigation is essential in areas with prolonged dry spells. Glomus, followed by Acaulospora and Scutellospora.
Areca catechu is an excellent host tree for the growth of Key words: VAM, Diversity, Forest, Plant, Spore count, % root
lichens in Cachar district, Southern Assam. The present study colonization
provides a floristic account and distribution pattern of the SII/P-34
epiphytic lichens growing on betel nut tree of Cachar district.
A total of 48 lichen species belonging to 23 genera and 11 Genetic Diversity within and among the Wild
families were identified from different localities of the study Populations of Murraya koenigii (L). Spreng., as
area. The lichen family Graphidaceae dominates the Areca Revealed by ISSR Markers
trees represented by 16 species and 6 genera followed by Sushma Verma* and T.S. Rana
Physciaceae having 7 species and 2 genera. Conservation Biology and Molecular Taxonomy Laboratory,
The climatic condition, availability of water, sunlight, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
unpolluted atmosphere, wind currents and absence of biotic – 226001, U.P., INDIA
interference together with nature and type of substratum are Murraya koenigii (L). Spreng., commonly known as
46 ICPEP- 4

curry leaf plant in India, is an aromatic shrub or small tree SII/P-36

found growing both in wild and cultivated forms. Wild forms Standardization of Micropropagation Protocol of
in India occur in the hills of Assam, Central India, Himachal Atropa belladona for Agro-Climatic Zones of the
Pradesh, Kerala, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand,
West Bengal and Western Ghats, whereas in Southern parts Kashmir Valley
of India, the plants are extensively cultivated for its aromatic Neelofar Jabeen1,2*, Abdul S. Shawl1, G.H. Dar2, M. Imran
leaves. In the present paper, estimation of genetic diversity Kozgar3 and Samiullah Khan3
within and among the wild populations of M. koenigii was Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (IIIM-CSIR), Sanatnagar,
carried out employing Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) S r i n a g a r- 1 9 0 0 0 5 , K a s h m i r, J & K , I N D I A , E m a i l :
markers. Fifty nine accessions representing eight syedneelu@gmail.com; 2P.G. Department of Botany, Centre of
populations were analyzed using ISSR markers. Thirteen Plant Taxonomy, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190 006,
Kashmir, J&K, INDIA; 3 Mutation Breeding Laboratory,
ISSR primers resulted 136 polymorphic bands revealing
Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh –
89.47% polymorphism across the accessions. The pair-wise 202002, U.P., INDIA
population genetic distances ranged from 0.05 to 0.13
between the populations. AMOVA and Nei's genetic Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna
or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant
diversity analysis revealed higher genetic variations within
populations than among populations. The clustering of belonging to the family Solanaceae. The drug atropine is
populations in the dendrogram was not in congruence with derived from the plant. With limited distribution and
geographical affiliations in the dendrogram. The results important medicinal values in vitro propagation protocol
standardization of Atropa belladonna is best way to conserve
indicate that the ISSR method is sufficiently informative and
powerful to estimate the genetic diversity in M. koenigii and propagate it. This was tried to establish employing
populations. The information on genetic variability of thisauxiliary buds by altering carbohydrate, both quantitatively
economically important wild genetic resource might be a and qualitatively, in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.
potential source as breeding material for development of For standardization different concentrations, 1%, 2% and
commercially valuable traits in M. koenigii plants. 3%, of sucrose and commercially available normal sugar
respectively were tried keeping other integrants in MS
Keywords: Genetic diversity, Population structure, Murraya
koenigii, ISSR
medium constant. In almost all other parameters, media
made up of MS+commercially available sugar with 5%
SII/P-35 concentration showed on par results. The plantlets thus
Micropropogation of Momordica charantia obtained were successfully acclimatized and transferred to
field trials with 83% survival rate in agro-climatic
Jyotsana Mishra* and K.L. Tiwari
environment of the valley.
School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla
University, Raipur – 492010, C.G., INDIA, Key words: Atropa, Micropropagation, Standardization, Sugar and
Email: mishrajyotsna86@gmail.com acclimatization
The present investigation is to access the in vitro SII/P-37
response of various explants of Momordica charantia. Phytoplankton Diversity in Relation to Abiotic
Momordica charantia is a tropical and subtropical vine of the
Factors at Toranmal Nandurbar District,
family Cucurbitaceae, widely grown for edible fruit, which is
among the most bitter of all vegetables. It is an important Maharashtra
medicinal herb for organogenesis, multiple shoot Neelima H. Patil
regeneration and callus formation. The response recorded Department of Botany, Jaihind ET's, Z.B. Patil College, Deopur,
during the period of my work elucidates the potential of this Dhule – 424002, Maharastra, INDIA,
E.mail : neelima_hp@yahoo.co.in
medicinal plant for in vitro propagation studies. In vitro plant
development of Momordica charantia was established on In the present study water samples from different
Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium give (100%) habitats of Toranmal were collected from July 2008 to June
germination of the seeds with normal hypocotyls using 2009. Phytoplankton diversity was studied in relation to
different concentrations of auxins (5.890 ± 0.190 root physio-chemical variables. Chlorophyceae was the most
number and 5.890 ± 1.473 (X ± SE) root lengths best result dominant class of phytoplankton followed by Cyanophyceae
was obtained in 0.1mg/l) and in cytokinins (achieved at 1.453 and Bacillariophyceae. A total of 67 sps. of phytoplankton
± 0.290 shoot number best result in basal media and 0.268 ± were identified under class Chlorophyceae,
0.012l shoot length (X ± SE) best result was obtained in Bacillariophyceae and Cyanophyceae. These classes of
4mg/l). Shoot as well as root differentiation was obtained on phytoplankton showed considerable fluctuatipns with water
medium containing BAP+IBA. Multiple shoots with roots quality parameters.
were formed on MS medium without hormones (MSO). Key words: Diversity, Phytoplankton, Toranmal, Environmental
Key words: Momordica charantia, Micropropogation, Murashige variables, Maharastra
and Skoog's (MS) medium

SII/P-38 ecosystems. Their occurrence provides information on

In vitro Plant Regeneration through Enhanced environmental conditions such as pH, conductivity,
Axillary Shoot Multiplication for Sustainable assessment of water quality, trophic status of water bodies
and also baseline data for future environmental monitoring
Utilization and Conservation studies. In the aquatic environment desmids can also make a
M. Anis1,2*, N. Ahmad1, Pervaiz R. Khan2 and Ibrahim M. considerable part of the unicellular algal biomass and it is
Aref2 likely important as a food source for various aquatic fauna.
Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Aligarh Genus Euastrum had been reported for the first time from
Muslim University, Aligarh – 202 002, U.P., INDIA, Email: Britain (Ralfs,1848) This is one of the placoderm desmids,
anism1@rediffmail.com; 2Department of Plant Production, College belonging to family Desmideaceae order Zygnematales, in
of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, the class Chlorophyceae. Cells of Euastrum are found in
variable size, longer than broad, compressed, deeply
Medicinal plants have been reckoned as valuable constricted, sinus generally linear with dilated extremity,
therapeutic aids for alleviating various ailments of human rarely open, semi-cells usually truncate pyramidate, apex
kinds. With ever increasing human population along with with shallow and broad or deep and narrow. Cell wall with or
growing demand during the last two decades for herbal drugs without hemi-spherical and variously disposed
and because of their proven efficacy with little or no reported protuberances, smooth, punctuate or granulate, sometimes
side effect has resulted in ruthless exploitation of medicinal with spines on the outer margin, top view generally elliptic
plants, thus creating a gap between supply and demand. with rounded angles.
Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop reliable During the course of present investigation on the
strategies for conservation and sustainable management. occurrence of genus Euastrum from Chhattisgarh state. We
Advanced Biotechnological methods including plant cell, found a total of 8 species i.e. E. ansatum, E. ceylanicum,
tissues or organ culture have provided new means of rapid E.denticulatum, E. holoscerum, E. sinuosum, E. spinulosum,
propagation and conservation of valuable, rare and E. substellatum, E. quadriculatum, and 2 varieties E.
endangered medicinal plant species. In the present study, sinuosum var. capitatum, E. spinulosum var. bellum. These
attempts have been made to establish micropropagation all taxa have been reported for the first time from
protocol in selected Vitex species (V. negundo and V. trifolia) Chhattisgarh state of India. Systematic enumeration,
using nodal explants in Murashige and Skoog's Medium occurrence and diversity of Euastrum along with the
supplemented with different plant growth regulators (BA, Kn microphotographs of taxa have been discussed in detail in the
and 2-iP). In both the species, BA was found to be the best for present communication.
multiple shoot regeneration and the order of effectiveness Key words: Desmids, Euastrum, Diversity, Chhattisgarh, India
was BA > Kn > 2-iP among all the tested cytokinins. Ex- vitro
rooting was successfully induced using Indole-3-butyric acid SII/P-40
(IBA) in the regenerated shootlets which combines the Histochemical Apects of Pollinium Development in
additional steps of in vitro rooting and hardening. Properly Rhynchostylis retusa Blume (Epidendreae,
rooted and acclimatized shootlets were transferred to soil Orchidaceae)
under natural light. The regenerated plants showed normal
morphological appearance as mother plant. The present Kiran P. Kolkar
protocol can be used to raise any number of clones of selected Department of Botanv. Karnatak Science College, Dharwad –
580003, INDIA, Email: kpkolkar _kcd@rediffmail.com
species of Vitex at any time round the year.
Key word: Medicinal plant, Micropropagation, Ex vitro rooting,
The anther wall comprises an epidermis,
Nodal segments endothecium, three middle layers and glandular tapetum
with uninucleate cells. Cytokinesis is simultaneous resulting
SII/P-39 in tetrahedral, isobilateral, linear, decussate tetrads held
Studies on Occurrence and Diversity of Euastrum together to form pollinia. The pollinia are shed at 2-celled
Species in Lentic Water Bodies of Chhattisgarh stage.
State, India Total Insoluble polysaccharides, ascorbic acid (AA),
Kiran Toppo* and M.R. Suseela cellulose, callose, RNA and total protein contents were
Algology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, localized histochemically during pollinia development in
Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email: toppokiran@yahoo.com Rhynchostylis retusa. The early sporogenous cells are rich in
Desmids represent a group of advanced green algae RNA, proteins and moderate content of AA. The cell walls
that are commonly found in Planktonic communities of fresh are ccllulosic and callosic positive. The cells are devoid of
water bodies. Desmids secrete significant amounts of PAS positive storage. The common wall around each group
extracellular polymeric substances that form an extensive of late sporogenous cells and meiocytes reacts strongly for
mucilaginous sheath external to the cell wall and function in PAS, cellulose, callose, and also for AA. In the meiocytes
adhesion, gliding-based movements and ultimate RNA decreases in the cytoplasm but no such drastic decline
ensheathment within the Planktonic complex. Desmids are in protein content is observed. Same concentration is
green microalgae that play an important role in aquatic continued to be present in the meiocytes until meiosis
48 ICPEP- 4

completes. Subsequent to this a gradual increase of PAS, Sivasagar, Nazira and Charideo. It lies between 9408? and
RNA and protein contents in the cytoplasm of microspores is 9504?East longitude and 2607?and 2702?North latitude. Seven
noticed. In the 2-celled pollen, RNA, proteins. AA and PAS reserve forests viz. Abhoypur, Sola, Sapekhati, Rangoli,
positive stain appear to increase. Pollen wall is PAS and AA Panidehing and Galekey reserve forests and more than 25
positive, exine is not deposited around each pollen. However, grazing land in the district. Sivasagar district falls under
the common wall around each group of pollen and also North East Biogeographic zone and Brahamputra valley
around the pollinia strongly reacts for cellulose and callose endowed with luxuriant vegetation and rich in biodiversity.
and exhibit green colour with azure B stain. The tapetum is Abhoypur reserve forest is the transition area in between
secretory and reacts strongly for AA, RNA and proteins. At Assam- Nagaland and Assam-Arunachal Pradesh. Total area
tetrad stage tapetum begins to degenerate and while covered by the district is 1060 square Kilometer. ONGCL
degenerating also the tissue reacts strongly for RNA and and Tea cultivation are the chief sources of employment
proteins. opportunity and income generating industry. Rudrasagar,
Key words: Pollinia, Histochemical, Cellulose, Callose, Galekey and Lakowa including other minor oil fields.
Sporogenous tissue, Endothecium Leakage of crude oil is a common phenomena in ONGCL
SII/P-41 operation areas. It has adverse effect on the rich diversity of
Organogenesis from Immature Embryos of Pinus forests. Moreover, by the GGS continuous burning of natural
gas inside the reserve forest is a major threat to the
wallichiana A.B.Jackson (Blue Pine) biodiversity.
Sabeena1* and Azra N. Kamili2 Soil degradation is also caused by leakage of crude oil,
Islamia College of Science and Commerce, Hawal Srinagar – sludge and other chemicals. As a result of which soil health
190002, J&K, INDIA; 2Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Centre of become unfavorable for growth of Phtyodiversity. Therefore
Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar – an attempt has been made to asses the impact of drilling
190006, J&K, INDIA
operations on the Phytodiversity of the area and their
The immature embryos of Pinus wallichiana were management.
cultured on MS/LV media supplemented with various Keywords: ONGCL, Phytodiversity, Sivasagar
Phytohormonal regimes.Non- embryogenic friable callus
formation was recorded on various BAP+Glutamine+casein SII/P-43
hydrolysate/BAP+NAA fortified media.However,multiple Diversity and Present Status of Medicinal Plants in
shoot regeneration was observed on BAP(5µM)+ and around Tehri Dam Hydroelectric Power Project
NAA(5µM) augmented half salt strength LV medium. In in Garhwal Himalaya, India: Needs for
another experiment, multiple shoot regeneration was
favoured on BAP (4.4µM)+Glutamine(500mg/l)+Casein
hydrolysate(1000mg/l) fortified Half salt strength MS L.R . Dangwal and Antima Sharma*
medium. Transfer of primary cultures bearing microshoots to Herbarium and Plant Systematic Laboratory, Department of
Botany, H.N.B Garhwal Central University, SRT Campus,
basal media promoted shoot elongation. Rooting of invitro
Badshahi Thaul, Tehri Uttarakhand, INDIA,
raised microshoots was achieved on MS(x1/2) Email: drlrdangwal@gmail.com,
+NAA(0.5µM)+IBA(15µM) combination.The deflasked
plantlets were transferred to pots containing peat and The present study has been carried out in Tehri Dam
vermiculite mixture for hardening. Hydroelectric Power Project in Garhwal Himalaya, India, to
document the medicinal uses of plants and their status of
Key words: Pinus wallichiana, Phytohormones, Shoot
availability in the area. A list of plant species along with their
regeneration, Microshoots
local names, plant part(s) used and mode of administration in
SII/P-42 different ailments has been given which can be utilized in the
Impact of ONGCL Drilling Operation on future for technological advancement, economic prosperity
Phytodiversity of Galekey and Sola Reserve Forest and providing employment opportunity to the local people. A
management plan for conservation of medicinal plants in the
of Sivasagar District
hydroelectric power project area is also suggested.
Manjit Gogoi1 and S. J. Mahanta2 Key words: Medicinal Plants, Diversity, Tehri Dam, Conservation
Department of Botany, Gargaon College, Sivasagar, Assam,
INDIA; 2Department of Geology Gargaon College Sivasagar
Assam, INDIA
Sivasagar district one of the biologically worm area of
upper Assam comprised with three subdivisions viz.
Session SIII


Genetically Modified Food Crop: Opportunities, Genomics of Plants' Responses and Adaptation to
Effects and Challenges Global Climate Change and Air Pollution
Rakesh Tuli Om P. Rajora
National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute, C-127, Industrial Canada Research Chair in Forest and Conservation Genomics and
Area, SAS Nagar Phase 8, Mohali - 160071, Punjab, INDIA Biotechnology, Canadian Genomics and Conservation Genetics
SIII/L-2 Institute, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management,
University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 6C2
Gene Expression Responses of Paper Birch to CANADA, Email: Om.Rajora@unb.ca
Elevated O3 and CO2 during Leaf Maturation and Unprecedented rapid global climate change and
Senescence anthropogenic environmental pollution have become
Sari Kontunen-Soppela1,2*, Juha Parviainen3, Hanna prominent driving forces of evolution in plant ecosystems
Ruhanen2, Mikael Brosché4, Markku Keinänen1, Ramesh and continue to subject our planet's plants to significant
C. Thakur5, Mikko Kolehmainen3, Jaakko Kangasjärvi4, abiotic stresses. This can affect plants' fitness, adaptation,
Elina Oksanen1, David F. Karnosky5 and Elina Vapaavuori2 productivity and evolutionary potential. Northern boreal and
University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, Joensuu, temperate forest trees/ecosystems are considered to be the
FINLAND, Email: sari.kontunen-soppela@uef.fi; 2Finnish Forest most vulnerable to global climate change. There is an urgent
Research Institute, Suonenjoki, FINLAND; 3University of Eastern need to understand the genomic basis of responses and
Finland, Department of Environmental Sciences, Kuopio, adaptation of plants/forest tree to climate change and air
FINLAND; 4University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, pollution in order to develop and use genetically improved
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Helsinki, plant varieties and to conserve and sustainably manage well-
FINLAND; 5School of Forest Resources and Environmental adapted, genetically diverse and healthy plant/forest genetic
Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, USA resources. We are using structural, functional and population
Forest trees are exposed to increasing concentrations genomics approaches to address this very important issue in
of O3 and CO2 simultaneously. Long-term field experiments economically and ecologically important North American
studying the effects of these greenhouse gases are essential boreal and temperate spruce (Picea) species. We have
especially for trees because of the differential responses of identified and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for
young saplings from mature trees and the acclimation of growth, biomass allocation and water-use-efficiency traits in
trees. Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula spruce grown under normal and drought conditions. We are
papyrifera) leaves to elevated O3 and CO2 concentrations identifying and mapping genes and QTLs for traits related to
were studied with microarray analyses during leaf growth and adaptation to climate change in spruce grown
maturation and senescence at Aspen FACE experimental site, under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. We have
in Wisconsin, USA (http://aspenface.mtu.edu/). In order to sequenced the transcriptomes of two spruce species grown
detect similar gene expression patterns within samplings and under normal, elevated CO2, drought and their combined
treatments, the data was analyzed with multivariate methods; conditions. Differentially expressed genes in response to
clustering with Self-Organizing Map, finding optimal cluster elevated CO2 and drought conditions and their relationships
grouping by K-means clustering and visualizing the results with physiological traits were discovered. Furthermore,
with Sammon's mapping. Most of the alterations in the gene signatures of recent selection driven by anthropogenic
expression were caused by O3, alone and in combination with sulfate deposition on several candidate genes were identified
elevated CO2 concentration. O3 reduced photosynthesis and in natural spruce populations. I will discuss how genomics
carbon assimilation and induced defensive reactions to research and applications can assist in understanding plants'
oxidative stress resulting in earlier leaf senescence. responses and adaptation to climate change and air pollution
Transport and proteolysis gene expressions were activated, by presenting highlights of our own spruce genomics work
indicating that at least some remobilization of nutrients for and its significance to other plant systems.
storage was completed. The effects of elevated CO2 reflected Key words: Transcriptome sequencing, Differential gene
surplus of carbon that was directed to synthesis of secondary expression, Genome and QTL mapping, Selection signatures,
compounds. The combined CO2+O3 treatment resembled the Spruce, Climate change and air pollution
O3 treatment, indicating that elevated CO2 is not able to SIII/O-1
totally alleviate the harmful effects of elevated O3. Some Arsenic in Rice: Recent Advances in Rice Genomics
specific gene expression changes in the combined elevated
O3+CO2 treatment showed that experiments with O3 or CO2- Debasis Chakrabarty1*, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi1, Rudra
exposure alone are not sufficient to predict plant responses to Deo Tripathi1 and Rakesh Tuli2
National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific &
these gases together, and that field experiments with multiple Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P.,
variables are essential in order to understand responses to INDIA, Email: debasis1972@rediffmail.com; 2National Agri-Food
future environmental conditions. Biotechnology Institute, C-127, Industrial Area, SAS Nagar Phase
Key words: Betula papyrifera, Elevated CO2, Gene expression, 8, Mohali – 160071, Punjab, INDIA
Leaf senescence, Multivariate analyses, Ozone
50 ICPEP- 4

Arsenic is present commonly in subsoil and is a bivalents at metaphase I, a few cells had 32 chromosomes
human carcinogen. Rice takes up arsenic and accumulates in associating to form different configurations. Degree of
different plant parts; including grains at levels several fold diplospory was estimated as percentage of EMCs with
higher than the soil. In high arsenic regions, rice can double the zygoid number of chromosomes. Taking
contribute substantially to arsenic intake by human maximum frequency of octaploid cells as a criterion, five
population. Arsenic in rice grains is present in the plants were selected as parents. Subsequent seed progenies
carcinogenic inorganic or relatively safer organic were raised and analyzed for meiosis in female tack for two
(methylated) form. A wide variation is noticed in different consecutive years. These studies led to isolation of two
rice genotypes with respect to the proportion of arsenic in highly diplosporous lines. Besides, discovery of aneuploids
grains in these forms. Mechanisms involved in arsenic from the seed progeny of plants with 2n= 32 chromosomes,
uptake, efflux from roots, loading into xylem, transport, detection of variants amongst the seed progeny of aneuploids
partitioning, arsenate reduction, arsenic sequestration in and RAPD analyses pointed towards the facultative nature of
vacuoles, volatilization from leaves, accumulation in grains apomixis. In addition to these findings, possible implications
etc. are poorly understood. Selection of low inorganic arsenic of apomixis in crop improvement will be highlighted during
accumulating cultivars is an important trait to be used by the presentation.
breeders to develop rice varieties safer for cultivation in Key words: Apomixis, Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng.,
arsenic contaminated regions. Systematic efforts have not Aneuploidy, Diplospory
been made to screen rice genotypes for mining the genes
involved in arsenic uptake, transport and accumulation in
grains. Identification of rice germplasm with varying arsenic Deciphering the Transcriptome of Drought Tolerant
uptake and partitioning, and development of mapping and Susceptible Tea Plants using Suppression
populations with contrasting grain arsenic are required for Subtractive Hybridization
association studies and QTL mapping for accelerating rice Raju Bharalee*, Tirthankar Bandyopadhyay, Sushmita
improvement. Efforts on gene expression profiling, deep Gupta, Bornali Gohain, Priyadarshini Bhorali, Sourabh
transcriptome sequencing, high throughput metabolomics Kumar Das, Niraj Agarwal, Parveen Ahmed, Prasenjit
and phenotyping of contrasting arsenic accumulating lines Bhagawati, Neelakshi Bhatacharrya, Sangeeta Borchetia
need to be increased for developing strategies to design safer and Sudripta Das
rice varieties. Network research projects need to be Tocklai Experimental Station, TRA, Jorhat – 785008, Assam,
developed along these approaches to accelerate the INDIA, Email: rajubh2@gmailmail.com
development of crop varieties safer for farming in arsenic –
Tea (Camellia sinensis), the 2nd most popular beverage
contaminated environments.
in the world next to water and one of the most important cash
Key words: Arsenic, Arsenic sequestration, Rice genomics crop of India. Its cultivation and production is limited by a
SIII/O-2 number of biotic and abiotic factors. Drought is one of the
most prominent abiotic stress that limits the tea productivity
Apomictic Seed Formation in Allium tuberosum both in terms of quality and quantity upto 40%. Although
Rottl. ex Spreng. and its Possible Implications in drought has been extensively studied, the details of
Crop Improvement molecular mechanisms regulating response of plant genes to
Geeta Sharma drought stress remains to be discovered.
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu –180006, We have used a SSH approach in order to compare the
J&K, INDIA, Email: geetaji@yahoo.com
transcript profiles of drought tolerant and susceptible tea
The state of India's food security is worsening day by plants. Two SSH libraries (forward and reverse) were
day; key problem underlying being the extremely low constructed from leaf tissues collected from drought tolerant
productivity. To provide solution to this malady, hybrid and susceptible tea cultivars under artificial induced drought
varieties for important plant species are being produced and conditions.
used regularly. Such varieties, though are generally more
A total of 5250 recombinant colonies were randomly
vigorous than the parents involved in their production, vigour
picked up and sequenced. More than 40% of these include
tend to break after generations on account of sexual
transcripts that had previously been reported in the public
reproduction. Nevertheless, there exists the possibility for
database as responsive to drought and other abiotic and biotic
fixing hybrid vigour by harnessing apomixis.
stresses in other plants and tea as well. The rest 60% include
Allium tuberosum, a major vegetable crop in south- proteins previously identified as putative or hypothetical
east Asia, is known to set seed via apomixis. To fully (40%) and with no nucleotide or substantial protein
understand the phenomenon of apomixis and for isolating homologies (20%).
highly apomictic lines, a progeny comprising of 32 plants
While comparing the transcripts of drought tolerant
was raised and studied for meiosis in female track. Meiotic
and susceptible tea cultivars under mild and severe drought
division on the female side was peculiar in having two kinds
conditions by RT-PCR we have identified several transcripts
of embryo sac mother cells (EMCs). While majority of
showing many fold up-regulation or down-regulation in
EMCs had 64 chromosomes which paired to form 32
drought tolerant cultivar as compared to susceptible one.

Important among them are Glutathione peroxidase, DNA J, Manish Tiwari*, Sanjay Dwivedi, Rudra Deo Tripathi and
Elicitor responsive gene 3, Ethylene induced esterase, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Cinnamoyl CoA reductase, Aquaporins etc. We hypothesize National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
that these drought induced upregulated genes may be – 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email: maneeshtiwari11@yahoo.co.in
involved in water stress signalling pathways and could Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Proteins
contribute to water stress tolerance in tea plants. (NRAMPs) are membrane spanning integral proteins found
A substantial number of transcripts which has no in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Foremost functions of
significant protein homology in the public database or NRAMPs are assigned in iron translocation in mammals
identified as putative may also play an important role in during invasion of pathogens. In general, NRAMP proteins
drought tolerance. Therefore, it is important to monitor their are considered as wide range transporters, involved in
expression and get their corresponding full length genes to acquisition of essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) required
analyze precise functions during drought stress which will for optimal growth and development of plants. Besides these
enrich our understanding of molecular mechanism of water metals, some heavy metals like Cd are also shown to be
stress tolerance and help devise strategies to develop water transported via NRAMPs. Though different members of
stress tolerant tea. NRAMPs have been characterized from Arabidopsis, very
Key words: Camellia sinensis, Drought, Suppression subtractive little efforts have been made to elucidate their role in rice. In
hybridization, Transcriptome this study, through expression in Arabidopsis, yeast mutant
(fet3fet4) as well as complementation of Arabidopsis mutants
SIII/O-4 (nramp3:nramp4), we demonstrate that one member of rice
Comprehensive Structural and Expression NRAMP family, OsNRAMP6, plays role in Fe as well as
Analyses of Rice Sulphate Transporter Gene Family heavy metal transport. Complementation of fet3fet4 yeast
during Stress mutant defective to high affinity iron transport (IRT) system
by OsNRAMP6 rescued iron uptake by mutant.
Smita Kumar*, Mehar Hasan Asif, Debasis Chakrabarty, Transformation of Arabidopsis mutant by OsNRAMP6
Rudra Deo Tripathi and Prabodh Kumar Trivedi restored the ability to survive at low iron availability of
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
– 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email: smitabiochem@gmail.com knockout double mutants (nramp3:nramp4) of Arabidopsis
suggesting that OsNRAMP6 might be an integral component
Sulphur, an essential nutrient required for plant of iron transport. The heterologous expression of OsNramp6
growth and development, is mainly taken up by the plants as into Arabidopsis conferred tolerance and enhanced
inorganic sulphate from the soil and assimilated into sulphur accumulation of arsenic and cadmium into root and shoot
reductive pathway. The uptake and transport of sulphate in tissue of transgenic lines. Together, our results suggest that
plants is carried out by transporters encoded by sulphate OsNRAMP6 helps in iron as well as heavy metal transport in
transporter gene family. Plant sulphate transporters have rice.
been classified with respect to their protein sequences,
Key words: NRAMP6, Arabidopsis mutant, Cadmium, Arsenic,
kinetic properties and tissue-specific localization in
Yeast mutant
Arabidopsis. Though sulphate transporter genes from few
other plants have also been characterized, no detailed study SIII/O-6
with respect to structure and expression of this family from Molecular Characterization of Mango Hybrids
rice has been carried out. Here, we present genome-wide using STMS Primer
identification, structural and expression analyses of rice
sulphate transporter gene family. Our analysis using Reshu Tiwary1, Shyama Kumari1* and S.K. Pandey2
microarray data and MPSS database suggests that fourteen Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, U.P.,
rice sulphate transporters are differentially expressed during INDIA; 2National Research Center For Agroforestry, Jhansi, U.P.,
INDIA, Email: shyama182@gmail.com
growth and development, in various tissues and during biotic
and abiotic stresses. We have also studied expression of this The mango (Mangifera indica L.) belonging to family
gene family in response to different sulphate concentration Anacardiaceae is called as “the king of fruit” for its excellent
and heavy metal stresses. Results suggest that members of taste and flavour and is one of the most popular and choicest
this gene family are differentially regulated with varying fruit of India so called the “National Fruit of India”. The
sulphate concentrations. Our analysis also suggests that apart mango is native to southern Asia, especially Burma and
from transcriptional regulation, an unusual alternative eastern India. It spread early on the Malaysia eastern Asia and
splicing of one of the member of this family, OsSultr1;1 takes eastern Africa.
place with respect to sulphur demand and stress conditions. Mango has been cultivated for more than 4000 years
Key words: Alternative splicing, Biotic and abiotic stress, Gene and a wide genetic diversity, exists in this crop in the sub
expression, Rice, Sulphate transporter gene family continent. Allopolyploidy (2n=40), outbreeding and wide
range of agroclimatic condition prevailing in this country
continue to contribute to the genetic diversity of this crop, In
Involvement of OsNRAMP6 in Intracellular Heavy addition there has been wide spread hybridization leading to
Metal Trafficking in Rice recombination of character in mango over the thousand years
52 ICPEP- 4

of its cultivation and domestication the wide genetic two classes of naturally occurring, cysteine-rich products
diversity of the plant has been fixed in many verities. that are synthesized for binding a wide range of heavy metals.
Twenty one hybrid varieties of mango and their respective PCs, with the general structure (Glu–Cys)2-11–Gly, are
parent landraces Amrapali, Vanraj and Janardan Pasand synthesized enzymatically from reduced glutathione (GSH)
which are maintained at Central Institute of Subtropical by phytochelatin synthase. Overexpression of phytochelatin
Horticulture, Lucknow, have been selected for the present synthase has been attempted by different groups to develop
study and used for analysis. Total genomic DNA was isolated transgenic plants for phytoremediation. This led to enhanced
from above mentioned plants. synthesis of PCs but phenotypes of plants were contrasting,
Genomic DNA was isolated from all the mango ranging from enhanced metal tolerance and accumulation to
hybrids and their parents taken for the study using CTAB hypersensitivity. These paradoxes have been linked to
method. After isolation of genomic DNA, it was purified limitation of glutathione for PC biosynthesis and other
further by RNase treatment followed by chloroform isoamyl growth related parameters. As PCs are small peptides,
extraction as described in materials and method. The quality analogs for these can be synthesized through artificial gene,
and quantity of isolated genomic DNA were estimated by UV which might serve the same purpose as PCs. These synthetic
Spectrophotometery as well as Argose gel electrophoresis. PCs encoded by artificial genes denoted as EC will differ on
All the DNA showed absorption ratio at A260/A280 ratio the basis of peptide bond between the amino acids. In this
between 1.8:2.2. These spectrophotometeric readings study, we present synthesis of three artificial genes encoding
confirms that total yield of genomic DNA isolated were synthetic EC14, EC16, EC20 and analysis of transgenic plants
sufficient for PCR analysis. The isolated DNA was expressing these genes. We developed artificial genes by
electrophoresed through 0.8% Agarose gel and after designing overlapping forward and reverse primers
electrophoresis gel was stained with ethidium bromide. High depending on length of desired gene and amplifying it
molecular weight DNA with minimal shearing confirms that through PCR. PCR fragments were cloned, sequenced and
isolated DNA was of good quality for PCR analysis. used for developing constructs for plant transformation.
The above twenty one hybrid progeny and their These constructs carrying artificial genes under CaMV35S
respective parents were also considered for STMS profile promoter were transformed into tobacco. Transgenic lines
resolution. 14 STMS primers were screen out of which 5 expressing artificial genes exhibited growth retardation
primers give the best results in terms of allelic variation. The which was inversely parallel to length of synthetic EC.
5 primers yielded heteromorphic profile for parents versus Transgenic lines were grown in hydroponics system in the
hybrids. 5 out of 14 primers (37%) showed stable presence of different heavy metals. Responses of transgenic
polymorphism. Of all the primers HMID 04 and HMID 019 lines to different heavy metals will be discussed during the
produced highly polymorphic patterns yielding 4 bands meeting.
among hybrids and parents. As these primers are Key words: Artificial gene, Synthetic phytochelatins, Transgenic
polymorphic, hence they can be selected as critical primers tobacco, Heavy metals
for fingerprinting hybrid combinations and their parental SIII/O-8
lines. This fingerprinting could be used in variety
authentication, protection through pedigree analysis and Molecular Genetic Diversity in Sugarcane
linkage analysis for various traits. R. K. Singh1, M.S. Suhail1, D. K. Pandey1, M. Swapna1 and
5 primers have been selected as effective set of Rajesh Singh1, 2*
markers for detecting hybridity at 5 loci. Based on Division of Crop Improvement, Indian Institute of Sugarcane
complementary banding patterns between hybrids and Research, Lucknow – 226002, U.P., INDIA;
parents, feasible methods can be developed to monitor Email: rsingh6361@yahoo.co.in; 2Department of Genetics and
hybridity in generated hybrids. The present study was able to Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu
differentiate true hybrids as opposed to self or open University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA
pollination progeny. As mango hybridization is laborious and Genetic gain in any crop plant depends on the use of
hybrid confirmation cannot be done by morphological genetically diverse parents in the pedigree during breeding.
markers, thus molecular tools are important for hybridity Furthermore, measuring the genetic variability within gene
testing. pool of elite breeding material could make crop improvement
Key words: STMS primer, Mango, Hybrids, CTAB method more efficient by the directed accumulation of favorable
alleles. Conventionally, the identification of genetically
SIII/O-7 distinct genotypes is accomplished by using morphological
Cloning and Expression of Artificial Genes characteristics. With the availability of large number of DNA
Encoding Synthetic Phytochelatins (ECs) in Plants marker techniques in many crops, the morphological
Devesh Shukla*, Sanjay Dwivedi, Rudra Deo Tripathi, characteristics are supplemented with the molecular
Pravendra Nath and Prabodh Kumar Trivedi markers. These DNA markers not only have better genomic
National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and coverage, which is essentially required for diversity
Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., analyses, but also provide more reliable genetic estimates.
INDIA, Email: devesh.nbri@gmail.com Among the available DNA markers, simple sequence repeats
Metallothioneins (MTs) and phytochelatins (PCs) are (SSR)/ microsatellite markers are considered one of the most

popular genetic markers for mapping and population was the most effective and has significant (p<0.001)
genetics. In the present study 30 sugarcane inhibitory effect on the vital biological pathways such as
cultivars/genotypes including interspecific hybrids and some nitrogenase activity, respiration, and photosynthesis of A.
basic species of Saccharum were fingerprinted using 32 SSR fertilissima. All the components (PSI, whole chain and PSII)
markers. Out of the 32 SSR primers, 7 were monomorphic of electron transport system were affected. Maximal
generating one allele each and the rest were polymorphic inhibition was observed for PSI, followed by whole chain
(78.1%). The number of alleles detected by the polymorphic and PSII, indicating dose and time dependent inhibition of
loci varied from 2-7 with an average of 3.46 alleles/locus. the processes. MC-LR also appeared to produce energy
The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.120 to constrain (ATP) resulting in overall inhibition of
0.623 with an average of 0.315. The average genetic diversity cyanobacterial growth.
for all possible 435 pairs of genotypes was 42.6 % with a Key words: Cyanotoxin, Toxin profile, Microcystin, Allelopathic
range of 12.7 % and 66.7%. Analysis of molecular variance interactions, Growth inhibition
was performed by grouping the populations differing in
response to red rot. AMOVA did not show much variation
among the groups. Dendrogram prepared on the basis of Genome Characterization and Single Nucleotide
presence or absence of amplified alleles using UPGMA Polymorphisms (SNPs) Discovery through the
method clearly distinguished all the genotypes from each Reduced Representation of the Genome of Jatropha
other. The two accessions namely SES594 and ISH150, curcas on High Throughput Sequencing Platform
which are resistant to red rot, emerged out to be most distinct Priya Gupta, Asif Idris, Mehar H. Asif, Hemant K. Yadav,
genotypes whereas the rest of the genotypes could be Samir V. Sawant and Chandra S. Mohanty*
grouped in two broad clusters. Clustering pattern was highly Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, National
supported by Mantel's test (r = 0.947) and high bootstrap Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
value (71.0 %). The results indicated that the genotypes Email: priya.gupta456@gmail.com
ISH150 and SES 594 would be potential germplasm resource The increased demand of J. curcas as a biofuel
for broadening the genetic base of cultivated sugarcane for requires further improvement of this crop, which has been
red rot. tremendously advanced by the application of high
Key word: Genetic diversity, PIC, SSR marker, Saccharum, throughput molecular markers. Molecular markers are used
UPGMA for understanding the genome dynamics as well as applied
SIII/O-9 aspects of crop breeding. Several next-generation
sequencing (NGS) technologies and high throughput marker
Occurrence of Microcystin Producing Nostoc, a
technologies have emerged as powerful tool for
Toxic Cyanobacterium from India understanding genome variation in crop species at DNA,
Rakhi Bajpai* and Ashwani K. Rai RNA and protein level. The massively parallel
Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – pyrsoquencing technology, commercialized by 454 life
221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: rakhi.bajpayi@gmail.com technologies has been successfully employed on the
Microcystin (MC) is the most prevalent cyanotoxin complexity reduced genome of J. curcas. This principle of
with more than 70 congeners. We, for the first time have the genomic complexity reduction was followed for genome
identified and isolated a microcystin producing Nostoc sp. characterization and maximum single nucleotide
from India. The cyanobacterium Nostoc was isolated from polymorphism (SNP) discovery. SNPs are the single base
the agricultural pond of Banaras Hindu University campus. differences between haplotypes. Secondly, SNP-based
Morphological and molecular characterization using 16S markers provide allele-specific variations among the
RNA sequence analysis established it as a new strain Nostoc genotypes which will be further helpful in the marker
sp. BHU001. Toxin profile of Nostoc sp. BHU001 was assisted selection programme.
developed using MALDI-TOF MS, HPLC and LC-MS Complexity reduced genomic DNA was sequenced on
analyses. The cyanobacterium produces more than ten the 454 GS-FLX sequencer (Roche, Basel, Switzerland). A
peptides including five MC variants; MC-LR, -WR, -AR, - total of 2,482 candidate SNPs were identified out of a total of
LA and methylated MC-LR, and a new peptide similar to 871 contigs, at an average frequency of 1 SNP per 100 bp.
cyanopeptolin. Total microcystin content was quantified by The candidate SNPs were categorized according to the
ELISA, and it was 28.3 µg g-1 dry wt of the cyanobacterium, nucleotide substitutions as either transitions (C/T or A/G) or
9.8 µg L-1 of the spent medium and 5.5 µg L-1 of pond water. transversions (A/C, C/G, A/T, G/T). There was a relative
Allelopathic interaction of MC-LR was checked on six increase in the proportion of transitions (70.54%) over
cyanobacteria, i.e., Nostoc muscorum, Nostoc commune, transversions (29.54%). A total of 757 insertion/deletions
Nostoc 7120, Anabaena fertilissima, Anabaena doliolum, (indels) were observed. Since there are 4 types of transitions
and Cylinderospermum majus. MC-LR inhibited the growth (Ts) and 8 types of transversions (Tv), the expected ratio of
of all the strains except its producer. Growth inhibition was transition and transversion (Ts/Tv) is 0.5. The (Ts/Tv) ratio for
maximal in the case of A. fertilissima and minimal for C. J. curcas was calculated to be 2.3. This indicated that, a
majus. However, MC-LR has stimulatory effect on the transition bias existed in the analysed sequence data of J.
growth of its producer. MC-LR at a concentration of 50 µg L-1
54 ICPEP- 4

