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FADEC

• What is FADEC?
• How Does a FADEC Work?
• A Backgrounder
• Modern Engine Control System
• FADEC Functions
• FADEC Infrastructure (Simplified)
• Essential Features
• Schematic Diagram
• Advantages & Limitations
WHAT IS FADEC?

FADEC: Full Authority Digital Engine


Control System is a digital electronic
control system for gas turbine engines
that is able to autonomously control
the engine throughout its whole
operating range from demanded engine
start until demanded engine shut
down, in both normal and fault
conditions.
The FADEC is a self-monitoring, self-
operating, redundant fail-safe setup.
FADEC comprises of a digital computer
(Electronic Engine Control # EEC ) and
the other accessories that control all
WHAT IS FADEC?

FADEC is the key system of gas turbine


engines. Its basic purpose is to provide
optimum engine efficiency for a given
flight condition. FADEC also controls
engine starting and restarting.
One of the system roles is to lower the
cognitive load of pilots while they
operate turbojet engines , and to
reduce the occurrence of pilot errors .
FADEC not only provides for efficient
engine operation, it also allows the
manufacturer to program engine
limitations and receive engine health
and maintenance reports.
WHAT IS FADEC?

To be a true, 100%, Full Authority


Digital Engine Control, there must not
be any form of manual override
available. This literally places full
authority to the operating parameters
of the engine in the hands of the
computer. If a total FADEC failure
occurs, the engine fails.
If the engine is controlled digitally and
electronically but allows for manual
override, it is considered solely an
Electronic Engine Control (EEC) or
Electronic Control Unit (ECU).
An EEC, though a component of a
FADEC, is not by itself FADEC. When
standing alone, the EEC makes all of
WHAT IS FADEC?

Modern ECUs use a microprocessor


which can process the inputs from the
engine sensors in real time. An
electronic control unit contains the
hardware and software (firmware).
The hardware consists of electronic
components on a printed circuit board
(PCB), ceramic substrate or a thin
laminate substrate. The main
component on this circuit board is a
microcontroller chip (CPU).
The software is stored in the
microcontroller or other chips on the
PCB, typically in EPROMs or flash
memory so the CPU can be re-
programmed by uploading updated
code or replacing chips. This is also
WHAT IS FADEC?

The benefits of digital electronic


control of mechanical systems are
evident in greater precision and an
ability to measure or predict
performance degradation and incipient
failure.
Typical examples of this are digital
implementations of flight control or fly-
by-wire (FBW) and digital engine
control, or Full-Authority Digital Engine
Control (FADEC).
Integrated Flight and Propulsion
Control (IFPC) allows closer integration
of the aircraft flight control and engine
control systems. Flight control systems
are virtually all fly-by-wire in the
modern fighter aircraft of today; the
WHAT IS FADEC?

New engines are likewise adopting


FADEC for the benefits offered by
digital control.

As substantial benefits of improved


reliability and performance are
realized, e.g. weight reduction and
other improvements in system
integration and data flow, the level of
systems integration becomes
correspondingly more ambitious.
WHAT IS FADEC?

Present primary engine control is by


means of a FADEC which is normally
located on the engine fan casing.
However, there are many features of
engine control which are distributed
around the engine – such as reverse
thrust, presently pneumatically actuated
– which would need to be actuated by
alternative means in a more-electric
engine.
This leads to the possibility of using
distributed engine control.
HOW DOES A FADEC WORK?

FADEC works by receiving multiple


input variables of the current flight
condition including air density, throttle
lever position, engine temperatures,
engine pressures, and many others.
Each FADEC is essentially a centralized
system, with a redundant, central
computer and centrally located analog
signal interfacing circuitry for
interfacing with sensors and actuators
located throughout the propulsion
system.
HOW DOES A FADEC WORK?

Engine operating parameters such as fuel


flow, stator vane position, bleed valve position
and others are computed from this data and
applied as appropriate.
For example, to avoid exceeding a certain
engine temperature, the FADEC can be
programmed to automatically take the
necessary measures without pilot intervention.
The inputs are received by the EEC and
analyzed up to 70 times per second.
HOW DOES A FADEC WORK?

FADEC computes the appropriate thrust


settings and applies them.
During flight, small changes in
operation are constantly being made to
maintain efficiency.
Maximum thrust is available for
emergency situations if the throttle is
advanced to full, but remember,
limitations can’t be exceeded.
Another new feature of the FADEC
system is the ability to record the last
900 hours of flight.
With readings taken every second, this
stored information can be used to
A BACKGROUNDER
The FADEC systems were first used in the
automotive Industry where it is well proven.
Now-a-days airlines and the militaries all over
the world incorporate it on turbine powered
aircraft.
FADECs are made for piston engine and jet
engines both but they differ in the way of
controlling the engine .
Advanced, intelligent & robust propulsion
controls are critical for improving the safety
and maintainability of future propulsion
systems.
Propulsion system reliability is considered to
be critical for aircraft survival. Hence, FADEC
systems came into being.
A BACKGROUNDER
FADEC is now common on many engines and
semiconductor and equipment cooling
technology has advanced so that control units
can now be mounted on the engine and still
provide highly reliable operation for long
periods.