curcas genome. This may be due to methylated cytosines in Sensitive 1 (Sbsos1) Gene from Salicornia brachiata
CpG dinucleotides changed into thymines during the genesis Roxb. and its Differential Expression under Salt
of the SNPs. A similar abundance of SNPs has been reported Stress
in Maize. The present study revealed that the frequency of
InDels was much lower than that of SNPs. These results Narendra Singh Yadav* and Bhavanath Jha
Discipline of Marine Biotechnology and Ecology, Central Salt and
suggest that, for fine mapping of a gene in J. curcas the use of Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar – 364002,
SNPs rather than InDels as markers appear to be a good Gujarat, INDIA, Email: nsyadav@csmcri.org
The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a
Key words: Jatropha curcas, Biofuel, Molecular marker, Single plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important
nucleotide polymorphism
role in germination and growth of plants in saline
SIII/P-1 environment. Here, we report the cloning and
Role of Sterol Glycosyltransferase Gene Family characterization of SOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an
under Abiotic Stress extreme halophyte. The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long, and
contains 90 bp 3' UTR region, 204 bp 5' UTR region and 3480
Manoj K. Misra, Vibha Pandey, Syed Saema, Prabodh K. bp ORF which encodes a 1159 amino acids protein with an
Trivedi and Pratibha Misra* estimated molecular mass of 128.4 kDa and isoelectric point
Plant Transformation Lab., National Botanical Research Institute, of 6.24. The predicted protein sequence aligns closely with
Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA
Email: pratibhaflora@yahoo.com
SOS1 homologs of Suaeda japonica, Mesembryanthemum
crystallinum, Chenopodium quinoa, and Populus
Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) are enzymes euphratica. The SbSOS1 protein contains two putative
involved in sterol modifications and play important role in domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter and a cyclic-nucleotide
metabolic plasticity during adaptive responses, changed binding domain. Real Time PCR based expression profile of
sensitivity to stress hormones and changed tolerance to biotic SbSOS1 gene confirmed that it plays key role to combat the
and abiotic stresses. Arabidopsis thaliana contains two salinity. The constitutive expression of SbSOS1 is
genes, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1, that encode UDP- significantly 4.5 times higher in root tissue as compared to
Glc:sterol glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the shoot tissue. SbSOS1 expression increases 7.4 folds in root
synthesis of SGs. Lines having mutations in UGT80A2 tissue at 100 mM NaCl, thereafter it remains constant up to
(At3g07020) and UGT80B1(At1g43620) were 2.0 M. In shoot tissue increase range is 1.5 to 4 folds with
characterized. The UGT80A2 lines were viable and increasing NaCl concentration. The functional
exhibited relatively minor effects on plant growth. On the characterization of SbSOS1 gene is being tested by
contrary, UGT80B1 mutants displayed an array of transgenic approaches.
phenotypes that were pronounced in the embryo and seed.
Key words: Na+/H+ antiporter, Salicornia brachiata, Nhap cation-
The sterol content of plant membranes has been observed to
antiporter domain, Cyclic-nucleotide binding domain, Real Time
change in response to environmental conditions and it has PCR
been suggested that alterations in the sterol composition of
the plasma membrane may play a role in the cold acclimation SIII/P-3
process. Moreover, gene expression data from available Isolation, Characterization and Heterologous
microarray experiments suggested that UGT80B1 Expression of a Type-2 Metallothionein Gene Sbmt2
(At1g43620) transcripts are 5 fold and 3.4 folds up-regulated from an Extreme Halophyte Salicornia brachiata
by 24h of cold stress in shoots and roots, respectively. The
mutants described here provided an opportunity to test this Amit Kumar Chaturvedi*, Avinash Mishra and Bhavanath
hypothesis with respect to SG and ASG. We investigated the Jha
Discipline of Marine Biotechnology & Ecology, Central Salt &
adaptive response to temperature stress but were unable to
Marine Chemicals Research Institute, G.B. Marg, Bhavnagar –
detect a significant difference between mutants and wild 364021, Gujarat, INDIA, Email: amitkc@csmcri.org
type. Thus, although sterol content of membranes in
Arabidopsis was modulated in part by SG and ASG Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich
polypeptides that are involved in metal detoxification and
synthesis, loss of these membrane components did not appear
homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. MT gene
to adversely affect growth or viability at low temperatures.
The slightly reduced growth rate of the mutants at all was isolated through 5' RACE from EST database generated
at CSMCRI Bhavnagar. In silico analysis reveals that SbMT
temperatures indicates that SGs are important for growth and
development, as might be expected from their widespreadgene belongs to the class II, type-2 metallothionein-like
presence in plants. However, this role appears to be genes. The SbMT2 gene is 421 bp long, and contains 237 bp
beneficial rather than crucial. ORF region encoding 78 amino acids protein with an
estimated molecular mass of 8.5 KDa. For expression
Key words: Adaptive responses, Plasma membrane, Sterol
analysis, SbMT2 gene was cloned into bacterial expression
vector PGEX6p-3. The SbMT2 protein was purified,
SIII/P-2 analysed on SDS-PAGE and further confirmed by MALDI-
Cloning and Characterization of Salt Overly TOF-TOF. BL21(DE3) cells transformed with SbMT2 gene

showed tolerance to 0.5 mM ZnSO4 and 1.0 mM CuSO4, but Two types of treatments viz. in situ and root dip treatment
not significant to 0.5 mM CdSO4 as compared to PGEX6p-3 were followed. In situ conditions were simulated by allowing
vector only. the bulbs directly into the soil contained in small pots
Key words: Metallothioneins, Metal detoxification, GST, whereas for root dip treatment, onions were allowed to root in
SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF-TOF different concentrations (100, 80, 60, 40 and 20%) of the soil
extract (1:2, w/v; soil: water). After the roots germinated to
SIII/P-4 approximately 1 cm, the root tips were washed, cut and fixed
Optimization of Protein Extraction by Aqueous in Farmer's fluid (3 : 1 :: ethanol : acetic acid glacial). The
Two-Phase System (ATPS) using Response Surface root tips were squashed in aceto orcein to prepare slides and
slides were observed for various types of chromosomal
Methodology (RSM)
aberrations. Both the treatments resulted in different types of
C. Chaman Mehta aberrations like Laggards, vagrants, c-mitosis, delayed
SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, INDIA, anaphase, stickiness (physiological aberrations) and
Email: chamanmehtab4u@hotmail.com
chromosomal breaks, chromatin bridges (Clastogenic
Aqueous two phase systems (ATPS) have been aberrations). Among the two types of treatment studied, root
reported in literature to be a successful technique for dip treatment was found to be more effective producing 12.7
separation, concentration and purification of protein and % of total aberrant cells at highest concentration (100%) as
pharmaceutical products. This work will attempt to study and compared to in situ treatment where maximum of 12.03 %
optimize ATPS made of polymer/salt systems. Five factors, cells showed chromosomal aberrations. For physico-
polymer molecular weight, polymer concentration, pH, salt chemical analysis, soil extract was prepared in 1:5 ratio (soil:
concentration and phase forming salt which affect the protein distilled water : w/v). Various physico-chemical parameters
partition will be studied. A two level fractional factorial will viz. pH, alkalinity, soil texture, calcium, magnesium, nitrate,
be initially carried out. An effective statistical design is the phosphate, potassium and sodium content were analyzed.
basis for response surface optimization and the reported Key words: Soil pollution, Physicochemical analysis, Pollutants,
designs include central composite design and which is the Genotoxicity, Allium cepa
most popular among RSM designs and has the characteristics
of orthogonality, uniform precision and rotatability. SIII/P-6
However, the performance of the better polymer/salt studies Assessment of Genotoxicity of Soil of an
will be carried out using central composite rotatable design Agricultural Field (Verka Block) of Amritsar,
(CCRD) in Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The Punjab
validity of the response model will be verified by comparing
the predicted and experimental results. The optimal Mandeep Kaur* and Avinash Nagpal
Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak
condition giving max “K” value for protein partitioning will Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, INDIA,
be determined. Email: mandeep.mandygndu@gmail.com
Key words: Aqueous two-phase systems, Composite rotatable Many chemicals in both particulate and gas phase are
design, Response surface methodology
directly or indirectly released into the environment due to
SIII/P-5 different industrial, domestic and agricultural activities. Soil
Physicochemical Analysis and Evaluation of acts as a fundamental material for agricultural production.
Various chemical fertilizers and pesticides are applied to the
Genotoxic Potential of an Agricultural Soil Sample
agricultural fields to increase yield and control various pests
of Nangli Village of Amritsar and diseases. Due to their excessive use, pollution of
Vanita Chahal*, Avinash Kaur Nagpal and Jatinder Kaur agricultural areas is becoming a global problem. Keeping this
Katnoria in mind, the present study was conducted to evaluate the
Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak genotoxic potential of soil of an agricultural field (Verka
Dev University, Amritsar – 143005, Punjab, INDIA, Block) of Amritsar, India by employing Allium cepa root
Email: vanitachahal@gmail.com
chromosomal aberration assay. The soil sample was
Nowadays, the problem of soil pollution is increasing extracted by using distilled water (soil: water, 1:2 w/v). The
at alarming rates not only in developed countries but in soil extract was filtered through Whatman filter paper no.1
developing countries as well. A number of genotoxic and different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 & 100%) of the
compounds have been discharged on to the lands which extract were prepared for treatment of root tips of A. cepa for
directly or indirectly find their way into various biological 3 hrs. Treatment of A. cepa roots with different
systems including the human beings. Upon reaching the concentrations of soil extract resulted in dose dependent
human systems, these pollutants can not only cause direct decrease in MI (Mitotic index) and induction of different
toxicity but can also potentially damage to the gene pool. types of chromosomal aberrations. The spectrum of
Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to chromosomal aberrations included C-mitosis, delayed
evaluate the genotoxic potential of an agricultural soil anaphase/s, stickiness, laggard/s, vagrant/s, chromatin
sample collected from Nangli village of Amritsar employing bridge/s and chromosomal break/s.
Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay (AlRCAA). Key words: Genotoxicity, Pesticides, Soil contamination, Root dip
56 ICPEP- 4

treatment, Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay using soxhlet extraction method. The yield of crude extract in
SIII/P-7 ether, butanol and hexane was found to be 7, 12.4 and 15.6%
respectively. Termite mortality experiments were done under
á-Amylase from Soybean Seeds: A Potential Enzyme for controlled conditions (280 C temperature and 80% relative
Use in Detergent Industries humidity) for 48 hours and mortality percentage were
Nivedita Jaiswal* and Om Prakash recorded. Maximum mortality (73%) of termites was
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu observed with 0.35 g/ml ether extract followed by 0.39 g/ml
University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA, butanol extract (67%) and 0.62 g/ml hexane extract (60%)
Email: nive_june29@yahoo.co.in
after 48 hours. Aqueous extracts were not very effective
Industrial applications of enzymes have been against termites. However, hot water extract (27% mortality)
receiving attention throughout the world. One of these was found to be better than cold water extract (20%). Present
industrially applicable enzymes are á-amylases having study suggests that Jatropha plant could be an economic,
enormous potential for commercial applications as for e.g. in effective and safe biopesticide. However its efficacy can
textile, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries, etc. further be improved to achieve 100% termite mortality
Nowadays, an expanding area in the application of á- within a short period with some other botanicals or chemical
amylases is in improving the performance of enzymatic additives.
liquid detergents, being the second important group of Key words: Jatropha curcas, Termite, Odontotermes obesus,
enzymes after proteases used for the purpose. However, the Mortality, Extract
use of á-amylases in detergent formulations is problematic
since the enzyme usually does not offer stability and an SIII/P-9
optimal level of activity in commercially utilized Statistical Optimization of Production Parameters
formulations due to the presence of various metal ions, metal for Endoglucanase by Trichoderma ressei Rut C-30
ion chelating agents, surfactants, etc. Moreover, the inability Employing Agro-Residue
of the enzyme to resist the working temperature employed is
another important factor. Vishal Kapoor1* and Rintu Banerjee2
Laboratory of Microbiology, Christ Church College, Kanpur –
It was found that á-amylase extracted from soybean 208001, U.P., INDIA, Email: vishal.262570@gmail.com;
seeds and purified to homogeneity (by affinity precipitation 2
Microbial Biotechnology and Downstream Processing Laboratory,
with 84% recovery and 20-fold purification) showed an Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of
optimum temperature of 750C, being thermally stable at this Technology, Kharagpur – 721302, W.B., INDIA,
temperature for hours. The enzyme showed good residual Email: rb@agfe.iitkgp.ernet.in
activity even in the presence of metal ions like Al3+, Cu2+, Response surface methodology (RSM) involving
Ni2+and Cd2+ (at a concentration of 5 mM). The enzyme central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize
maintained more than 80% residual activity in the presence the physico-chemical parameters for the production of
of the chelating agent EDTA (12.5 mM). The surfactant SDS endoglucanase by Trichoderma ressei Rut C-30 under solid
also didn't show any inhibitory effect on enzyme activity. state fermentation using a novel mixture of waste paper and
Thus, the enzyme's good thermostability and resistance to the wheat bran. Most effective variables for the endoglucanase
effects of various metal ions, chelating agents as well as production in screening experiments were incubation day,
surfactants makes it advantageous for its economical substrate ratio, solid: liquid ratio and pH of the medium. A
application in detergent industry quadratic model was developed through RSM in terms of
Key words: á-amylase, Soybean, Thermostability, Surfactant, related independent variables to maximize the
Chelating agent endoglucanase production as the response. Incubation day
and solid: liquid ratio were found to be the most significant
factors. The predicted optimal parameters were tested in the
Efficacy of Jatropha curcus Leaf Extracts against laboratory and the final endoglucanase activity obtained was
Termite very close to the predicted value (22.93 IU/g, predicted;
Sharad Verma*, Monica Verma and Satyawati Sharma 25.43 IU/g, tested). After the optimization, endoglucanase
Centre for Rural and Development and Technology, Indian Institute activity increased by ~1.77 folds. Our result shows that
of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi – 110016, INDIA, optimization of enzyme production is the most useful way to
Email: sharadbt@gmail.com obtain concentrated enzyme extracts from solid state
Crude aqueous, ether, butanol and hexane extracts of cultivation and that T. ressei Rut C-30 using cheap agro-
Jatropha curcas leaves were tested against termites residue can be an attractive source for endoglucanase
(Odontotermes obesus) in laboratory conditions. Cold production.
aqueous extract was prepared by shaking the Jatropha leaves Key words: Endoglucanase, Response surface methodology, Solid-
in water for 6 hours whereas to get hot water leaf extract, the state fermentation, Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30, Agro-residue
leaves were boiled in distilled water for 30 minutes. Three SIII/P-10
different concentrations (1, 5 and 10 %) of water extracts
were tested for mortality of termites. Ether, butanol and Screening of Potential Gallic acid - Equivalent
hexane crude extracts of Jatropha leaves were obtained by Allelochemicals from Various Plant Part Leachates

of Jatropha curcas Effective against Vigna mungo of protein in food and feed. For solving the purpose of food
Seedlings and feed it is required to reproduce Spirulina at domestic
Y. Vimala*, Anuj Kumar Ahalavat and Arti Choudhary
Department of Botany, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut – The Spirulina production system can be broadly
250004, U.P., INDIA, Email: yvimala@gmail.com divided into three phases i.e. culturing, harvesting and
For exploring active allelopathic compounds, dried drying. Each of this process is important in the production of
roots and leaves of J.curcas were soxhlet extracted followed high quality Spirulina. The factors affecting the production
by screening and identification of compounds by HPLC. of Spirulina have been the subject of extensive study. The
Gallic acid (GA) with some unknown compounds was culture of Spirulina is being affected by different factors i.e.
recorded in all the samples with highest amount in roots. For nutrient component, pH, light intensity, temperature, culture
confirming potent allelochemical, effect of GA (0.25- depth, agitation. Light intensity is one of the most important
1.0mM) on the test crop V. mungo var. PU-35 was tested factors because of photosynthetic nature of Spirulina for
along with laboratory bioassays for assessing the allelopathic reproduction and multiplication. In the present study the
effect of 1-10% rhizospheric soil leachate, fruit shell leachate maximum production was found in summer season due to
and senescent leaf litter leachate of Jatropha curcas (L.) favourable condition with the light intensity of 25-35 Klux
(JRSL, JFSL and JLL respectively), on germination, seedling where as the minimum production was found in rainy season
growth, vigour index, germination speed, root shoot length due to warm humid climate this condition provides the
and chlorophyll content of the test crop Vigna mungo var. PU- bacterial contamination.
35 were carried out. Germination % and germination speed Spirulina has certain advantages over other best studied
were recorded to decrease under all concentrations of JFSL, algae like Chlorella, Scenedesmus viz. its amenability to a
JRSL and JLL expect 1-2% JLL where germination % low level of technology and to a system fully devoid to
increased compared to distilled water treated control sets. electrical energy input. A high protein content is still another
Root length and vigour index were observed to increase in important attribute of Spirulina that has got a PER (protein
JFSL and JLL but decrease under JRSL. Chl. a, Chl. b and efficiency ratio) higher than other vegetables cereal protein
total chlorophyll decreased under all treatments of JRSL and and soya proteins.
increased under all concentrations of JLL while moderate Key words: Spirulina, Cynobacterium, Biomass production,
effect was observed under JFSL treatment. % germination, Growth factors, Light intensity
root shoot length, vigour index, germination speed, chl. a,
chl. b and total chlorophyll was found to decrease under all
treatments of GA as well. The results of GA and JRSL Quantitative Characterization and Disease
resembled owing to the high concentration of GA in roots Progression of Gray Leaf Spot in a Susceptible Line
compared to fruit shell and senescent leaf of J.curcas. The in Forage Sorghum [Sorghum bicolar (L.) Moench]
negative effect of allelochemicals on V.mungo seedling G.P. Shukla, Shyama Kumari* and S.K. Pandey
growth was recorded to be in the order of Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, U.P.,
GA>JRSL>JFSL>JLL. INDIA, Email: shyama182@gmail.com
Key words: Allelochemicals, Gallic acid, HPLC, Jatropha curcas, The parental materials including ICSV-700, CSV-17,
Leachate IS-10284, IS-26866, BJ-248, Pantchari-5, 27-B, SPV-462,
SIII/P-11 SPV-1616, HC-308 and PVK-809 were sown in RBD with
three replications in February, 2008. The experiment was
To Study the Impact of Light Intensity on Biomass
repeated in the rainy season of 2008. The observations were
Production of Spirulina in Different Conditions recorded on 5-10 competitive plants in each treatment in
Raina Pal*, Mahima, Akhil and Anshuman summer and rainy season on six characters. The statistical
Department of Botany, Hindu College, Moradabad – 244001, U.P., analysis for earlier trial was conducted in RBD whereas in the
INDIA, Email: raina075507@gmail.com latter trial using, 't' test for difference in means. Results
The cost of protein rich food like pulses and animals indicated that expression of quantitative traits was much
products is escalating and deficiency of protein in diet is a better in summers as compared to rainy season. In summers
common feature of Indian dietaries. In order to overcome the Pantchari-5 could respond better than the check but in rainy
problem of protein malnutrition, alternative protein source season there was hardly a difference of any variety with the
were explored. Among various sources Spirulina was found check. For no. of leaves two varieties IS-26866 and IS-10284
to be one of the better alternatives. It has been dominating the appeared to be better than the check in summer while in rainy
world scenario because of its unconventional and renewable season Pantchari-5 and ICSV-700 showed better
source of protein (60-70%) and other metabolites. Spirulina performance than the check. For stem girth seven parents
is an aquatic, photoautotrophic, multicellular and showed greater diameter but in rainy season only Pantchari-5
filamentous algae characterized by long tricomes with many could repeat its performance excelling significantly the
spirals, short S-shaped tricomes and circularly coiled check, HC-308. BJ-248 and Pantchari-5 proved its
tricomes with a length of 300-500µ and a width of 80µ. Due superiority for dry stover percentage than the check in
to non toxic habit Spirulina mainly being utilized as a source summer. Observations for incidence of gray leaf blight
58 ICPEP- 4

disease (Cercospora sorghi) were recorded at weekly lichen activity.

intervals. A variety, IS-10284, appeared to be highly Key words: Biological weathering, Lichen, SEM, Hyphae
susceptible. Ten randomly selected plants in variety IS- SIII/P-14
10284 were tagged in each plot for periodical observation.
Gray leaf blight scoring was carried out on 0-5 rating scale Evaluation of Antifeedant Effect of some Medicinal
and percent disease index (PDI) was calculated. Area under Plant Extracts against Tobacco Caterpillar,
disease progress curve (AUDPC) and apparent infection rate Spodoptera litura (Fab.)
(IR) was calculated for the entire disease progress period. Shiwani Bhatnagar*, A.K. Karnatak, Seema Thakur and
The correlation and regression coefficients between PDI and Usha
different weather parameters were analyzed and multiple Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant Univ.
regression equations were fitted to work out combined of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar – 263145, U.S. Nagar,
effects of sets of different independent variables on PDI. The Uttarakhand, INDIA, Email: shiwanibhatnagar@rediffmail.com
disease first initiated from lower leaves. The observation The use of conventional insecticides has raised some
revealed that gray leaf blight initiated in the 3rd week of June
concern about their threat to the environment and
and continuously progressed upto last week of July. The development of insecticide resistance in insects. Therefore,
percent disease index (PDI) was 21.3 in 25 SMW and reachedthere is an imperative need for the development of safer,
to maximum of 99.3 in 29 SMW. The maximum temperature alternative crop protectants such as botanical insecticides
29.9°c and minimum 23.8°c, maximum relative humidity and antifeedants. Botanicals have long been touted as
93% and minimum relative humidity 29% along with attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for
320mm rainfall was found favorable for disease initiation pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little
period. During entire disease progress period 25 SMW to 29threat to the environment or to human health. In the present
SMW the rainfall occurred with very low sunshine duration study we report the antifeedant activity of petroleum ether
(1.1 to 4.1 hours) which appeared to be optimal for the gray
extracts of three medicinal plants viz., Jatropha curcas,
leaf spot progress. The AUDPC value was 1825.2 which was Syzygium cumuni and Ocimum basilicum at a concentration
very high indicating its high susceptibility to disease and
of 5 percent assessed against the seven day old larval of
prone to epiphytotic. Results of correlation coefficients tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera:
indicated a negative correlation between PDI and rainfall (-
Noctuidae). All extracts exhibited a significant antifeedant
0.81) and positive correlation between PDI and minimum activity. Maximum antifeedant activity and feeding
temperature (0.92). This revealed a low to moderate rainfall
inhibition activity was noticed with Syzygium cumuni
and low temperature in summers at the initiation of rainy (82.93% and 78.91% respectively) followed by Ocimum
season stage appeared to be optimum for spread of the basilicum with antifeedant activity of 53.41% and 36.44%
disease. On fitting a regression equation it could be evident
feeding inhibition. Jatropha curcas exhibited least
that only two characters namely minimum temperature and antifeedant activity (49.10%) and feeding inhibition
minimum RH contributed substantially for increase of PDI. (32.54%) among the medicinal plant extracts tested.
Key words: Forage sorghum, Quantitative characterization, However all the three plants extract exerted a significant
Disease antifeedant activity over control.
SIII/P-13 Key words: Jatropha curcas, Syzygium cumuni, Ocimum
basilicum, Spodoptera litura (Fab.)
Role of Lichen in Weathering of Rocks
Deepika Pandey* and A.K. Attri
School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Ethylamine Induced Tall Mutants in Jute
New Delhi – 110067, INDIA, Email: pdeeps@gmail.com (Corchorus olitorius L.)
A large number of microbial communities grow on P.K. Ghosh1* and A. Chatterjee2,3
rock surfaces and play active role in rock weathering. Most 1
CSB, CSR&TI, Berhampore – 742101, Murshidabad, W.B.,
bacterial and fungi occur in associations in a biofilm on the INDIA, Email: paritush.ghosh@rediffmail.com; 2Centre of
rock surface. Lichen is a group of living organisms which Advanced Study in Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of
have developed the capacity to cope with the hostile Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road,
environment of extreme temperature and dehydration on Calcutta – 700047, W.B., INDIA; 3Milan Apartment, Ground Floor,
barren rock surfaces. In this process lichen alters the rocks 41/1A, Durga Rrosanna Paramhansha Road (D.P.P. Road), P.O.
chemically and physically. We have studied different rocks Naktala, Calcutta – 700047, W.B., INDIA
with lichen growing on their surfaces using scanning electron Presoaked seeds of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.
microscopy (SEM) to observe the physical changes due to Variety JRO-632) were treated with 1% Ethyl amine for 6
their growth. Specific pattern of alteration is found in most of hours. Tall mutants were screened in M3 in contrast to the
the rocks with presence and penetration of hyphae inside rock normal plants. Tall mutants otherwise looked normal
pores in some cases. The surface of rocks becomes pitted and excepting the nature of palmate leaf habit. A number of yield
oxalate crystals were found scattered in most of the samples. component growth parameters were recorded like plant
The chemical changes caused by lichen growth on rock height, basal diameter, plant spread, root length, pod per
surface are under study. Iron shows signs of mobility due to plant, seeds per pod, pod length/ breadth ratio, number of

primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches are encoded by large gene families and are divided on the
per plant, leaf angle, branching angle, first flowering date, basis of sequence identity into phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda
100% flowering date, total duration, % of pollen sterility and classes. Although, different classes of GSTs have been
weight of 100 seeds which were found to vary from the functionally characterized in various plant species, not much
control plant. Chromosome analysis revealed a number of information is available for lambda GSTs from rice. We have
aberrations like stickiness, fragmentation, clumping, characterized one of the rice lambda GSTs, OsGSTL1, which
polyploidy, and laggard and bridge formation etc. at very low is similar to intrinsic-like proteins (In2-1) and shows
frequency. This tall mutant plant gives more fiber yield than homology to human omega GSTs known to be involved in
the control plants with superior quality. the biotransformation of arsenic in humans. Our analyses
Key words: Ethyl amine, Corchorus olitorius L., Tall mutant, 6 using microarray data suggest that OsGSTL1 is differentially
hours, Chromosome, Concentration 1% expressed during growth and development, in various tissues
and during biotic and abiotic stresses. The overexpression of
OsGSTL1 in Arabidopsis showed slow germination rate,
Induced Palmate Leaf Mutant in Jute (Corchorus which was regained by supplementation of glutathione.
olitorius L. var. JRO-632) Analysis of transgenic plants for elucidation of role of
P.K. Ghosh1 and A. Chatterjee2,3* OsGSTL1 in metal response is underway and will be
CSB, CSR&TI, Berhampore – 742101, Murshidabad, W.B., presented in the conference.

INDIA, Email: paritush.ghosh@rediffmail.com; 2Centre of Key words: Glutathione-S-transferases, Gene expression;

Advanced Study in Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of OsGSTL1, Rice
Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road,
Calcutta – 700047, W.B., INDIA; 3Milan Apartment, Ground Floor,
41/1A, Durga Rrosanna Paramhansha Road (D.P.P. Road), P.O. Ex situ conservation of Gardenia resinifera Roth.
Naktala, Calcutta – 700047, W.B., INDIA and Gardenia latifolia Ait.
Presoaked seeds of jute (Corchorus olitorius L. var. B. Jhansi Lakshmi* and K. Jaganmohanreddy
JRO-632) were treated with 2% Ethylamine (EA) for 24 Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal – 506009,
hours. Palmate leaf mutants were screened in M3 in contrast A.P., INDIA, Email: jhansi9baswa@gmail.com
to the normal looking fruit plants. A number of yield Gardenia resinifera Roth. and Gardenia latifolia Ait.
component parameters were recorded including plant height, are related to Rubiaceae family, which parades a long list of
basal diameter, plant spread, root length, pod per plant, seeds plants of medicinal importance. Present investigation was
per pod, pod length/breadth ratio, number of primary taken up to establish a protocol for mass production of better
branches, number of secondary branches, leaf angle, quality plant material, using nodal explants. The protocol
branching angle, first flowering date, 100% flowering date, will help in ex situ conservation of the plant. When MS
total duration, percentage of pollen sterility, and weight of medium supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l) maximum
100 seeds which were found to vary from the control plant. number of shoots (3) were observed in Gardenia resinifera
Chromosome analysis revealed aberrations like stickiness, and maximum number of shoots (2) were observed in
fragmentation, polyploidy, clumping, laggard and bridge Gardenia latifolia. After elongation, regenerated micro-
formation etc. Multiple cropping has been possible with the shoots were rooted in MS + IAA (0.5 mg/l) in both species.
availability of irrigation water and a number of early The rooted plantlets showed 80% field survival.
maturing varieties have introduced in case of various other
Key words: Ex situ, In vitro, Gardenia resinifera, Gardenia
crops. There should be a suitable palmate leaf mutants of jute latifolia
also to be best fitted in the multiple cropping patterns. With
this objective in view the work on induction of mutation with SIII/P-19
chemical mutagen Ethylamine (EA) was initiated. Genetic Transformation of Sugarcane with Cry1Ab
Key words: Corchorus olitorius L., Chromosome, Palmate leaf Gene for Stalk Borer Resistance
mutants, Ethylamine, 24 hours concentration 2%
R.K. Singh, Mohd. S. Khan*, Sonia Yadav, M.R. Singh,
SIII/P-17 H.L. Madhok and S. Srivastava
Functional Characterization of One of the Lambda Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow – 226002, U.P.,
INDIA, Email: ikrps@yahoo.com
Glutathione- S-transferase Gene from Rice
Sugarcane, a major industrial crop, is widely
Smita Kumar*, Mehar Hasan Asif, Debasis Chakrabarty, cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries for sugar and
Rudra Deo Tripathi and Prabodh Kumar Trivedi ethanol production. Insect pests constitute a major biotic
National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and
stress for production and productivity of sugarcane. Among
Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P.,
INDIA, Email: smitabiochem@gmail.com insect pests, stalk borer is a serious sugarcane pest in India
whose endophytic lifestyle hampers effective chemical and
Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are the ubiquitous biological controls. The genetic pool of sugarcane does not
enzymes that are involved in plant growth and development posses resistance to many diseases and pests. High ploidy,
as well as cellular detoxification mechanism by conjugating low fertility, large genome and complex environmental
glutathione to endobiotic and xenobiotic compounds. GSTs interactions make conventional breeding and genetic studies
60 ICPEP- 4

arduous for this crop. Therefore, development of transgenic sequences of other plants. Expression of CdPCS1 in E. coli
plants resistant to this pest is one of the alternative control provided heavy metal tolerance as measured by its growth.
methods. Genetic transformation through Agrobacterium is Transgenic tobacco plants have been developed after
considered more efficient than biolistic method in sugarcane transformation of construct carrying CdPCS1 under
because Agrobacterium mediated transformation offers CaMV35 promoter. Transgenic lines expressing CdPCS1
several advantages, such as technical simplicity, minimal synthesize increased amount of PCs and accumulate more
genome rearrangements in transformants, low copy number heavy metal than wild-type plants during cadmium and
and ability to transfer long stretches of DNA. In the present arsenic stress. Detailed data analysis of the transgenic lines
study Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation was will be presented in the conference.
carried out using embryogenic calli of sugarcane cultivar Key words: Ceratophyllum demersum, Heavy metals,
CoLk 8102. Agrobacterium strain, EHA105 harboured a Phytochelatin synthase, Phytoremediation, Transgenic tobacco
binary vector pCAMBIA3301 carrying Cry1Ab, bar as
selectable marker and an intron containing GUS gene as a
reporter marker in the T-DNA region. The transformants Identification of Arsenic-responsive microRNAs
were put on selection pressure to remove chimeras. (miRNAs) in Rice
Transformation was confirmed by a histochemical GUS Manish Tiwari*, Deepika Sharma, Mehar Hasan Asif and
assay and PCR amplification of the bar and Cry1Ab gene. Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
PCR amplification results showed successful integration of National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
Cry1Ab gene in plant genome. Hardened transformed plants – 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email: maneeshtiwari11@yahoo.co.in
have been transferred in the earthen pots containing mixture MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are novel class of short (21-24
of sand, vermicompost and soil (1:1:1) for their further nucleotides), single-stranded, endogenous non-coding small
evaluation and to measure the endotoxin protein expression. RNAs that hybridize with their target messenger RNAs
Key words: Agrobacterium, Cry1Ab gene, Genetic transformation, (mRNAs) to repress their translation or induce their
GUS, Stalk borer, Sugarcane degradation in both plants and animals. Studies suggest that
SIII/P-20 miRNAs mediated regulatory networks plays crucial role in
controlling developmental morphogenesis and
E x p re s s i o n o f C e r a t o p h y l l u m d e m e r s u m environmental adaptation to the plants. Recently,
Phytochelatin Synthase (CdPCS1) in Tobacco Plants involvement of miRNAs has been suggested in heavy metal
Leads to Increased Metal Accumulation stress through sequencing of small RNA libraries of
Devesh Shukla*, Ravi Kesari, Seema Mishra, Sanjay Arabidopsis and Brassica under cadmium stress. Since,
Dwivedi, Rudra Deo Tripathi, Pravendra Nath and arsenic contaminated groundwater for irrigation in rice fields
Prabodh Kumar Trivedi has elevated its concentration in surface soil and eventually
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow into rice plants and grains causing chronic and epidemic
– 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email: devesh.nbri@gmail.com effects on human health, there is need to understand
Contamination of soil and water by toxic heavy metals regulatory steps involved in arsenic transport and
constitutes a major environmental hazard to plants and accumulation in rice. Here, we present identification of
animals. Plants respond to heavy metal toxicity in a variety of differentially expressed miRNAs during arsenic stress in rice
different ways. One general mechanism for heavy metal for detection of arsenic-responsive miRNAs. We hybridized
detoxification in plants is the chelation of the metal by Affymetrix GeneChip® miRNA Array containing 7,815
cysteine-rich peptides such as phytochelatins (PCs) and probe sets from 71 organisms to RNA isolated from root
m e t a l l o t h i o n e i n s ( M Ts ) a n d s u b s e q u e n t tissue of arsenate (100 µM) and arsenite (25 µM) treated rice
compartmentalization of the ligand metal complex. The PCs plants. Out of total 275 miRNAs of rice present on the chip,
is a family of peptides with the general structure 95 miRNAs were differentially expressed during arsenic
(ãGlu–Cys)n–Gly where n is in the range of 2–11. These are stress. Members of miR528 and miR444 families revealed
synthesized enzymatically from reduced glutathione (GSH) significant up-regulation whereas of miR164, miR166,
by phytochelatin synthase. Recently, phytochelatin synthase miR171and miR1432 families were down regulated in both
have been used to develop transgenic plants for arsenite and arsenate treatment. Nonetheless, members of
phytoremediation, which resulted into contrasting plant miR156, miR820, miR169, miR396 and miR528 families
phenotypes, ranging from enhanced metal tolerance to were differentially responsive to arsenite and arsenate
hypersensitivity. These differences in metal response have indicating a split mechanism of transport and tolerance to
been linked to the gene used for plant transformation. Here, these forms of arsenic, inside plants. A detail expression
we present characterization of phytochelatin synthase gene analysis of these miRNAs and their targets during arsenic
(CdPCS1) from Ceratophyllum demersum, a rootless aquatic stress is underway.
plant. Full-length CdPCS1 of 1757 bps contain an open Key words: Arsenic stress, Gene regulation, miRNA
reading frame of 1506 bps encoding a polypeptide of 501 SIII/P-22
amino acid residues. The deduced polypeptide contains
sequence elements typical for phytochelatin synthase, most Plasmid Mediated Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance
of which are present at conserved position with respect to and Heavy Metal Tolerance in Thermotolerant

Coliforms retention on root iron plaque and their accumulation in

Suman Upadhyaya * and P.W. Ramteke 2 various plant parts including grains, specific As uptake
3/204, Vipul Khand, Gomtinagar, Lucknow – 226010, U.P., (SAU; 29-167 mg kg-1 dw) as well as As transfer factor (TF;
INDIA, Email: upadhyaya.suman@gmail.com; 2P.G. Studies, Sam 4-45%). Grains contains inorganic As species being the
Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, dominant forms. In all tested varieties, the level of Se was
Allahabad – 211007, U.P., INDIA, Email: pwramteke@yahoo.com low (0.05-0.12 mg kg-1 dw), whereas that of As was high (0.4-
The antibiotic resistance pattern of 201 1.68 mg kg-1 dw) also a negative correlation was observed
thermotolerant coliforms isolated from rural areas and their between As and Se, considering their safe/recommended
tolerance to heavy metals were studied. Most of the isolates daily intake limits, which may not warrant their human
showed resistance to one or more antibiotics tested and consumption. Hence, their utilization may increase the risk
expressed tolerance to multiple metals. Twenty four Strains of arsenicosis, when grown in As contaminated areas.
representing different resistance combinations were tested Key words: Arsenic, Mineral nutrients, Rice (Oryza sativa),
for plasmid transfer to an Escheria coli K-12 recipient strain. Specific As uptake, Selenium
Plasmid transfer was detected in all 24 strains studied for SIII/P-24
conjugation. Among antimicrobials, bacitracin and
ampicillin and among metals nicklel, copper, cadmium, Arsenic Stress Activates MAP Kinase in Rice Roots
cobalt, chromium and arsenic were transferred most and Leaves
frequently. Linked transfer of antibiotics and metals was Kudupudi Prabhakara Rao1, Gubbala Vani1, Kundan
demonstrated in 12 strains. Thirty three cultures of Kumar1, Shikha Gupta2, Meetu Gupta2* and Alok Krishna
thermotolerant coliforms were studied for curing of R- Sinha1
plasmid using curing agent acridine orange. Among 1
National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg,
antibiotics, curing of resistance was observed for New Delhi – 110067, INDIA, Email: meetu_gpt@yahoo.com;
streptomycin, cephaloridine and kanamycin. Curing of Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Central
resistance to heavy metals such as nickel, copper, mercury, University, New Delhi – 110025, INDIA
chromium, copper and arsenic was also observed. The study The toxic metalloid arsenite has become a potential
revealed that the resistant traits are plasmid borne and are threat to rice growing regions leading to serious
able to transfer their resistance to the sensitive strains. contamination in food chain. In the present study effect of
Key words: Antimicrobials, Curing, Linked transfer, Plasmid different physiological concentration of arsenite that is toxic
transfer, Thermotolerant and triggers the molecular events were evaluated in rice
SIII/P-23 seedlings. Along with severe effect on the growth of rice
seedling, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and
Arsenic Affects Mineral Nutrients Status and nitric oxide (NO) in arsenite treated rice roots was also
Selenium Accumulation in Indian Rice (Oryza sativa observed. Activation of a 42 kDa mitogen activated protein
L.) Genotypes grown on Arsenic-contaminated Soils kinase (MAPK/MPK) by arsenite was observed in rice leaves
of West Bengal and 42 and 44 kDa in roots in dose dependent manner. The
A. Kumar*, R.D. Tripathi, S. Dwivedi, R. Dave, P. Tripathi activated MAPK could be immunoprecipitated with anti
and G. Dixit phospho tyrosine antibody, 4G10. The kinetic of MAPK
National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and activation by arsenite was found to be dose dependent.
Industrial Research, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, Transcript analysis of MAPK family in arsenite treated rice
Email: amit_gene@yahoo.com seedling revealed significant level of induction in OsMPK3
The exposure of paddy fields to arsenic (As) through transcripts in leaves and OsMPK3, OsMPK4 transcripts in
groundwater (GW) irrigation is a serious concern that may roots. Among MAPK kinase (MKKs) gene family, OsMKK4
not only lead to As accumulation to unacceptable levels but transcripts were found to be induced in arsenite treated rice
also interfere with mineral nutrients status in rice grains. In leaves and roots. The data indicates that arsenite stress is
the present field study, profiling of the mineral nutrients [iron transduced through MAPK signaling cascade in rice.
(Fe), phosphorous (P), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se)] was done Key words: Arsenic, Mitogen activate protein kinase (MAPK),
in various rice genotypes with respect to As accumulation. A Nitric oxide, Reactive oxygen species, Rice
significant genotypic variation was observed in elemental
Session SIV

Plant Response to
Environmental Pollution
62 ICPEP- 4

SIV/L-1 221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: sbagrawal56@gmail.com

Northern Forest Trees (Birch and Aspen) are Tropospheric ozone (O3) has long been convicted as a
Affected by Increasing Tropospheric Ozone and major phytotoxic gas, and a component of global climate
Warming Climate change. This secondary air pollutant is also identified as a
prime cause behind the loss in agricultural productivity
Elina Oksanen1*, Toini Holopainen2, Elina Häikiö2, Sari worldwide. According to the available reports; India, like
1 2 3
Kontunen-Soppela , Johanna Riikonen , Matti Rousi and other rapidly industrializing countries of northern
Elina Vapaavuori4 hemisphere, is under severe threat of O3 pollution, because of
University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, Joensuu, its rapid industrialization and growth in transportation sector
FINLAND; Email: Elina.Oksanen@uef.fi; 2University of Eastern
along with prevailing favorable environmental and socio-
Finland, Department of Environmental Science, Kuopio,
FINLAND; The Finnish Forest Research Institute (FFRI), Vantaa
economic conditions, which lead to higher production of O3.
Research Unit, FINLAND; 4The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Even the projected values for the future O3 levels are
Suonenjoki Research Unit, FINLAND critically alarming. Our studies with major crops, i.e. rice,
Northern forest trees are exposed to increasing load of wheat, soybean, linseed etc., (under ambient and elevated
oxidative stress, e.g. due to continuously increasing levels of O3) clearly established the damaging effect of O3 on
tropospheric ozone concentrations. Simultaneously, the agricultural production. Yield of all the crops were
forests are affected by climate warming, which is more significantly decreased under ambient levels of O3; however,
intense in northern latitudes as compared to global means. the reduction was increased by many fold with elevated
The proportion of deciduous trees species, e.g. Betula and levels of O3 just by 10 and 20 ppb. Distinct foliar injury
Populus sp. is expected to increase in northern forests with symptoms were also observed in O3-exposed plants.
climate warming. Unfortunately, we have growing evidence Different growth parameters, like – shoot height, root height,
that the vitality and the carbon sink strength of birch and total number of leaves, leaf area, NAR, RGR, etc. were also
aspen trees are weakened under chronic ozone stress. In this severely affected. Plants, generally posses a vast array of
paper we present negative correlations of the main growth anti-oxidants; however, under O3 stress, the amount and
responses of Finnish birch (Betula pendula, Betula activity of these anti-oxidant molecules were induced by
pubescens) and aspen species Populus tremula and Populus many times, irrespective of nature of plants. RAPD analysis
tremuloides x P. tremula) with ozone exposure. Data are demonstrated that O3 severely affected the 'genome template
derived from 23 different laboratory, open-top chamber and stability' (GTS) in all the studied plants, and acted as a potent
free-air fumigation experiments. Our results indicate that mutagen. In-depth proteomics analysis; through 1-DGE, 2-
these species are sensitive to increasing ozone concentrations DGE coupled with protein sequencing, and immuno-blotting
and that the roots are the most vulnerable targets for ozone again revealed that major photosynthetic proteins, like –
stress. These growth reductions were accompanied by visible RuBisCO, RuBisCO activase, O2 evolving protein; primary
foliar injuries, increased carbon allocation towards defensive metabolism related proteins were highly affected under O3
compounds (phenolics, in particular), reduced carbohydrate stress; whereas, defense /stress related proteins were
contents of leaves, impaired photosynthesis processes, induced. Application of ethylene diurea (EDU) as soil drench
disturbances in stomatal regulation, earlier leaf senescence helped the plants to alleviate the O stress up to a certain
and shorter leaf duration. We also present recent results from extent and recommended as a monitoring tool for the area
a co-exposure of birch and aspen genotypes to ozone and having high concentrations of O . Physiological traits;
increasing temperature using our novel open-field facility. In
especially stomatal conductance acts as a very important
addition to growth and phenological measurements, these
parameter under O3 exposure and controls the overall
plants have been studied for changes in gas exchange
profiles, metabolite and gene expression profiles and gaseous exchange; hence, controlling the rate of
emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). In many photosynthesis. In conclusion, O3 vastly affects the dynamic
measured parameters, antagonistic action of ozone and metabolism of various crops, which ultimately resulted in
warming treatment were observed. Even a small increase in severe yield losses. If the present trend continues, O3 would
temperature tended to increase photosynthetic assimilation prove a major threat to Indian agricultural productivity.
and VOC emissions, while ozone stress suppressed these Key words: Tropospheric ozone, Indian crops, Open top chamber,
processes, and modified VOC emission and gas exchange Ethylene diurea, RAPD, Proteomics
profiles. SIV/L-3
Key words: Ozone, Increasing temperature, Open-field exposure, Reactive Nitrogen and Thiolic Species during
Birch, Aspen
Arsenic Stress in Higher Plants: Arabidopsis and
SIV/L-2 Rice
Understanding the Ozone response in Indian crops: M. Leterrier1, M. Airaki1, J.B. Barroso2, J.M. Palma1, L.A.
An Integrated Approach del Río1, F.J. Corpas1*, R. Dave3, P. Tripathi3, A. Kumar3, G.
S.B. Agrawal Dixit3, S. Dwivedi3, D. Chakrabarty3, P.K. Trivedi3and R.D.
Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – Tripathi

Departamento de Bioquímica, Biología Celular y Molecular de pollution threaten urban food production and its quality. In
Plantas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (EEZ), CSIC, Apartado Botswana, urban air pollution has increased rapidly with
419, E-18080 Granada, SPAIN; 2Unidad Asociada al CSIC (EEZ), urban populations, numbers of motor vehicles, use of fuels
Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de Jaén, with poor environmental performance, badly maintained
Campus Las Lagunillas, E-23071 Jaén, SPAIN; 3National Botanical roads and ineffective environmental regulations. As a result,
Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research,
agricultural land adjacent to urban areas is exposed
Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email: javier.corpas@eez.csic.es
increasingly to air pollutants of urban origin. A major threat
Arsenic (As) accumulation in food crops generates a to crop production is gaseous air pollutants. The study was
potential health problem for humans. Nitric oxide, reactive conducted in the peri-urban environment of Gaborone, the
nitrogen species (RNS) and thiolic ligands have been capital city of Botswana. Botswana is a land-locked country
described to be involved at different levels in the mechanism in southern Africa surrounded by Namibia to the west, South
of response against environmental stress in higher plants. In Africa to the south-east and Zambia and Zimbabwe to the
an experiment using Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to north. The Country lies between longitudes 20 and 30
different arsenic concentrations, some physiological and degrees east of Greenwich and between the latitudes 18 and
biochemical parameters were studied to determine the status 27 degrees approximately south of the equator. There are
of RNS and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism in approximately 125 motor vehicles for every 1000 people.
these plants. The parameters analyzed included the activity The total number of registered vehicles has increased from
of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, 31684 in 1980 to just over 200000 in 2006. This increase in
and the ascorbate-glutathione enzymes), the NADPH vehicle population also contributed to enhance the particle
oxidase and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) concentration in the atmosphere of Gaborone. The country is
activity, lipid peroxidation, and accumulation of hydrogen also popular with mines such as copper mine in selebi-
peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radicals (O2·-), nitric oxide (NO), phikwe where sulphur dioxide is emitted as a pollutant. The
and peroxynitrite (ONOO-). present experimental and theoretical study was conducted to
Arsenic at 500 and 1000 µM produced a significant monitor the aerosol deposition in plants and its effect on crop
reduction in fresh weight and length of roots and affected the yield. The number concentration of aerosols was measured
membrane integrity. On the other hand, the RNS with automatic particle counter which were capable of
homoeostasis was imbalanced, with the GSNOR activity monitoring aerosols in the range of 0.1 – 5 ìm. The deposited
being clearly altered. In a parallel experiment, rice (Oryza aerosol mass on the leaves of variety of plant was found to
sativa L.) seedlings were exposed to As5+ (10µM, 50µM) and vary from 0.1 mg cm-2 to 11 mg cm-2 on guava (Psidium
As3+ (10µM, 25µM) in hydroponics to screen out contrasting guajava) and cauli flower (Brassica oleracea) leaves. The
(low and high) arsenic accumulating cultivars and to study concluded that air pollution in plants could negatively
investigate the thiol metabolism in selected rice cultivars. influence crop yield. The possible cause may be the pollutant
The major route of arsenic detoxification is through deposition on plant leaves which inhibit photo-synthesis
reduction of As5+ to As3+ and complexation of As3+ with process. The radiative forcing due to pollution may adversely
glutathione and phytochelatins followed by sequestration of affect the plants growth. The scavenging processes may
these complexes in vacuoles. In rice seedlings exposed to bring pollutants like heavy metals to the plants through soil.
arsenic, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), cysteine (Cys), reduced Key words: Atmospheric particles, Crop plants, Peri-urban
and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and agriculture, Yield
phytochelatins (PCs) along with enzymes involved in thiolic SIV/O-2
metabolism were analysed. Thiolic species (Cys, NP-SH and
PCs) increased significantly on exposure to arsenic and were Antioxidant Potential of Strawberry (Fragaria
found to be positively correlated with the metalloid vesca) Species: Role of Genotypes
concentration. In both low and high arsenic-accumulating A.K. Trivedi1*, Shivesh Kumar2, R.R. Arya1, D. Bisht1, P.S.
cultivars exposed to arsenite and arsenate, the GSH content Bisht1 and K.S. Negi1
was increased. [Supported by the MICINN (project 1
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station
ACI2009-0860), Spain and project DST-GAP 255925, India] Bhowali (Niglat), District – Nainital – 263132, Uttarakhand,
Key words: Arabidopsis, Arsenic, Nitric oxide, Reactive nitrogen INDIA; 2Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar
species, RNS, Rice, Thiols Pradesh, Sector – 125, Express Highway, Noida – 201301, U.P.,
INDIA, Email: ajayakumartrivedi@gmail.com
The nutritional traits of fruits have been widely
Impact of Environmental Aerosol Deposition on investigated by consumers, especially for protection against
Plants Growth cardiovascular disorder, cancer and other diseases, as well as
T.S. Verma* and S.K. John for general health benefits. The health benefits can be
ascribed to the antioxidant potential of the fruit. Antioxidants
Department of Physics, University of Botswana, Pvt. Bag 0022,
Gaborone, BOTSWANA, Email: vermat@mopipi.ub.bw from fruits are considered an important protection factor
Peri-urban agriculture is vital for the urban against oxidative stress and its deleterious consequences to
populations of many developing countries. Increase in both human health. Strawberry is a popular berry with high visual
industrialization and urbanization, and associated air appeal and desirable flavor. It is also considered as a good
64 ICPEP- 4

source of antioxidants, mainly given to its high vitamin C and – 300 mM. Proline, glucose and osmotic potential remain
phenol contents. In the present investigation five genotypes unchanged at moderate salt concentrations. It also tolerates
of strawberry grown in the same region/ season were selected salinity via uptake of ions in presence of NaCl and increasing
and fruits were harvested in full ripe stage. Fruit pulp was WUE when Na2SO4 is present. S. herbacea grows better in
analyzed for variation in anthocyanins, total phenols, sulfate than chloride.
ascorbic acid, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) Key words: Salicornia herbacea L., Salinity, Physiological
and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP). In fresh responses
ripe fruit pulp anthocyanins ranged from 550 – 620 mg kg-
1 SIV/O-4
FW, total phenols 1510 – 2909 mg kg-1 FW, ascorbic acid 231
– 535 mg kg-1 FW, TEAC value 37 – 54 µmol TE g-1 FW, Differential Chronic Responses of Rice, Soybean
FRAP value 39 – 48 µM FRAP g-1 FW. TEAC values were and Bush bean Plants under Ozone Stress
found to be correlated with anthocyanin content and total Yoshihisa Kohno* and Hiroko Sawada
phenols. Findings report that variability in antioxidant Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko,
potential of strawberry germplasm is irrespective of region/ Abiko City, Chiba, 270-1194, JAPAN
season. These genotypes may be used as rich source of Email: kohno@criepi.denken.or.jp
antioxidants. Ozone is one of important major air pollutants and a
Key words: Strawberry, Antioxidants, Anthocyanin, FRAP, TEAC secondary photochemical product from nitrogen oxides and
volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Current background
concentration of tropospheric ozone has a potential threat for
Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Responses to crop production as well as natural vegetation in the world.
Salinity Recent increasing fossil fuel consumption for an energy
B. Amiri1* and B. Rasuoli2 demand in the Asian countries may accelerate to raise surface
Islamic Azad University-Firoozabad Branch, Postal Code: Iran- ozone concentration. Acute responses such as visible injury
41889-14135, IRAN, Email: ; 2Islamic Azad University, Rasht development in plant leaves caused by ozone are well
Branch, IRAN studied, however chronic responses such as biomass
One of the most important problems, that limits plant production or grain yield are few studied in the Asian
growth and productivity, is salinity. Glasswort (Salicornia countries. Forty six rice cultivars including joponica and
herbacea L.) is one of the native halophytic plant of Iran that indica types, two soybean cultivars, and two bush bean
is widely spread in salt areas. The purpose of this study was to cultivars were cultivated to test their sensitivity to ozone
determine the physiological and growth responses of S. using glasshouse type open-top chambers (OTCs). Mean
herbacea to salinity stress. Plastic pods (15 cm diameter, 20 hourly ozone concentration was calculated from the seven
cm height) with the silica sand bed were used for the year monitoring results at CESS, Saitama, Japan, located in
experiment. The solution used for the study consisted of 0 the north-western downwind from the center of Tokyo and
(control), 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mM of NaCl and Na2SO4. the highest ozone dose area in Japan. All OTCs were supplied
S. herbacea seeds cultivated at five pots for each treatment in with char-coal filtered clean air (CF) and electrically
green house condition. Plants were irrigated with half generated ozone from oxygen was added to CF air for
strength Hoagland's nutrient solution for 6 months. Salt maintaining the designated ozone concentration, twice mean
treatments were applied for 45 days. Shoot and root dry concentration (x2.0). Plants were planted in the 15L of pots
weights, proline, glucose, ion concentration, osmotic filled with volcanic ash soil. Each OTC has 5 blocks and one
potential (OP), relative water capacity (RWC), water use pot was arrayed in each block and each treatment has 2 OTCs.
efficiency (WUE), Net Assimilation Rate (NAR), Specific After harvesting grains, relative grain yield and biomass of
Leaf Area (SLA) and Leaf Area Ratio (LAR) were measured. above ground parts were analyzed. Our previous study
(Sawada and Kohno, 2009) clarified that occurrence of
Data analysis showed that Mg 2+, Ca+2 and K+ decreased when
visible injuries did not coincide with rice grain yield
salinity increased but Na+ increased. Cl- increased when NaCl
reduction. Current results suggested rough rice yield and
incresead, but significantly inhibited at higher Na2SO4. Dry
biomass was not directly correlated. However, most of
weight, WUE, SLA, NAR and LAR increased up to 100 to japonica types except for Kirara 397 were relatively tolerant
300 mM NaCl and Na2SO4 but decreased with a further to ozone stress than those of indica ones. Among the tested
increase in salinity. S. herbacea uptakes more ions in chloride cultivars, Kirara 397 and IR 36 were very sensitive to ozone.
soil than that of sulfate soil. WUE, NAR and dry weight are These two cultivars showed about 30% yield reduction.
more in sulfate soil. It is also assumed that salt tolerance Ozone exposure treatments except climate conditions were
mechanism of S. herbacea changes in different salts. almost same in the year of 2008 and 2009, however, results
Measurement of osmotic potential showed that it did not varied in year by year. Probably climate conditions might
significantly increase when salinity increased. In addition, affect results significantly.
glucose did not increase up to 400 mM. Therefore, S.
Contrast to rice cultivars, ozone-tolerant bush bean cv.
herbacea L. is a highly tolerant halophyte which grows well
R123 had less visible injury symptoms than that of ozone-
up to 500 mM of NaCl and Na2SO4 salt. Salinity enhances the
sensitive cv. S156, however, both cultivars significantly
growth of S. herbacea and its optimum growth occurs at 100
reduced seed yields under the ozone stress and those relative

yields were about 20% or less of the CF. Soybean cultivars SIV/O-6
also significantly reduced seed yields under the ozone stress. Morphological and Physiological Changes Induced
However, those relative yield were around 50 to 70%. These by Cadmium Toxicity in Legume-Microsymbiont
results suggested that (i) japonica rice cultivars were
relatively tolerant to ozone than indica ones. However, System
japonica Kirara 397 was significantly sensitive and some of Shahla Faizan*, Saima Kausar and Rubina Perveen
indica was tolerant to ozone in the combination with biomass Environmental Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany,
and seed yield responses. (ii) Soybeans were moderately Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh – 202002, U.P., INDIA,
Email: sfaizan10@gmail.com
sensitive to ozone in yield responses. (iii) Bush beans were
significantly sensitive to ozone. Estimated ozone dose as Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants
AOT40 in the cropping season of Japan will reach about and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance
twice of the current level in 2030. These results will help to from ecological, evolutionary and environmental reasons.
develop new genotypes tolerant to ozone and to monitor air Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that does not
quality by the performance of indicator plans such as a have any metabolic use and can be harmful even at low
combination with sensitive and tolerant cultivar. concentrations. A pot study was conducted to investigate the
Key words: Crops, Yield response, Ozone stress, Sensitivity, toxicity of cadmium on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Chronic plant response rhizobium as well as on the morphological and physiological
response of chickpea. 12 pots grouped into 4 sets of 3 each
SIV/O-5 containing a mixture of soil and compost were treated with 0,
Effect of Light Crude Oil Contaminated Soil on the 50, 100 and 150 mg Cd kg-1 soil as CdCl2. The parameters like
Growth and Germination of Sorghum bicolor number of leaves plant-1, mean leaf area, plant chlorophyll a,
A. Rashidfarokhi*, A. Tavakoli Tameh, S. Alavi, R. Osmani, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content, carotenoid content,
A. Nourmohamadi, A. Khodakarami and D. Minai-Tehrani nitrate reductase activity (NRA), carbonic anhydrase activity
BioResearch Lab, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti (CA) and proline content were recorded at 30 and 60 days
University G.C, Tehran, IRAN, Email: D_MTehrani@sbu.ac.ir after sowing. It was a general observation in both the
The leakage of crude oil into the soil during samplings that all the given parameters (except proline
transportation, refining and extraction causes damage to content) decreased, whereas proline content increased in
environment. Light crude oil has volatile components that both the samplings. Maximum significant reduction in
can be toxic to living organisms of the soil. The use of plants morphological and physiological characteristics was
to phytotreatment of crude oil contaminated soil has been a observed with 150 mg Cd kg-1 soil at both the sampling
particular interest in environmental cleansing. Some plants stages.
such as grasses and legumes have been demonstrated to have Key words: Cadmium, Chickpea, Carbonic Anhydrase Activity,
better capacity in biodegradation of oil in the soil. In this Nitrate Reductase Activity, Proline, Chlorophyll
study the growth and germination of Sorghum bicolor was SIV/O-7
studied in the presence of different concentrations of light
crude oil (1- 10%) in the soil during 90 days. Our results Effect of Salinity and Silicon Application on
showed that the germination number and dry biomass of the Oxidative Damage of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)
plant decreased by increasing heavy crude oil concentration J. Nabati*, M. Kafi, A. Masoumi and M. Zare Mehrjerdi
in the soil. The number of germination and total biomass Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, IRAN,
(root + shoot) was higher in the control (86% and 0.74 g Email: jafarnabati@gmail.com
respectively) while it was lower in 10% sample (6% and 0.05 Production of crops using saline waters and soils is
g). The length of leaves reduced in higher crude oil one of the most sustainable methods of conservation in saline
concentration in comparison with the control. Total colony ecosystems, but crops in this ecosystem grown under stress.
and oil-degrading colony count in soil showed that the Applying Si suggested as an alternative approach to
microbial population in 7% and 10% samples was higher alleviating salinity stress in crops. Therefore, a field
than the control and also it was higher than lower experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of
concentrations of crude oil samples. The reduction TPH silicon application (control (without Si)), 1.44 and 1.92 g kg-1
(Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) was studied in the samples soil) on membrane stability index (MSI), relative water
after 90 days. Both soil microorganisms and the plant played content (RWC), proline, soluble sugar, ascorbate peroxidase
the role to bioremediate the oil in the soil. The TPH reduction (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD),
was higher in 1% sample (50%) while the reduction was peroxidase (PRO), glutathione reductase (GR), total
lower in 7 and 10% samples (25 and 10%). In conclusion, antioxidant, total phenol, Na, K and dry matter of tow
light crude oil could delay the germination and affect the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) cultivars (CV) under three
normal growth of Sorghum bicolor which caused untimely levels of salt stress (5.2, 10.5 and 23.1 dS m-1). Leaf proline
chlorosis in plant. content, APX and GR activity and Na concentration
Key words: Crude oil, Soil contamination, Plant, Phytotreatment, significantly increased only at high levels of salinity and
Sorghum bicolor RWC and dry matter accumulation was significantly
decreased with increasing salinity. Supplied 1.44 g kg-1 soil Si
66 ICPEP- 4

cause increased activity of APX, CAT, SOD, PRO, GR, total these heavy metals in the higher concentration are found to be
antioxidant and total phenol concentration and 1.92 g.kg-1soil more toxic to Pisum sativum. The results showed an increase
Si caused an increase in MSI, soluble sugar and total phenol in concentration of heavy metals as the concentration
concentration, CAT, SOD and total antioxidant activity. increased from lower to higher. Results confirmed the
Soluble sugar, total phenol and K concentration, SOD and necessity to consider species- specific and element-specific
total antioxidant activity and dry matter accumulation in toxicity safety ranges, and that low concentrations of these
Omidbakhsh was higher than Sepideh. In conclusion, the heavy metals in the soil may be even harmful to the plants.
results of the present experiment showed that alleviation of Key words: Heavy metals, Pisum sativum, Chlorophyll, Proline
salinity stress by supplying exogenous Si obtained in high content, Toxicity, Absorption
levels of salinity by expression of antioxidant activity.
Key words: Antioxidant enzymes, Silicon, Salinity, Sorghum
Magnetic Field as a New Tool to Enhance Salt
SIV/O-8 Tolerant Soybean
Effect of Heavy Metals on Growth and Development R. Radhakrishnan* and B.D. Ranjitha Kumari
of Pisum sativum Linn. Plant Stress Physiology and Biotechnology Lab, Department of
Mrigakhi Borah1* and Kh. Ashalata Devi2 Plant Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 620024,
1 Tamil Nadu, INDIA, Email: ramradhakrish@gmail.com
Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Tezpur,
Assam, INDIA, Email: mreegs@tezu.ernet.in; 2Department of Salinity is limiting the plant growth and productivity.
Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam, INDIA, Nearly 20 per cent of the world's cultivated land and nearly
Email: kh_asha@tezu.ernet.in half of all irrigated lands are affected by salinity. Drought and
Heavy metals have various harmful effects on the salinity are two major environmental factors determining
plants if they are present in higher concentration than the plant productivity and plant distribution. The desertification
requirement. Some of these metals like Copper, Zinc, etc, in and salinization are rapidly increasing on a global scale and
actual amount are essential for plant growth and they are declining average yields (more than 50 %) of most
development. Heavy metals present in the soil can effect major crop plants. Despite the fact that research in the area of
plants by changing their metabolic activities and thus can salinity stress has been carried out for decades, the
change the chlorophyll content, amino acid content in the mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants are still unresolved.
body, which ultimately affects the growth and development Soybean is an important economical and medicinal plant and
of the plant. In the present study, the responses of Pisum is generally considered as salt-sensitive. However, the yield
sativum to different concentration of Copper, Zinc, Lead and of the plant is reduced by the saline condition. For many
Mercury were examined in soils artificially contaminated years, in vitro culture of plant tissues has been used as a tool
with these heavy metals. A wide range of soil concentrations to study salt tolerance mechanisms at the plant cell level. The
of these elements were studied (100 mg kg-1, 200 mg kg-1 and positive effect of low-strength magnetic field (MF) on living
400 mg kg-1for Cu, Zn and Pb; and 50 mg kg-1, 75 mg kg-1and systems was demonstrated on both in vitro and in vivo
100 mg kg-1 for Hg). For each treatment, 20 replicates were studies. The present investigation was an attempt to study the
taken. Survival and growth, chlorophyll content and Proline influence of different frequency of low intensity magnetic
content were assessed. Rate of germination of seeds was poor field on in vitro regeneration system of soybean under saline
in the Cu, Zn and Pb treated soil as compared to that of the condition.
control. The results suggested that, there is a decrease in the The in vitro seedlings were raised from seeds
plant height as well as in terms of the number of leaves in all pretreated with 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0 Hz MF. The magnetic
the treatments as compared to the control except in Pb 200 field exposed and unexposed cotyledonary nodal explants
mg kg-1 treated soils. Severe chlorosis and senescence were were cultured in the different concentrations of NaCl.
observed in most of the plants growing in treatment soils. Increasing concentration of NaCl strongly decreased the
Regarding the Chlorophyll content, it has been observed regeneration and development of shoots and roots. Plant-lets
higher (highest 4.124 mg chlorophyll/100 g of fresh leaf were regenerated only on medium containing 0, 10, 20 and 30
weight in Cu 200 mg kg-1) in the different treated plants mM NaCl. Although the higher dose of NaCl (40 mM) failed
compared to the control (0.951mg chlorophyll/100 g of fresh to induce the shoots, but it initiated and developed the least
leaf weight) after the 30 days of germination. After 60 days of number of roots with reduced length. Among the different
germination, the chlorophyll contents were found to be frequency of magnetic field used, 1.0 Hz increased the shoots
decreased (lowest 0.46 mg chl/100 g of fresh leaf weight in and roots regeneration frequency, number of shoots and
Hg 100 mg/kg) in different treated plants. In case of Proline, roots, length of shoots and roots from cotyledonary nodal
the amounts increased (highest 10.88 ì mol proline/g tissue explants cultured in the 10, 20 and 30 mM NaCl. In 40 mM
in Pb 400 mg kg-1) than the control (5.6 ì mol proline/g tissue) NaCl salt, cotyledonary nodal explants induced more
after the 30 days of germination of seeds, and after 60 days of number of roots in the presence of all the frequencies of
germination of seeds the amounts were increased (highest magnetic field, but regeneration rate was reduced than other
10.6 ì mol proline/g tissue in Hg 100 mg kg-1) more than the low levels of salt stress. 1.0 Hz magnetic field subjected
30 days of observation except in few of the treatments. Thus cotyledonary nodal explants significantly increased the
frequency of regeneration, number of roots and length of

roots even in 40 mM NaCl. We concluded that the magnetic with lime + compost was effective in increasing plant cover
field could help the regeneration of soybean even under salt and aerial biomass. Simple and multiple regressions showed
stressed condition. that this effect was due to the increased organic matter
Key words: Magnetic field, Salinity, Soybean, Regeneration content and not to the increase in pH. Neither treatment was
effective in decreasing Cu accumulation in the shoots of the
SIV/O-10 cultivated plants, with exception of one species. [This study
The Effect of Lime and Compost on the was funded by the FONDECYT project 1085005]
Revegetation Ability of Soils Affected by Key words: Spontaneous revegetation, Assisted revegetation,
Atmospheric Deposition from a Copper Smelter Organic matter, Phytostabilisation, Phytoremediation
A. Neaman1,2*, S. Córdova 1, I. González1 and R. Ginocchio3 SIV/O-11
Facultad de Agronomía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Heavy Metals Accumulation in Fruits Collected
Valparaíso, Quillota, CHILE, Email: alexander.neaman@ucv.cl;
Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (CREAS), from Road Side Fruit Markets in a Dry Tropical
Región de Valparaíso, CHILE; 3Unidad de Fitotoxicidad y Environment: A Case Study of Varanasi City, India
Fitorremediación, Centro de Investigación Minera y Metalúrgica, Atul Prakash Sharma1,2
Santiago, CHILE 1
Food and Drug Administration, U.P., Govt. Public Analyst
The semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem of the Laboratory, Shivpur, Varanasi – 221003, U.P., INDIA; 2Pollution
Puchuncaví Valley, in the coastal area of central Chile, was Ecology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu
exposed to atmospheric deposition of sulfur dioxide and University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA,
metal-rich particles from a copper smelter for 35 years. The Email: atulpsharma@yahoo.com
soils surrounding the smelter accumulated copper and other The heavy metal concentration of Cadmium (Cd),
elements at high concentrations, were acidified and strongly Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were
eroded, and lost much of their native vegetative cover. analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in
Reduction of environmental risks posed by acidic and metal- fruits of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), Pear (Pyrus
contaminated soils, such as the ones presents at the communis L.) and Banana (Musa paradisiacal L.) collected
Puchuncaví Valley, requires affordable and effective from road side Fruit Markets of Varanasi city. The results
remediation alternatives, particularly at large spatial scales. showed that urban consumers are at greater risk of
In this scenario, in situ immobilization, defined as the purchasing fresh fruits with high levels of heavy metals (Cd
reduction of the concentration of bioavailable metals in the and Pb) beyond the legally permissible limits PFA Act 1954.
soil solution by adding amendments without altering the Higher levels of Cd, Fe and Zn were recorded in Banana
structure of the soil, has been suggested as a cost-effective while Pb in Apple and Pear. Concentration of Cu in fruits
alternative for metal-contaminated soils. The amendments tested was below the PFA limit, but was significantly higher
do not remove the metals from the soil, but transform them than the present EU and WHO standards. The study
into less soluble or insoluble forms by the way of adsorption, concludes that the transportation and fruit market location
complexation or co-precipitation mechanisms. play a significant role in elevating the contaminant (heavy
Phytostabilization is another in situ metal immobilization metals) levels which may pose a threat to the quality of the
technique that considers the use of plants which are able to fruits with consequences for the health of the consumers.
store metals in underground tissues, thus reducing their Key words: Heavy metals, Fruits, Varanasi
movement from contaminated soils to the air and
groundwater. Achievement of phytostabilization on metal- SIV/O-12
contaminated sites can lean on spontaneous revegetation of Application of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in
native plants from the seed bank that is present in the soil or it Studies of Environment Contamination Effect on
can be by assisted revegetation, employing seeding and/or Plants
planting of exogenous resistant plant species. J. Szurkowski
In the present study, spontaneous and assisted Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdañsk, Wita
revegetation and changes in the physico-chemical properties Stwosza 57, 80-952 Gdañsk, POLAND, Email: fizjws@univ.gda.pl
of the soil were evaluated in field plots that were amended In the present paper we describe the application of
with lime or lime + compost. Treatment with lime and lime + photoacoustic spectroscopy (one of the photothermal
compost decreased Cu2+ activity in the soil solution, thus spectroscopy versions where a quantity of energy
showing effective immobilization of this element in studied deactivated into heat is evaluated) to quantify the
contaminated soils. Plant productivity (cover and aerial environmental pollution effect on different plants. When a
biomass) was the same under assisted and spontaneous sample is exposed to modulated light, a part of the absorbed
revegetation regimes, at least for the planting/sowing rates light energy is emitted in the form of modulated heat,
used in this study, suggesting that plant cultivation may be resulting from thermal deactivation of pigments. The rest of
unnecessary. Under both assisted and spontaneous the energy is predominantly dissipated in photochemical
revegetation, treatment with lime had no effect on plant processes leading to modulated O 2 emission. The
productivity, in comparison with control, whereas treatment photothermal part of the signal is reduced by a fraction equal
68 ICPEP- 4

to that part of the absorbed energy which is stored by the notatum and Plectonema boryanum. All these strains were
photosynthetic process as chemical energy. By measuring isolated from Indo Burma biodiversity hotspots from both
heat emission in the presence or absence of a nonmodulated aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of Manipur and some parts
saturating light background, the photosynthetic energy of Myannmar having acidic properties. Pigment analysis in
storage (ES) is evaluated. For all the plants selected as the respect of chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, phycobiliproteins
bioindicators (green algae - Scenedesmus armatus, such as, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, allo-phycocyanin were
dandelion – Taraxacum officinale, Scots pine – Pinus investigated. Five strains namely Spirulina IBSD-173 (chl.a:
silvestris) energy storage values obtained for plants exposed 3.14 µg ml-1; carotenoids 0.07 µg ml-1; phycocyanin 23.0 µg
to contamination are lower than or equal to, within the ml-1; allo-phycocyanin 15.5 µg ml-1; phycoerythrin 9.3 µg ml-
experimental error, those for the reference unaffected ones. 1
), Limnothrix IBSD-120 (chl.a: 4.38 µg ml-1; carotenoids
The best correlation was obtained for a batch culture of green 0.22 µg ml-1; phycocyanin 17.4 µg ml-1; allo-phycocyanin
microalga Scenedesmus armatus. After a 24 h culture 2.00 µg/ml; phycoerythrin 5.90 µg/ml), Limnothrix IBSD-
growth, with increasing contaminant (AFOE – aqueous fuel 105 (chl.a: 0.95 µg ml-1; carotenoids 0.23 µg ml-1;
oil extract) concentration in the culture ES decreased. In phycocyanin 9.6 µg ml-1; allo-phycocyanin 2.20 µg/ml;
these algae, ES is lowered by 41% if a 90% contaminant phycoerythrin 7.5 µg ml-1), Phormidium IBSD-42 (chl.a:
concentration is used. A similar relation between a degree of 1.33 µg ml-1; carotenoids 0.06 µg/ml; phycocyanin 7.8 µg ml-
environment pollution and ES variations was already 1
; allo-phycocyanin 3.1 µg ml-1; phycoerythrin 1.7 µg ml-1),
obtained for plants in field conditions. The dandelion and Hydrocoleum IBSD-104 (chl.a: 0.90 µg/ml; carotenoids 0.04
Scots pine selected for studies were collected from places
µg/ml; phycocyanin 2.8 µg ml-1; allo-phycocyanin 2.40 µg
where the concentration of atmospheric contaminants such
ml-1; phycoerythrin 3.40 µg ml-1) were selected on the basis of
as NO2, SO2 and flying dust have been measured for several
their specific attributes for commercial exploitation as
years (Provincial Inspectorate of Environment Protection in
natural colourant materials.
Gdañsk). ES values obtained for Taraxacum officinale leaves
collected in Tri-city (big cities with a high pollutant's Key words: Acidic habitat, Cultural studies, Cyanobacteria,
concentration) (ranging from 42 ÷ 54%) are lower than those
for leaves collected in a small village (Sominy) (65%). For SIV/O-14
needles of Scots pine collected in the village, the energy yield Comparative Biochemical Study on Three
of trapping reaches 54% and decreases with the age to 23% Dominant Trees Growing Around Aluminum
for four-year old needles whereas, for these collected in the
municipal areas, the corresponding values are equal to
Production Factory
28÷30% for fresh needles, and about 15÷17% for the 2-3- Boojar Masoud Mashhadi Akbar and Bagheri Amir*
year old needles. It seems that the determination of the energy Department of Biology, Faculty of sciences, Tarbiat Moallem
storage yield by means of the changes in temperature University, No. 49, Dr. Mofateh Avenue, P.O. Box:15614. Tehran,
IRAN, Email: Amir_b789@yahoo.com
(photothermal signal) may become one of the standard and
simple tools sensitive enough for studying the effect of Human activity has continuously increasing the level
pollutants on plants. of aluminum (Al) pollution of the biosphere and soil, leading
Key words: Photoacoustic spectroscopy, Bioindicator, to toxic effects on plant growth and development. In this
Photosynthesis, Light energy conversion investigation we study Al pollution effects on Salix
carmanica, Ceris siliquastrum and Ulmus motana as three
SIV/O-13 dominant trees around Al production factory in Arak city,
Cultural Studies and Pigment Analysis of Non- Iran. Results showed 518, 119 and 42 mg/kg dw Al in their
heterocystous Filamentous Cyanobacterial Isolates leaves respectively that were lower than 1000 mg to be
Having Acidic Properties from Manipur, India considered as Al-accumulator. Significant increases in
Superoxid dismutase and Catalase activities were observed
O.N. Tiwari* and Laxmipriya Koijam in S. carmanica, and C. siliquastrum with respect to the same
Microbial Resources Division, Institute of Bioresources and
Sustainable Development, (An Autonomous Institute under the
plants from control zone. Glutathione peroxidase and
DBT, Govt. of India), Takyelpat, Imphal – 795001, Manipur, Ascorbate reductase were significantly higher in U. motana
INDIA, Email: ontiwari1@rediffmail.com as compared with controls. Al exposure inhibited growth by
Total seventy five non-heterocystous filamentous decreasing in fresh and dry weight of leaves of these three
cyanobacterial strains available in germplasm of IBSD, species. The vacuoles of leaves of U. motana stored all 2.5 to
Imphal, fifteen strains primarily screened and selected on the 4.3 folds higher than two other species and controls.
basis of pigment production and their growth potential. Phytochelatins and Glutathione were also significantly
These strains are Phormidium angustissimum, Phormidium higher in these species with maximum levels in U. motana as
tenue, Limnothrix vacuolifera, Limnothrix redekei, compared with controls. As conclusion, plants in this study
Oscillatoria acuta, Oscillatoria simplicissima, Oscillatoria tolerated against Al-toxicity by mechanisms that differed in
willei, Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum, Microcoleus species including: elevation in antioxidant activities, Al
chthonoplastes, Spirulina platensis, Lyngbya truncicola, sequestration in vacuoles and its mobilization by
Lyngbya laxespiralis, Plectonema nostocorum, Plectonema Phytochelatins and Glutathione.

Key words: Aluminum pollution, Vacuoles, Antioxidant enzymes, Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P.,
Phytochelatins, Glutathione INDIA, Email: shekharm@nbri.res.in
SIV/O-15 Zea mays is one of the most important crops for
animal, human nutrition and agro-industrial purposes
Effect of Crude Oil-contaminated Soil on worldwide. There are reports that these plants are commonly
Peroxidase Activity of Festuca arundinacea grown on contaminated soil. Thus, the studies involving
Saeed Minoui effects of toxic metals on Z. mays are of particular interest as
Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti it has direct implication on the human health and loss of
University, G.C. Tehran, IRAN agricultural production. The present study was conducted on
Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that occur two cultivars of Z. mays L. namely cv. sona and cv. SRHM
especially in plant cells and catalyze the oxidation of a 445 treated with Cr (VI) in order to compare the
substance by peroxide. They are classified as accumulation, growth and biochemical responses. The
oxidoreductases and for many of these enzymes the optimal seedlings were treated with Cr (2.5, 5 and 10 µg g-1 dw) under
substrate is hydrogen peroxide. Peroxidases can contain a sand culture for 7 and 14d. The two varieties have shown
heme cofactor in their active sites, or redox-active cysteine or different response in its growth and antioxidant parameters.
selenocysteine residues. Toxic molecules such as superoxide Besides high accumulation of Cr in cv. sona, percentage
and hydroxide radicals can be found in cells due to the reduction in shoot, root length and fresh weight of cv. sona
presence of oxygen. These are byproducts of aerobic was less than cv. SRHM445. After 14d, the decrease in the
respiration. Some oil producing countries may encounter the shoot length, root length and fresh weight of the cv. SRHM
risk of soil pollution by oil, during transportation, extraction 445 was observed as 26.67, 26.37 and 51.66%, respectively
and refining of crude oil. Oil-contaminated soil can be and 6.32, 7.69 and 46.83% respectively in cv. sona as
hazardous to plants and soil microorganisms. Among the compared to their respective controls. Similarly antioxidant
plants, grasses such as Festuca arundinacea (Tall fescue) and parameters were less affected in cv. sona, is indicative of the
legumes have high potential on removal of oil from fact that it is a relatively tolerant cultivar than cv. SRHM 445.
contaminated soil. In the process of phytoremediation of As compared to respective controls, there was significant
crude oil, some morphological, enzymatic and physiological increase in APX and GPX activities of cv. sona, and
changes were observed in plants. In this study the effect of maximum increase of 114.53 and 30.65% was recorded after
light crude oil (5% v/w) in soil on the activity of peroxidase 14d in 10 µg g-1 dw, respectively as against 152.48 and
was studied and compared with control. Our results showed 38.30% in cv. SRHM 445. Thus, cv. sona may be suitable to
that in both roots and shoots, the Km and Vmax of enzyme grow on contaminated sites. However, the level of Cr in the
have changed. The contaminated soil caused delay of edible part needs to be checked before its consumption.
germination and chlorosis in plants. In the contaminated soil Key words: Zea mays, Chromium, Tolerant, Sensitive,
the Km of root peroxidase was determined to be about 55.5 Antioxidants, Lipid peroxidation
µM while it was 91 µM in control. The Vmax of root's
enzyme was 2 and 6 nmol/mg protein/min in contaminated SIV/O-17
soil and control respectively. The Km of enzyme in shoots Heavy Metal Accumulation by Rice Grains
was determined to be about 36 and 42 µM in contaminated Cultivated in an Industrial Area
soil and control respectively, while the Vmax in control was Gitimoni Deka1* and Krishna G. Bhattacharyya2
about 1.4 nmol/mg protein/min and it decreased to 1 1
Department of Chemistry, Rangia College, Rangia – 781354,
nmol/mg protein/min in contaminated soil. The specific Assam, INDIA; 2Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University,
activity of enzyme in root control was 21× 10-3 U mg-1 protein Guwahati – 781014, Assam, INDIA, Email: gmdeka@yahoo.com
while it was 14 × 10-3 U mg-1 protein in contaminated roots. The heavy-metal contamination in soils has posed a
The specific activity of enzyme in shoots was 7.2 × 10-3 and potential threat to safe crop production worldwide. Higher
6.8 × 10-3 U mg-1 protein in control and contaminated soil accumulation of toxic heavy metals in rice grown in
respectively. Our results propose that in the root the plant agricultural soil may lead to health disorder. The sources of
grown in contaminated soil, the plant uses peroxidase metals in natural waters are dissolution of natural sediments,
isoform in comparison with control roots, while in the shoots and discharging domestic, industrial and agricultural
the same peroxidase was used in plant in both contaminated wastewaters. Surface water receives various contaminants
and control. such as heavy metals salts during their movement. Metallic
Key words: Light crude oil, Peroxidase, Enzyme, Pollution, salts are partially soluble in water, and in high concentration
Festuca arundinacea could be harmful. The present study was confined to
SIV/O-16 understanding the impact of a textile mill, owned by Assam
Polyester Co-operative Society Limited (APOL), at Rangia
Comparative Evaluation of Accumulation, Growth Kamrup, Assam. The mill is located amidst agricultural land
and Antioxidants of Two Cultivars (Sona and the effluent discharged from the mill to the vast agricultural
SRHM 445) of Zea mays L. towards Cr (VI) land in the western direction. Significant impact is expected
Shekhar Mallick*, Geetgovind Sinam and Sarita Sinha in rice grown in that area. In the present work, surface soil
Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical samples and rice grain were collected from different
70 ICPEP- 4