Developing and implementing modern


intelligent engine systems requires the
introduction of numerous sensors, actuators
and processors to provide the advanced
functionality.
A BACKGROUNDER
The application of artificial intelligence and
knowledge-based system for both software
and hardware provides the foundation for
building the intelligent control system of
the
future.

With time, control systems became more


sophisticated with the introduction of
additional engine condition sensors and
multiple servo-loops.
A BACKGROUNDER
The task of handling engines was eased by the
introduction of electronic control in the form of
magnetic amplifiers in early civil and military
aircraft.

The mag-amp allowed engines to be stabilized


at any speed in the throttle range by
introducing a servo-loop with engine exhaust
gas temperature as a measure of engine
speed and an analogue fuel valve to control
fuel flow.
A BACKGROUNDER
Transistors, integrated circuits and high
temperature semi-conductors have all played
a part in the evolution of control systems from
range temperature control through to full
digital engine control systems.

This allowed the pilot to accelerate and


decelerate the engine while the control
system limited fuel flows to prevent over-
speeds or excessive temperatures.
A BACKGROUNDER
With modern FADEC systems there are no
mechanical control rods or mechanical
reversions, and the pilot can perform carefree
handling of the engine throughout the flight
envelope.

On modern aircraft the engine is supervised


by a computer to allow the pilot to operate at
maximum performance in a combat aircraft or
at optimum fuel economy in a passenger
carrying aircraft.
A BACKGROUNDER
Today, each FADEC is unique and
therefore is expensive to develop,
produce, maintain, and upgrade for its
particular application.

In the future, it is desired to establish a


universal or common standard for
engine controls and accessories. This
will significantly reduce the high
development and support costs across
platforms.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF
MODERN ENGINE CONTROL
SYSTEM
• Speed / Accuracy / Ease of
Control (Least Aircrew
Workloads)
• Wide Operational Range
• Reliability & Operational
Safety
• Low Operating &
Maintenance Costs
• Should Not Add Weight
• Fuel Efficiency
• Dependable Starts
FADEC : FUNCTIONS
AIRFRAME ENGINE CONTROL
COMMUNICATION

REPORT ACQUIRE
ENGINE STATUS SENSOR DATA

RECEIVE ENGINE PROCESS


POWER COMMAND
FADEC CONTROL LAWS

COMMAND
ACTUATORS

ENGINE HEALTH
MONITORING

DIAGNOSTIC

PROGNOSTIC

ADAPTIVE
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
CONTROL OPERATIONS IN GAS TURBINE
ENGINES
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
CONTROL OPERATIONS IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

- Air Control (Compressor Entry)


- Fuel Control (Main / AB / Starting System)
- Ignition Control
- Starting Control
- Lubrication Control
- Surge Control (Through Bleed Valve)
- Thrust Control (Through Exhaust Nozzle)
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
SAMPLE CHAIN OF CONTROL (MECH.)
OPERATION
GEAR DRIVEN WORKING FLUID ACTUATED
MECHANICAL PUMP FROM ASSEMBLY
ENGINE / AIRCRAFT

ELECTRO-HYDRO-MECHNICAL
MECHANICAL
CONTROL UNIT COCKPIT ACTUATORS
AIRCRAFT
SERVO COMPUTER POSITION POSITION
POSITION SOLENOID
ACTUATING
SENSORS VALVES SENSOR-1 SENSOR-2
MOTORS

FADEC COMPUTER
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
SAMPLE CHAIN OF CONTROL (ELECT.)
OPERATION
MECHANICAL
ACTUATORS
ELECTRO-HYDRO-MECHNICAL
CONTROL UNIT POSITION POSITION
SERVO SENSOR-1 SENSOR-2
POSITION SOLENOID
ACTUATING
SENSORS VALVES
MOTORS

FADEC
COMPUTER

VARIOUS INPUTS PILOT’s THROTTLE


FROM IN COCKPIT
ENGINE & AIRCRAFT POWER DISPLAY PANEL
SUPPLY IN COCKPIT
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
HARDWARE:

- Dual Power Supply


- FADEC Computer (With Logic Circuit PCBs &
Programmed / Programmable Memory)
- A Set of Servo Actuating Motors / Solenoid
Valves / Position Sensors (for every System
Control Unit)
- Dual Position Sensors for Actuators (of every
System)
- A Set of Electrical Harnesses (for every System)
- Display Panel with Indicators / Warning Lights
(in Cockpit)
- Multiple Engine RPM, Pressure Sensors &
Thermocouples
- Pilot’s Throttle
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
SOFTWARE:
- EPR Schedules (For Thrust, over Entire Range of
Engine Operation Without FADEC Computer
Failure)

- N Schedules (For Thrust as per Pilot’s Throttle,


Engine Operation in case of Limited FADEC
Computer Functionality)
Note: In case of certain degree of FADEC
failure there is an automatic mode switch-
over from EPR to N rating. However, if
the failure disappears, the pilot can reset
the mode to switch-back to EPR mode.
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
INPUTS:

From Aircraft.