directions from the mill and were characterized with respect Email: rajeshbhu78@gmail.com
to pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic matter, Pesticides such as copper oxychloride, Bordeaux
potassium, Al, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. The correlation studies of mixture (copper sulphate and hydrated lime), cypermethrin,
total N, total P, organic matter and potassium of soil show etc., are frequently used to control fungal and insects borne
good positive relationship with some of the heavy metal in diseases in vegetable crops for the production of adequate
rice grains. A relationship also exists between heavy metal food supply for the increasing population in north-western
content of soil and rice grains. The results were compared Himalaya. The continuous uses of such pesticides may
with those obtained for a 'Control' sample and significant increase Cu concentration in soil and consequently in edible
degradation of the soil as well as rice grains could be crops. The accumulation of Cu in soil either singly or in
observed. combination with other soil contaminants may affect
Key words: Rice grains, Metal accumulation, Toxic metals, Soil negatively the growth, biochemical and physiological
quality activities of plants resulting to the economic yield loss.
SIV/O-18 Therefore, a preliminary short term study on the
toxicological effects of single and joint action of CPM and
Effect of Glucose and Lactose on Uptake of Phenol Cu on growth and biomass accumulation in French bean
by Lemna minor (Phseolus vulgaris L.) was carried out under the local field
Ramazanali Dianati Tilaki conditions of north western Himalaya. The obtained result
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health, showed that number of leaves and nodules in the tested plant
Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IRAN, were not significantly (p<0.005) affected by any of the
Email: dianati.tilaki@gmail.com treatments of Cu and CPM either singly or in combination.
Previous researches have demonstrated that presence Copper significantly decreased numbers of leaves and
of some carbohydrates in the culture medium will cause nodules, length and biomass of roots, shoots and total plant as
callus induction and frond regeneration in Lemna minor, and compared to the control plant. However, the reduction in
it is expected that presence of carbohydrates will affect the these parameters due to CPM was found insignificant as
uptake of organics by this plant. However, limited studies compared to the control. The results further showed that Cu
have investigated the uptake of organics by this plant. The and CPM jointly had less toxic effects on each tested
aim of this study was to clarify the effect of conventional parameter in bean plant as compared to their single
carbohydrates such as glucose and lactose on uptake of treatments. Thus the present study concludes that CPM had
phenol by Lemna- minor. Experiments were carried out in the less toxic effects as compared to the Cu on tested plant. The
presence and absence of glucose and lactose in the growth application of CPM can modified the Cu induced toxic
solution. The growth solution was fresh water collected from effects in plant grown on Cu contaminated soil.
river and phenol was added to it. The initial concentrations of Key words: Copper, Cypermethrin, Toxicity, Growth, Biomass
phenol were 20, 50 and 100 mg l-1 and density of Lemna
minor (fresh weight) were 50, 100 and 150 grams per square
meter. The plants were contacted with growth solutions for 4 Survival and Early Growth of Ipil (Intsia bijuga
weeks. Control bottles (without plants) were examined with Colebr.) Seedlings in Different Concentrations of
the same manner. The culture vessels were placed under Mine Tailings
white cool light with 12 h photo periods at room temperature. Nissan S. Avila, Yolina T. Castaneto* and Elmer T. Castaneto
Every four days sample was taken and the concentration of Nueva Vizcaya State University College of Forestry, Bayombong,
phenol was determined by spectrophotometer. Uptake of 3700 Nueva Vizcaya, PHILIPPINES,
phenol by lemna-minor increased with increasing the contact Email: tarrancoyolina@yahoo.com
time and decreased by increasing phenol concentration. In The boom of mining industries in some parts of the
the presence of glucose and lactose in the growth solutions, country, has left some areas with poor physical and chemical
uptake of phenol was decreased. Phenol uptake was properties of the soil. Hence, making rehabilitation effort
dependent to plant density and when Lemna minor difficult. In an attempt to restore mine waste area, an initial
completely covered the surface of the water, uptake study was conducted to test Ipil (Intsia bijuga Colebr.) as
decreased. In the presence of glucose and lactose, uptake of candidate species to be used in the rehabilitation activities. It
phenol by Lemna minor was decreased. Uptake of phenol by is one of the trees recommended for reforestation not only for
lemna minor was affected by density of plant. its high quality timber but also it is one of endangered species
Key words: Phenol, Lemna-minor, Glucose, Lactose, Organics as cited by CITES. It is on this premise that an initial nursery
uptake experiment was performed to determine the growth response
SIV/O-19 of ipil in different concentrations of mine tailings for possible
restoration activity in the future.
Assessment of the Toxic Effect of Copper and
Cypermethrin using French Bean Plant An experiment was conducted and laid out in a
completely randomized design (CRD) to determine the
Rajesh Kumar Sharma survival and early growth of ipil seedlings in different
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, concentrations of mine tailing mixed in potting media. The
Himachal Unit, Mohal- Kullu – 175126, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA,

following were the treatments used: T1 - pure soil, T2 - soil environmental set-up. Leaf area as well as their biomass
and mine tailings (2:1 ratio), T3 – soil and mine tailings in suffered severe losses due to particulate pollution. The study
(1:1 ratio), T4 – soil and mine tailings (1:2 ratio), T5 – pure also shows that Populus deltoides also possess a significant
mine tailings. Parameters used were height, root collar dust filtering capacity. Soil pH, Ec and the contents of various
diameter, root length, ovendry shoot biomass, ovendry root soil nutrients viz., P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al recorded elevated
biomass and total biomass of seedlings. Results of the study levels in the samples collected from polluted site though
showed that survival of ipil seedlings was affected by the more in autumn compared to spring. However the N contents
different concentrations of mine tailings. Lowest survival of of the soil recorded decreased levels in the polluted soil.
ipil (38%) was recorded in seedlings grown in pure mine Key words: Particulate pollution, Populus deltoides,
tailings while the highest (79.33%) in pure soil. Growth Photosynthetic pigments, Physiological parameters
responses of ipil seedlings in different potting media gave
significant differences in height, root collar diameter, root
length, ovendry shoot biomass and ovendry total biomass. Impact of Distillery Spentwash Irrigation on the
Increasing volume of mine tailing mixed in pure soil resulted Yields of Herbal Medicinal Plants in Normal and
in inferior growth of seedlings. However, ipil seedlings Spentwash Treated Soil
survived in a ratio of 2:1 pure garden soil and mine tailings. S. Chandraju*, R. Nagendraswamy, C.S. Chidankumar
Beyond that amount, Ipil seedlings growth was retarded. and Girija Nagendraswamy
Finally, it was found out that ipil seedlings can be planted and Department of Studies in Sugar Technology, Sir M. Visweswaraya
grown in mine tailings if is properly mixed with sufficient Postgraduate Center, University of Mysore, Tubinakere, Mandya –
amount of soil. 571402, Karnataka, INDIA.
Key words: Intsia bijuga, Mine tailings, Seedlings, Pure soil, Cultivation of some herbal medicinal plants namely,
Rehabilitation, Early growth Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Kama kasturi (Ocimum basilicum)
SIV/O-21 and Thumbe (Leucas asper) was made by irrigation with
distillery spentwash of different proportions. The spentwash
Studies on the Foliar Ecophysiology of Populus i.e., primary treated spentwash (PTSW) and 33% spentwash
deltoides Growing under Ambient Field Conditions were analyzed for their plant nutrients such as nitrogen,
Around a Cement Kilin in Kashmir Valley phosphorous, potassium and other physical and chemical
F.A. Lone1*, S.S. Bukhari1 and N.A. Kirmani2 parameters. Experimental soils i.e., normal soil (plot-1) and
Division of Environmental Sciences, S.K. University of spentwash treated (plot-2) soils were tested for their
Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, chemical and physical parameters. The seeds of medicinal
Srinagar – 191121, J&K, INDIA, plants were sowed in the prepared land and irrigated with raw
Email: dr_farooqlone@rediffmail.com; 2Division of Soil Sciences, water (RW) and 33% spent wash in both soils. The yields
S.K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of were recorded at their respective maturity. It was found that
Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar – 191121, J&K, INDIA the yields of all medicinal plants were high in 33% spentwash
Air pollution has become a serious problems in recent irrigation than raw water irrigation. Further, the yields were
times due to the rapid growth of thermal power stations, very high in spentwash treated soil (plot-2) than normal soil
cement factories, steel and coal industries and due to (plot-1) and raw water irrigations for all plants. It concludes
vehicular pollution. Like in other parts of the country some that, the subsequent use of diluted spent wash for irrigation
regions of Kashmir valley are facing environmental pollution enriches the soil fertility and hence the diluted spentwash
due to dust emanating from cement factories. Agricultural (33%) is an effective, eco-friendly irrigation medium for
land around the industrial units has been a worst victim cultivation of herbal medicinal plants without any adverse
causing considerable damage to several crop species. The use effect on soil and environment.
of plants as natural sinks of various air pollutants has long Key words: Distillery spentwash, Herbal medicinal plants, Yields,
been established and this concept has been backed by the Normal soil, Spentwash treated soil, Irrigation
proponents of the green belt as an aid in protecting and
phytoremediation of the industrial and urban environment SIV/O-23
from different types of the pollutants. In the present study Does Potassium Alleviate Salinity Stress in Mustard
which has been carried out under ambient field conditions on (Brassica campestris L.)?
the foliar ecophysiology of one of the common tree species of Iram Diva, Shahid Umar* and Muhammad Iqbal
Kashmir Himalayas viz., Populus deltoides Marsh., it has Department of Botany, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi –110062,
been observed that the various photosynthetic pigments INDIA, Email: iqbalg5@yahoo.co.in
(chlorophyll-a, b, and total chlorophyll) suffered severs loses Salinity is a major abiotic factor that limits crop
in the population growing at the polluted site. Other productivity, whereas mineral-nutrient status of plants plays
biochemical parameters like carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, critical role in determining plant tolerance to various stresses.
and macro nutrients like N, P and Fe also recorded losses in A pot experiment was conducted on mustard (Brassica
the affected population. On the other hand foliar proline campestris) to study the protective role of added potassium
contents and elements like K, Ca, Mg and Al exhibited
(40 mg kg-1 soil) against the salinity (0, 40 ad 80 mM NaCl)-
remarkable increase in the population growing in the same
72 ICPEP- 4

induced changes in plant growth (dry mass and leaf area), paludosum shows maximum growth at 100 ìM
photosynthetic traits (net photosynthetic rate, stomatal concentration of iron. Iron influences the growth and
conductance and intercellular CO2), ion (Na+ and Cl-) pigmentation of bloom forming cyanobacteria significantly.
accumulation, oxidative stress [thiobarbituric acid reactive Understanding the factors, that effect growth of bloom
substances (TBARS) and H2O2], enzymatic antioxidants forming cyanobacteria will help in designing methodology
[superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione for treatment of water bodies affected by cyanobacterial
reductase] and non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate and blooms.
glutathione) at 30 days after sowing. Increase in NaCl level Key words: Bloom, Cyanobacteria, Hepatoxic, Neurotoxic,
decreased the growth, photosynthetic traits and the leaf Dermatotoxic, Eutrophication
ascorbate and glutathione contents but increased the leaf SIV/O-25
Na+, Cl-, H2O2 and TBARS contents, and the activity of
Decolourization of Textile Dyes and Paper
SOD, APX and GR. On the contrary, K nutrition improved
plant growth, photosynthetic traits, activity of APX and GR, Industrial Effluent Treatment using White Rot
and the ascorbate and glutathione contents, and reduced the Fungi Agaricus bisporus
contents of Na+, Cl-, H2O2 and TBARS, as well as the activity S. Shanmugam* and T. Sathish Kumar
of SOD in the leaves, more appreciably at 40 mM than at 80 Department of Biotechnology, Kumaraguru College of Technology,
mM NaCl. The study illustrates the physiological and Coimbatore – 641006, INDIA, Email: shan2274@gmail.com
biochemical basis of K-nutrition-induced NaCl tolerance in A study was designed to see the efficiency of Agaricus
mustard. bisporus to decolourize the various synthetic dyes and
Key words: Indian mustard, Potassium nutrition, Soil salinity, effluents. The dyes used for the study are Reactive blue,
Oxidative stress, Antioxidant defence system, Crop yield Reactive yellow, RBBR, Crystal violet, Brilliant green
Congo red. The synthetic and reactive are widely used
SIV/O-24 particularly in textile industries in and around Coimbatore,
Bloom Formation in Cyanobacteria and Influence of Iron Tamilnadu, India. The dyes were monitored at their
on Growth and Pigmentation absorbance maxima at 620nm, 401nm, 597nm, 589nm,
Archana Tiwari1,2* and Anjana Pandey1 623nm,and 486nm (All the dyes were from Sigma chemicals,
Nanotechnology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department USA) Effluents like textile and Paper effluent were also
of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad – 211002, monitored at their absorbance maxima at 220 nm. The black
U.P., INDIA, Email: archanapandey1234@rediffmail.com; 2Guru liquor obtained from Seshhasayee paper Mills, Erode,
Nanak Girls College, Model Town, Ludhiana, Punjab, INDIA Tamilnadu, India was from bagasse and wood chip based
Bloom formation is ubiquitous in Indian temple newsprint manufacturing unit. As per the data provided by
ponds, lakes and other water bodies. Cyanobacteria are one the paper mill, the effluent had COD of 400 mg l-1 and BOD of
of the species behind these obnoxious blooms. Toxic blooms 170 mg l-1. An ecofriendly, biological treatment method using
are very harmful for the health of human beings, animals and laccase produced by Agaricus bisporus was tried out for the
aquatic organisms. The toxins released by these effective decolourization of wastewater containing dyestuffs
cyanobacteria are hepatoxic, neurotoxic and dermatotoxic in and effluents. The treatment was carried out using crude
nature. Eutrophication and global warming are the major laccase and a consortium of microorganisms that produces
stimulators of bloom formation. We have isolated bloom dye-degrading enzymes. The efficiency of these crude
forming cyanobacterial strains from natural blooms of extract to decolourize the dyes and effluents were monitored
Northern India belonging to genera Synechococcus by change in their respective absorbance maxima every
elongates, Synechocystis aquatalis, Merismopedia glauca, alternate day after the addition of dye/effluent for a period of
Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis aeruginosa (O), 6 days. The final concentration of the dye on day 0 was
Arthrospira (=Spirulina) platensis, Nostoc paludosum, considered to be 100%. The crude filtrate of Agaricus
Anabaena iyengarii, Anabaena variabilis and bisporus without any inducers showed activity of laccase
Cylindrospermum muscicola. The strains were purified and (0.65 U/ml), Mn-independent peroxidase (0.020 U/ml), Mn-
enriched in the laboratory by serial dilution and solid liquid dependent peroxidase (0.06 U/ml) and lignin peroxidase
transfer technique and enriched in BG-11 medium. We have (0.15 U/ml). Aryl alcohol oxidase activity was found to be
studied the effect of iron on the growth and pigmentation of negligible in this species. Another fungus, Pleurotus
bloom forming cyanobacteria. Experimental findings show ostreatus showed a greater extent of tyrosinase activity (1.6
that cyanobacterial strains show maximum growth and U/ml), which plays an important role in the oxidation of
pigmentation at different iron concentration. Cyanobacterial phenolic compounds (Duckworth & Co-leman 1970; Karam
strains namely Synechocystis aquatalis, Merismopedia & Nicel 1997) was also selected for the study. In the study, the
glauca, Anabaena variabilis and Anabaena iyengarii attain crude filtrate of Agaricus bisporus decolourized the reactive
maximum growth at low iron concentration while some yellow dye (94%) to a greater extent on the third day of
species like Cylindrospermum muscicola, Synechococcus incubation than the reactive blue (45%). The experiment was
elongates, Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystis conducted in duplicate. Decolourization of dyes was carried
aeruginosa (O) and Arthrospira platensis optimum growth is out using 1%- 5%(w/v) concentrations. About 1.5 ml of
attained at higher concentration of iron while Nostoc crude laccase of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus

extract was used (1:1 v/v). Agaricus bisporus filtrate when oxidation and less protease activity under water stress
used individually in a crude form or in a combination with condition.
Pleurotus ostreatus extract completely decolourized both Key words: Water stress, Rice, Lipid peroxidation, Polyethylene
paper and textile effluents (>90%) within a day. The low cost glycol
of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus extracts
containing various enzymes as a cocktail may prove to be an
alternate source of decolourization and an efficient method of Salicylic Acid is Better Alleviator of Aluminium
treating waste water containing dye stuffs, textile and paper Toxicity in Rice Seedlings Compared to Magnesium
mill effluents. and Calcium
Key words: White rot fungi, Laccase, Decolorization, Effluents Poonam Pandey*, Rajneesh Kumar Srivastava and R.S.
SIV/P-1 Dubey
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu
Differential Response to Oxidative Modification of University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA,
Proteins in Rice Seedlings Differing in Water Stress Email: poo14bhu@gmail.com
Tolerance Subjected to Increasing Levels of Water Aluminium (Al) is one of the most abundant metals of
Stress the earth crust. Toxicity due to Al is major cause of decreased
Samantha Pyngrope1* and R.S. Dubey2 crop yield in acid soils. The objective of the present study was
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu to look for the possible role of Ca, Mg and salicylic acid (SA)
University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA, in alleviating Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants
Email: pyngrope@gmail.com grown in hydroponics. When rice seedlings raised for 5 days
Seedlings of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars were treated with 0.5 mM AlCl3 for 12 days in hydroponics,
differing in drought tolerance, Malviya-36 (drought- nearly 15% reduction in length of roots and 30-45% in shoots
sensitive) and Brown gora (drought-tolerant) were raised for and nearly 15-45% reduction in fresh biomass was observed.
10 days in sand cultures and subjected to water stress levels Imposition of Al toxicity caused increased production of
of 15% PEG-6000 (-1.0 MPa) and 30% PEG-6000 (-2.1 reactive oxygen species (ROS) O2.-, H2O2 and increased
MPa) for 48h. Imposition of water stress level of -2.1 MPa content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)
led to about 30-40% increase in the production of superoxide showing increased lipid peroxidation in stressed seedlings.
anion (O2.-), 70-89% increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) When either Mg (0.25 mM) or Ca (1 mM) or salicylic acid
content and about 80-90% increase in the content of (30µM) was added in water culture alongwith 0.5 mM AlCl3,
thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the a significant alleviation of Al toxicity was observed marked
shoots of the drought sensitive cv. Malviya-36. The extent of by restoration of growth of the seedlings. The alleviating
production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid effect was associated with inhibition in the accumulation of
peroxidation due to water stress level was less in the ROS as well as decreased lipid peroxidation in Al-stressed
seedlings of tolerant rice cultivar compared to the sensitive. rice plants. This suggests that treatment of rice seedlings with
In order to examine the modification of proteins caused by Ca, Mg and SA is beneficial in alleviation of Al toxicity due
ROS, we analysed the protein thiol content, protein carbonyl to increase in antioxidant defense. The alleviating effect of
content and protease activity in both the cultivars. Protein Ca, Mg and SA was also confirmed by histochemical
thiol content showed a decline in roots and shoots of cv. analyses of O2.- and H2O2 in excised leaf tissues from stressed
Malviya-36 (drought-sensitive) as well as in cv. Brown gora plants using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and
(drought- tolerant). Malviya-36 showed protein 3,3'diaminobenzidine (DAB) stains. 2D-proteome generated
carbonylation of maximum increase of about 70 percent in from control and Al-stressed plants indicates expression of
roots and 101 percent in shoots under high stress levels as many novel proteins under Al toxicity. Results indicate that
compared to the control seedlings. Whereas in the case of salicylic acid is potent alleviator of Al toxicity in rice
Brown gora the increased of protein carbonylation was about seedlings followed by Mg and Ca.
30 percent in roots and 40 percent in shoots. Key words: Calcium, 2-D electrophoresis, Magnesium, Rice,
Immunochemical detection with an antibody against 2,4- Salicylic acid
dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) also showed that the
intensity of reactive bands was higher in shoots of drought- SIV/P-3
sensitive cultivar than the shoots of drought-tolerant under Moderate Lead Induced Responses in Brazilian
high stress level (-2.1 MPa). Malviya-36 (drought-sensitive) Medicinal Plant: Pfaffia glomerata, under In vitro
showed increased protease activity of about 60-70% in roots Culture
and 30-40% in shoots when compared to controls. Whereas D.K. Gupta1*, F.T. Nicoloso2 and M. R. Schetinger3
in the case of the tolerant cultivar, a negligible increase in the 1
Departamento de Bioquimica, Biologia Cellular y Molicular de
activity of protease in both roots and shoots under high stress Plantas, Estacion Experimental Del Zaidin, CSIC, C/ Profesor
level (-2.1 MPa) was observed. Results suggest that water Albareda No 1, E- 18008, Granada, SPAIN; 2Department of
stress tolerance in rice seedlings appears to be associated Biology, University Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, 97105-900,
with less production of ROS resulting in less protein Santa Maria, RS, BRAZIL, 3Department of Chemistry, University
74 ICPEP- 4

Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Genotypes N-17, N-19, N-25 and N-26 were found superior
BRAZIL than other genotypes for protein and mineral content of
In vitro grown plantlets of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) which protein ranged from 13.13 to 14.01, Magnesium (170-
Pedersen were exposed for 30 d to different lead (Pb) 176 mg 100 g-1), Nickel (nil), Manganese (1.7-6.8 mg 100 g-
concentrations (0-400 M) to analyze the effects on growth, ), Iron (18.2-29.6 mg 100 g-1), Zinc (4.6-9.5 mg 100 g-1) and
responses of various antioxidants vis-à-vis Pb accumulation. Copper (0.50-13.75 mg 100 g-1). It is quite obvious that these
The plantlets showed significant Pb accumulation in roots genotypes can be used for healthcare edible products and also
(1532 ìg g-1 DW); however, a low root to shoot Pb as base material for developing nutraceuticals which will
translocation (ca. 3.6%). The growth of plantlets (analyzed in certainly help in establishing cottage or small-scale
terms of length and dry weight) was negatively affected by industries which will create more jobs to villagers for
various Pb treatments. In addition, plantlets suffered from improving their economic status highly dependent on
oxidative stress as suggested by the significant increases in agriculture. The highly nutritious genotypes of this crop
malondialdehyde levels in root and shoot tissues with show high promise for supplementing nutritive food and
increasing Pb treatments. However, the level of ameliorating protein deficiency, strictly in the vegetarian diet
photosynthetic pigments did not alter significantly in people.
response to any Pb treatment. In response to the imposed Key words: Amaranth, Mineral, Nutrition, Protein, Seed
toxicity, an increase in the activities of catalase and
superoxide dismutase was observed, however the levels of SIV/P-5
non-protein thiols and ascorbic acid were, in general, not Histological and Cytological Bioassay in Eichhornia
affected significantly in both roots and shoots. In conclusion, crassipes for Evaluation of Tannery Effluent
P. glomerata plantlets could not cooperatively activate K. Gupta*, K. Mishra and S. Gaumat
various enzymatic and non-enzymatic detoxification Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007,
mechanisms and hence suffered from significant toxicity U.P., INDIA, Email: dr_kumkum@rediffmail.com
with increasing Pb accumulation. Water hyacinth [E. crassipes (Mart.) Salms.], a
Key words: Lead, Pfaffia glomerata, Phytoremediation prolific free-floating aquatic macrophytes has been widely
SIV/P-4 studied for phytoremediation of waste water. In this context
the plants of E. crassipes were treated with tannery effluent
Protein and Mineral Analysis for Nutritional collected from waste water treatment plant, Jajmau, Kanpur
Quality in Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus (India) under laboratory conditions. The phytoremedial
hypochondriacus L.) - A Nutritionally Underutilized ability of the plants was assessed in terms of their water
Crop quality improvement, Cr removal and accumulation from
R.M. Pandey tannery effluent. While toxic impact of the effluent was
Division of Genetics, Plant Breeding & Agrotechnology, National studied on growth and anatomical structure of E. crassipes.
Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, To assess genotoxic impact of tannery effluent on plants
Email: rmp12@rediffmail.com mitoic index (MI) and micronuclei (MNCs) were studied as
Amaranth is protein-rich pseudocereals may be used an endpoint. The results showed that E. crassipes effectively
as an alternative source for non-allergenic food products. improved the physico-chemical properties and reduced Cr
Twenty five accessions of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. content in the effluent (71.0%). The plants accumulated
were analysed for seed composition (Protein analysis and significant amount of Cr in their roots and shoots. In response
mineral composition) as an aid to help in identification of to effluent treatment, it was observed that mitotic index
genotypes with superior nutritional quality. Amaranth seeds significantly reduced in root meristematic cells of the plant,
contain high protein ranged from 6.57 to 14.01%. Beside whereas micronuclei increased significantly as an indicator
protein the mineral composition in twelve accessions having of cytological endpoint. The light microscopic studies of
high protein content were also analyzed. The mineral content root, shoot, petiole and leaf showed variations like reduction
ranged as Magnesium (152-176 mg 100 g-1), Nickel (nil), in cell size in the epidermal, cortical and stellar region.
Manganese (0.23-6.8 mg 100 g-1), Iron (9.6-29.6 mg 100 g-1), Vascular bundles were highly reduced and heavily stained.
Zinc (3.2-11.8 mg 100 g-1) and Copper (0.5-34.6 mg 100 g-1). Results thus proposed E. crassipes as a good candidate for
The Nickel is injuries for human well being but its absence in biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution in tannery effluent.
the present study is beneficial for sound health. The other Key words: Eichhornia crassipes, Tannery effluent, Genotoxicity,
minerals such as Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Manganese and Anatomical variations
Copper are concerned exhibited wide range of variation in SIV/P-6
their contents indicating thereby, chances of their
improvement. The present study revealed high potential of Interaction of Magnesium with Metal Toxicity in
amaranth seeds in human diet utilization. Healthy human Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
daily needs 400 mg Magnesium, 18 mg Iron, 15 mg Zinc, 2 Monica Jamla*, Vijeta Singh, Sarita Singh and B.N.
mg Manganese and 2 mg Copper which can be easily Tripathi
obtained by consuming 250-300 g amaranth seed daily. Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali

University, Banasthali – 304022, INDIA, Th. contains Zn in high abundance. Mn and Fe were present
Email: bhuminathtripathi@hotmail.com in all the plant samples in very high amount. Amongst them
Heavy metal toxicity in the environment depends on Brassica juncea, Hk. F. & Th. contains much more Mn and Fe
variety of factors, especially availability of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ than the other plant samples. From the present study it can be
etc. in the metal-contaminated soil. Hence, the present work highlighted that plants grown in crude oil contaminated soils
demonstrates the influence of magnesium (Mg) on copper contain much more higher concentration of Ni and v than
(Cu) and cadmium (Cd) toxicity on Triticum aestivum those grown in uncontaminated soil. The uptake of metals by
(Wheat). We measured a range of parameters related to plants was found to be affected by the type of the plant
oxidative stress in wheat exposed to Cu or Cd toxicity in species as well as metal species involved
media with increasing concentrations of Mg. Increasing Mg Key words: Uptake, Heavy metals, Petroleum contaminated soils
concentrations significantly alleviated Cu and Cd toxicity as
evidenced by improved growth and decreased toxicity- SIV/P-8
induced oxidative stress (a substantial decline in the amount Effect of Particulates Generated from Automobile
of H2O2 in root and shoot tissues). An increase in proline Emissions on Some Common Plants
concentration in roots and shoots that was triggered by Cu Kamla Kulshreshtha
and Cd exposure was partly reversed by increasing Mg National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
concentrations in the growth medium. In conclusion, – 226 001, U.P., INDIA, Email: dr_kamla@rediffmail.com
increasing supply of Mg effectively alleviated toxicities of Plants play a significant role in capturing particulate
Cu and Cd in wheat. pollutants from urban air and in improving urban air quality.
Key words: Metal, Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, Proline, Magnesium The present investigation deals with the study of leaf surface
SIV/P-7 ultra-structures in the plants, Nyctanthes arbortristis L.,
Quisqualis indica L. and Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wt. and
Uptake of Heavy Metals by Four Important Plant Arn., growing along the road sides and intersections with
Species from Petroleum Contaminated Soils of heavy traffic load. The results showed significant changes in
Lakowa Oil Field, Assam leaf surface characters like reduced epicuticular wax,
Mukut Kalita and Arundhuti Devi* increased frequency of epidermal cells, stomata and
RM & E Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and trichomes, clogged and slightly risen stomata, due to the
Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati – 781035, Assam, stress of automobile exhaust emissions. In comparison to N.
INDIA, Email: deviarundh2@yahoo.co.in arbortristis and Q. indica the impact of modifications was
more pronounced in T. arjuna. These changes can be
Plants can take up metals from air, water, soil and
considered as indicators of environmental stress and can,
sediments. The aim of this investigation was to study the
therefore, be recommended in high traffic density areas for
plant uptake of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, V,
the early detection of pollution and for working out suitable
and Zn) from petroleum contaminated soil. Plant samples of
remedial measures.
commonly available fruits and vegetables (Ziziphus jujuba
Lamk., Musa paradisiaca, Solanum melongena Linn., Key words: Ultra fine, Vehicular population, Early detection,
Stomata, Epidermis, Trichome, Epicuticular wax
Brassica juncea, Hk. F. & Th.) were collected from
petroleum contaminated as well as uncontaminated private SIV/P-9
gardens or agricultural fields. Two Group Gathering Stations Impact of Municipal Sewage Sludge on Productivity
(GGSs) namely GGS3 and GGS9 of ONGCL at Lakowa Oil
Field (Assam) were chosen for the study. Composite samples
of Maize (Zea mays L.)
were collected at the following two ranges of distances from M.A. Bhat, Nayar A. Kirmani* and M.A. Wani
a GGS: (a) Between 0-200m from a GGS and (b) Between Division of Soil Science, S.K. University of Agricultural Sciences
200-400m. Soil samples were also collected (at 0-45cm and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar – 191121, J&K, INDIA,
Email: afaqnayar@gmail.com
depth) from the corresponding growth sites for the
measurement of heavy metals as well as some important soil Field trials were undertaken at the Agricultural
parameters. Determination of heavy metals in the plant and Research Farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shuhama, Srinagar
soil samples was carried using standard procedures. Results during the kharif seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to
indicated that heavy metal accumulation in the plant parts investigate impact of municipal sewage sludge on
increased with the increase in heavy metal contents in the productivity of maize and changes in soil fertility. Highest
growth sites. It was found that soil samples as well as plant grain and straw yields, crude protein content in grain and
samples near a GGS (0-200m) contain more heavy metals.. It nutrient concentrations in grain and straw of maize were
is interesting to note that a linear relationship exists between observed with the application of 75% NPK + Sludge @ 30
Cd in plant material versus Cd in growth soil. Accumulation tons ha-1 (T7) followed by 100% NPK + Sludge @ 15 tons ha-1
of Cd in Brassica juncea, Hk. F. & Th.) leaves is less though (T3), 75% NPK + Sludge @ 15 tons ha-1 (T6) and 50% NPK +
Cd is considered to be absorbed effectively by leaf system. In Sludge @ 30 tons ha-1 (T5). These were statistically identical
general, Cd is the least abundant element for all the plant to each other for all these parameters. Significantly higher
samples. Solanum melongena Linn. and Musa paradisiacal uptake of nutrients by grain and straw was registered in T7
fruits are important sources of Cu. Brassica juncea, Hk. F. &
76 ICPEP- 4

compared to other treatments followed by T3, T6 and T5. accumulation of Cd in both the plants was calculated and it
Treatments receiving sewage sludge significantly increased was found that though the amount of the metal accumulated
the levels of organic carbon, available macro- and DTPA- in the shoots of Indian mustard than that in castor. The total
extractable micro-nutrients in soil compared to 100% NPK removal of metal from soil in castor is much higher due to
(T3). The study revealed that integration of 100% NPK with production of very large amount of underground and aerial
sludge @ 15 tons and of 50-75% NPK with sludge @ 30 tons biomass by this plant during the same period of cultivation.
ha-1 can be ideal in sustaining maize yield and soil health Since Ricinus communis is grown for a year to get its
under climatic conditions of Kashmir valley. reproduction cycle completed and can be maintained as a
Key words: Sewage sludge, Integrated nutrient management, perennial shrub whereas Brassica juncea is 3-4 months
Yield, Concentration, Soil properties duration crop in winter in tropical agro climatic conditions of
north India. Both the plants can be cultivated in combination
SIV/P-10 for phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil and both are
A Comparative Study on Biomass Accumulation, important oil seed crops of this region and no vegetative part
Antioxidant Compounds and Cadmium of castor is consumed like Brassica leaves by castles or
Accumulation in Brassica juncea (L.) and Ricinus human beings.
communis (L.) Grown in Cadmium Contaminated Key words: Brassica juncea, Accumulation, Biomass, Cadmium,
Ricinus communis
Tropical Soil
Kuldeep Bauddh and Rana P. Singh* SIV/P-11
Department of Environmental Science, B.B.A. University, In vitro Genotypic Variation in Morphogenic
Lucknow – 226025, U.P., INDIA, Response of Vigna mungo L. Varieties under
Email: ranapsingh1@hotmail.com
Herbicide Stress
Two comparatively tolerant cultivars of Brassica
juncea (Indian mustard) and Ricinus communis (Castor) Jyoti Bajpai* and Alka Srivastava
In Vitro Culture and Plant Genetics Unit, Department of Botany,
were studied for rate of biomass accumulation, protein,
University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, U.P., INDIA,
proline and MDA contents and rate of Cd accumulation for Email: jtripathi05.05@gmail.com
15-60 days during supply of 0-150 mg CdCl2 kg-1 soil. A
In vitro culture conditions represent an unusual
reduction in root and shoot biomass was observed as a
combination of factors viz. growth medium, plant growth
function of metal concentration and exposure time, which
regulators, culture conditions etc. which can be standardized
was more prominent in Indian mustard as compared to that in
for comparing the response of explants from different
castor. The soluble protein of leaves was decreased in both
sources. In vitro selection thus generates a method for
plants and the decrease was more pronounced with increase
identifying stress tolerant plants in a short time span under
in metal concentration and exposure time. A very significant
controlled conditions. The response varies according to the
increase in proline and MDA was observed in leaves of both
level of change from differentiated condition of cells to
the plants. Indian mustard showed higher content of proline
dedifferentiated condition for the manifestation of
and MDA at each treatment where as castor leaves had lower
level of these components, through the magnitude of increase
in proline due to Cd supply in castor was much higher than The effect of increasing herbicide glyphosate
that in castor. The castor accumulate about four times higher (0.01mM, 0.05mM, 0.1mM, 0.2mM, 0.4mM, 0.6mM) on
Cd in its roots and about two times more metal in the shoots morphogenic response of three Vigna mungo genotypes- PU-
even then no additional Cd was added to the soil. The garden 19, PU-94-1 and Azad-1 is being reported here. These three
soil in the University campus contains a trace amount of Cd. were selected from 9 genotypes initially screened for
The Indian mustard roots accumulated 49 to 51 µg Cd/plant tolerance using petridish germination method. Seeds of three
up to 100 mg CdCl2 /Kg soil, where as an application of 150 genotypes were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog's basal
mg kg-1 soil, it accumulate only 41.24 µg Cd/plant. On the media and 7 days old seedlings were used as source of
other hand the roots of Ricinus communis, which are explants. The explants like epicotyl, hypocotyl, cotyledonary
perennial and large in quantity, accumulated/stabilized 92- node, shoot apex, leaf were inoculated on medium
supplemented with various growth regulators and varying
389 µg Cd/plant during application of 25-150 mg kg-1 soil.
concentrations of glyphosate. The response varied with
The Indian mustard and castor plant, on the other hand,
genotype, type of explant, different plant growth regulator
accumulated almost similar amount of Cd in its shoots during
combinations in the medium and concentration of herbicide.
75-150 mg kg-1 soil Cd supply. The total dry biomass of
It ranged from callusing, to callusing with organogenesis,
Indian mustard is 14-15 folds lower than that in castor at 25-
direct shoot bud induction and somatic embryogenesis.
50 mg Cd/Kg of soil. When accumulation of Cd in roots and
Stress-induced morphogenic responses that have been
shoots of both the plants were compared at 15, 30, 45 and 60
reported for plant cells are inhibition of cell elongation,
days in relation to biomass accumulation in per unit area it
localized stimulation of cell division and alteration of the cell
was observed that Brassica roots accumulate 2-3 fold higher
differentiation status. A comparative study of the response in
Cd than that of castor whereas Brassica shoots 2-6 times
the three genotypes will be presented.
higher Cd accumulation than that in castor. The rate of

Key words: Glyphosate, Genotypic, Morphogenic, Organogenesis, results signify the role of SA in regulating the salt stress
V. mungo response of maize, and suggest that SA could be used as a
SIV/P-12 potential growth regulator to improve plant growth and
development under salt stress.
Ecophysiology and Yield of Soybean under Populus
Key words: Lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde, Phenolic
Based Agrisilviculture profiles, Salicylic acid, Salinity
Alka Mishra1*, S.L. Swamy2 and R. Agrawal1 SIV/P-14
Department of Forestry, G.G.DU, Bilaspur, Chhatisgarh, INDIA;
Department of Forestry, IGAU, Raipur, Chhatisgarh, INDIA Temporal Variation in Ozone Exposure Causes
The present paper deals with the study of variation in Significant Effect on Growth Phase Specific
eco physiological parameters viz. Photosynthetically active Sensitivity and Productivity of Rice Plants
radiation (PAR), transpiration, stomatal conduction, relative Abhijit Sarkar* and S.B. Agrawal
humidity, leaf temperature and productivity of soybean Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology
grown under five promising clones of Populus deltiodes in Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University,
agri-silvi system at Raipur (C.G) India. The clones viz. G3, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: abhijitbhu@gmail.com
G48, 65/27, D121 and S77C1 were planted in randomize Ozone (O3), the tri-atomic allotrope of oxygen, is a
block design with 3 replication during 1995. Soybean was ubiquitous component of global environment; and provides a
grown as intercrop and also as sole crop for 2 years under five crucial barrier at stratosphere against the harmful solar
and six year old clones in kharif. The PAR transmission had ultraviolet irradiation, hence, protects life on earth. Though,
decreased by 10-44% under five year clone which was at troposphere, this harmful air pollutant executes serious
further reduced by 15-49% under six year old clones. The impact on human and animal respiration, as well as, cause
clones G3, G48 and 65/27 greatly reduced PAR, transpiration extensive damage to both natural, semi natural and cultivated
and leaf temperature in Soybean. Grain yield varied from 9- plant populations. Global agricultural productivity has been
15.9 qha-1 the yield was more in sole crop and reduced under severely affected by this pollutant singly; however, the
populus clone. The photosynthetic and assimilation projected data are more alarming. This toxic secondary air
parameters considered in the present investigation are pollutant is mainly generated by the interaction of primary
indicative of better physiological performance of species. pollutants, like NOx and VOCs, in presence of bright sun
This will not only add to the supply of this important crop but light; and the later phase of rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth
also provide economic support to the farmers. periods at the Northern India, provides similar environment.
Key words: Ecophysiology, Prodcutivity, Agrisilviculture Even the available monitoring data also pointed towards
higher O3 concentrations during the reproductive growth
phase of rice plants. So, keeping this specific point in mind,
Effect of Salicylic Acid on Changes in Growth, we have designed an experiment to study the 'growth phase'
Metabolic Activity and Phenolic Profiles in Maize specific sensitivity of rice plants under elevated O3 stress
(Zea mays L.) under Salinity Stress using open top chambers (OTCs). Experimental setups were
Shruti Gautam* and P.K. Singh prepared as: filtered chambers (FCs) with almost no O3, non-
Department of Botany, Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi, filtered chambers (NFCs) with ambient O3, non-filtered
U.P., INDIA, Email: gtm_shruti@yahoo.com chambers with 20 ppb O3 fumigation for whole life span
Salinity is a limiting environmental factor for plant (NFC20wl), non-filtered chambers with 20 ppb O3
production, and is becoming more prevalent as the intensity fumigation for vegetative phase (NFC20vp), and non-
of agriculture increases. Salicylic acid (SA) plays an filtered chambers with 20 ppb O3 fumigation for reproductive
important role in abiotic stress tolerance, and considerable phase (NFC20rp). Results clearly showed that O3 exposure
interests have focused on SA due to its ability to induce a suddenly stimulates the amount and activity of some
protective effect on plants under stress. Therefore, the important antioxidants in rice plants. Yield of rice plants,
present study was conducted to determine the potential of SA grown in exposed chambers, were also significantly
to induce salinity tolerance in maize plants. Pre-soaking decreased as compared to unexposed plants, and the
treatments of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) were given reduction depends on the exposure amount and duration of
to maize seeds in presence as well as absence of 0.5 mM O3. However, the plants which were exposed to O3 during
salicylic acid and their effects on growth, level of reproductive phase showed the lowest harvest index. Results
photosynthetic pigments, free proline, lipid peroxidation, of this present experiment, clearly depicted that reproductive
total phenol, total protein and qualitative and quantitative growth phase of rice plants were more sensitive towards O3
chromatographic analysis (HPLC) of phenolic acids fraction
in maize plants were studied. Exogenously applied salicylic
acid (0.5 mM) increased plant growth significantly in saline Key words: Rice, Open top chamber, Ozone, Vegetative phase,
Reproductive phase, Antioxidants, Yield
conditions. NaCl induced deleterious effects on biochemical
changes and phenolic acids fraction in maize plants were
significantly encountered by salicylic acid. The present
78 ICPEP- 4

SIV/P-15 amino acids, ascorbic acid and nucleic acids like DNA and
Biochemical Changes in Eichhornia crassipes Mart. RNA showed significant increase. The activity of oxidative
under Chromium Phytotoxicity Stress enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase,
superoxide dismutase and IAA oxidase as well as activity of
Sushil Kumar Tripathi* and Ratna Katiyar enzymes of nitrogenase metabolism such as nitrate reductase
Botany Department, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226001, and nitrite reductase showed considerable increase. Thus, the
U.P., INDIA, Email: sktiwari25jun@gmail.com
treatment led to an overall improvement in the growth of
Aquatic plants have paramount capacity to plant. It is concluded that soil application of oxygenated
concentrate and accumulate toxic metals from water peptone was useful to enhance the vegetative growth and it
environment. In the present investigation plants of also improved water relations, photosynthetic pigment
Eichhornia crassipes, acclimatized in 5% nutrient solution content, biochemical constituents and enzyme activity under
medium under laboratory condition, were subjected to organic farming condition in chickpea which is an indication
different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 ppm) of of better yield.
chromium. The exposure resulted in accumulation of Key words: Chickpea, Enzymes, Organic farming, Oxygenated
chromium and biochemical changes in E. crassipes at 24, 48 peptone, Photosynthetic pigments
and 72 hr. At 10 ppm concentration E. crassipes accumulated
592.12 µg g-1 dw Cr in root and 298.34 µg g-1 dw Cr in leaves SIV/P-17
after 72 hr exposure. Accumulation of Cr was dose dependent Assessment of Tolerance of Vigna radiata ML613 to
and found in the order root>leaves. It was observed that Herbicide Glyphosate
pigment content, protein content, catalase and peroxidase Shikha Tripathi*, Namrata Singh and Alka Srivastava
activities increased upto 0.1 ppm exposure but at 1 and 10 In vitro Culture and Plant Genetics Unit, Department of Botany,
ppm concentrations these parameters started decreasing. University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, U.P., INDIA,
Carotenoids content increased with increasing Cr Email: shikhatri@gmail.com
concentrations. Chromium toxicity symptoms appeared in Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is a broad-
plants in the form of marginal chlorosis of leaves which spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds, especially
finally transformed to necrosis. Thus, the present study may perennials. It is expected to protect crop plants from weed
be helpful for the bioindication and removal of chromium competition without harming the crop plants. The crop
like heavy metals from water environment. should be able to tolerate that level of herbicide, which is
Key words: Bioindicator, Heavy metal, E. crassipes, Chlorosis, lethal to the weeds and plants have evolved several
Pigment content mechanisms through which they can tolerate lethal doses of
SIV/P-16 herbicides. Glyphosate is absorbed into the plant mainly
through it leaves. It has been reported to impinge on crop
Influence of Soil Application of Oxygenated Pepton
plants also, and the need of tolerant genotypes for meeting
on Vegetative Growth and Photosynthetic Pigments the incessant protein demand in the daily meal is being felt by
of Organically Grown Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. pulse breeders. The persistence of glyphosate varies widely
cv. Vijay) but it does bind strongly to soil and does not leach into
Utkarsha Thakar1*, Neelam Patil1 and Nutan Malpathak2 groundwater. Its half-life is estimated to be 47 days which
P.G. Research Center, Department of Botany, Tuljaram makes it moderately persistent. In present investigation 21
Chaturchand College, Baramati, M.S., INDIA, Email: days old seedlings of Vigna radiata were given post
ug.thakare@gmail.com; 2Department of Botany, University of emergence spray treatment of different concentrations of
Pune, Pune – 411007, M.S, INDIA glyphosate i.e. 0.5mM, 1mM, 2mM, 4mM and 6mM, in three
Pot culture experiments were carried out on chickpea replicates. The growth and vigour of the plants was
(Cicer arietinum L. cv. Vijay) at P.G. Research Center, significantly effected. However at all doses tolerant plants
Department of Botany, Tuljaram Chaturchand College, were selected, which had higher vigour and yield as
Baramati, (M.S.) India, using oxygenated peptone (2 g/pot) compared to control. Significant difference was obtained for
as soil aerator under organic farming condition. Oxygenated mitotic index and aberration frequency at all treatment doses.
peptone contains 100 mg/g oxygen, 650 mg/g peptone and Variable number of micronuclei in meiosis I and meiosis II
250 mg/g inert filler compound which appears in the form of indicated the level of genotoxicity of glyphosate. The
white, neutral, ecofriendly, non-toxic powder. The treatment glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly increased
enhanced the morphological parameters like leaf area, leaf with increase in glyphosate concentration. Under in vitro
area index and biomass. The water relation parameters like conditions, variable response was obtained at different
relative water content and osmotic potential of cell sap concentrations of herbicide in the optimum growth medium
increased while membrane injury decreased. The for regeneration of V. radiata. The explants showed direct
photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, organogenesis without intermediate callus phase and also
total chlorophylls, carotenoids and xanthophylls showed indirect organogenesis through a callus phase. The details
significant increase along with increase in chlorophyll will be presented.
stability index. The biochemical constituents like soluble Key words: Glyphosate, Herbicide tolerance, Mitotic index,
proteins, total carbohydrates polyphenols, proline, total free Micronuclei, V. radiata

SIV/P-18 molecular weight substance having stress protector

Effect of Salinity on Biomass Production and properties are activated in plants. Accumulation of heavy
Antioxidants Activity in Kochia (Kochia scoparia) metal causes induction of ROS to develops oxidative stress in
the plants. To overcome the toxic level of ROS plants
J. Nabati1*, M. Kafi2, A. Nezami2, P. Rezvani Moghaddam2, processes antioxidant enzymes (like Catalase, SOD, POD)
A. Masoumi1 and M. Zare Mehrjerdi1 and non enzymatic antioxidants (Ascorbate, Glutathien).
Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, IRAN, Accumulation of ROS may be consequence of disruption of
Email: jafarnabati@gmail.com; 2Member of Staff, Faculty of balance between their production and antioxidative system
Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, IRAN activity composed of enzymatic and non enzymatic
Soil salinity is a major constraint to food production scavenger. Experiments have been performed on the bench
due to its negative impact on crop yield. Kochia (Kochia scale to check antioxidative activity of antioxidants in
scoparia) is a hardy, salinity-resistant plant that can widely response to various heavy metal like Pb, Cd, Hg etc. it has
use as emergency forage for livestock to using saline waters been seen that with increasing metal concentration, SOD
and soils in desert ecosystems. In order to investigate concentration decreases sharply in roots of Polygonum.
physiological mechanism, antioxidants activity and potential Catalase activity also studies in response to H2O2 generation.
of production of Kochia in response to different levels of It breaks H2O2 into water and oxygen, reducing its toxicity.
salinity, an experiment was performed in a split plot based on POD also catalyses H2O2 dependent oxidation of substrate.
randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental result indicates that stressed enzymatic and
Saline waters (5.2, 10.5 and 23.1 dS m-1) and three Kochia non enzymatic activity play important role in water pollution
ecotypes (Birjand, Borujerd and Sabzevar) were allocated as measures through accumulation and detoxification.
main and sub plots, respectively. The results showed that
Key words: Peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase, Reactive Oxygen
salinity did not impose any significant effect on dry matter Species
production but relative water content (RWC) and seed yield
decreased by salinity stress. In general, no positive SIV/P-20
correlation coefficient observed between dry matter Evaluation of Certain Plant Species against Human
production and physiological and biochemical parameters Dermatophyte (Microsporum gypseum)
except superoxide dismutase (SOD) at 23.1 dS m-1. There
Nidhi Varshney* and B. Geetha Singh
was no significant difference among ecotypes in dry matter Department of Botany, St. John's College, Agra, U.P., INDIA,
and seed yield. Sabzevar showed the highest proline, total Email: monagupta67@yahoo.com
phenol content and peroxidase (POX) activity. Ascorbate
peroxidase (APX), catalase (CTA), and superoxide The use of plants for medicinal purpose, including
dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in Borujerd ecotype treatment of dermatophytic infection is quite common. A
and highest soluble sugar, glutathione reductase (GR) study of using in-vitro bioassays to validate the effects of
activity and DPPH - radical scavenging activity observed in traditionally used plant extracts against the most common
Birjand ecotype. According to these results, Kochia has a pathogenic fungi is necessary. Plants have been used for the
therapeutic potential in various segments of society for
good tolerance to elevated levels of salinities up to 23 dS m-1
centuries. This use has been supported by the isolation of
and seems that can control oxidative stress by continuing
active antifungal compounds form plant extracts. Hence
during the present study carried out on certain plant species
Key words: Salinity, Kochia, Antioxidant, Halophyte i.e. Emblica officinalis, Ficus bengalensis, Ocimum sanctum
SIV/P-19 and Zingiber officinale collected from natural and polluted
Biochemical Responses of Wetland Plants under habitats, were evaluated for their antidermatophytic nature
against human dermatophyte i.e. Microsporum gypseum.
Metal Stress The antifungal activity of the above plant species was
Atul K. Upadhyay*, U.N. Rai, S. Verma, N.K. Singh and D. determined by using weight loss method and the percent
Prasad inhibition in dry mycelial weight was calculated. Highest
Ecotoxicology & Bioremediation Group, National Botanical 82.97% inhibition due to Ocimum sanctum in natural habitat
Research Institute, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, and 57.44% inhibition due to polluted habitat were being
Email: atul.bst86@gmail.com
observed. Hence the present investigation is significant in
Constructed wetland is novel cost effective carbon evaluating certain plant species and determines their
negative technology for treatment of water pollution with the therapeutic relevance through standard antifungal tests.
help of plants (Polygonum sp., Azolla sp., Phragmitis sp., Key words: Dermatophytic, Therapeutic potential, Relevance
Vallisneria sp., Hydrilla sp. etc). Under polluted water many
organic and inorganic substance are present, in which heavy SIV/P-21
metals exert many toxic effects to the plants e.g. disruption of Antioxidant Response and Amino Acid Profile of an
many enzymatic reaction, change in permeability of plasma Indian Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivar Tolerant to
membrane (peroxidation of lipid in membrane) and tissue Arsenic
damage etc. In response to metal stress DNA repair,
antioxidant protection system, and synthesis of low R. Dave1*, R.D. Tripathi1, S. Dwivedi1, P. Tripathi1, A.
80 ICPEP- 4

Kumar1, D. Chakrabarty1, P.K. Trivedi1 and Y.K. Sharma2 25 µM AsIII) and four silicic acid levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Si). Triguna showed more tolerance which was evident by
Lucknow – 226 001, U.P., INDIA, growth response, NP-SH content and increased activity of all
Email: richadave_2006@rediffmail.com; 2Department of Botany, antioxidants, in contrast IET-4786 exhibit its sensitive nature
University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA under AsIII stress. However, addition of Si to nutrient solution
Arsenic in rice, the staple diet in many areas of the significantly enhanced the level of growth parameters, NP-
world, coupled with drinking contaminated water is leading SH content and antioxidant activity in root and shoot part,
to high occurrence of cancers specially in the poorer sections which was more pronounced in Triguna as compared to IET-
of the society. There is an urgent need for a rice cultivar which 4786 (P≤0.05). Further, best response was observed under
tolerates high amounts of arsenic, does not translocate it to lower dose of Si (1 mM Si) which reduces the accumulation
seeds and therefore safe to be consumed by humans when of arsenic in root and shoot, and induces the level of thiols
grown in arsenic contaminated areas. Keeping this in view an and antioxidants in both varieties even at higher dose of AsIII.
arsenic tolerant rice cultivar has been screened out which, The study clearly demonstrated a beneficial role of Si on the
may be grown in contaminated areas and still be safe for antioxidant system and subsequently arsenic reduction in
human consumption. 303 rice (O. sativa L.) cultivars were root and shoot parts. Preliminary observation indicates that
grown in hydroponics for tolerance against inorganic arsenic silicic acid fertilization may reduce the grain As
species (AsIII and AsV). One cultivar showed exemplary accumulation. Further field experiments are needed to
physiological performance and was thus investigated further understand the role of silicic acid for arsenic uptake and
for antioxidant enzyme response and amino acid profiling. detoxification in rice.
Arsenic accumulation at 10 µM AsV (much higher than
Key words: Antioxidant, Arsenite, Rice, Silicic acid
naturally present in soil) was consistently very low even on
increasing durations of exposure. Even though accumulation SIV/P-23
of arsenic was high on exposure to arsenite, the cultivar To Study the Effect of Pb in Brassica juncea L. by
showed tolerance physiologically and biochemically. Chlorophyll, Dry Biomass and Grade of Growth
Antioxidant enzymes Guaicol Peroxidase (GPX), Ascorbate
Peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and Catalase
Inhibition Estimation
(CAT) showed largest stimulations in presence of arsenite. Juhi Sinha1*, Devika Rawat2 and Shobha Srivastava1
Different amino acids showed differential response to Govt. M.L.B. Girls P.G. (Autonomous) College near
arsenite and arsenate, though not much decline was Polytechnique Chworaha Bhopal, M.P., INDIA,
observed. In response to arsenite the induction of biomass, Email: juhi_sinha30@rediffmail.com; 2Govt. M.V.M. College,
Bhopal, M.P., INDIA
protein and amino acid content indicates towards production
of stress proteins, increased nitrogen uptake and metabolism. Phytoextraction methods can be applied to reach the
target of fallow-lands reuse and earn more incomes for
The cultivar did not take up arsenic in large amounts and thus
farmers. In many studies, Indian mustards (Brassica juncea)
may prove beneficial for cultivation in arsenic contaminated
areas, consequently, safe for human consumption. were planted in the metal-contaminated soils to study their
Key words: Amino acids, Antioxidant, Arsenic, Rice suitability in phytoextraction. In this pot study, B. juncea
plants were planted in artificially Pb-contaminated soils in
SIV/P-22 different concentration of Pb (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg) and
Effect of Silicic Acid on Arsenite Uptake and find the effect on chlorophyll content and dry biomass of
Antioxidant System in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant. In the present study we find the significant inhibition
Cultivars in Hydroponics between the shoots of the control plants and the plants treated
with 15 and 20 mg/kg Pb for the dry biomass, Grade of
P. Tripathi1*, R.D. Tripathi1, S. Dwivedi1, R. Dave1, A. growth inhibition (G.G.I.), and the day 30 chlorophyll
Kumar1, D. Chakrabarty1, P.K. Trivedi1 and R.P. Singh2 evaluation parameters.
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg,
Key words: Phytoextraction, Brassica juncea, Lead, Chlorophyll,
Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
Dry biomass, Grade of growth inhibition
Email: preetit2007@rediffmail.com; 2School for Environmental
Sciences, B.B.A. University (Central University), Lucknow – SIV/P-24
226025, U.P., INDIA
Comparative Mutagenic Effects of Heavy Metals on
Arsenic contamination in paddy rice in the areas of the Somatic Cells of Lathyrus sativus L.
West Bengal has raised much concern as rice is the
subsidence diet for millions. Two rice cultivars (Triguna & Ritambhara Shukla and G. Kumar
Naithani Plant Genetics Laboratory, Department of Botany,
IET-4786) commonly cultivated in West Bengal region were
University of Allahabad, Allahabad – 211002, U.P., INDIA, Email:
screened out on the basis of their contrast As tolerance shukla.ritambhara@gmail.com
behaviour. These cultivars grown in solution culture to
investigate the effect of silicic acid on arsenite (AsIII) uptake, Environmental pollution due to rapid industrialization
NP-SH content and antioxidative defence system. Rice has lead to the entry of various heavy metals in the
seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) were cultured in modified Hewitt environmental pool. These metal pollutants are non-
nutrient solution containing three arsenite levels (0, 10 and degradable and readily absorbed by the plants and are one of

the major threats to humanity and environment. Among Key words: Heavy metals, Chromium, Phytotoxicity, Germination
these, Pb, Hg & Zn were undertaken to test their efficacy on studies, Morphological parameters, Paddy varieties
Lathyrus sativus. To analyse their mutagenic potentiality, SIV/P-26
germinated seeds of L. sativus were treated with HgCl2,
PbNO3 & ZnCl2 at 25, 50, 100, 200 & 300 ppm concentrations Amelioration of Chromium Toxicity in Vigna mungo
for 3 hrs. Mitotic index in the control sets was registered as (Black gram) through Iron Application
13.16%. In the treated sets, mitotic index was found to be Shefali Srivastava* and Kumkum Mishra
reduced at each heavy metal treatment set from 25 to 300 Plant Genetics Unit, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow,
ppm. Maximum mitotic depressive effect was rendered by Lucknow – 226007, U.P., INDIA,
Email: shefali_01220@rediffmail.com
HgCl2 at 300 ppm which was recorded as 5.29%, while the
lowest was depicted by ZnCl2 as 12.99%. Percentage of Chromium is a transition metal and known to
mitotic abnormalities was seen to increase along with stimulate the formation of free radicals, hydrogen peroxide
increasing concentrations with the most common and hydroxyl radicals. Their existence in the medium may
abnormality of stickiness followed by scattering, cause oxidative damage to bio-molecules. Presence of
unorientation, precocious movement, fragmentation, chromium may cause hindrance in iron availability to plant
bridges, laggards, disturbed polarity, in remarkable that may cause deficiency of an essential nutrient along with
frequency. On the basis of the results, HgCl2 can be clearly the phytotoxicity of a heavy metal. The present study was
carried out to assess the chromium toxicity on black gram
pointed out as the most toxic metal salt for L. sativus followed
(Vigna mungo L. var. T9) and its amelioration through iron
by PbNO3 & the least genotoxic metallic salt out of the three
application. Plants were supplied with different
was ZnCl2. The present results report the harmful effects of
concentration of chromium (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mM) along with
heavy metals on the genetic aspects of L. sativus. pots receiving the same chromium treatments along with iron
Key words: Environmental pollution, Lathyrus sativus, Heavy (1.0mM) as an ameliorative with a separate pot receiving iron
metals, Mitotic index, Stickiness, Genotoxic only and a control. Different plant parameters viz.
SIV/P-25 chlorophyll concentration, proline and antioxidative
enzymes activity were studied to analyze the plant responses
Chromium Induced Changes in Paddy Varieties
to chromium and iron. Plants receiving high concentration of
P. Sundaramoorthy1, K. Sankarganesh2* and L. Baskaran1 chromium showed visible symptoms like chlorosis and
Division of Environmental Science, Dept. of Botany, Annamalai necrotic scorches on leaves. Chlorophyll pigment decreased
University, Annamalai Nagar – 608 002, Tamil Nadu, INDIA, (63.78%) with higher concentration of chromium over
Email: ppsmoorthy@yahoo.com; 2A.A. Govt. Arts College, control. Proline content was found to accumulate at all
Villupuram, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
chromium concentrations. Iron, when supplied with
Environmental Pollution has become a major problem chromium showed a modulation in its toxicity. An increase in
all over the world. Among all kinds of Pollution, the problem fresh weight, dry weight and chloroplastic pigments (31.9%)
of water pollution due to industrial effluents is getting more was observed. Antioxidative enzymes showed a different
dimensions day by day in India. Heavy Metal is one of major trend when iron was supplied along with chromium. Catalase
pollutants present in the environment. Chromium is mainly activity increased to 30.4% whereas that of peroxidase
used in various industries such as electroplating, steel works, increased to 47.1% when iron was supplied with 1.5 mM
leather tanning and chemical manufacturing. It is generally chromium against the activity found in chromium treatment
discharged along with these industrial effluent and polluted alone. Proline content was found to accumulate less in case
the nearby aquatic bodies. When these polluted water is used when iron was supplied. The study concludes that black gram
for irrigation, it will affect the growth and yield of plant could adjust itself to grow under chromium stressed
agricultural crops. So an attempt were made to know the environment by regulating their metabolic process and
varietal response of paddy on chromium pollution. Ten supplementation of iron may prove helpful to plant in
varieties of paddy (ADT-36, ADT-42, ADT-45, ASD-16, CO- recovering from stress.
33, CO-43, CO-45, IR-20, and TKM-9) were screened Key words: Chromium, Iron, Amelioration, Vigna mungo, Toxicity
against various concentrations of (2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 & 100
mg/l) chromium. The seedlings were collected and used for SIV/P-27
their morphological, biochemical and enzymatic parameters. Effect of Heavy Metals on Marchantia paleacea
The results showed that, the morphological growth Bertol. at Different Localities of Kumaon Hills
parameters such as Germination percentage, root length, (Uttarakhand)
shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight were recorded. The
Chlorophyll contents were estimated and it gradually Vinay Sahu1*, Virendra Nath1, A.K. Asthana1 and M.
decreased with increase of Cr concentration. Among the Yunus2
varieties, the tolerant one getting higher chlorophyll and Bryology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute,
lower proline than the sensitive one. Field experiments were Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
also conducted to know the variation in growth and yield Email: sahuvinay28@rediffmail.com; 2 Department of
Environmental Science, BBA (Central) University, Lucknow, U.P.,
response of the paddy varieties to chromium pollution. INDIA
82 ICPEP- 4

Bryophytes are non vascular cryptogams and second

largest group of green plants, next to angiosperms, and are SIV/P-29
considered as pioneer plant colonizers of the terrestrial
habitat. These are known as good accumulators of heavy Differential Sensitivity of C3 and C4 Plants to
metals due to their simple morphological and physiological Supplemental UV-B at Varying NPK Levels
attributes. The accumulation of five metals viz., Zn, Mn, Pb, Suruchi Singh* and Madhoolika Agrawal
Cu and Ni in Marchantia paleacea Bertol. growing at various Laboratory of Global Climate Change, Department of Botany,
localities in Kumaon hills has been analyzed in the present Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA,
study. The concentration of the same metals were also Email: suruchibhu79@gmail.com
determined in soil samples to evaluate the role of soil The metabolic reasons associated with differential
composition as a potential source of metals uptake by the sensitivity of C3 and C4 plant species to UV-B stress under
plant. Concentration of Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn was found higher varying NPK levels are not well understood. In the present
in plant samples of disturbed sites as compared to less study, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green) and
disturbed sites. Mn concentration was higher in soil samples amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L. var. Pusa Badi Chaulai),
as compared to plant samples. Correlation analysis (r) was representatives of C3 and C4 plants, respectively were
also performed to investigate the relationship between the subjected to supplemental UV-B (sUV-B: 280-320 nm)
soil samples and accumulation of metal in the plant. under varying soil NPK levels. The NPK amendments were
Significant accumulation (P<0.01) of Pb, Cu and Ni was recommended NPK, 1.5 times recommended NPK, 1.5 times
recorded at Bhowali taxi stand (Nainital). recommended N and 1.5 times recommended K. sUV-B
Key words: Bryophytes, Heavy metals, Marchantia paleacea, caused significant damage to both the plants at all NPK
Kumaon Hills levels. Same level of UV-B stress caused considerably more
SIV/P-28 damage to spinach as compared to amaranthus. This was
accompanied by more reductions in photosynthetic rate,
Comparative Studies on Metal Accumulation, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and chlorophyll
Growth, Antioxidants and Oil Yield of Brassica content. The reduction in photosynthetic rate was maximum
campestris L. exposed to Different Redox in potassium and minimum in 1.5 times NPK amended
Metals(oids) plants. The oxidative damage to membranes in terms of
S. Sinha, R.K. Mishra*, G. Sinam and S. Mallick malondialdehyde was markedly higher in spinach compared
Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical to amaranthus. Amaranthus had significantly higher UV-B
Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., absorbing compounds than spinach. Nitrogen use efficiency
INDIA, Email: sinha_sarita@rediffmail.com (NUE) in spinach reduced minimally under sUV-B radiation
The contamination of metals is responsible for in N deprived potassium amended plants whereas maximally
limiting the productivity and quality of the crops in in amaranthus. Phosphorus Use Efficiency (PUE) of
agricultural fields. The present study was undertaken to amaranthus reduced under sUV-B at all NPK levels while
assess the differential response on metal accumulation, spinach showed increased PUE under sUV-B except at
toxicity and oil yield of Brassica campestris L. exposed to recommended NPK, with maximum increment at 1.5 times
different redox metals(oids) and to study the role of recommended NPK. Potassium use efficiency (KUE)
antioxidants. The plants of B. campestris grown on reduced in both the plants grown at 1.5 times recommended
contaminated substrates [Cu, Cr(VI), As(III), As(V)] under K under sUV-B radiation with higher reduction in
simulated field conditions till maturity. The results have amaranthus. These findings suggest that the differential
shown translocation of metals to the upper part and its sensitivity of spinach and amaranthus to UV-B stress under
sequestration in the leaves without significantly affecting on varying NPK levels are partially governed by their ability to
seed weight and oil yield as compared to control. The utilize the individual nutrients. Photosynthetic pathway of C4
accumulation of As was below detection limit in the seeds, plants, amaranthus seems to tolerate UV-B stress more than
however, the accumulation of Cr was recorded as 3.15 mg C3 plant, spinach under similar UV-B stress and nutrient
Kg-1. The seeds collected from Cu treated plants have shown levels.
no difference in essential metal content as compared to Key words: Supplemental UV-B, C3 and C4 plants, Nutrients,
control. Among all the metal treatments, Cr was the most Photosynthesis, Nutrient use efficiency
toxic as evident from the decrease in growth parameters and
chlorophyll content along with high level of lipid SIV/P-30
peroxidation product. In view of above findings, it can be Variation in Microbial Biomass and Crop Yield in
recommended that the plants grown on As and Cu Rainfed Agroecosystems: Impact of Interaction of
contaminated soil can be used for oil cultivation only. The Herbicide and Soil Amendments of Contrasting
biomass of the As treated plants may be disposed off at safe Resource Quality
place in order to decontaminate the soil due to high
accumulation of As. Alka Singh* and Nandita Ghoshal
Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Department of Botany,
Key words: Brassica campestris, Metals, Metalloids Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA, Email:

alkabhu15@gmail.com seeds of test plant were treated with field relevant

In rainfed drylands, growth of weeds is one of the concentrations (2.5, 5.0 and 10 ppm) of P and also in
major problems where weed infestation is more severe than combination with SA (0.5 mM) to observe ameliorative
in the irrigated cropland. Proper weed management can effect of SA against herbicide toxicity. Experiment was
attribute to considerable enhancement in crop yield; performed in petri dish as well as in pot culture. The toxic
however, it posses a great challenge. Herbicides are generally effect of P and SA on seed germination (SG), radicle length
used extensively for control of weeds. In dryland, soils are (RL) and mitotic index (MI) was evaluated in petri dish
limited not only by nutrient availability but also by soil culture. However, in pot culture seedling height, average
moisture, addition of exogenous soil amendments is essential growth rate (AGR), pigments, protein, sugar contents and
to maintain the crop productivity. When soil amendments are lipid peroxidation of 15 days old seedling were measured.
applied with herbicide, interactions may cause alteration in Total antioxidants (TA) were monitored as plant defence
the effectiveness of herbicides on the dynamics of microbial against oxidative stress. Results showed that SG and seedling
biomass and crop yield. growth of Vigna mungo decreased under P1, P2 and P3
This study aims to evaluate the impact of interaction treatment. RL and MI were also reduced significantly
of herbicide with soil amendments of contrasting resource (p<0.01) in treatments with herbicide but reduction was more
quality on soil microbial biomass and crop yield under the pronounced in P3 treatment. A slight increase of SG and
rice-wheat-summer fallow crop sequence in rainfed seedling growth was observed in P2 treatment compared to P1
agroecosystems. The experimental design involved the treatment. Herbicide treatment remarkably (p<0.001)
application of the following treatments (having equivalent declined pigment, protein and sugar contents of the seedlings
amount of N) studied were: (1) Recommended dose of when compared with control. TA along with
herbicide (Butachlor; 2 kg a.i. ha-1; HC), (2) HC+Chemical malondialdehyde content increase significantly (p<0.01)
fertilizer (CF), (3) HC+Sesbania shoot (SS), and (4) under P treated seedlings. Combined treatment (P+SA) were
HC+wheat straw (WS), (5) HC+farmyard manure (FYM) found to elevate the growth of the seedlings. As a
and (6) Control (no input; CO). Throughout the annual cycle, consequence of herbicidal stress SA enhanced SG, RL, MI,
addition of HC increased the levels of microbial biomass C pigment, protein and sugar content significantly. Under
(MBC) marginally relative to control. However, combined combined treatment, LP and TA were observed to decline
application of HC with various soil amendments showed when compared with P treatment. SA enhanced growth of
higher increase in the levels of soil MBC throughout the Vigna mungo not only in combination with P but also
annual cycle. Throughout the annual cycles higher level of increased growth when seed treated with SA alone as
MBC was accumulated in HC + SS (+70 % increase over compared to control. Thus in the present work, the role of SA
CO). The pattern followed by total crop yield (i.e., rice in protection of Vigna mungo plant against herbicidal stress is
yield+wheat yield) was found to be: apparent.
HC+SS>HC+CF>HC+FYM>HC+WS>HC>CO. Key words: Pendimethalin, Vigna mungo, Salicylic acid, Total
Variability in crop yield was found to be regulated by the antioxidant, Mitotic index
variations in the levels of soil MBC. It is concluded that in SIV/P-32
these agroecosystems, application in combination with soil
amendments of contrasting resource quality could help Heavy Metal Concentration in Coastal Sediments:
sustain soil fertility and maintain higher crop yield in rainfed Its Impact on Mangroves
agro-ecosystems. Jyoti Srivastava1, Anjum Farooqui1*, S.M. Hussain2 and
Key words: Microbial biomass carbon, Crop yield, Resource Vandana Prasad
quality, Soil fertility, Rainfed agroecosystem Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53 University Road,
Lucknow – 226007, U.P., INDIA,
SIV/P-31 Email: caprice2628@yahoo.com; 2University of Madras, A.C.
Mitigating Effects of Salicylic Acid against College Campus, Chennai – 600025, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
Herbicidal Stress Heavy metals have a great ecological significance due
N.B. Singh*, Kavita Yadav and Nimisha Amist to their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in both sediment
Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of and biota. Sediment is an important component of an
Allahabad, Allahabad – 211002, U.P., INDIA, ecosystem which serves as an excellent archive of past
Email: nbsingh2001@gmail.com environmental events. Toxic and non-biodegradable heavy
Pendimethalin [N-(1-ethyl propyl)-2,6-dinitro-3,4 metals accumulate in plants through complex physical and
xylidine] is one of the most commonly used herbicide. It also chemical absorption mechanisms. However, the nature of the
induces harmful effect on non-target plants besides sediment matrix provides a favorable condition for the
controlling the weed emergence. Salicylic acid (SA) is found adsorbed chemical compounds. Textural analysis of a 5m
to play an important role in abiotic stress tolerance. So, the deep sedimentary core retrieved from Gaddilam Estuary,
aim of the present study was to assess the comparative Tamil Nadu, (subsampled at 2 cm intervals) shows the
efficacy of SA in combination with different concentrations predominance of fine sandy clay with intermittent short
of pendimethalin (P) on black gram (Vigna mungo). The clayey zones. The results indicate high salinity (average 2.2
84 ICPEP- 4

ppt. and maximum 3.0 ppt.) and pH (average 8.0) in the of plant. The root, as compared to leaf, accumulates greater
clayey sediment which restricts the thorough percolation of amount of metals when lower concentrations (10% and 25%)
salts through capillary action. Therefore the clayey bands in of fly-ash are mixed with soil but when concentration
between the cores show comparatively high concentration of exceeds to 50% or more, foliar concentrations become
heavy metals such as Ag, Ba, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, appreciable.
Ti and Zn. The intermittent sandy clay phases, which are Key words: Fly-ash, Press mud, Garden soil, Sunflower,
likely to have comparatively larger pore sizes between soil Composition
particles, show low salinity (average 1.5 ppt. and maximum SIV/P-34
1.8 ppt.) and pH (average 7.3) due to percolation and
capillary translocation of salts and heavy metals. Restriction Effect of Nitrogen Addition on Invasive Woody
of inland water input to estuaries by damming water for Shrub Lantana camara L.
agriculture and various other purposes coupled with weak Purnima Raizada1* and A.S. Raghubanshi2
monsoonal pattern allows excess water evaporation from School of Environmental Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University,
exposed wetlands. This results into salt accretion and New Delhi, INDIA, Email: purnimaraizada@gmail.com;
increase in salinity. Low energy Rivers/ streams flowing in Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi –
gentle relief deposits fine silty/ clayey sediments in the 225001, U.P., INDIA
wetlands that act as reservoirs of high salt and heavy metal Nitrogen cycling is greatly affected by anthropogenic
accumulation which is vulnerable for a mangrove forest. The activities. Because of anthropogenic N input species from
input of heavy metals could be natural and due to enhanced nutrient-poor conditions may be displaced by a few fast-
anthropogenic activity in the coastal zone such as industrial growing and highly competitive species. Further plant
and agricultural expanse. invasion is known to be the second most important factor for
Key words: Heavy metal, Coastal sediment, Mangroves, Salinity, the species loss after habitat destruction. In the present study
Salt accumulation Lantana camara was exposed to four different levels of
exogenous N (0 (N0; used as control), 30 (N1), 60 (N2) and 120
(N3) Kg N ha-1)) to study its performance under global change
A Study on Suitability of Fly-ash and Press Mud for scenario of excess N. L. camara has shown a significant
Sunflower Productivity linear increase in the shoot length and biomass with
Shailesh Kumar Mishra1*, S.N. Singh2 and Ruchi Rathore1 increasing N. At the highest N input 335% increase in plant
Shri Ramswaroop Memorial College of Engg. and Management, biomass was observed. In addition RGR and NAR also
Lucknow, U.P., INDIA, Email: msk.2609@gmail.com; 2National increased due to N input. Therefore, it may be expected that
Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA increased levels of soil N can potentially favour the invasive
This study is aimed to check the suitability of fly-ash L. camara in near future.
(FA) as soil conditioner in the combination of organic Key words: Global change, Plant invasion, Nitrogen, Performance
amendment with press mud (PM) for a better growth and
yield of sunflower. The application of fly-ash and press mud
in the garden soil (GS) can help in enhancing nutrient Rhizobium (VR-1 and VA-1) Inoculation Induces an
availability in the medium and thus can promote plant growth Increasing Growth and Metal Accumulation
substantially because of having abundant amount of essential Potential in Leguminous Plants Growing under Fly-
elements required for plant growth. The biomass of ash
sunflower plant was more in 25% and 50% FA treatment with
S.K. Chaudhary1, D.K. Gupta2, U.N. Rai1 and K. Mishra3
press mud than 25% and 50% FA treatment with soil in pre- 1
Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical
flowering stages but in flowering stage the biomass of Research Institute, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA;
sunflower plant on FA/GS composition was higher. 2
Departamento de Bioquimica, Biologia Cellular y Molicular de
Therefore growth performance of H. annuus was found to be Plantas, Estacion Experimental Del Zaidin, CSIC, Granada –
the best in FA/GS compositions. In spite of this the 18008, SPAIN; 3Department of Botany, University of Lucknow,
recommendation for the large scale application of fly-ash to Lucknow – 226007, U.P., INDIA
the agricultural soils in a region can not be made unless Fly-ash tolerant Rhizobium strains were isolated from
extensive trials are made to find out a proper combination of leguminous plant grown in fly-ash contaminated soil,
fly-ash with each type of soil and for each crop to be grown in axenically under laboratory conditions. Saplings of plants
the region. were raised in N2-free Jenson medium and inoculated with
The yield of sunflower plants in terms of seed output 2.6 x 108 cell ml-1 and 5.2x108 cell ml-1 of culture after 10 d of
was better in case of FA/PM composition (10% and 25%) growth. Plants were transferred into 100% fly-ash under
than FA/GS compositions. Following the results as noticed in natural condition. Rhizobium inoculated plants grown on
present study it may be concluded that use of press mud on a 100% fly-ash showed marked increase in relation to root-
large scale doesn't favour the process of pigment content shoot length, biomass yield, photosynthetic pigment, protein
formation in plant and along with fly-ash press mud causes content and nodulation frequency as compared to
considerable accumulation of metal content in root and leaf uninnoculated plant grown in control (100% fly-ash).

Inoculation of fly-ash tolerant Rhizobium increased the have been made by various groups of workers to look for
accumulation of Fe, Zn, Cu Cd and Cr in different tissue vis- chemical and natural means for alleviation of Cd toxicity. In
à-vis enhanced translocation of metals to the above ground the present study, we have investigated the comparative
part of plant. Although inoculation of fly-ash tolerant ameliorating effect of salicylic acid (SA), calcium (Ca), and
Rhizobium strains (VR-1 and VA-1) enhanced the silica (Si) on Cd toxicity in rice plants. These chemical
translocation of more Fe to shoot parts However, the amount substances are involved in various physiological processes
of Rhizobium inoculants supplied to the plant was found to be and are also associated with stress tolerance in plants. Cd
very important since it has a positive role in increasing plant toxicity in rice plants leads to excessive production of ROS
growth through increased N2 supply via nitrogenase activity. (reactive oxygen species), oxidative stress, proteolysis and
Our results suggest that an integrated approach employing sharp increase in activity of many antioxidative enzymes.
biotechnological means and inoculation of plants with host Pretreatment of rice seedlings with 30µM SA, 2mM Ca and
specific fly-ash tolerant Rhizobium strain may prove a 200µM Si reduced oxidative stress as well as proteolytic
stimulus to fly-ash management programme. damage induced by Cd. With high resolution SDS-PAGE, it
Key words: Fly ash, Rhizobium, Leguminous plant was observed that SA pretreatment promoted the expression
of many such proteins, which were apparently absent or
SIV/P-36 down regulated in Cd stressed plant parts as compared to Ca
Assessment of Fluoride in Ground Water of an and Si. CBB (colloidal comassie blue) stained proteomes
Industrial Areas and Evaluation of Phytotoxic generated from Cd-stressed and SA-pretreated plants
Effect of NaF on the Growth Parameters of Cucumis involving isoelectric focusing (pH 3-11) followed by 2-D
sativas, Lagenaria Siceraria and Abelmoschus electrophoresis, revealed many proteins constitutively
esculentus present in control and Sa-pretreated plants but absent in Cd-
Prem Chandra and D.P. Singh* treated plants. Protein spot pattern obtained were
Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao characterized for their constitutive and inducible expression.
Ambedkar University, Lucknow – 226025, U.P., INDIA, It was observed that SA pretreatment regulates many proteins
Email: dpsingh_lko@yahoo.com toward their normal level of expression. These results
Fluoride and fluorine are the air, water and soil suggest that exogenous application of SA is advantageous in
pollutant which are extremely harmful for both humans and combating Cd toxicity in rice plants compared to Ca and Si.
plants. Fluoride content was determined in the ground water Key words: Cadmium, Salicylic acid, SDS-PAGE, 2-D
of an industrial area situated in Asoha Block of Unnao electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing
district, it ranged from 0.0064 ± 0.0003 to 5.63 ± 0.06 mg L-1. SIV/P-38
Almost all the samples assessed showed fluoride content that
was found beyond the Maximum Acceptable Concentration Improvement in Seedling Growth and Nitrogen Use
(MAC) i.e. 1.5 mgL-1 in drinking water due to the percolation Efficiency in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in
and leaching of industrial effluent, which affects the growth Presence of Salicylic Acid
parameter. The characteristic symptoms are visible in the P.K. Singh
seed germination, carotenoids and chlorophylls. The Department of Botany, Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi
concentration range of NaF (1 mM to 20 mM) suppressed – 221002, U.P., INDIA, Email: drpksingh2001@gmail.com
germination index, % phytotoxicity, vigour index, speed Plants count on a wide variety of metabolic,
germination, root length, shoot length and pigment of physiological, and developmental responses to adapt their
Cucumis sativus Lagenaria Siceraria, and Abelmoschus growth to variations in mineral nutrient availability. To react
esculentus plant. The seed of Lagenaria Siceraria are more to such variations plants have evolved complex sensing and
sensitive in higher concentration of NaF than other two signaling mechanisms that allow them to monitor the
crops. The chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoids external and internal concentration of each of these nutrients,
showed a NaF induced declining pattern in all the crops. both in absolute terms and also relatively to the status of other
Key words: Industrial area, NaF, Phytotoxicity, Potable water nutrients. Recent evidence has shown that hormones
participate in the control of these regulatory networks.
Conversely, availability of mineral nutrients influence
Salicylic Acid Better Alleviates Cadmium Toxicity hormone biosynthesis, which regulates nutritional
than Calcium and Silica by Upregulating homeostasis under adverse environmental conditions.
Antioxidant Status and Many Constitutive Proteins Salicylic acid an endogenous growth regulator is
Rajneesh Kumar Srivastava*, Poonam Pandey and R.S. involved in the defense mechanism in plants under various
Dubey stress conditions. Present study was conducted to determine
Department of Biochemistry, faculty of science, Banaras Hindu the effects of salicylic acid (10 to 500 ìM) on seedling
University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA, growth, development and nitrogen use efficiency in
Email: raj1986srivastava@gmail.com cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants with or without
Cadmium (Cd) is potent heavy metal pollutant and nitrogen nutrient. Salicylic acid increased contents of
drastically affects plant growth and productivity. Attempts chlorophyll, total non-structural carbohydrate and total
86 ICPEP- 4

nitrogen, as well as nitrate assimilation through the induction University, Chandigarh, INDIA, Email: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com;
of nitrate reductase (EC activity in isolated Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
cucumber cotyledons. Accumulation of salicylic acid was 2 Of the various elements present in the soil, some are
folds higher in cotyledons without nitrate supply in without any biological function. Rather, they are absorbed by
comparison to that with nitrate supply. Further, germination the plants, and are toxic even at low concentrations. In fact,
percentage, root length, Shoot length and dry mass of the contamination of environment by toxic metals has
cucumber were increased significantly at 50 ìM of SA. become a worldwide problem. They affect crop yield, soil
While, higher salicylic acid concentrations inhibited above biomass and fertility, persist in the environment, and
physiological characteristics. The present results showed bioaccumulate in the food chain to levels that could harm
that, field application of salicylic acid need optimum humans. Lead (Pb) is non-essential heavy metal that occurs
physiological concentration (e.g., 50 ìM) to increase naturally in earth's surface and is released into the
nitrogen use efficiency particularly during germination and environment from a range of anthropogenic activities. We
seedling growth. conducted a series of experiments to evaluate the impact of
Key words: Cucumber (Cucummis sativus L.), Cotyledons, lead-contaminated soil on the growth and biochemical
Nitrate-nutrition response, Nitrate reductase activity, Salicylic acid aspects of wheat plant under soil-culture conditions. Pb (500-
SIV/P-39 2500 µM) was supplied as solution to soil to achieve stress
conditions in comparison to unstressed, water treated,
Sodium Azide Induced Chromotoxicity and control variant. Plants were exposed to Pb solutions for one-
Mutagenecity in Sesbania Pea (Sesbania cannabina month under experimental dome conditions and various
Poir.) morphological and biochemical observations were recorded
Girjesh Kumar and Nitisha Srivastava* after 7, 15 and 30 days. Growth parameters, such as root
Plant Genetics Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of length, shoot length and dry weight exhibited a significant
Allahabad – 211002, U.P., INDIA, decline with increasing Pb concentrations. In addition, the
Email: srivastava_nitisha@yahoo.com level of photosynthetic pigments decreased upon exposure to
Mutation breeding program is used to produce useful various Pb concentrations in a linear manner. It was
variations in quantitatively and qualitatively inherited traits. accompanied by reduced Photochemical Efficiency of PSII
Chromosomal aberrations caused by mutagen are an indicating interference with photosynthetic activity. Further,
important tool in cytogenetical studies. Sesbania cannabina Pb exposures significantly reduced cellular respirations and
commonly known as 'dhaincha' in India is adaptible to root oxidizing ability, and enhanced malondialdehyde
different adverse climatic conditions such as water logging, content and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in wheat
drought etc. and is widely used as green manure crop and may plants. These observations indicated a Pb-induced stress in
have potential as forage for cattles. The objective of present wheat plants. Further investigations revealed a significant
cytogenetical investigation was to study mutagenic alteration in the activities of scavenging enzymes, viz.
effectiveness and efficiency of sodium azide in Sesbania superoxide dismutases, peroxidases, and catalases. The
cannabina. Seeds of Sesbania cannabina variety ND-1 were study concludes that the growth of wheat was severely
treated with 0.5% solution of sodium azide for different time reduced in Pb-contaminated soil and it involved alteration in
durations viz. 3, 5, 7 and 9 hr and sown to raise M1 generation the oxidative metabolism of wheat.
and its effects on seed germination, survival percentage, Key words: Lead pollution, Wheat, Oxidative metabolism
pollen fertility and cytological parameters were studied. SIV/P-41
Pollen fertility was highest in control as compared to treated
sets and it decreased as the treatment doses increase. Plants Nickel Inhibits Plant Growth and Causes Oxidative
grown from treated seeds of all doses showed diversity Damage
among themselves regarding their pollen fertility and Asha Kumari, Varinder Saini and Harminder Pal Singh*
cytological characters. The diifferent type of chromosomal Department of Environment and Vocational Studies and
abberations included; C-metaphase, precocious movement, Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA,
unoriention, disturbed metaphase, lagging chromsome, Email: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com
bridge formation, stickiness and desynapsis etc. Meiotic Nickel (Ni) being an essential mineral nutrient is
aberrations were also found to be increased as the doses ofrequired in trace amounts in natural soils; but, it is highly
treatment increase. toxic above the critical concentration. However, various
Key words: Sesbania cannabina, Sodium azide, Chromosome anthropogenic activities have resulted in enhanced Ni levels
aberrations, Pollen fertility, Meiotic aberrations in the soil. It has deleteriously affected a number of
SIV/P-40 physiological and biochemical processes involved in the
growth and metabolism of the plants. We conducted a series
Alterations in Growth and Physiology of Wheat in of experiments to examine the toxic effect of Ni on maize
Lead-Contaminated soil (Zea mays L.). Ni treatment (5-50µM) was given to
Gurpreet Kaur1, Harminder Pal Singh1*, Daizy R. Batish2 hydroponically grown maize roots from 2 to 6 days. In this
and R.K. Kohli2 study, we investigated the effect of Ni on seedling growth,
Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab dry weight, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic

efficiency. The observed growth inhibition was explained in processes or human activities particularly disposal of
terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative industrial effluents waste and use of agrochemicals. Many of
stress. Ni toxicity was associated with enhanced lipid the metallic compounds are retained in soils and do not easily
peroxidation (malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes) and percolate and ultimately pose a threat to ecosystems. There is
H2O2 content in Zea mays roots. A significant alteration was an urgent need to reduce excess metals present in soil,
also observed in antioxidant scavenging enzymatic sediments and water bodies to further check the
machinery upon Ni exposure. The study concluded that Ni environmental contamination.
inhibits plant root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative The present study is targeted to work out the capacity
damage. of Acacia nilotica as bio-pollutant reducing agent to further
Key words: Nickel, Zea mays, Antioxidants devolvement of eco-friendly environment of pollution
hazard zone like industries, mining, urban etc. Fast growing
Acacia nilotica member of leguminosae, is a moderate-size
Chromium (VI) Induces Oxidative Damage in Rice evergreen tree of Indian content and can grow on a variety of
(Oryza sativa) by Damaging Cell Membrane soils with deep root system and drought-resistant. It is
Priyanka Mahajan1, Daizy R. Batish1*, S. Kaur2, H.P. commonly grown along roadsides, canal banks and in
Singh2 and R.K. Kohli2 agricultural land. It is used as firewood, small timber and for
Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh - 160014, medicinal.
Punjab, INDIA; 2Department of Environment and Vocational The seven concentrations viz; 0, 100, 200, 500, 700,
Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh – 160014, Punjab, INDIA, 1000 and 2000 ppm of Cobalt chloride, Nickel chloride and
Email: daizybatish@yahoo.com Lead chloride were used on the basis of dry weight of soil
Chromium (Cr) is the 7th most abundant metal in the filled in the container (1.3kg). Uniform sized and shape of
earth's crust and is released into the environment from seeds treated with hot water (850C) for breaking the hard seed
various anthropogenic activities. Out of various valence coat dormancy and well soaked three seeds were sown the in
states, Cr (III) and Cr (VI) are the most stable. For the present each container. After emergence and establishment of
study, Cr (VI, hereafter referred to as Cr) used as K2Cr2O7 seedlings thinning was done to maintain one seedling in each
(potassium dichromate) was selected and its phytotoxicity on container. Experiment was framed on CRD design and the
rice (Oryza sativa) evaluated. Both root and shoot length of data were generated for seed emergence and survivorship;
rice seedlings decreased with increasing Cr concentrations growth of shoot and root; nodule formation; with Eco-
(100-500 µM). Cr also led to excessive ion leakage and physiological growth behaviour viz.; Relative Growth Rate
increased amount of malondialdehyde content and (RGR), Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) and Leaf Area Ratio
generation of reactive oxygen species suggestive of its (LAR) and discussed in light of different concentration and
impact on membrane damage. The biochemical studies were toxicity of pollutants as well tolerant capacity of most
in confirmation with in-situ histochemical studies which common and indigenous species A. nilotica.
indicated the interference of Cr with cell membrane. In Key words: Acacia nilotica, Cobalt, Nickel, Lead, Soil pollution,
addition to this, Cr stress altered the activities of various Growth performance
antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutases,
catalases, Ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, and
glutathione reductases. The results suggested that Cr retarded Salicylic Acid Induced Changes in Antioxidative
the seedling growth of O. sativa as a function of increased Responses in Salt Stressed Wheat Seedlings
content of oxidative stress markers and alterations in Nalini Pandey and Meenakshi Tripathi*
scavenging enzymatic machinery. Plant Nutrition and Stress Physiology Laboratory, Department of
Key words: Chromium, Oxidative damage, Biochemical response, Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, U.P., India,
Oryza sativa Email: nalini_pandey@rediffmail.com
SIV/P-43 The present study investigates the role of salicylic
acid (SA) in inducing plant tolerance to salinity in wheat. The
Effect of Chlorides of Cobalt, Nickel and Lead on effect of 0.1 and 0.2 mM SA via root was investigated on
Saplings of Acacia nilotica growth, dry matter yield, membrane stability index (MSI)
M.N. Naugraiya* and Dinesh M. Funde lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide chlorophyll and
Department of Forestry, CoA, Indira Gandhi Agricultural carotenoid concentration and antioxidative enzyme activity
University, Raipur – 492006, C.G., INDIA, in NaCl (50 and 100 mM) stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum
Email: drmnn_13@yahoo.co.uk var. UP-2338) seedlings. Compared to salt stressed plants SA
Since the dawn of the Industrial revolution, mankind treatment decreased the content of H2O2 and TBARS. A
has been introducing numerous hazardous compounds in to beneficial effect of SA on antioxidative enzyme activity and
the biosphere but the heavy metals pose severe threats to the decrease in oxidative stress was observed. SA increased
environment long-term basis and non-reversible, when they chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration, relative water
found in the environment beyond the critical point. The entry content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) and total
of metals in to the environment results from either natural biomass over salt stressed plants. The result suggests that SA
88 ICPEP- 4

can mitigate the adverse effect caused by salt stress. in germinating solution. There was accumulation of sugars
Key words: Salinity, Salicylic acid, Oxidative stress, Membrane and phenols and decreased starch concentration in
stability cotyledons and embryonic axes of growing seedling with
increasing boron stress. Boron toxicity caused accumulation
of H2O2 and TBARS concentration and also affected the
Involvement of Nitric Oxide in Alliviation of antioxidative enzyme activity in growing seedling
Cadmium Toxicity in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) components. The result of the present study indicates that
Nalini Pandey and Gaurav Kumar Singh* toxicity of boron disturbed the mechanism of germination in
Plant Nutrition and Stress Physiology Laboratory, Department of seeds via influencing the carbohydrate, phenol and oxidative
Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, U.P., India, metabolism in seedling components at early stages of
Email: nalini_pandey@rediffmail.com growth.
The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on cadmium toxicity in Key words: Boron toxicity, Carbohydrates, Oxidative stress,
wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) was investigated. Plants Phytotoxicity, Phenols, Seed germination
subjected to 0.2 mM cadmium chloride exposure were SIV/P-47
treated with 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mM sodium nitropruside
(SNP, a NO donor). The results indicated that 0.1 and 0.2 mM Modulation of Antioxidative Responses of Faba
SNP alleviated cadmium toxicity by increasing plant growth Bean (Vicia faba L. var. VH-130) by Excess Boron
and biomass production while 0.05 and 0.5 mM were not so Supply in Sand Culture
effective. Cadmium toxicity caused decrease in plant length, Dharmendra Kumar Pandey1* and Nalini Pandey
biomass production and chlorophyll concentration. 1Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University
Exogenous NO increased chlorophyll concentration and U.P., Lucknow Campus – 226010, U.P., INDIA,
inhibited lipid peroxidation by decreasing TBARS and H2O2 Email: dkpandey_77@yahoo.co.in; 2Department of Botany,
accumulation in leaves of wheat subjected to cadmium University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, U.P., INDIA,
toxicity. Cadmium toxicity induced decrease in superoxide Email: nalini_pandey@rediffmail.com
dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) In this study we explored the induction of oxidative
activity, resulting in increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress by excess of boron (3.3 and 33 mM B) in plants of Vicia
concentration and lipid peroxidation. Application of NO faba L. var.VH-130 under glass house conditions. Plants
donor SNP to Cd toxic plants provided protection from subjected to excess boron showed retardation in growth
oxidative damage by modulating enzyme activity and along with yellowing followed by scorching of old leaf
lowering lipid peroxidation. apices. Excess of boron enhanced lipid peroxidation (MDA),
Key words: Cadmium toxicity, Nitric oxide, Oxidative damage concentration of H2O2, proline, total phenols, ascorbate and
decreased concentration of chloroplastic pigments in the
SIV/P-46 young leaves. The activities of enzymes polyphenol oxidase
Phytotoxic Effect of Boron on Seed Germination (EC; PPO), ribonuclease (EC; RNase),
and Biochemical Changes in the Cotyledons and super oxide dismutase (EC; SOD), ascorbate
Embryonic Axes of Mustard peroxidase (EC; APX), catalase (EC;
N. Pandey and Archana* CAT) and peroxidase (EC; POD) increased in leaves
Plant Nutrition and Stress Physiology Laboratory, Department of supplied excess boron. However, the activity of glutathione
Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226007, Uttar Pradesh, reductase (EC; GR) was depressed. Marked
India, Email: nalini_pandey@rediffmail.com accumulation of phenols, MDA and H2O2, suggested
Boron is involved in various industrial processes such peroxidative damage to membrane lipids, typical of damage
as glass, ceramic, detergent and soap industries which result from reactive oxygen species. It is, therefore, concluded that
in the accumulation of boron in industrial wastes which then excess B (3.3 and 33 mM) induced oxidative stress despite of
permeate into the natural environment. Boron is an essential increased antioxidant production. There was no correlation
element for the optimum growth and development of plants between tissue boron concentration and boron supplied to
but it is phytotoxic if present in excess amounts. Hence it is plants.
proposed to study the phytotoxic effect of boron during early Key words: Boron, SOD, MDA, Oxidative stress, Vicia faba
germination stage in seeds of mustard (Brassica juncea L. SIV/P-48
var. Varuna). For this seeds were sown in petridishes with
varying concentrations of boron (0, 0.33, 3.3, 33, 330 mM) in Effect of UV–B on Nitrate, Phosphate and
seed germinator. Germination percentage, vigor index and Ammonium uptakes in Protein Rich Microalgae
percentage phytotoxicity in seeds were studied. Chlorella and Spirulina
Concentration of H2O2, TBARS, sugars, starch, phenols and V. Prasad
activities of antioxidative enzymes were determined in the Department of Botany, Thakur Ram Multiple Campus Birgunj,
seedling components. Seed germination and vigor index was Tribhuvan University, NEPAL, Email: mpal_vp@yahoo.com
found to be decreased and percentage phytotoxicity was The increasing incidence of UV-B on the earth's
increased in seeds with increase in the concentration of boron surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion is highly

deleterious to many physiological processes in several zinc treated and non treated soils and heavy metal
microalgae. Nitrate, phosphate and ammonium uptake translocations from harvested plants to subsequent ayurvedic
mechanism were severely affected by long-term UV-B preparations. Differences were observed in total ash,
exposure in protein-rich microalgae Chlorella, a green alga insoluble ash, alcohol extractive alkolids, tannin,
and blue-green cynobacterium Spirulina. Chorella is highly carbohydrate, saponin, protein, glycosides oil and flavonid
sensitive than Spirulina. But, nitrate and phosphate uptake contents of plants grown in varying heavy metal
were stimulated by 2.5 Wm-2 UV-B exposures for short concentration. The study also finds a significant variation in
duration in both microalgae. In contrast, ammonium uptake stomatal index, palside ratio and fluorescence and zinc
was inhibited for short periods and later stimulated by UV-B content in Yasad Bhasm.
exposure in Spirulina. UV-B enhanced the nitrate uptake Key words: Medicinal plants, Zinc, Ayurvedic preparations, Yasad
stimulation in nitrate deficient media for short periods in both Bhasm
microalgae, higher than photosynthetic active radiation
(PAR). Dark incubation to UV-B treated Chlorella and
Spirulina culture diminished the nitrate, ammonium and Effects of Atmospheric Deposition on Organic
phosphate uptake efficiency. Increasing uptakes stimulation Farming: Soil Fertility Stability and Heavy Metal
were observed up to certain limit by fluorescent light to UV-B Accumulation in Vicia faba L.
treated cultures which were still higher in cultures exposed to Ashima Singh* and Jitendra Pandey
UV-B for longer periods. Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi –
Key words: UV-B, Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonium uptakes, 221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: jiten_pandey@rediffmail.com
Chlorella, Spirulina Green revolution although substantially enhanced
SIV/P-49 grain production, yet at high environmental cost in terms of
eutrophication due to multifold increase in fertilizer use and
Effect of Particulate Pollutant on Chlorophyll of health risks due to toxic contamination of pesticides and
Rice Leaf heavy metals. This has led organic farming to emerge as one
D.D. Pandey* and Kiran Pandey of the most promising hazard free and sustainable
P.G. Department of Botany, Nalanda College, Biharsharif, Nalanda, agricultural practice. The aim of this study was to investigate
Bihar, INDIA soil fertility stability and accumulation of heavy metals in a
The study was made to assess the effect of stone dietary vegetable, broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under the
crusher dust on chlorophyll in rice leaf. The concentration of influence of atmospheric deposition at Varanasi. Pot–culture
chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll in unit experiments were conducted using Vicia faba grown in
fresh weight of pollutant leaves were always lower than those earthen pots containing garden soil as control and with
in control rice plant. An increasing trend of chlorophyll till following amendments: soil with synthetic fertilizer
the flowering of the plant and thereafter reduction in (recommended dose of N, P, K); soil with farmyard manure
chlorophyll concentration were found. (4:1 ratio) and soil with vermicompost (9:1 ratio). Pots were
Key words: Stone crusher dust, Chlorophyll, Rice leaf placed at two study sites namely Banaras Hindu University
campus receiving low atmospheric deposition of heavy
SIV/P-50 metals, and Ramnagar receiving high level of heavy metal
Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Response in Seed input through atmospheric deposition.
Germination and Vegetative Growth to Abiotic The results indicated that the atmospheric deposition
Stress: Induced Heavy Metal Zinc and its Ayurvedic substantially enhanced heavy metal accumulation in test crop
Preparation i.e. Yasad Bhasm and the accumulation appeared maximum in leaves followed
M.K. Rahman*, Ashwani, Mangal, Dheraj and Depale by shoots, roots and seeds. Metal accumulation was found to
Department YMT Ayurvedic Medical College, Kharghar, Navi be significantly higher at Ramnagar in comparison to BHU
Mumbai, Maharashtra, INDIA, site and the trend appeared as Zn>Pb>Cr>Cu>Cd. At BHU
Email: drmkrahman@rediffmail.com site, however, Cr accumulation in plant parts superceded the
The aims of this study were to evaluate the growth Pb. Organic amendment led to decreased heavy metal
response and zinc accumulation of selected medicinal plants accumulation especially in roots and seeds of Vicia faba. The
towards varying concentration of zinc and its translocation to decreases in vegetable accumulation of Cd, Cr and Pb were
an ayurvedic preparation (i.e. Yasad Bhasm). For this, more effective for soil amended with farmyard manure in
selected medicinal plants (Triogonella foenum-graceum, comparison to those amended with vermicompost.
Coriander sativum and Occimum basilum were cultured in Furthermore, organic amendments significantly increased
experimental pots treated with varying concentrations of zinc microbial biomass-C (Cmic), activity (measured in terms of
(0, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg pot-1) and studied the substrate induced respiration, SIR) and specific respiration
germination profile, growth response and translocation of of biomass (qCO2) in cultivated soil. However, between site
heavy metal from vegetative parts to Yasad Bhasm. comparisons indicated that Cmic and SIR declined by 7-11%
Furthermore, attempts were also made to compare the and by 9-17 % respectively at Ramnagar site receiving high
difference in pharmacological characters of plants grown in atmospheric input of heavy metals. The study indicate that
90 ICPEP- 4

organic amendment although reduce heavy metal model except for SO2. NO2 had significant affect (at P>.05) on
accumulation in Vicia faba, induces destabilizing effect on
chlorophyll content of all the species which shows the
soil fertility stability. This has relevance from agricultural
influence of direct vehicular emission. O3 had significant
sustainability perspective. contribution in the model when combined with
Key words: Atmospheric deposition, Heavy metal, Microbial meteorological variables relative humidity and wind speed.
biomass, Organic farming, Sustainable agriculture Regression curve fit results showed that O3 fitted cubic model
SIV/P-52 with all the three species. NO2 showed power fit with C.
siamea and compound with P. pinnata and D. regia. NO
Air Pollution Effects on Chlorophyll a Content of fitted quadratic with P. pinnata and cubic with other two
Deciduous Tree Species - Statistical Analysis of the species. SO fitted linear curve with all the species.
Key words: Chlorophyll a, Higher trees, Air pollutants,
Sunita Kumari* and Chirashree Ghosh Correlation, Regression
Department of Environmental Biology, Main Campus, University
of Delhi, Delhi – 110007, INDIA, Email: sunita09@gmail.com SIV/P-53
Effects of air pollution on chlorophyll a content of Aluminium Toxicity Leads to Differential
three deciduous roadside trees namely Cassia siamea, Expression of Antioxidative Enzymes in Rice
Pongamia pinnata and Delonix regia exposed to vehicular Cultivars Differing in Aluminium Tolerance
emission was assessed at one of the busiest traffic Kumari Bhoomika* and R.S. Dubey
intersection (ITO) in Delhi. Chlorophyll a data was collected Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu
following the extraction method described by Hiscox and University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA,
Israelstam (1979) during the vegetative growth period of tree Email: bhoomi369@gmail.com
sp. i.e. from June to August, at an interval of 7 days for two Aluminium (Al) toxicity drastically affects crop
consecutive years 2008 and 2009. Air pollution data for the productivity in acid soils, with pH below 5.5. In order to
site was obtained from Central Pollution Control Board examine whether antioxidative defense system is associated
(CPCB). The air pollution monitoring station was situated in with prevention of Al induced toxicity in rice seedlings,
the radius of 500 m from the tree sampling site. production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), extent of
Meteorological data was collected with pocket weather oxidative stress generated and activity behaviours of
station at the same time of each sampling day. Statistical antioxidative enzymes were determined in growing
approach of the study was focused to investigate the seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in Al
relationships between chlorophyll a content (response tolerance. Experiments were conducted in sand cultures
variable), air pollutants and meteorological variables using Al-sensitive rice cv. HUR-105 and Al-tolerant cv.
(predictor variables). Statistical analysis was conducted Vandana. Yoshida nutrient solution served as control and
using correlation coefficient and regression techniques, nutrient solutions containing 177 µM and 418 µM Al+3 served
which suited best the multiple-stress approach that was used as treatment solutions. Seedlings raised for 5 days in 0.5 mM
as a theoretical background. The fitted model was based on CaCl2 were transferred to sand cultures containing nutrient
multiple linear regression equation which helped in selection and treatment solutions. When rice seedlings were raised for
of significant variables. The method of stepwise forward 3,6,9,12 days in presence of Al+3, increased production of the
regression was used to select most influencing variables. ROS O2.-, H2O2 as well as increased lipid peroxidation and
Predictor variables used in the stepwise analysis was air
protein oxidation were observed in the seedlings. The extent
temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, dew point, SO2,
of ROS production and degree of oxidative stress were
NO, NO2 and O3. After a first selection of linear relationships, greater in the seedlings of Al sensitive cultivar than the
improvement of the relationships was sought in non-linear tolerant. Al tolerant seedlings showed insignificant increase
relationships using curve fitting. According to the correlation or decline in the levels of ROS when subjected to Al-stress.
coefficient results, less to moderate relationship was Rice seedlings differing in Al tolerance showed varying
established with pigment concentration and pollutants. Leaf activity levels of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT),
samples of C. siamea showed significant relationship with superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX)
NO and SO2. All models selected by multiple linear and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under both control and Al-
regression analysis was significant at p>0.05. Results treated conditions. The level of protein oxidation marked by
indicate that the response of chlorophyll a content in the leaf decline in thiol level greatly increased in Al-sensitive
tissue of each tree species had different association with the seedlings compared to the tolerants under stress conditions.
predictor variables. Selection of predictor variable for C. Al tolerance in rice appears to be associated with high level of
siamea and P. pinnata were very much similar. Behavior of induced CAT activity in Al-treated seedlings as well as
D. regia was different from others as no meteorological constitutively higher levels of the antioxidative enzymes
variable was selected. None of the species select temperature SOD, GPX and APX in control and stressed seedlings.
as significant variable. Observing the magnitude of Key words: Aluminium toxicity, Tolerance, Oryza sativa L.,
coefficients (B), values were not very high but most of Reactive oxygen species, Antioxidative enzymes, Rice
obtained coefficient showed significant contribution in the

SIV/P-54 muscorum under seven heavy metal chlorides (Zn, Mg, Co,
Ecofriendly Technology of Biocompost from Mn, Hg, Pb, Cd) stress by biochemical parameter SOD
Industrial Waste Inoculated by Trichoderma viridie (superoxide dismutase). Cyanobacteria are well documented
for its ability to maintain the anti oxidant level by releasing
and its Efects on Growth and Yield of Solanum H2O2 into the environment. The differential response of heavy
tuberosum L.: Waste to Wealth metal stress strain towards SOD activity at varying
M.A. Ali Khan* and S. Yadav concentrations (0.5 µM to 1.0µM) was investigated. It was
Environmental Science Lab., K (PG.) College, Simbhaoli – 245207, observed that SOD activity increased with increasing heavy
U.P., INDIA, Email: mallikhan@rediffmail.com metal concentration in the culture, pointed to the occurrence of
Distilling spent wash (DSW)is being discharged by scavenging mechanism. The activity of SOD in the culture was
319+ distilleries in country that is creating environmental maximum in the presence of Mg2+, while culture containing
pollution in their vicinities composing techniques by heap Zn2+ and Cd2+ showed similar scavenging activity which was
method (plastics containers) was accomplished with organic less than control as they have same SOD values. Mn2+ showed
industrial waste viz. PMC (pressmud Cake), distillery spend minimum cell density among all the metals having minimum
wash, Azolla and Trichoderma in treatments combination. T1 SOD value. Order of SOD activities shown by metal adapted
(PMC + Azolla), T2 (PMC +Azolla +DWS), T3 (PMC cultures and the culture containing no stress (control) was
+Azolla +DWS +Trichoderma) and control (PMC+Water) MgCl2>Control >CoCl2 > ZnCl2, CdCl2,>
were studied. Variations in pH temperature narrowing C: N HgCl2>PbCl2>MnCl2. This may help in developing a strategy
ratio and decomposition by Trichoderma with other to improve cyanobacterial tolerance towards these metals in
biogeochemical agents (Fungi, Bacteric and actinomycetes) order to develop strains so to be used to reclaim the
have been observed in temperature based phases environmental stress.
psychrophilic, mesosphilic, thermophilic stabilization and Key words: Cyanobacteria, Heavy metals, SOD, Catalase,
poiklothermophilic. The effect of T1, T2 and T3 biocompost Peroxidase, Free radical
were studied on solanum tuberosum in RBD plots. The result
revealed that germination %, chlorophyll content, plant SIV/P-56
height, number of stem, leaf area, dry weight, average tubers Induction of hydrogen peroxide generation in Zea
weight were significantly increased in T3 compost and follow mays L. exposed to Arsenite
trends T3 <T2<T1 over control. Manufacturing by compost not Geetgovind Sinam*, Shekhar Mallick and Sarita Sinha
only produce beneficial effects on crop productivity and Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical
elluminate water pollution problem to save dolphin majestic Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P.,
river Ganga, but also improves soil fertility as well for INDIA, Email: geetgovindsinam@rediffmail.com
sustainable agriculture. It will provide road map for agro- Abiotic and biotic stresses are reported to induce the
industrial development in rural India and will mitigate sub formation of reactive oxygen species in the plants. A
continental challenges of price inflation and jobs opportunity hydroponics experiment was carried out to study whether
to youths. H2O2 was generated in the leaves of three cultivars of Zea
Key words: Pressmud cake, Distillery spend wash, Biocompost, mays L. (SRHM-445, Azad kamal, Azad uttam) exposed to
Solanum tuberosum, Trichoderma, Sustainable agriculture different concentrations of arsenite (5, 10 µg ml-1) for 7 days.
SIV/P-55 The role of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase,
ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase) was
Effects of Heavy Metal Stress on SOD Activity of also studied in the metalloid treated plants. For convenience,
Nostoc muscorum the treatments are abbreviated as SRC, SR5, SR10, and AKC,
Khan Uzma Aftab1*, Iffat Zareen Ahmad1 and Rajesh AK5, AK10 and AUC, AU5, AU10 for SRHM-485, Azad
Chaturvedi2 kamal, and Azad uttam, treated with 5 and 10 µg ml-1 of
Department of Biotechnology, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi arsenite, respectively.
Road, Lucknow – 226026, U.P., INDIA,
All the three varieties of Z. mays were observed to
Email: iffat77@rediffmail.com; 2Department of Biotechnology,
UPCST, 9 Nabiullah Road, Lucknow, U.P., INDIA
generate H2O2 in their leaves when exposed to arsenite in
dose dependant manner. Maximum accumulation (µ mol g-1
A general increase in the level of heavy metal posses a
fw) was recorded in AU10 (33.09±1.780) and the minimum
pervasive threat to the natural ecosystem, although many heavy
in SRC (16.20±0.16). The activities of all the antioxidants
metal when in trace amount are essential for various metabolic
were recorded. Primarily the H2O2 scavenging enzyme
process in organism, they create physiological stress leading to
generation of free radical, when in high concentration stress in (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) activities were higher.
turn induces the production of reactive oxygen species(ROS). This experiment highlighted that the affect of arsenite within
Cyanobacteria posses an effective stress combat system to the same species was different as demonstrated by the
cope with pressure by the help of cascade of antioxidant where different levels of H2O2 generation in the three cultivars of Z.
the SOD (superoxide dismutase) act initially followed by mays. It may also be assumed from this experiment that the
catalase and peroxidase. The objective of this study was to cultivar SRHM-485 was more tolerant than Azad uttam.
analyze the antioxidant property of heterocystous strain Nostoc Key words: Antioxidants, Arsenite, Hydrogen peroxide,
92 ICPEP- 4

Hydroponics, Zea mays L. stressful conditions. Response of maize seeds to the pre-soaking
SIV/P-57 treatment with 0.5mM CA was studied under different
concentrations of NaCl stress. Exogenous CA increased growth
Impact of High Temperature Stress on Flowering characteristics in saline and nonsaline conditions, while effects of
and Reproductive Phenology of Cajanus CA were more significant under saline condition in comparison
cajanifolius (Haines) Maesen to nonsaline condition in maize plants. CA also reduced oxidative
Kanak Sahai and Krishna Kumar Rawat* damage through the induction of ROS scavenging enzymes such
Seed Biology Lab., National Botanical Research Institute, as SOD, CAT and POD. The content of malondialdehyde
Lucknow – 226 001, U.P., INDIA, (MDA), a peroxidation product of fatty acid was reduced
Emails: drkkrawat@rediffmail.com significantly in maize leaf by exogenous CA. Changes in protein
Two consecutive flowering events, i.e. first phase banding patterns in the maize leaves showed a wide variation in
(from October to January) and second phase (from February response to NaCl-stress, while in the presence of cinnamic acid
to March) of flowering of Cajanus cajanifolius (Haines) salt-induced expression of polypeptides was reduced
Maesen, an endangered wild relative of Cajanus cajan (L.) significantly. Present study, clearly reports the alleviative effects
Millsp., were monitored for high temperature stress. The of CA in response to salinity stress on growth, metabolic activity
species showed significant sensitivity towards the rising of and changes in protein profile of 21 days old maize plants. These
ambient atmospheric temperature. Immense bud/flower drop findings may be translated in to efforts aimed to develop salt
was observed when the temperature exceeded above 30ºC. tolerant genotypes and maximize the use of CA under saline
The process of bud/flower drop was more frequent in second environment. The main objective of the present article was to
phase where the temperature was most of the time above develop new concept and insightment about the role of CA on
30ºC. However, bud/flower abortion continued till the end of growth regulation and metabolic homeostasis in plants.
the flowering simultaneously along with the initiation of new Key words: Salinity, Metabolic homeostasis, Zea mays L., Lipid
flower-buds. Moreover, abrupt fall in minimum atmospheric peroxidation, Phenylpropanoids
temperature had adversely affected flowering of C. SIV/P-59
cajanifolius as it was completely ceased when minimum
temperature dropped up to 5.4ºC. High temperature i.e., Indirect Shoot Regeneration in Stevia rebaudiana
above 30ºC had also shortened the duration of reproductive (Bertoni) Cultured In vitro
phenology of second phase of flowering. The total duration Pratibha Gupta1*, Satyawati Sharma1 and Sanjay Saxena2
of bud initiation to pod maturation was recorded only 32 days 1
Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of
as compared to first phase of flowering where it was 94 days. Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi – 110016, INDIA,
The peak blooming period was also reduced by 6 days. Email: Pratibhaiitd@gmail.com; 2The Energy and Resources
Similarly pod maturation period was reduced 61 to 31 days. Institute (TERI), New Delhi – 110003, INDIA,
Since, heat stress is a major factor affecting the rate of Email: sanjays@teri.res.in
reproduction, a short period of exposure to high (above 30ºC) Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae family) is well
temperature was fatal to buds and flowers of C. cajanifolius known natural sweetener. Its leaves produce low calorie
as they drastically abscised and caused heavy yield losses. sweetener (steviol glycosides), of which stevioside and
Key words: Cajanus cajanifolius, Bud/flower drop, Phenology, Rebaudioside A are major ones and these are about 300-400
High temperature stress times sweeter than sucrose. It can be used as an alternative
substitute of artificial sweeteners (i.e. saccharine, aspartame,
acesulfame K etc.) for diabetic patients. Having realized the
Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Changes in Protein potential of Stevia efforts have been started to get large
Profile and Antioxidative Enzyme in Maize (Zea quantity of Stevia biomass. Although, Stevia biomass is
mays L.) Plant Grown Under Salt Stress commonly produced through cuttings, seeds and employing
Shivani Singh* and P.K. Singh tissue culture techniques, not only more quantity of Stevia
Department of Botany, Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi, biomass in short period is obtained but also the natural
U.P., INDIA, Email: shivanisingh1314@gmail.com sweet component (Steviol glycosides) can be further
Plant growth and development are greatly affected due to enhanced. The in-vitro plantlets can be regenerated by
changes in environmental conditions and become a serious explants (shoot tip, node, internode etc.), callus, and somatic
challenge to scientific people. Change in environment is the basic embryos and so on. A protocol for shoot regeneration was
causes of loss in crop yield as well as maintenance of agro- developed to produce large no. of plantlets (somatic
ecosystem Production of plants under stress conditions need new embryos) in very short period through callus culture. For
technology and sustainable work. Therefore, present study was callus induction, surface sterilized leaf explants were
conducted to determine the role of secondary metabolites on the cultured on MS medium supplemented with different
growth and development of corn under abiotic stress specially combination of 2,4-D (0.2 to 0.5 mgl-1) with BAP (1.0-3.0
salinity. mgl-1), NAA (0.2 to 1.0 mgl-1) with BAP (1.0-3.0 mgl-1) and
Cinnamic acid (CA) is one of the basic phenylpropanoids kinetin (3.0-4.0 mgl-1). The development of shoots was
with antioxidant activity, produced by plants in response to observed from greenish white and fragile callus, cultured on

0.5mgl-1 NAA with 2.0 mgl-1 BAP and also from 4.0 mgl-1 Pooja Gupta and R.K. Sharma
kinetin. These two combinations of growth hormones Botany Department, S.S.V. (P.G.) College, Hapur – 245101, U.P.,
produced higher number of somatic embryos as compared to INDIA, Email: dr.pooja30@yahoo.com
other combinations. The young plantlets obtained from The potential impact of an increase in solar
somatic embryos were further maintained on 1.0 mgl-1 ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation due to human activity on
kinetin for shoot development and multiplication. The higher plants has been the subject of many studies. Little
present study deals with induction of callusing in Stevia work has been carried out so far on Ocimum response to
rebaudiana to achieve the rapid plant multiplication for enhanced UV-B radiation. The objective of this study is to
steviol glycoside production employing in-vitro techniques.determine the effect of UV-B radiation on chlorophyll
Key words: Stevia, Somatic embryos, NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin content in Ocimum basilicum. The observations showed the
reduction in amount of chlorophyll in UV-B exposed plants.
SIV/P-60 Foliar spray of ascorbic acid was applied to
Differential Responses of Two Vegetable Crops to antagonize the negative impact of UV-B radiation and found
Ambient Ozone useful. Three concentrations of ascorbic acid were used i.e.
1 2 100, 200 and 500 ppm. Ascorbic acid not only totally
Supriya Tiwari *and Modhoolika Agarwal
Department of Botany, S.S.S.V.S. Government Post Graduate
countered the negative impact of UV-B but also proved to be
College, Chunar, Mirzapur, U.P., INDIA, stimulatory for chlorophyll content in Ocimum basilicum.
Email: supriyabhu@gmail.com; 2Department of Botany, Banaras Key words: Ascorbic acid, Ocimum basilicum, UV-B radiation
Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA
The present investigation was done to evaluate
the response of two vegetable crops, radish (Raphnus Allelopathic Effect of Weeds on Growth and
sativus L. var. Pusa Reshmi) and brinjal (Solanum Productivity of Brown Mustard
melonogena L. var. Pusa Hybrid-six) grown under similar P.N. Dongre*, A.K. Mishra and H.K. Tiwari
ambient air pollutant concentration. Experiment was carried Department of Botany, K.N. Government Post Graduate College,
out using Open Top Chambers (OTC) with filtered (FCs) and Gyanpur (SRN Bhadohi), U.P., INDIA,
nonfiltered (NFCs) treatments at a sub urban site of Varanasi, Email: pndongre@rediffmail.com
India experiencing topical monsoonal climate. Eight hourly A pot culture experiment was conducted at the
mean concentrations of Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Department of Botany, K.N. Government Post Graduate
dioxide (NO2) and Ozone (O3) were 11.8, 20.8, 48.7 ppm, College Gyanpur, Uttar Pradesh coinciding with the kharif
respectively during the experimental period. Continuous season (July-October) of 2009 to assess the allelopathic
monitoring data showed that O3 was the most significant effects of selected weeds on growth and productivity of T. 59
pollutant at the experimental site. Rate of photosynthesis test variety of brown mustard (Brassica campestris var.
declined in both the test plants grown in NFCs as compared to dichotoma). The treatment consisted 2 and 4% aqueous leaf
FCs. This decline was mainly attributed to the reduction in extracts of Amaranthus viridis, Eclipta alba, Parthenium
carbon fixation. Decrease in Fv/Fm ratio of the plants in hysterophorus and Phyllanthus niruri. Tap water was used as
NFCs was the regulatory mechanism to cope up with the control. Observation on root length, shoot length, leaf area,
inefficiency of Calvin cycle. Increments in lipid peroxidation root biomass and shoot biomass were recorded by harvesting
were more in radish grown in NFCs as compare to brinjal method at an interval of 30, 60 and 90 DAT (days after
under the same treatment. Contrary to this, the constitutive treatment). These data were used to calculate net primary
levels of the antioxidants as well as their increments upon O3 productivity (NPP), and relative growth rate (RGR). The
exposure were of higher magnitude in brinjal than in radish. results clearly indicated that the treatment of leaf extracts of
Morphological characteristics of both the test plants also all the four test weed species in general had a significant
showed negative response when grow in NFCs as compared retarding effect on growth of brown mustard at both
to FCs. Yield reduced by 29.5 and 22%, respectively radish treatment levels at all sampling dates (30, 60 and 90 days).
and brinjal plants grown in NFCs as compare to FCs. All the test parameters considered in the study, viz. root
Biomass accumulation pattern showed that under nonfiltered length, shoot length, total plant length, leaf area, root
conditions there was a greater reduction in root biomass of biomass, shoot biomass and total biomass were found to be
radish and in shoot biomass of brinjal. This investigation significantly affected by weed leaf extracts and such effect
helped us to identify the sensitivity of vegetable crops in was found to be concentration dependant.
areas with high pollutant concentrations. Key words: Allelopathy, Growth, Mustard, Productivity, Weeds
Key words: Ambient, Ozone, Open top chambers,
Response, Radish, Brinjal SIV/P-63
Changes in the Growth, Chemical Composition and
SIV/P-61 Mitotic Behaviour of Insecticides Treated Vicia faba
Antagonization of UV-B Radiation on Chlorophyll Plants by Exogenously Applied Jasmonic Acid
Content by Exogenous Ascorbic Acid in Ocimum Aradhana Singh1*, Ashok Kumar Singh2 and Jagdamba
basilicum Singh1
94 ICPEP- 4

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was not altered
Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – significantly, peroxidase (POD) was decreased by metal
221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: aradhya.singh@yahoo.co.in; toxicity. Since SOD dismutates ROS into Hydrogen peroxide
Genotoxic Lab, Department of Botany, Udai Pratap Autonomous the result obtained suggest that although cadmium may
College, Varanasi – 221002, U.P., INDIA generate an oxidative stress, the SOD activity is sufficient to
The present study was undertaken to test the influence cope with an increased concentration of such radicals.
of exogenously applied Jasmonic acid upon the growth, However, the activity of catalase (CAT) was increased by
metabolism and mitotic behaviour of Vicia faba plants metal stress. The antioxidative activity seems to be of
exposed to two different insecticides. Alphamethrin (a fundamental importance for adaptive of Nigella sativa plants
synthetic pyrethroid) and Endosulfan (an organochlorine against environmental stress.
insecticide) were the two tested insecticides for their toxicity Key words: Cd toxicity, Nigella sativa, Antioxidant enzymes, Super
potential. Both the insecticides pose adverse effects on Oxide Dismutase, Catalase, Peroxidase
growth, protein content, pigment content, mitotic index and
induced different types of chromosomal aberrations in the SIV/P-65
root meristem cells of Vicia faba. However, Jasmonic acid Determination of Arsenic and Heavy Metals
was found to restore the toxicity caused by the insecticides. Concentration in Lichen Graphis ceylanica
Pretreatment of Vicia roots with Jasmonic acid significantly
Occurring in Hooghly District, West Bengal
increased the growth, chemical composition, mitotic index
and reduced the chromosomal abnormalities induced by Rajesh Bajpai*, S. Nayaka and D.K. Upreti
insecticides. Current work reveals that the effect of Lichenology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute,
Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
environmental pollutants can be partially reduced by
Email: bajpai_r17@rediffmail.com
Jasmonic acid application.
Key words: Jasmonic acid, Alphamethrin, Endosulfan,
Levels of arsenic (As) and other heavy metals (Al, Cd,
Chromosomal aberrations Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) were determined in Graphis ceylanica
a crustose lichen collected from areas having elevated As
SIV/P-64 levels in soil and water. A large number of studies dealing
Effects of Cadmium Toxicity on Antioxidative with As levels of soil and water are available from the area
however, the atmospheric As levels are few. Hence in the
Defence System of Nigella sativa in Different Phases present study an attempt has been made to estimate the levels
of Seed Germination of As and other metals accumulated in both lichens thallus
Aisha Kamal*, Iffat Zareen Ahmad and Hayatul Islam and the substratum on which the lichen grows. The quantities
Department of Biotechnology, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi of Fe (228.92µg g-1dry weight), Al (167.40µg g-1dry weight)
Road, Lucknow – 226026, U.P., INDIA, and Zn (59.11µg g-1dry weight) were maximum reported
Email: aisha_kamal@rediffmail.com
followed by As (16.10 µg g-1dry weight), Pb (11.32µg g-1dry
Nigella sativa (black cumin, Kalonji) is an annual weight), Cr (8.66µg g-1dry weight) Cu (1.74µg g-1dry weight)
herbaceous plant growing in Western Asia and the and Cd (0.97µg g-1dry weight) in thallus. About 10-20 time
Mediterranean region for its seed which is used as an lower concentration of Al, Fe and Zn were reported in
important spice and condiment and also known for its various substratum, whereas, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb were not detected in
medicinal values. Seed germination is a complex process that substratum while As present in less concentration as 1.38µg
involves the activation of specific enzymes and is affected by
g-1dry weight. The selectivity sequence of metals in the area
several environmental factors.
was as Fe>Al>Zn>Pb>As>Cr>Cu>Cd. Higher
Oxidative stress is induced by a wide range of concentration of Fe, Al and Zn both in substratum and lichen
environmental factors including heavy metals stress. thallus may be due to their anthropogenic origin. The present
Therefore, antioxidant resistance mechanisms may provide a level of metallic pollutants will be a useful data for carrying
strategy to enhance metal tolerance and processes underlying out future studies related as ambient air quality in the area.
antioxidant responses to metal stress must be clearly Key words: Arsenic, Heavy metal, Lichen biomonitoring, Hooghly
understood. Cd pollution is a growing environmental district
problem affecting human health and crop production. In the
present study, the effects of Cd- generating antioxidative SIV/P-66
defense systems (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and Accumulation of Heavy Metals (MN and FE) in
catalase) were studied in the germinating seeds of Nigella some Plants from Industrial Effluents in Gomti
sativa grown in petriplates in aqueous cadmium chloride
CdCl2 solution of 10mM concentration under controlled
River at Jaunpur District
environmental conditions. The results showed that exposure Anuradha Singh* and Satya Dev Singh
of seeds to Cd-stress reduced the rate of germination and Raja Shri Krishna Dutta Degree College, Jaunpur, U.P., INDIA,
fresh and dry matter production. The decrease in hypocotyl Email: sksinghjnp@rediffmail.com
growth caused by toxicity of metals was more severe than the The accumulation of heavy metals, magnesium (Mn)
decrease in epicotyl growth. Of the antioxidant enzymes the and Iron (Fe) from the effluent discharged in Gomti River,

was studied in plants of three species (Beta vulgaris, R.D. Tripathi1 and R. Tuli2
Brassica nigra and Raphanus sativus). The root and leaf of National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg,
each plant was analyzed for the Mn and Fe. Results show that Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
the accumulation of Mn and Fe was more in leafs than root. Email: sonalidubey2007@yahoo.co.in; 2National Agri-Food
More of accumulation of Mn and Fe was found in Beet plant Biotechnology Institute, (Department of Biotechnology, New
(Beta vulgaris) than other plants. Delhi), Mohali, Punjab, INDIA
Key words: Heavy metals, Gomti River, Industrial effluents The physiological, biochemical, and proteomic
changes in germinating rice seedlings were investigated
SIV/P-67 under arsenic stress. A marked decrease in germination
Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Shifts in Rice percentage, shoot, and root elongation as well as plant
Roots in Response to Cr (VI) Stress biomass was observed with arsenic treatments, as
compared to control, whereas accumulation of arsenic and
Sonali Dubey1*, Prashant Misra1, Sanjay Dwivedi1,
malondialdehyde (MDA) in seedlings were increased
Sandipan Chatterjee1, Sumit K Bag1, Shrikant Mantri2, significantly with increasing arsenic concentration (both
Mehar Hasan Asif1, Arti Rai1, Smita Kumar1, Manju Shri1, AsIII and AsV). The up-regulation of some antioxidant
Preeti Tripathi1, Rudra Deo Tripathi1, Prabodh Kumar enzyme activities and the isozymes of superoxide
Trivedi1, Debasis Chakrabarty1 and Rakesh Tuli2 dismutase (SOD, EC, ascorbate peroxidase
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, (APX, EC, peroxidase (POD, EC, and
Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
glutathione reductase (GR, substantiated that
Email: sonalidubey2007@yahoo.co.in; 2National Agri-Food
Biotechnology Institute, (Department of Biotechnology, New
arsenic accumulation generated oxidative stress, which
Delhi), Mohali, Punjab, INDIA was more pronounced in As(III) treatment. We also studied
the protective effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) and
A significant effect on root growth being observed at cysteine (Cys) to As(III)/As(V) stressed seedlings. Both
24h at 100 ìM Cr (VI) this treatment is further used for GSH and Cys imparted enhanced tolerance to seedlings
transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses. Cr (VI) against arsenic stress. Seedlings growth improved while
treatment was associated with lipid peroxidation and an level of MDA declined significantly when GSH and Cys
increased in proline synthesis. Transcriptomics analysis were supplemented to As(III)/As(V) treatments suggesting
revealed that the expression of 1138 genes was up-regulated, GSH and Cys-mediated protection against oxidative stress.
and that of 1610 genes was down-regulated in roots by Cr The arsenic content was highest in roots of seedlings grown
(VI). Most of the genes differentially expressed under both in As(III) in the presence of GSH/Cys. However, in case of
Cr (VI) stress were related to glutathione metabolism, As(V) plus GSH or Cys, the arsenic content in seedlings
transport, and signal-transduction pathways. However, was highest in shoots. The results are suggestive of
somewhat unexpectedly, up-regulation of phytochelatin differential metabolism of As(III) and As(V) in rice.
synthase was not detected by microarray analysis suggesting
that PCs are not involved in Cr (VI) detoxification. This Key words: Arsenic, Cysteine, Glutathione, Oxidative stress,
might be due to their nonresponsive behavior to Cr (VI) Rice, Seed germination
stress, which is in agreement with previous report. On the SIV/P-69
contrary, in our study it is clear that glutathione plays an
important role for detoxification of Cr-stress. Simultaneous Arsenic Tolerances in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) have a
analysis of microarray and metabolite content suggested that Predominant Role in Transcriptional Regulation of
sucrose degradation pathway was modulated in Cr stress a Set of Genes Including Sulphur Assimilation
response involving three main fermentation pathways Pathway and Antioxidant System
operating as a rescue mechanism when respiration is Arti Rai1*, Preeti Tripathi1*, Sanjay Dwivedi1, Sonali
arrested. We also analyzed presence of cis-acting elements in Dubey1, Manu Shri1, Smita Kumar1, Pankaj Kumar
differentially regulated genes during Cr (VI) stress. To check Tripathi1, Richa Dave1, Bijan Adhikari2, Manas Bag2,
whether the Cr-specific motifs were indeed significantly
Rudra Deo Tripathi1, Prabodh K. Trivedi1, Debasis
over represented in the promoter regions of Cr-responsive
Chakrabarty1 and Rakesh Tuli3
genes, occurrence of these motifs in whole genome sequence 1
was carried out which suggests significant co-relation National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg,
between differentially expressed genes and identified motifs. Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA, Email: aarti_479@yahoo.co.in;
Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, West Bengal, INDIA; 3National
Key words: Chromium, Rice, Glutathione metabolism, Signal- Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute, (Department of Biotechnology,
transduction, Phytochelatin, Detoxification New Delhi), Mohali, Punjab, INDIA
SIV/P-68 Worldwide arsenic (As) contamination of paddy rice
Effect of Arsenic on Growth, Oxidative Stress, and has raised much concern as it is the staple crop for millions.
Antioxidant System in Rice Seedlings Four most commonly cultivated rice cultivars, Triguna, IR-
1 1 1 1
36, PNR-519 and IET-4786, of the West Bengal region were
M. Shri *, S. Kumar , D. Chakrabarty , P.K. Trivedi , S. taken for a hydroponic study to examine the effect of arsenate
Mallick1, P. Misra1, D. Shukla1, S. Mishra1, S. Srivastava1, (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII) on growth response, expression of
96 ICPEP- 4

genes and antioxidants visà-vis As accumulation. The rice Key word: Chickpea, Irrigation, Stress degree day, Grain yield and
genotypes responded differentially under AsV and AsIII biomass yield
stress in terms of gene expression and antioxidant defences.
Most of the transporters were upregulated in all rice cultivars SIV/P-71
at lower doses of As species, except IET-4786. Phytochelatin
synthase, GST and ãECS were upregulated during As stress Study of Airborne Metal Deposition on some Plant
in all genotypes, however in IET-47886 they were down- Species Grown at Varying Distances from G.T. Road
regulated. Similarly, most of antioxidants such as superoxide Mahima*, Raina Pal and Anamika Tripathi
dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol Pollution Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Botany,
peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase Hindu College, Moradabad – 244001, U.P., India,
(GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), Email: mahimambd@gmail.com
dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) increased significantly The present investigation was carried out at two urban
in Triguna, IR-36 and PNR-519 and decreased in IET-4786. parks to assess the deposition and solubility of airborne
Our study suggest that Triguna, IR-36 and PNR-519 are atmospheric heavy metals in six plant species grown
tolerant rice cultivars accumulating higher arsenic; however (Common to Moradabad urban areas) at varying distances
IET-4786 is susceptible to As-stress and accumulating less from two heavily trafficked road in Moradabad city.
arsenic than other cultivars. Emission of heavy metals from the automobile exhaust and
Key words: Arsenic, Antioxidant enzymes, Heat shock protein, brassware industries nearby the highway contaminates soil
Rice, Sulphate transporter, Metallothionine and surrounding plants. Samples of unwashed leaves were
SIV/P-70 used to assess the concentration level of heavy metal (Cu, Cu,
Cd, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb) and for the purpose six common plant
Effect of Date of Sowing and Irrigation Regime on species i.e. Holoptelea integrifolia, Ficus rumphii, Saraca
Seed Yield and Biomass Yield of Chickpea (Cicer indica, Bauhinia variegata, Alstonia schlaris and
arietinum L.) and its Relation with Stress in New Anthocephalus kadamba were collected from both sites and
Alluvial Zone of West Bengal were analysed by ICP-OES. The result indicates that the
M. Ray1, M.K. Nanda2 and D.K. Khan3 plants species such as Bauhinia variegata is sensitive among
Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi all the species having highest concentration of heavy metals
Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur – 741252, Nadia, W.B., INDIA; at both sites and Ficus rumphii with lowest concentration, is
Depatment of Agril.Meteorology and Physics, Bidhan Chandra tolerant among all the species. It possibly may be due to
Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur – 741252, Nadia, W.B., INDIA; differences in plant morphology and leaf surface and
Depatment of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, apparently particulate size decides the extent of solubility
Kalyani – 741235, Nadia, W.B., INDIA providing the bio-availability of metal to primary consumers.
A field experiment was carried during the winter Key words: Heavy metals, Plant species, Tolerant plants,
season of two consecutive years 2005-06 and 2006-07 to Deposition
study the effect of date of sowing and irrigation regime in SIV/P-72
chickpea crop after harvesting of winter rice in New Alluvial
Zone of West Bengal. There were two dates of sowing viz. Modulations in Sulfur Supply Affects Arsenic
20th November and 6th December and 4 irrigation regimes viz. Accumulation and Tolerance in Hydrilla verticillata
rainfed, one irrigation at branching, two irrigations at Sudhakar Srivastava*, P. Suprasanna and S.F. D'Souza
branching and preflowering and two irrigations at branching Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic
and pod formation stage. The maximum grain yield of Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai – 400085, Maharashtra,
1742.71 kg ha-1 and 1416.98 kg ha-1 were obtained with two INDIA, Email: sudhakar.srivastava@gmail.com
irrigations - at branching and pod formation during 2005-06 Arsenic (As) contamination of the environment is a
and one irrigation – at branching during 2006-07. But during widespread problem today and there is a need to understand
2006-07 two irrigations - at branching and pod formation and its effects on plant metabolism. An involvement of sulfur-
one irrigation – at branching recorded at par regarding grain containing metabolites and peptides in chelation and
yield. Whereas, in both the years two irrigations – at vacuolar sequestration of As is known. In addition,
branching and pre-flowering stage recorded the highest glutathione (GSH), the most important sulfur-containing
biomass. Among the dates of sowing, 1st date of sowing tripeptide in the cells, functions as an antioxidant and also
recorded highest seed yield of 1474.24 kg ha-1 and 1442.58 kg plays role in arsenate (AsV) reduction. The present study was
ha-1during 2005-06 and 2006-07, respectively. In both the aimed to analyze the effects of modulations in S supply on
experimental years crop faced maximum stress under rainfed arsenic accumulation potential of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.)
condition, whereas least stress found with double irrigations. Royle, a plant known to be a potential accumulator of As.
Results of this study showed that with the increase in stress Plants were exposed to either arsenate (AsV; 50 µM) or
degree day both grain and biomass yield decreases arsenite (AsIII; 5 µM) for 4 h and 1 day while S supply was
significantly. But the magnitude of the negative correlation is varied as deficient (2 µM, –S), normal (1 mM, +S) and excess
higher with biomass yield than grain yield. (2 mM, +HS). The level of As accumulation (µg g-1 dw) after
1 day was about 2-fold higher upon exposure to either AsV

(30) or AsIII (50) in +HS plants than that being in +S (12 and SIV/P-74
24) and –S (14 and 26) plants. The +HS plants showed a Proteomic Analysis of Two Aspen Clones Exposed to
significant stimulation of the thiol metabolism upon As Long Term Chronic Ozone Exposure under FACE
exposure and did not demonstrate any negative impact to
antioxidants except catalase. Hence, they did not experience System
significant toxicity, measured in terms of malondialdehyde Vivek Pandey1, Elina Haikio2, Timo Oksanen3, Satu
accumulation; an indicator of oxidative stress. By contrast, Lehesranta4, Sirpa Karenlampi4 and Elina Oksanen2
–S plants suffered from oxidative stress probably due to Plant Physiology, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow
negative impact to thiol metabolism and owing to an 226 001, INDIA, 2Department of Biology, University of Eastern
inadequate response of enzymatic and molecular Finland, Joensuu, FINLAND, 3Department of Environmental
antioxidants. Variable S supply also modulated the activity of Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, FINLAND,
enzymes of glycine and serine biosynthesis indicating an Department of Biosciences, University of Eastern Finland,
interconnection between S and N metabolism. In conclusion,
an improved supply of S to plants was found to augment their Troposphere ozone is a destructive gaseous pollutant
ability for As accumulation and tolerance through stimulated with serious impact on human and animal respiration as well
thiol metabolism. as causing extensive damage to both natural and cultivated
Key words: Antioxidants, Arsenic, Glutathione, Hydrilla plant populations. Ozone damage symptoms in plants
verticillata, Sulfur supply depend on its concentration, length of exposure, age and
genetic susceptibility of the plants, but they range from
SIV/P-73 visible chlorosis and necrosis in the leaves, to inhibition of
Heavy Metal Bioavailability and Chelate photosynthesis and growth, and reduced yield. The toxicity
Mobilization Efficiency in an Assisted of this pollutant is derived from the high reactivity (strong
Phytoextraction Process by Brassica juncea (L.) oxidizing capacity) of ozone itself, which leads to the
Czern. (var. Vaibhav) production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are
responsible for initiating subsequent cellular damage.
Amit K. Gupta1* andZueng-Sang Chen2 We examined effects of moderately elevated ozone on
Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, New Delhi, growth and protein expression patterns in leaves of two soil-
INDIA, Email: amitenv@yahoo.com; 2Department of Agricultural grown Finnish hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x Populus
Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec.4, Roosevelt Road,
tremuloides Michx.) clones with different ozone sensitivities
Taipei 106-17, TAIWAN, Email: soilchen@ntu.edu.tw
at Kuopio FACE facility, Finland. The plants were grown and
To enhance the phytoextraction capacity of the plant exposed for three growing seasons and realized ozone
by using chelant is an innovative technique for cleaning enhancement was 1.3–1.4 times the ambient ozone
metal contaminated soil. Present study evaluates the degree concentration (approximately 35 ppb) mirroring increases
of metal mobilization in soil and enhancement of expected in the near future. Contrary to our expectations,
phytoextraction of Cd, Pb and Zn by Brassica juncea (L.) PCA analysis revealed that two clones did not appear to
Czern. (var. Vaibhav) from artificially contaminated soil by separate very clearly according to O3 treatment. SYPRO ruby
the application of EDDS. Six saplings of the plant were stained gels showed 447 reproducibly detected protein spots.
planted in each pot containing 3.5 kg (dry weight) of spiked Out of these, nine spots were significantly different; 6 were
soil. After the plants had grown for 10 days, four plants in up-regulated and 3 were down-regulated. The up-regulated
each pot were retained and allowed to grow. After 45 days of proteins included RuBisco large subunit fragment,
the plant growth, the pots were divided in to the three sets transposon protein, WRKY transcription factor, a Myb
(0.0-without EDDS, 2.5 and 5.0 mmol EDDS per kg soil), protein. Down-regulated proteins included thioredoxin
with three replicates. The tested plants were harvested by intermediate and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydogenase.
seventh day of EDDS application. Experimental results
Key words: Troposheric ozone, Hybrid aspen, Proteomics, FACE
indicate that the concentrations of metals extracted by CaCl2
and metals in the leachate decreased,as the dose of EDDS SIV/P-75
increased. The root, shoot lengths, dry shoot biomass, and Irrigation Effect of Fluoride Contaminated Water
total chlorophyll contents in the EDDS applied plants were on Seed Germination and Growth Characteristics
lower than that of control. However, the carotenoid contents
in Pisum sativum
were high. Experimental results showed that the EDDS
application significantly reduced the Cd, Pb and Zn Prachi Verma, Kishan Verma and Munna Singh*
accumulation in root, and significantly increased in the shoot Botany Department, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007,
U.P., INDIA, Email: drmunnasingh@yahoo.com
of the plant; similarly, bioconcentration factor (BCF) and
translocation factor (TF). The application of 5 mmol EDDS Fluoride is an endemic public health problem, these
days prevailing in 23 nations globally, includes India as well,
kg-1 to metal-spiked soil may be an efficient alternative for the
where it is endemic in 17 out of 32 states and Union
chemically enhanced phytoextraction by Brassica juncea.
Key words: Spiked soil, Leaching, Metal accumulation, territories. The prolonged fluoride consumption in excess (>
Translocation, Photosynthetic pigment 1ppm) causes dental caries, skeletal deformities, soft tissue
damage viz., impairment of liver, kidney, muscle brain, heart,
98 ICPEP- 4

thyroid, testis, ovary etc. Cosequently, fluoride contaminated A. Paul*, G. Suresh Babu, G.R. Lavanya and Chandra
soil, water and vegetation has become an area of great Mohan Singh
concern in the world. Because, even at a fairly low ambient Department of Genetic and Plant Breeding, Allahabad school of
concentrations fluoride may cause physiological and Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture,
biochemical changes in plants without conferring visible Technology and Sciences, (Deemed to be University), Allahabad –
signs of injuries. Hence, investigations for irrigation effect 211007, U.P., INDIA
were made by using fluoride contaminated water. The A study of genetic variation and interrelationship of
differential phytotoxicity fluoride levels affected seed grain yield and its component traits in upland direct seeded
germination. 25ppm fluoride concentration impaired rice was carried out using 49 advanced breeding line
germination ca. 60%. Almost no germination could occur, in cultivars. High genotypic coefficient of variation was
case seeds were irrigated with 100ppm fluoride. The root and exhibited for grain yield / plant followed by sterility %,
shoot lengths both has shown a negative correlation with the biological yield, unfilled grain/ panicle ,harvest index, plant
enhanced levels of fluoride irrigations. The chlorophyll height and filled grains / panicle. All the traits are influenced
fluorescence variable yield has shown gradual loss in fv/fm by environment because in all the characters exhibited higher
values. However, an electrolyte leakage an indicator for ionic PCV than the GCV. Grain yield / plant had significant
stress shown gradual enhancement with irrigation levels. The positive correlation with biological yield, harvest index,
ultrastructural studies of root mitochondria shown panicles / plant, test weight, flag leaf length, plant height and
aggregation followed by loss in their sizes as well. The panicle length. Path analysis revealed that the biological
biochemical & biomass related data will also be presented to yield to be the major contributor of grain yield / plant
correlate impact of fluoride contaminated water irrigation on followed by harvest index and spike lets / panicle. For
plant performance and plant-productivity. maximizing the grain yield / plant, emphasis should be given
Key words: Chlorophyll, Electrolyte leakage, Pisum sativum for higher biological yield, harvest index and more number of
spikelets/ panicle.
SIV/P-76 Key word: Character associations, path analysis, yield
Evaluation of Genetic Potential of Some Promising components, upland rice.
Lines in Rice Under Limited Irrigation SIV/P-78
Suresh Babu G.*, Karn Singh and G. Roopa Lavanya Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom
Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences Allahabad – V. Aravinth1*, K. Wahab2 and G. Kuppuswamy3
211007, INDIA 451, Bharathi St, Chakara Nagar, Velur (PO), Namakkal 638182,
The present investigation was carried out with 78 rice Tamil Nadu, INDIA, Email: aravinth.v1211@gmail.com;
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai
genotypes during kharif 2006 under randomized block
University, Annamalai Nagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, INDIA;
design having 3 replications at the experimentation center of 3
Centre for Research and Development, PRIST University, Tamil
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding. The data was Nadu, INDIA
recorded on 10 characters to study the variability, heritability,
Climate change and agriculture are interrelated
genetic advance and genetic divergence. Significant
processes, both of which take place on a global scale. Global
differences were observed among the genotypes for all the
warming is projected to have significant impacts on
characters studied except flag leaf width and test weight.
conditions affecting agriculture, including temperature, CO2,
High to moderate estimate of PCV and GCV was observed
for grain yield per plant, harvest index, panicles per plant, glacial run-off, precipitation and the interaction of these
tillers per plant. High heritability coupled with moderate elements. These conditions determine the carrying capacity
genetic advance was recorded for plant height and grain yield of the biosphere to produce enough food for the human
per plant. All the genotypes were grouped into 9 clusters on population and domesticated animals. The overall effect of
the basis of Mahalanobsis D2 statistics. Cluster V had climate change on agriculture will depend on the balance of
maximum number (20) of genotypes. The maximum inter these effects. Assessment of the effects of global climate
cluster distance was observed between cluster IV and VIII. changes on agriculture might help to properly anticipate and
On the basis of mean performance VANDANA was found to adapt farming to maximize agricultural production. At the
be best genotype under limited irrigation for Allahabad agro- same time, agriculture has been shown to produce significant
climatic conditions. For crop improvement selection for effects on climate change, primarily through the production
plant height, days to 50% flowering may be effective. and release of greenhouse gases such as CO2, methane, and
Besides, genotypes from cluster IV and VIII may be used as nitrous oxide, but also by altering the Earth's land cover,
parents for hybridization programme as they revealed high which can change its ability to absorb or reflect heat and light,
genetic divergence. thus contributing to radiative forcing. Land use change such
as deforestation and desertification, together with use of
Key words: Genetic potential, Limited irrigation, Hybridization
fossil fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of CO2,
SIV/P-77 agriculture itself is the major contributor to increasing
Variation and Association Among Yield and Yield methane and nitrous oxide concentrations in earth's
Components in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) atmosphere.

Despite technological advances, such as improved aspect of trade and security in terms of food implies the need
varieties, genetically modified organisms, and irrigation to also consider the effects of climate change on a global
systems, weather is still a key factor in agricultural scale. Marine life and the fishing industry will also be
productivity, as well as soil properties and natural severely affected in some places. Climate change induced by
communities. The effect of climate on agriculture is related to increasing greenhouse gases is likely to affect crops
variabilities in local climates rather than in global climate differently from region to region. More favorable effects on
patterns. The Earth's average surface temperature has yield tend to depend to a large extent on realization of the
increased by 1 oF in just over the last century. Consequently, potentially beneficial effects of CO2 on crop growth and
agronomists consider any assessment has to be individually increase of efficiency in water use. Decrease in potential
considered at each local area. yields is likely to be caused by shortening of the growing
On the other hand, agricultural trade has grown in period, decrease in water availability and poor verbalization.
recent years, and now provides significant amounts of food, Key words: Agriculture, Climate change, Global warming, Land,
on a national level to major importing countries, as well as Soil
comfortable income to exporting ones. The international
Session SV

Impact Assessment
100 ICPEP- 4

SV/L-1 diversity with environmental conditions shows that the

Aerosol Dynamics in Ambient Environment altitude dependent regional climatic variables and the lowest
winter air temperature in particular, are the major factors.
Arun K. Attri
School of Environment Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Regional environmental differences impact was
New Delhi – 110067, INDIA, Email: attriak@gmail.com studied in two polluted rivers of Eurasia from silicate (the
Aerosols in natural ambient environment manifest Rudnaya River) and carbonate (the Qishon River) regions.
functional characteristics whereby they affect multiple We revealed that algal and cyanobacterial diversity have
atmospheric processes of importance: (i) cloud formation; similar distribution of species over the higher taxa with
(ii) attenuation of solar radiation and assists in maintaining diatom prevealing. Bio-indicational analysis in respect to
thermal equilibrium; (iii) chaperons undesirable chemicals salinity, acidification, oxygenation, and organic pollution
(organic, inorganic, elements) and purify air by their show that the water is cleaner and the diversity is higher in the
removal; and (iv) helps in distribution and deposition of Rudnaya River than in the Qishon River. The indices of
nutrients on land and ocean to help in facilitating the saprobity S ranged similar. As a result of CCA, for the
sustenance of primary activity. Rudnaya River we revealed biosensors group of green and
diatom species sensitive to borates and fluorides. For the
Flip side of aerosols character, particularly the Qishon River biosensor species included red and
proportion arising from anthropogenic activities, to a large cyanobacteria species. We found that algal biodiversity is
extent has bestowed insidious functions: (i) agent to deposit more sensitive to technogenic pollution in the silicate
refractory compounds; (ii) carrier of toxic and polluting province being more tolerant to the same organic pollutants
compounds; (iii) agent to impair atmospheric visibility, and in the carbonate province.
(iv) irritant to cause loss of artifacts etc.
The effects of climate change on algal communities
Both, beneficial and deleterious, characters of was analyzed by comparing two unpolluted river ecosystems
aerosols are coupled with local and regional meterological on the border of arid and semi-arid zones, the Oren River of
variables: (i) Planetary boundary layer; (ii) atmospheric and the Mediterranean zone, Northern Israel and the Zin River of
surface temperature gradient; (iii) wind speed and its the Central Negev Desert, Southern Israel. A bio-indication
direction; and (iv) humidity and pressure. These factors show ecologically significant variations in composition of
brings in the dynamicity to aerosols, and understanding this algal communities in both rivers. Our analysis highlighted
dynamic nature is crucial in unfolding new questions about the distinctions in taxonomic diversity and abundances of the
the aerosols attributes in ambient atmosphere salinity tolerant (halobic) and alkaliphilic groups. The
Key words: Aerosol dynamics, Temperature gradient, Ambient percentages of indicator species decrease from the low
environment, Atmospheric processes halobity class to the high halobity class in the Oren River, but
SV/L-2 the opposite is observed in the Zin River. Although the
geological substrates are carbonates in both cases, the
Climatic and Pollution Impact on Algal Biodiversity indicators of alkalic water are more prominent in the Zin
of the Small Rivers in Eurasia River than in the Oren River, in which the pH is buffered by
S. Barinova1*, V. Krassilov1 and L. Medvedeva2 organic substances from vegetation and soil. As a result of
Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa CCA analysis, we recognized two types of ecological
31905, ISRAEL, Email: barinova@research.haifa.ac.il; 2Institute of communities, the alkaliphilic (high pH tolerant) and
Biology and Soil Science, Far-East Branch of Russian Academy of halophilic (high TDS tolerant) types. Predictably, the
Science, Stoletiya Str., 159, Vladivostok 690022, RUSSIA, Email: halophilic communities will be favored with further climate
warming. The effects of climate change and anthropogenic
Climatic impact on algal and cyanobacterial diversity pollution are synergistic in the case of the pollution-sensitive
in the altitude gradient was studied in the Caucasian region of Chara community falling under high risk of extinction under
Georgia. The comparative floristic and statistical analysis of the ongoing climate change.
algal communities from 14 Georgian Natural Reserves, Key words: Algal biodiversity, Ecology, Small rivers, Bio-
altogether 1063 species, divides the communities of less and indication, Climate change, Comparative floristic
more than 200 species with diatoms or non-diatoms
domination that correlate with climatic variables. The SV/O-1
species diversity in the Natural Reserves increases from the An Approach to Asses the Ecological Integrity of
Black Sea coast to the east, with increasing altitude. Three Running Waters
floristic groups are recognized: the high diversity group of Brajesh K. Dwivedi
the mountains areas; the moderate diversity group of Environmental Sciences, Botany Department, University of
lowlands; and the low diversity group of piedmonts. The Allahabad, Allahabad – 211002, U.P., INDIA,
Index of infraspecies variation of each reserve is a small Email: brajeshald@yahoo.co.in
range (1.01-1.15) and shown to be a result of constant The term ecological integrity reflects the necessity of
amplitude seasonal climatic fluctuations. Correlation of algal considering water bodies as ecological system. In India,
demand/ supply for running water has already increased

manifold over the decades and posed water conflict. The samples, spiked at the concentration level of 0.75 µg L- 1 of
study deals with water quality assessment and availability of the analytes, were in the range of 85-118 %.
water in rivers at Allahabad city, in view of their religious Key words: Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, Solid-phase
importance and ecological sustainability. Based on bio- extraction, Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection,
sequestering assessment, biological water quality criteria Mononitrotoluenes, Aquatic environment
have been evolved, indicating various beneficial uses for
water quality and their respective levels of characteristics.
Physico-chemical factors represent the chief milieu of Genotoxicity Assessment of Soils in In vivo and In
conditions governing the occurrence of various vitro Assays: A Review
phytoplankton biodiversity and their associations. Shashi Bala*, Mandeep Kaur, Rajneet Kour Soodan and
Qualitative analysis of cyanotoxin (microcystin), nutrient/ Avinash Nagpal
nutrient transport, and their interaction with phytoplankton Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak
were also described. The amounts of nutrient and water flow Dev University, Amritsar – 143005, Punjab, INDIA,
were dynamically influenced with time factor and water Email: shashi_680@yahoo.com
availability. The deficit water supply and improper sewage Soil is one of the key elements for existence of all life
treatment infrastructures have increased the risk of exposure on this earth. It functions as the habitat for microorganisms,
infectious as mass scale. Traces of chromium, iron, zinc, plants and animals. In recent years, soil is increasingly
nickel and copper metal in water and sediments have been becoming sink for a wide range of hazardous chemicals
observed in clean water quality stretches. Besides describing generated by various industrial, agricultural and domestic
the way of assessing the ecological integrity of running activities. Hazard and risk assessment of polluted soil is
waters, some nation-wide programmes concerning water usually carried out by means of physical and chemical
quality, habitat assessment, and river typology are briefly analysis. But such studies are limited in their ability to
presented. characterize the chemical composition of genotoxicity in
Key words: Water quality, Bio-sequestering assessment, soil. On the other hand, biological test systems (Bioassays)
Cyanotoxin, Phytoplankton which consist of exposing living organisms to polluted
SV/O-2 mixtures provide a means for assessing the
genotoxicity/mutagenicity of soil, without the need of
Tandem Use of Solid-Phase Extraction and precise chemical characterization. Genotoxicity is one of the
Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for most dangerous effects of contaminated soils. The genotoxic
Determination of Mononitrotoluenes in Aquatic compounds in soil can affect human health in various ways
Environment i.e. inhalation of dust which contains these compounds,
Hadi Farahani1* and Hamid Reza Sobhi2 ingestion of plants that uptake compounds from soil and
Environmental and Biotechnological Division, Research Institute leaching of these compounds from soil to groundwater and
of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 14665-1137, Tehran, IRAN, surface water used as drinking water. During last two to three
Email: farahaniha@ripi.ir; 2Department of Chemistry, Tehran decades, a number of studies have been carried out to assess
Payamenoor University, P.O. Box 15986-86613 Tehran, IRAN the genotoxicity of soil using various test system like the
Solid-phase extraction (SPE) in tandem with bacterial salmonella/ Ames test; plant bioassays like
dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been Tradescantia micronucleus test, Tradescantia staminal hair
developed for determination of mononitrotoluenes (MNTs) mutation test, Allium cepa test, Vicia faba test etc; Comet
in several aquatic samples using gas chromatography-flame assay; Chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus test in
ionization (GC-FID) detection system. In the hyphenated mice/rats etc. In this paper we attempt to review different in
s o lid - p h as e ex tr actio n - d is p er s iv e liq u id - liq u id vivo and in vitro bioassays used for genotoxicity assessment
microextraction technique (SPE-DLLME), initially MNTs of soils.
were extracted from a large volume of aqueous samples (100 Key words: Soil, Bioassays, Risk assessment, Allium cepa test,
mL) into a 500 mg octadecyl silane (C18) sorbent. After the Salmonella Ames assay
elution of analytes from the sorbent with acetonitrile, the SV/O-4
obtained solution was put under the DLLME procedure, so
Use of Dracaena Species for Improvement of Indoor
that the extra preconcentration factors could be achieved.
The parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as Air Quality: An Overview
breakthrough volume, type and volume of the elution solvent Joanna Jura-Morawiec1* and Muhammad Iqbal2
(disperser solvent) and extracting solvent, as well as the salt Botanical Garden, Centre for Biological Diversity Conservation of
addition, were studied and optimized. The calibration curves the Polish Academy of Sciences, Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw 76,
were linear in the range of 0.5-500 µg L- 1 and the limit of POLAND, Email: j.jura@op.pl; 2Department of Botany, Jamia
Hamdard (Hamdard University), Tughlaqabad, New Delhi –
detection (LOD) for all analytes was found to be 0.2 µg L- 1. 110062, INDIA; Email: iqbalg5@yahoo.co.in
The relative standard deviations (RSDs, for 0.75 µg L- 1 of
MNTs) without internal standard varied from 2.0 to 6.4% (n = The quality of indoor environment is of critical
5). The relative recoveries of the well, river and sea water importance to our health and wellbeing. Concentration of
many pollutants can be several times higher in the indoor
102 ICPEP- 4

than in the outdoor air. The major contaminants of indoor air cartographic modeling, geometric anisotropy modeling and
are the volatile organic compounds (VOCs). They are designing of an isotropic model. This research therefore
emitted directly by materials inside the buildings (e.g. paints, discuss the modeling of building constructed in urban areas
adhesives, cosmetics; e.g. n-hexane) and also infiltrate from and models that can improve the quality of human
the outside, mainly from fuel emissions (e.g. benzene). settlements and help to improve the sustainable human
Chronic exposure to high concentrations of VOCs can cause settlements through the use of remote sensing and GIS
health problems. The VOCs are recognized as causative techniques.
agents of “sick building syndrome” or “building-related Key words: Population growth, Sustainable human settlement,
illness”. Since it has been discovered that the potted-plant Building construction, Remote Sensing, GIS techniques
microcosm has the capacity to contribute to the improvement
of the indoor air quality, the use of potted plants to reduce the
VOCs from indoor air has become a cost-effective method. Radial Growth and Development of a Tree as a
This study is an overview focusing on the use of potted-plants Model of Sustainable Development of Local Society
of Dracaena species (e.g. D. deremensis, D. fragrans) as a Pawe³ Kojs
sustainable biofiltration system that helps improve the indoor Botanical Garden, Centre for Biological Diversity Conservation of
air quality. the Polish Academy of Sciences, Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw 76,
Key words: Dracaena, Air pollution, Air quality, Indoor pot plants, POLAND, Email: pkojs@op.pl
Volatile organic compounds One of the most important and interesting questions
SV/O-5 which nowadays we should answer concerns the ability of
our societies to adapt to the consequences of climate change,
Modeling of Building Construction in Urban Areas declining water and energy resources, threats to food security
for Sustainable Human Settlement through use of and health risks, shrinking biodiversity and economic crisis.
Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques What type of development will help us to survive in our
Swadesh Kumar rapidly changing world? Sustainable development is
Babashaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P., supposed to be the best alternative. This idea has many
INDIA, Email: swadesh.kumar.sk@gmail.com opponents pointing out that it is an unrealistic ideology rather
In the recent years, explosive increase in the than a pragmatic political and economical system. On the
exponential form of 'Population Growth' has caused havoc other hand, uncontrolled exponential growth of production
for the human life in the city environment, so there is a need and consumption in modern civilization, overexpansion of
to increase concept of sustainable human settlement. human population and intensive exploitation of natural
Sustainable human settlement in its simplest form advocates resources cause real threats to human beings all around the
that the present generation develops(manage) the settlements world. In searching for a good model of a complex natural
of an area with available resources, to achieve growth and system which possesses common features of the 'ideal'
social and economic well-being in such a manner, that will sustainable local society, we have chosen a tree.
not compromise the chances of generation yet unborn in A tree living in one place for a long period of time is
meeting their own needs. But how we can improve the the essence of sustainable development. Successful trees
building construction in urban areas for sustainable human have to adapt constantly to diurnal and annual cycles for as
settlement? We can improve and promote the sustainable long as several hundred years or even more. This capacity is a
human settlement through the use of different techniques of proof of the ability of complex living system to recycle non-
remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS). renewable resources from the local environment which are
Population growth, in-migration of poor people, essential to maintain most of its processes. Moreover the
industrialization, urbanization, inefficient and inadequate structure of the tree and the flow of energy in the tree are
traffic corridors, poor environmental infrastructure, etc. are mostly based on the renewable resources. Throughout its
the important factors that have deteriorated the overall entire life the tree must be ready to maintain its structure
quality of environment of human settlements in an area. In despite winds, floods, pollutants, frost, seasonal deficits of
Delhi these factors has affected the housing and quality of water and other essential substances, invasions of pests, etc.
life. Day by day there is an increase in number of migrant On a wider scale it must cope with changing biotic and
people and also the rate of expansion is very fast, unplanned, abiotic environments. Although a tree changes its
uncontrolled and most of them are illegal. Illegal building environment during its life, this change creates new niches,
construction, unregistered slums and others are of major supports thousands of organisms, stabilizes microclimate,
concern for the sustainable human settlement in urban areas. etc. The long evolution of trees, selected mechanisms and
The remote sensing and GIS technique helps in satellite different strategies which allow a tree not only survive in
images data collection, interpretation of data, data structure certain place but also to constantly improve its structure to in
and scaling, map composition etc. One of the important order to meet the constraints of its surroundings. This
software Idrisi32 play an important role in layers and presentation discusses the possibility of applying the model
collection, navigation map query, map composition, Palettes, of radial growth of a tree as a homeomorphic model of
symbols, and creating text layers, data structure and scaling, sustainable development of local society.
vector collection and SQL . Idrisi32 is also used for the

These successful self-renewing adaptive mechanisms violation of privacy is considered normal, if the species is not
in trees offer an analogy for humankind's need to adapt to the compatible with the climate zone. This forest is also likely to
current stresses arising from its constantly changing fail and incidence of severe damage from climate change and
interaction with the global environment. natural seedlings to native species will be gradual. Therefore,
Key words: Sustainable development, Growth, Tree, Stress, Local the stability and persistence of species in the forest protection
society, Model is important for planners of natural resources.
SV/O-7 Field station of spreading Dehloran aquifer is one of
Geochemical and Geophysical Investigation to the major forestation in Ilam province, aimed of protecting
the soil and underground water table feeding in hot dry plains
Assess Impact of Landfill on Groundwater Quality
of Mosian. It has been planted with native and non-native
Shakti Arora and Maninder Kaur Sidhu* species. In this article 100 trees of each species planted
Civil Engineering Department, PEC University of Technology, during the years 1998 and 1999 in the station, such as
Sector 12, Chandigarh – 160012, Punjab, INDIA,
Ziziphus spina-christi, Prosopis juliflora, Eucalyptus
Email: mandy7599@gmail.com
camaldulensis and Acacia sp. were randomly selected and
The integrated investigation of groundwater, by both information about these species were measured and recorded
geochemical and geophysical approach, aims to assess annually.
groundwater quality and to examine the impact of landfill on
aquifer. The waste generated in a planned city of Punjab, Finally by comparison test, the growth, persistence of
Mohali, is dumped in a non-engineered landfill which is seedlings and species durability was studied.Results indicate
located near seasonal rivulet.Characteristics of the leachate that non-native species of Eucalyptus despite high average in
generated from the dumping site confirm that the site is in height (85.4 cm/year) and relatively large diameter (2.43
acidogenic phase due to its pH (5- 6.3). The groundwater cm/year), in terms of viability and freshness was not found in
samples were collected from hand pumps and deep wells good condition (36.2 percent). Against, the native species of
located near and around the dumping site within an area of 2 Ziziphus with relatively low average height and diameter
kms. The groundwater samples were analyzed for various (22.64 and 2.28 cm/year respectively), in terms of viability
physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, EC , total (65.4 percent) and freshness was found in good condition.
Drawing height and diameter shows a higher durability and
alkalinity , total hardness, TDS, BOD , COD, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+,
significant different between Ziziphus and Prosopis with the
K+, Al3+ ,Cl- ,PO43- ,SO42- ,NO3-,,F-and NH3-N) and heavy
metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Fe, Zn). Pb, Fe and Ni content in more
than 85% of the samples have been reported above the Key words: Sustainable development, Conservative forestation,
prescribed limit while rest are within the permissible limits as
per BIS drinking water standards. In order to study the SV/O-9
ground water pollution at shallow depth geophysical Environmental Benefits Assessment of Urban
prospecting was carried out with the D.C. resistivity meter.
Green Land in Shenzhen Special Economic Zone
Twenty five vertical electrical soundings were conducted at
sites around landfill, the apparent resistivity values at Haiqun Yu1, Nan Li1, Shixiao Yu2, Yong Li1 and Tao Chen1*
different current and potential electrode separation were Shenzhen Fairylake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen, 518004,
recorded in the field, were plotted on log-log graph, and Guangdong, CHINA, Email: taochen.mobg@gmail.com;
manual interpretation with the help of master curves was Department of Ecology & State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol,
School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou
done which clearly indicates contamination of groundwater 510275, CHINA
due to leachate. Further, presence of ammonical nitrogen and
nitrate also indicates organic contamination due to leachate. Located in southeastern Guangdong Province of
The study shows that the aquifer is affected by the seepage of South China, Shenzhen Special Economical Zone (Shenzhen
leachate in the subsoil and hence deteriorating the quality of SEZ or SEZ) covers an area of 395.81 km2, of which 185.8
groundwater which may pose serious health impacts. km2 is green land. In order to estimate the ecological benefits
Key words: Landfill, Aquifer, Leachate, Geophysical,
of green land in Shenzhen SEZ, the high-resolution color
Geochemical, Groundwater aerial photographs and SPOT5 multi- spectral images were
used as the main source of data, 542 samples with a total area
SV/O-8 of 504856 m2 (2.72‰ of the total green land) were
Stability Comparison of Forest Species Planted in investigated. The urban green land was classified and the
Mosian Plain Aquifer in Ilam Province, Iran benefits of the main plant species in urban green land were
quantitatively analysed.
Jaafar Hosseinzadeh
Emam South Avenue, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research The total leaf area of the green land was 528.9 km2,
Center, Ilam – 69319-53491, IRAN, with approximately 233,079 metric tons of carbon (C) stored,
Email: j.hoseinzadeh@gmail.com 622,100 metric tons of oxygen (O2) released and 48,900
In selection and plantation of tree seedlings without metric tons of dust cleared per year. In addition, 269.9 billion
study in borders roads, forest regeneration, development of MJ of heat is needed for the whole green land to evaporate
parks and green spaces etc., a kind of interference and 111.0 million metric tons of water per year, which
104 ICPEP- 4

equivalently decreases 3.2 degrees centigrade of temperature displayed structural disruption. At 35 mg As kg-1 soil, wax
in the SEZ. The emission of isoprene of the green land was deposition was disrupted and cracks were seen. In 20 mg As
332 metric tons, while terpene 591 metric tons per year. It is kg-1 soil treated plants, the primordium had unusual electron
worthy to be mentioned that the road green land performed dense inclusions in vacuoles, and tubular-vesicular
excellently in total leaf area per hectare, carbon storage, membrane network of rough endoplasmic reticulum in
oxygen releasing, heat absorption for transpiration and dust cytoplasm was noted. In As-treated plants, divisions of head
removal, which indicates that the road green land in the SEZ cells were incomplete. Each trichome cell showed shrinkage
has been managing quite effectively. of protoplast and withdrawl of plasmalemma from the cell
As the respiration system in cities, urban green land is wall. Disintegration of cytoplasm and cell organelles was
of increasingly important while the globe is urbanized observed. All these changes are bound to have profound
rapidly. Further studies on the ecological benefits of urban effect on the secretory function of trichome, and compromise
green land are desirable for its healthy and sustainable the plant defence.
maintenance. Key words: Arsenic, Glandular trichome, Mung bean,
Key words: Shenzhen special economical zone, SPOT5, Aerial Ultrastructure
photographs, Green land SV/O-11
SV/O-10 A GIS Model for the Master Plan of Madurai
Ultrastructural Changes in Glandular Trichomes Metropolitan Region
on Leaves in Vigna radiata (l.) Wilczek in Response S. Muthu Meenakshi1*, C. Sivakami2, S. Leema Sharmily3
to Arsenic Toxicity in soil and A. Sundaram4
Pooja Gupta* and A.K. Bhatnagar Department of Solar Energy, Sathyabhama University, Chennai,
Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tamil Nadu, INDIA; 2Department of environment and Remote
University of Delhi, Delhi – 110007, INDIA, Sensing, Sathyabhama University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, INDIA;
Email: pooja2607@gmail.com Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Sathyabhama
The effect of enhanced levels of arsenic (As) in soil on University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, INDIA; 4Department of Solar
Energy; School of Energy, Environment &Natural Resources,
growth and development of Vigna radiata (mung bean) was Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625021, INDIA
studied. Pot experiment was carried out in the Botanical
Garden, Department of Botany, University of Delhi with soil The process of urbanization often leads to the human
that was mixed with As to achieve defined levels of As settlements in the cities rather than the rural areas in
concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mg As kg-1 dry metropolitan cities resulting in haphazard growth,
soil). A control set without any As addition was also included. deterioration in living conditions and worsening of
Inhibitory effects of As treatment were concentration environmental scenario. This unabated trend increases the
dependent and found to be significant on almost all growth settlements and also increases the pressure on the limited land
parameters studied. Two types of trichomes were observed available in the city. Tamil Nadu is the second highest
on leaf surface - glandular (secretory) and non-glandular urbanized state in India. Madurai city is the second largest town
(non-secretory), with the latter being more abundant. in Tamil Nadu, has the haphazardness of growth. Lack of
Trichome density of both types decreased on both adaxial scientific planning and integrated development have made,
and abaxial leaf surfaces with higher concentration of As in urbanism and urban growth, economic liabilities rather than
soil. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that leaves of economic assets in which it leads to the over population
control plants had well-developed trichomes covered with a settlements, the land meet the residential, commercial and
rich striated layer of epicuticular wax. Comparison of industrial needs resulting in more environmental hazards.
ultrastructure of glandular trichomes from control and As- The present study involves in planning the city and its
treated leaves revealed contrasting dissimilarities. At peripheral areas in to an integrated manner for the human
primordial stage on control leaves, active cytoplasm with settlements, as a result good agricultural land may be saved in
numerous vacuoles and granular material in extraplasmic the periphery of the city. In order to make the Madurai city as
space were distinct. Trichome from control leaf had well- a metropolitan urbanized region for the human settlements,
defined globular shape with a basal cell, two stalk cells an integrated approach through GIS, along with Remote
arranged in two tiers, and four head cells arranged in two tiers Sensing was made. The objectives include: preparing land
of two cells each. The cells were characterized by dense use/ land cover maps by employing digital image processing
cytoplasm depicting active state of function. The lower stalk techniques from the satellite data for different period wise
cell showed presence of numerous polyribosome clusters, 1997 and 2005; to collect data on cropping pattern and socio
multi-vesicular bodies, microtubules, dictyosomes and economic attributes; capture the location information of
abundant rings of endoplasmic reticulum representing its various cultural, heritages, amenities, institutions, etc. using
high activity. Multiple plasmodesmata connect the adjacent GPS; generate spatial data base of the spatial changes on
cells. Several groups of unusual inclusions were often various land use classes from 1997 to 2005; suggest
encountered in glandular trichomes of both control and As- sustainable development strategies based assessment of the
treated plants. resources; Interact with line departments to use the project
In treated leaves, trichomes were smaller in size and outputs in implementing development schemes at various

level based on the predefined user need assessment exercise. 1Department of Life Sciences, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar,
In this study an integrated approach through GIS is made to Gujarat, INDIA, Email: bharatrpandit@yahoo.com; Department
evolve a model which can serve as an input to the planning of Biology, C.U. Shah Science College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat,
authorities. INDIA, Email: kg_rawal1968@yahoo.co.in
Key words: GIS, Remote Sensing, Human settlement, The water is vital to life since it is essential for
Metropolitan region, Urbanization physiological activities of plants and animals as well.
Besides temperature, water is the other such key factor that
SV/O-12 influences the global ecology. Water influences weather and
Environmental and Human Health Risk Pathway climate on any region and thus its flora and fauna. The city
Study of Arsenic Poisoning in Soil, Water, Rice and Ahmedabad is a leading industrial center of Gujarat, India,
Vegetable System in Arsenic Affected Blocks of comprising two GIDC estates. Physico-chemical parameters
like Temperature, Odour, Colour, Turbidity, TDS, EC, DO,
Nadia District, West Bengal, India
BOD, COD, Phosphate, Ca- Hardness, Sodium, Potassium,
Anirban Biswas* and Subhas Chandra Santra Magnesium, Oil and Grease and heavy metals like Iron and
Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, P.O. Chromium were analysed by standard method to derive the
Kalyani, Nadia – 741235, West Bengal, INDIA, water pollution status of ground and surface water of
Email: anirbanbiswas.envs@gmail.com residential and industrial area of the region. The vegetation of
Natural toxic metalloid, arsenic, generally found in the sampling sites was surveyed periodically during all
trace quantities in rock, soil, water and air. Though natural seasons. The results revealed that the residential area showed
abundant arsenic concentrations is higher in certain areas due prominent growth of mesophytic vegetation, where as
to either geochemical conditions or human activities, industrial area where the quality of water is deteriorating
agricultural activities especially high irrigation has mined under the effect of industrial pollution, supports xerophytic
out natural arsenic in to the land and gradually to the human vegetation. This may be due to physiological stress of water.
system through food chain. Consumption of arsenic Further Chandola pond showed cultural eutrophication
contaminated drinking water is the primary route of showing encroachment of Eichhornia species. The work on
exposure, and diets provide additional exposure as their phytoremediation through terrestrial plant species is going
production is based on soil and water quality. The on.
concentrations of arsenic in irrigation water, field soil and in Key words: Water, Ecology, Water quality parameters, Industrial
different parts of grown crops have been assessed to show the pollution
bioaccumulation level of arsenic in the system. The irrigation
water contains arsenic in the range of 0.23 to 0.73 mg L-1 and SV/O-14
soil arsenic concentration ranges from 3.58 to 8.50 mg Kg -1 Regional Geochemical Mapping of Soils in Medak
of dry weight. In rice plant, arsenic ranges from 2.52 to 5.98 District, Andhra Pradesh, India
mg Kg -1 of dry weight in straw; 0.72 to 1.79 mg Kg -1 of dry Sujatha Dantu
weight in husk; 0.10 to 0.81 mg Kg -1 of dry weight in the rice
National Geophysical Research Institute, Council of Scientific &
grain; and 9.79 to 17.61 mg Kg -1 of dry weight in the rice root. Industrial Research, Uppal Road, Hyderabad – 500 007, A.P.,
Arsenic content is beyond the WHO permissible limit of 1.0 INDIA, Email: sujathadantu@rediffmail.com
mg Kg -1 in straw, husk and in roots being highest overall. This paper reports the first results on the geochemical
Higher range of arsenic is assessed in the rabi season mapping of soils in Medak district of Andhra Pradesh, India.
vegetables like in spinach 0.96 to 1.69 mg Kg of dry weight, Eight hundred and twenty-three soil samples (502-topsoil,
0.96 to 1.69 mg Kg -1 of dry weight in tomato fruit, and 0.45 to 321-subsoil) were collected in the district from undisturbed
2.24 mg Kg -1 of dry weight in chick pea, which all are with locations using a stratifying site selection strategy to capture
higher range of inorganic arsenic, being accumulated the diversity of parent materials and soils. The topsoil
through the food chain. Thus, bioaccumulation of the arsenic comprised of 0-25 cm depth interval and is a composite
in food chain occurs. Besides, arsenic accumulation potential sample collected from three locations making a triangle with
among all the useable parts of rice and vegetables, the rice a distance of ~10 m between each sample. The subsoil
root part shows highest followed by straw but among the samples were collected from a 25 cm thick section from a
edible vegetables spinach shows highest value. Therefore, depth range of 70 to 95 cm, wherever subsoil samples were
this bioaccumulation potential can be used to calculate the collected invariably topsoils was also sampled. However at
total risk from total dietary intake of arsenic contaminated 181 locations, the thickness of the soil was less than 30 cm
edible food by using Monte Carlo Simulation technique. hence at such locations topsoil were only sampled. The 2mm
Key words: Arsenic, Bioaccumulation, Contamination, Ground fraction of samples is routinely analyzed for 29 elements by
water, Rice, Vegetables simultaneous XRF. The results show good correlation
SV/O-13 between soil chemistry and underlying geological
formations. Baseline values of elements in soils are
Survey of Vegetation in Relation to Water Pollution determined over different lithological units for the
at Ahmedabad Region, Gujarat, India identification of the anomalous values relative to these. The
B.R. Pandit1 and K.G. Rawal2* database can be used in the chemical characterization of
106 ICPEP- 4

different geological units and well as in applications in the K. Singh and N.N. Gautam
fields of environment and agriculture. Soil Science Lab, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana
Key words: Geochemical mapping, Topsoil, Subsoil, Medak Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, U.P., INDIA,
district Email: tsrahi21@yahoo.com
Tree plantations on degraded lands is one of the
SV/O-15 propositions for rehabilitation and remediation of wastelands
Biomonitoring of Air Pollution Near Paricha in which various leguminous and non-leguminous fuelwood
Thermal Power Plant, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh tree species were planted on sodic land of Biomass Research
Lokesh Kumar Gupta1*, Vivek Kumar Singh2, R.Suresh2 Centre of NBRI, Lucknow. The land was highly degraded
and Amit Pal1 before the plantation (pH 9.5-11.45, EC 570-1350 µS/cm,
Institute of Environment & Development Studies Bundelkhand OC 0.092-0.19%, total N 16-85, Avl. N, P & K 7-23.7, 4-12
University, Jhansi, U.P., INDIA, and 183-283 mg/kg respectively, bulk density 1.7-1.85 g/cm3
Email: lokeshkr_gupta@yahoo.co.in; 2The Energy & Resources and porosity 33-40 %) from surface to 60 cm depth under the
Institute, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, INDIA study. This study was conducted to evaluate the contribution
Lichens are excellent bio-indicators. As bio- of various leguminous and non-leguminous fuelwood tree
indicators, the presence/absence of sensitive species is species with respect of their growing stock on degraded sodic
pointer to use for distribution patterns of Air pollutant wasteland. Analytical data reveals that the pH (8.28), EC
deposition. The accumulation of various air pollutants (345 µS/cm) and bulk density (1.55-1.73g/cm3) of the soil
including heavy metals by lichens is well documented. reduced under 25 years old plantation and the organic carbon,
Pollutants like SOx and NOx affect the growth of lichens and total N along with available NPK and porosity enhanced to
its colony. Sometimes the lichens which are sensitive can die the extent of 0.07 -0.7%, 319.67 -664.0, 19.52-59.5, 16.54-
or shift their colony. This shows the presence of air pollutants 18.32, 225-371.43 and 35.33-44.43 % respectively. There
in the air. The resistant lichens accumulate the heavy metals were significant differences from the younger plantations of
and air pollutants in their thallus. In Indian context, a survey 15-20 year-old as also from the unplanted control sites.
of the lichen of 25 Kolkata streets demonstrated that the Leguminous species contributed more significantly in land
species and population of lichens could be an indicator for renewal and fertility development as compared to non-
determining the air quality. The sampling of lichen and Air leguminous tree species. However, the phosphorus
Pollution monitoring were carried out during the month of availability increased in the soil planted with non-
April to July 2007 in and around the Pariccha Thermal Power leguminous tree species. The improvement in soil properties
Plant, Pariccha Jhansi. We have assumed the Pariccha was better on surface than that of lower depth (60 cm) as the
Thermal power Plant as central part and collected samples incorporation of humus in sub-soil is a slow process to make
from all the four directions. Samples were also taken from a the effective changes even after 25 years. It is observed that
control location at distance of about 24 km from the Pariccha litter accumulation was greatest under Acacia auriculiformis
Thermal Power Plant. stand; even then impact of Prosopis juliflora was superior in
soil amelioration due to a relatively fast decomposition and
The results of the study revealed that the concentration
mineralization of litter, which led to high biomass and basal
of SO2 at different monitored sites ranged between 19µg/m3
area over the years in P. juliflora plantation. Thus leguminous
and 28µg/m3, while the concentration of NO2 at different tree species vis. P. juliflora, A. nilotica, Albizia procera and
locations varied between 25µg/m3 and 36µg/m3. The SO2 P. dulce are more suitable for rehabilitation and remediation
levels at the control site varied between (6µg/m3 and 9µg/m3) of sodic lands of north India.
and the NO2 at the control location ranged between (8µg/m3 Key words: Leguminous, Non leguminous, Fuelwood trees, Litter,
and 13µg/m3). The levels of both SO2 and NO2 at all the Biomass, Soil amelioration, Sodic soil
monitored locations were found to be well within the
National Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the Central SV/O-17
Pollution Control Board, India. Heavy metal concentrations Effect of Sulphur Dioxide Exposures on the Plant
across various locations ranged between 3.1µg/g & 7.2µg/g, Growth of Mustard and on Alternaria Leaf Spot
1.2µg/g & 2.8µg/g, 13.7µg/g & 23.0µg/g, 15.3µg/g & Disease
19.4µg/g, 10.37µg/g & 38.0µg/g and 0.15µg/g & 0.9µg/g for Mujeebur Rahman Khan* and Mohd Mahmud Khan
Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, and Cu respectively. The concentrations Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,
of the various pollutants at the control location were found to Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh – 202002, U.P., INDIA,
be less than that at other locations. Email: mrkhan777in@yahoo.co.in
Key words: Accumulate, Concentration, Heavy metal, Lichens, Air Effects of intermittent exposures of SO2 at 2, 25, 50
Pollutants and 75 ppb were investigated on the Alternaria blight on
SV/O-16 Indian mustard cultivars under artificial treatment condition
Soil Amelioration through Afforestation on in open top exposure chambers. Ten cultivars of Indian
Degraded Sodic Soils mustard, Brassica juncea L. viz., Alankar, BS-2, Kalamoti,
Karishma, Kranti, Mahyco Bold, Pusa Bold, Rohini, Swarna
T.S. Rahi*, Bajrang Singh, Lal Bahadur, Veerendra Dixit,

and T- 59 were exposed to 2 (ambient), 25, 50 and 75 ppb SO2 TDN, PO4-3, NO3-2 were also invariably high in their levels
concentration for 5 h day-1 on alternate days for 3 months in over the recommended levels of WHO. Microcystis sp. is
open top exposure chambers to evaluate resistance/tolerance already established as one of the causative agent in
against the gas. The exposures at 25 and 50 ppb SO2 microcystin production therefore, we are also quantifying its
concentrations did not incite any measurable injury to various forms (microcystin-LR, -RR and -YR) present in the
mustard cultivars. However, 50 ppb SO2 caused visible aquatic bodies. The data correlating microcystin production,
injuries to all cultivars screened and led to a significant selected inorganic nutrient load as well as recurrence of algal
reduction in plant growth, yield, oil contents and leaf bloom in the Laxmi Kund and Sankuldhara pond has been
pigments. Chlorophylls and carotenoids were found more discussed.
sensitive to SO2 than the plant growth parameters. Key words: Microcystis sp., Microcystin, Inorganic nutrients,
Inoculation with A. brassicicola caused dark brown to almost Bloom
black necrotic circular lesions on the leaves of mustard SV/P-2
cultivars. The severity of the disease increased on plants
exposed to 50 ppb SO2, but decreased at 75 ppb SO2. The Assessment of Pollution of Mithi River, Mumbai,
interaction between the gas and the fungus was found to be India
dependent of SO2 concentration. The gas at 25 and 50 ppb Dugal Suparna and Shaikh Shama*
SO2 promoted pathogenesis of A. brassicicola with result the Department of Microbiology, Sophia College, University of
Mumbai, Mumbai – 400026, Maharashtra, INDIA,
cv. Kalamoti, expressing tolerance to the fungus, becoming
Email: shamashaikhss@gmail.com
susceptible and exhibiting greater blight and plant growth
reductions at 50 ppb SO2; the gas injury was also relatively The world is facing a growing water crisis, affecting
greater in this treatment. The gas promoted sporulation of the the well-being of millions of poor people. Rapidly growing
fungus. Interaction of 75 ppb SO2 concentration and A. population, urbanization, agricultural intensification and
climate change (such as global warming) all contribute to
brassicicola was found to be antagonistic. The cv. Kalamoti
scarcity of water resources. Although we as humans
showed resistance to A. brassicicola and did not exhibit
recognize this fact, we disregard it by polluting our rivers,
significant suppression in the yield. The exposures especially
lakes and oceans, reducing many water bodies to mere
50 ppb apparently broke the tolerance reaction of the cv.
shadows of their original glory. This has lead to water
Kalamoti and greater lesions (32%) developed on the leaves
scarcity and organisms are dying at an alarming rate. Today,
of inoculated plants, fungus inoculation, however, did not
steps need to be taken to understand the problem of water
influence the sensitivity of the cultivars to SO2. Synergistic
pollution and revive our water bodies.
interaction between 50 ppb SO2 and the fungus was recorded
on six cultivars out of ten cultivars tested, whereas the River Mithi is a river in the island of the city of
interaction at 75 ppb SO2 was antagonistic on two cultivars Mumbai. It originates from the overflow of Vihar Lake and
flows through the city before meeting the Arabian Sea.
(Alankar and Mahyco Bold) and on rest near to additive. At
However, as the river passes through congested residential
75 ppb SO2, the sporulation was suppressed but increased at
colonies, hutments and small factories, it is subjected to
50 ppb SO2. indiscriminate disposal of raw sewage and industrial waste.
Key words: Air pollution, Alternaria brassicicola, Mustard In the past this river served as an important storm water drain
cultivars for Mumbai. Decades of abuse had led to the Mithi river
SV/P-1 wreaking havoc on July 26, 2005 when the city of Mumbai
was submerged following very heavy rainfall. One of the
Ecology of Microcystin Production in Laxmi Kund factors responsible for the severity of floods was the choking
and Sankuldhara Ponds in Varanasi City of Mithi river by plastic waste material and sewage, making it
Shweta Singh* and R.K. Asthana difficult to discharge the flood waters into the sea. Later the
Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai undertook a
Varanasi – 221005, U.P., INDIA, Email: shwetabhu10@gmail.com cleanliness drive and spent crores of rupees so that such
Rising concern about potable water supply led us to floods were not repeated, but citizens still continue to dispose
study about the two local open aquatic bodies i.e. Laxmi sewage and garbage along the stretch of the river.
Kund and Sankuldhara Pond in Varanasi city. These water Inorder to revive this dying river there is an urgent
bodies were sampled fortnightly for studying physical and need of evaluating and creating awareness of the pollution
chemical parameters and also examined microscopically. levels of the Mithi river. This research project was
Microscopic analysis showed various types of algae hailing undertaken to evaluate the physicochemical and
from cyanophyceae and chlorophyceae. However, the microbiological quality of the water of Mithi river (as of the
dominance was observed with Microcystis sp. (a year 2010). For testing, water samples were collected at the
cyanobacteria) contributing more than 80% of the total algal origin of the river, near Vihar Lake and at a sampling point,
species. Both the ponds were found alkaline (pH 8.2-9.1), further downstream, near Bandra Kurla Complex. The site
with very low oxygen (1.2-2.0 ppm) dissolved, high Chl-a near the origin showed much lower levels of pollution, the
level(106-139 µg/l) and other nutrients like TN, TP, TDP, water was clear, had a normal pH and no dissolved solids
108 ICPEP- 4

.The biological oxygen demand was satisfactory (2 ppm). strength of soil sodicity causes the alterations in soil physico-
However, using atomic absorption spectroscopy, traces of chemical properties as a consequence this lead to reduction in
mercury were detected. soil nutrients and MB-C, N and P in the soil of disturbed sites
The water sample collected further downstream (semi-reclaimed and sodic soils) compared to normal
showed a much greater evidence of sewage contamination agricultural soil.
and discharge of industrial effluents from small factories. Key words: Sodic Soil, Semi-reclaimed soil, Normal agricultural
The water was brownish, had alkaline pH and ammonical soil, Microbial biomass
odour. The total dissolved solids content and total suspended SV/P-4
solids content were 19.9 g/l and 22.7g/l respectively. This
was much beyond the acceptable limits and such waters Environmental Impact on Pulicat Lake, SPSR
could cause distress in animals and can damage plants.The Nellore Dist, Andhra Pradesh
water showed poor dissolved oxygen content (BOD level of S.K.M. Basha1*, B. Ratneswara Rao2 and N. Savithramma3
12ppm) as a result of discharge of effluents into the water. NBKR Medicinal Plants Research Centre, Vidyanagar – 524413,
Many harmful chemicals like nitrites, nitrates, zinc, INDIA, Email: drskmbasha@gmail.com; 2SPSR Nellore Dist,
cadmium, chromium (possibly from leather factories) and Andhra Pradesh, INDIA, Email: bratnesh_rao@yahoo.com; 3
mercury were detected which are harmful to humans, Department of Botany S.V. University, Tirupati, INDIA,
animals, plants and aquatic life. Microbiological tests Email: prof.savithri@yahoo.co.in
revealed high levels of coliforms, faecal streptocooci and The lagoon's boundary limits range between 13.33° to
clostridia in the river at both sampling points showing that the 13.66° N and 80.23° to 80.25°E, with a dried part of the
water was polluted with human and animal excreta Further, lagoon extending up to 14.0°N.; with about 84% of the
cadmium resistant bacteria,were isolated from the river water lagoon in Andhra Pradesh and 16% in Tamil Nadu. This is a
by the elective culture technique and their potential in valuable and rich flora a good botanical heritage need be
bioremediation process (by removal of cadmium from conserved and protected to preserve ecological balance and
solution) was studied. to keep a watch on the micro climatic changes and result out
Key words: Mithi river, Pollution, Heavy metals, Bioremediation, environmental impact on the flora.
Coliforms Thousands of water birds are seen in the winter waters
SV/P-3 of Pulicat lake. Migratory birds swarm around the
environment to enhance the beauty and elegance of the
A Comparative Assessment of Microbial Biomass – surroundings of Pulicat Lake, which is enchanting
C, N and P along Sodic, Semi-Reclaimed and enthralling and interesting. Abundant vegetation of
Normal Agricultural Soils Casuarina, Eucalyptus, Cashew, Palms and Coco nut groves
Vimal Chandra Pandey* and Rana P. Singh and Cane brakes provide a pleasant landscape. Natural
Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao calamities by cyclones, forest fire, grazing and browsing are
Ambedkar (Central) University, Raibarelly Road, Lucknow – alarming in causing damage to the flora of the Pulicat Lake.
226025, U.P., INDIA, Email: vimalcpandey@gmail.com About 3000 and above wild cattle roam in the forest, pasture
A variation in microbial biomass (MB) - C, N and P lands and also resident areas, trampling heavily the under
along sodic, semi-reclaimed and normal agricultural soils in growth grazing and browsing vegetation.
dry tropical soils of Sultanpur district of eastern Uttar Fishing activities; Illegal prawn farming; Industrial
Pradesh (U.P.), India, was studied from November 2009 to development on the shores of the lagoon; and Siltation are
September 2010. The study site is representative of large threaten issues. Mangrove pockets need to be developed.
areas of abandoned natural sodic soils of the Indo-Gangetic Eradication of exotic plants. Plants like Baringtonia
alluvial plain. The water holding capacity, organic-C, total- acutangula serving as a nesting tree and meeting the
N, P and soil moisture content was comparatively higher in nutritional and breeding requirements of the birds, have to be
normal agricultural soils than that of the sodic and semi- grown in large number. The plant species are chosen with the
reclaimed sites. Across different study sites the annual mean twin goal of raising the bio sheilds and deriving liveihood
MB-C, N and P at 0-15 cm soil depth varied. At all the benefits to the local communities. Creating awareness
selected sites, the maximum MB-C, N and P were during the among local resident about the numerous benefits imparted
wet period (rainy season) and minimum in dry period by the coastal ecosystems on mankind. Critical study on
(summer season). In the present study, soil MB-C, N and P ethnobotany of Yanadis hamlets needs to be done. Along the
was higher at the normal agricultural soils compared to sodic beach line Casuarina is found to be quite ideal for plantation.
and semi-reclaimed soils. ANOVA indicated significant In addition Ancardium occidentale is a suitable species in
differences in MB-C, N and P due to sites and seasons (P < preventing soil erosion.
0.001). The MB-C, N and P were positively correlated with Key words: Pulicat lake, Natural calamities, Mangroves-
organic-C. The relationship between soil moisture and MB- importance, Protection
C, N and P was positive. The decreasing order of MB-C, N
and P along study experimental sites was normal agricultural SV/P-5
soils semi-reclaimed sodic. The results suggests that A Novel Approach to Assess Underground Drinking

Water Quality at Moradabad SV/P-7

1 2
Gaurav Kumar Rastogi *and D.K. Sinha Impacts of Rapid Urban Development: Heavy
Department of Applied Science & Humanities, Sunderdeep Metals in Yamuna River Basin, Delhi Segment
Engineering College, Ghaziabad – 201001, U.P., INDIA, Email:
gauravsdec@rediff.com, 2Department of Chemistry, K.G.K.
Meena Sehgal1*, R. Suresh1, Ved Prakash Sharma1 and
College, Moradabad – 244001, U.P., INDIA; Sumit Kumar Gautam2
Email: dkskgk@rediff.com The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Darbari Seth Block,
IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi – 110 003, INDIA, Email:
Underground drinking water samples at six different
meena.sehgal@gmail.com; 2The Energy and Resources Institute
sites of hand pump at Moradabad were collected and (TERI), 4th Main, II Cross, Domlur II Stage, Bangalore – 560071,
analysed for pre-monsoon period and after onset of monsoon Karnataka, INDIA
for fifteen different water quality parameter following
Heavy metals are present in the atmosphere, soil,
standard method and procedures. With the help of this
water and air. They can enter human body mainly through
statistical data, water quality index has been calculated using
inhalation and ingestion. Heavy metal intake by human
W.H.O. drinking water standards. Comparison of W.Q.I.
population through food chain has been reported in literature.
values with standard assumptions revealed that the drinking
This study estimated levels of heavy metal (nickel, lead,
water of study area at site-I, II and III for pre-monsoon period
cadmium, cobalt, arsenic, mercury, chromium)
and at site-I after onset of monsoon was severely polluted. At
concentrations in the irrigation water, drinking water and soil
other sites for pre-monsoon period and site-II after onset of
of Yamuna river flood plain flowing through Delhi. The
monsoon the water is found to be moderately polluted. The
levels of heavy metals in select crops grown in this segment
underground water is found to be good in quality at site- III to
were measured and compared with concentrations in
site-VI after onset of monsoon. The data clearly reveals that
vegetables from rural areas.
the water quality is improved after the rains. The present
study suggests that people dependent on this water are prone Traces of metals (Hg, Ni, Cr) were observed in urban
to health hazard of contaminated drinking water. agriculture soils above the reference standards. Heavy metal
Key words: Groundwater quality, Water quality index, Unit weight, levels found in vegetable samples from Yamuna basin were
Quality rating compared with samples from agricultural land in Haryana.
Bioaccumulation of Ni, Pb, and As in urban area samples was
SV/P-6 seen; these were in highest concentrations in spinach and
Water Quality of River Betwa and Pahuj in and lowest in radish. The crops cultivated in urban areas showed
Around Jhansi, Bundelkhand Region of Uttar accumulation several folds higher than samples from rural
Pradesh, India fields. Some heavy metal (Ni, Cd, and Hg) were not traced in
vegetables from rural areas.
Jamshed Zaidi*, Amit Pal and Atul P. Singh
Institute of Environment & Development Studies, Bundelkhand Key words: Heavy metals, Vegetables, Bioaccumulation, Waste
University, Jhansi – 284128, U.P., INDIA, water
Email: apu13@rediffmail.com SV/P-8
In present investigation an attempt has been made to Urban Pond Water Bodies: Status and Threats
assess the quality of two major rivers in central India of
Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh namely Betwa and Mohd. Muzamil Bhat1*, Taiyyaba Yazdani1, Kamini
Pahuj river. The sampling locations were chosen carefully in Narain1, Mohammad Yunus1 and Ravinder Nath Shukla2
east and west part of the Jhansi city to get maximum School for Environmental Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao
representation of the diverse eco-hydrological environments Ambedkar (Central) University, Lucknow, U.P., INDIA, Email:
muzamilenv@yahoo.com; 2School of Environmental Biology,
within the river system. Study showed that the water of
Awadesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa, M.P., INDIA
Betwa and Pahuj river are alkaline in nature with higher
concentration of cations. Nitrate was dominant at site-III The significance of urban and peri-urban waterbodies
(ponds) as water resources is being appreciated now as never
followed by site-II and site-I respectively, in both river and it
can be attributed due to high rate of decomposition and before. Increasing population in urban and peri-urban centres
anthropogenic pressure. In both the river dissolved oxygen has put more stress on water management of city
was dominant at site-I and II compare to site-III due to administrations. This has necessitated proper management of
abundance of animated life and the microbial activity. the ponds economically for better water quality.
Maximum hardness 160 mg/l was recorded during May in Unfortunately the value of services rendered by such
Betwa river. High concentration of chlorides is regarded as waterbodies often gets unnoticed. Ponds are vulnerable to
an indicator of sewer pollution and it was observed highest in loss and damage by a wide range of factors. Urban ponds are
Pahuj river but high concentration of nitrate was recorded in also subject to a different set of stressors at the local scale
Betwa river. In general our study found that the water quality than their rural counterparts. This is due to the developed
of Pahuj river is more polluted in compare to Betwa river. nature of the surrounding landscape, which has many
impermeable surfaces from which contaminants can be
Key words: Betwa, Pahuj, Nitrate, Fluoride, Chloride, Dissolved
oxygen washed off following rainfall events as well as drainage
misconnections and stormwater drains, which often
110 ICPEP- 4

discharge directly into urban ponds. Key stressors include of January-2009 to December-2009 showed that the values
heavy metals, petrochemicals, salt compounds and varied from one station to another station. The result obtained
wastewater. Urban catchments pose major threats to water was low as compared to the permissible limit as prescribed by
quality of ponds and other water bodies. United State Environmental Protection Agency and World
Key words: Catchments, Drainage, Heavy metals, Stormwater, Health Organization.
Waste water Key words: Impact of pollution, Water quality, Two major nalas,
Berhampur city, Ganjam
Water Quality Assessment of an Untreated Effluent SV/P-11
Impacted on Antiyatal, Jhansi City (U.P.) Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Assessment
Preeti Sonkar*, Beenu Raj and Vinit Kumar of Groundwater Resource of Jhansi District (U.P.)
Institute of Environment & Development Studies, Bundelkhand Beenu Raj1*, Preeti Sonkar1, Abhay Kumar Singh2, T.B.
University, Jhansi – 284128, U.P., INDIA, Singh2 and B.K. Tewary2
Email: preetisonkar1@gmail.com 1
Department of Environmental sciences, Institute of Environment
Semi-arid areas like the Bundelkhand region in the & Development Studies, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi – 284128,
state of Uttar Pradesh often experience acute shortage of U.P., INDIA, Email: raj.beenu8@gmail.com; 2Geo-Environmental
water, both for drinking and irrigation purpose. The region Division, Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Council of
has a varied geology and topography. In this study, physico- Scientific & Industrial Research, Barwa Road, Dhanbad – 826001,
chemical parameter such as temperature, pH, BOD, Jharkhand, INDIA
Alkalinity was in permissible limit except DO and heavy Groundwater is generally a renewable resource.
metals. Heavy metals such as Cr, As, Pb, Fe, Hg and Cd in However, the natural supply of groundwater in hard rocks is
reservoir bed sediment were analyzed using comparative limited to time and space. Further, the quality of available
sediment quality guideline from various derived criteria. The fresh water resource is under severe threat. One of the most
selection of sampling points was based upon inflow and important issues in ground water management is extending
outflow regions of the reservoir. The extent of sediment minimum negative effects to the environment while
quality deterioration was more pronounced in Cr, Fe and Pb exploiting it for maximum economic benefits. Ground water
and failed the sediment quality guideline, while As, Hg, Cd is highly valued because of certain properties not possessed
remained within the safety levels of sediment quality by surface water. Bundelkhand has geological disadvantage,
guidelines prescribed for the study. These ranges pose threat its underground granite layer doesn't allow plenty
on aquatic life and human health. groundwater recharge. That is the reason why the area is
Key words: Water quality, Physico-chemical characteristics, dense with surface water harvesting structures or shallow
Heavy metals, Reservoir, Sediment quality guidelines, Health effect dug wells. But off late the predominantly agrarian region is
depending on groundwater for irrigation. Hydro
SV/P-10 geochemical investigations are carried out in the different
Impact of Pollution on the Quality of Water in Two blocks of Jhansi district in Bundelkhand region (U.P), India,
Major Nalas of Berhampur City, Ganjam, Orissa in order to assess its suitability for drinking as well as
Simanchala Das* and Lakshman Nayak irrigation water purpose. Altogether 70 representative
P.G. Department of Marine Sciences, Berhampur University, groundwater samples are collected from tube wells and dug
Berhampur – 760007, Orissa, INDIA, wells. Groundwater samples were collected from 70
Email: Simanchala2009@gmail.com locations during month of January and May 2010. Each of the
The corporation city of India is realigning under the groundwater samples was analyzed for these parameters
pressure of severe water scarcity. Berhampur is among the such as pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, silica,
water affected as it has suffered long spells of water shortages alkalinity, TDS, total hardness, bicarbonate, chloride,
combined with rapid and haphazard urbanization of its ever- sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium and
expanding suburbs. In light of the above, it is important to potassium, heavy metals using standard procedures
assess the quality of the water bodies that supply precious recommended by APHA.
water to the human population. The present study was Key words: Physico-chemical characteristics, Water quality
undertaken to asses the quality of water in two important assessment, Hydrogeochemistry, Major ions, Heavy metals, SAR,
Nalas of Behampur City which re-charges the surface water RSC, Health effect
as well as estuarine environment of plant and animal life. SV/P-12
Dumping and burning of waste, and unchecked inflow of
Analysing the Hydrochemistry of River Sai at Rae
domestic, industrial, and medical effluents have deteriorated
the water quality. The parameter studies were:- color, order, Bareli
temperature ,pH , dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen Alka Singh
demand, chemical oxygen demand, calcium hardness, Department of Chemistry, Feroze Gandhi College, Rae Bareli, U.P.,
magnesium hardness, total dissolved solid, total suspended INDIA, Email: as_ub98@yahoo.co.in
solid, nitrate and phosphate. The result of chemical Water samples and preservation samples of Sai river
characteristic such as DO, BOD, and COD during the period were collected at monthly interval in the first week of each

month from January 2009 to December 2009. Physico- river water were in the range of: Cu (ND to 0.12 mg/l); Cr
chemical characteristics of river water ( viz, Temperature, (BDL to 1.09 mg/l); Ni (BDL to 0.12 mg/l); and Zn (BDL to
pH, alkalinity, acidity, D.O., B.O.D., C.O.D., Cr, NO3 , PO4-3 - 0.87 mg/l), and in the sediments in the range of: Cu (BDL to
P, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Mn) were analysed by standard 0.09 mg/g); Cr (BDL to 0.14 mg/g); Ni (BDL to 0.09mg/g);
methods for the examination of water and waste water as and Zn (BDL to 0.87 mg/g). Cd was found absent both in
prescribed by American Public Health Association (APHA, river water and sediment samples. Some physico-chemical
1985). The low level of D.O and high level of other parameters viz., pH, dissolved oxygen, total hardness,
characteristics are possibly due to adsorption of cations. The phosphate-phosphorous and nitrate-nitrogen were also
adsorption of cations may be explained on the bases of estimated as they have direct or indirect influence on
surface hydroxylation of oxide present in the adsorbent at the incidence, transport and speciation of the heavy metals.
solid solution interface. The present study also entails the Based on the findings, the Ganga river sediments from
experimental revelation that certain plants and wastes may be Champanala to Barari can be considered as unpolluted with
effectively used for water treatment at the lowest cost and respect to Cd, Cu, and Ni, whereas concentration of Cr and
most convenient technology. Zn show their pollutional status which may be detrimental to
Key words: Hydrochemistry, River Sai, Rae Bareli the rich biodiversity of the river segment.
Key words: Ganga river, Heavy metal pollution, Water, Sediment
Pollution Status of River Pandu at Kanpur Frontage SV/P-15
Divya Tiwari1, Amita Bajpai2 and Rakhi Bajpai1
Study of Industrial Effluents at Ankleshwar Sites
Department of Botany, A.N.D.N.N. Mahila Mahavidyalaya,