- Ambient Temperature
- Altitude
- Mach Number
- Angle of Attack
- Impact Pressure
- Landing Gear Position
- Missile / Rocket Firing Signals etc.
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
INPUTS:

From Engine.

- Throttle Lever Position


- RPM
- Turbine Outlet / Exhaust Gas
Temperature
- Exhaust Nozzle Area
- Fan Duct Flaps Position
- Bearing Temperatures
- Engine Vibration
- Engine Pressures
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
SIMPLIFIED FADEC ARCHITECTURE

FADEC LANE-A FADEC


LANE-A
FADEC MONITOR
LANE-A
CONTROL
ENGINE ENGINE
THRUST FADEC LANE-B FADEC FUEL
DEMAND LANE-B DEMAND
FADEC MONITOR
LANE-B
CONTROL
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
SAMPLIFIED FADEC ARCHITECHTURE
This simplified architecture is typical of many
dual-channel FADECs.
There are two independent lanes: Lane A and
Lane B. Each lane comprises a Command and
Monitor portion, which are interconnected for
cross monitoring purposes, and undertakes
the task of metering the fuel flow to the engine
in accordance with the necessary control laws
to satisfy the flight crew thrust command.
The analysis required to decide upon the
impact of certain failures in conjunction with
others, requires a Markov model in order to be
able to understand the dependencies.
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
MARKOV ANALYSIS MODEL
•By using this model the effects of
interrelated failures can be examined.
•The model has a total of 16 states as shown
by the number in the bottom right-hand
corner of the appropriate box.
•Each box relates to the serviceability state
of the Lane A Command (Ca) and Monitor
(Ma) channels and Lane B Command (Cb) and
Monitor (Mb) channels.
•These range from the fully serviceable state
in box 1 through a series of failure conditions
to the totally failed state in box 16.
•Clearly most normal operating conditions
are going to be in the left-hand region of the
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
MARKOV MODEL ANALYSIS

CaMa.CbMb
CaMa.CbMb 6

CaMa.CbMb
CaMa.CbMb 2 CaMa.
CaMa.Cb
CbMb
Mb 7 CaMa.
CaMa.CbMb
CbMb 12

CaMa
CaMa.CbMb
.CbMb 3 CaMa.Cb
CaMa.CbMb
Mb 8 CaMa.Cb
CaMa.CbMb
Mb 13
CaMa.CbMb 1 CaMa.
CaMa.CbMb 16
CaMa.Cb
CaMa.CbMb
Mb 4 CaMa
CaMa..CbMb
CbMb 9 CaMa.
CaMa.CbMb
CbMb 14

CaMa.CbMb
CaMa.CbMb 5 CaMa
CaMa.Cb
.CbMb
Mb 10 CaMa
CaMa..CbMb 15

CaMa.CbMb
CaMa.CbMb 11

NO FAILURE 1 FAILURE 2 FAILURE 3 FAILURE


4 FAILURE
DISPACHABLE CONTROLLABLE ENGINE
ENGINE ENGINE SHUT-DOWN
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
SIMPLIFIED FADEC ARCHITECHTURE
Concentrating on the left-hand side of the model it
can
be seen that the fully serviceable state in box 1 can
migrate to any one of six states:
– Failure of Command channel A results in state 2
being reached.
– Failure of Monitor channel A results in state 3
being reached.
– Failure of Command channel B results in state 4
being reached.
– Failure of Monitor channel B results in state 5
being reached.
– Failure of the cross-monitor between Command
A and Monitor A results in both being lost
simultaneously and reaching state 6.
– Failure of the cross-monitor between Command
B and Monitor B results in both being lost
simultaneously and reaching state 11.
FADEC : INFRASTRUCTURE
SIMPLIFIED FADEC ARCHITECHTURE
All of these failure states result in an engine which
may still be controlled by the FADEC. However,
further failures beyond this point may result in an
engine which may not be controllable either because
both control channels are inoperative or because the
‘good’ control and monitor lanes are in opposing
channels or worse.
The model shown above is constructed according to
the following rules: an engine may be dispatched as a
‘get-you-home’ measure provided that only one
monitor channel has failed.
This means that states 3 and 5 are dispatchable: but
not states 2, 4, 6, or 11 as subsequent failures could
result in engine shut-down.
FADEC : ESSENTIAL
FEATURES
MILITARY / TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
- LP Compressor EGV Control
- HP Compressor EGV Control
- Fan Duct Flaps Control
- Main Fuel Control
- Core AB Fuel Control
- Fan AB Fuel Control
- Starting Fuel Control
- Ignition Control
- Bleed Valve Control
- Exhaust Nozzle Control
- Lubrication Control
FADEC : SCHEMATIC
DIAGRAM LP COMPRESSOR
STARTING AIR EGV CONTROL
&
IGNITION HP COMPRESSOR
CONTROL AIR EGV CONTROL
POWER MAIN FUEL
SUPPLY CONTROL
CORE AB FUEL
CONTROL
EECU
FADEC FAN AB FUEL
AIRCRAFT CONTROL
COMPUTER
EXHAUST NOZZLE
CONTROL

FAN DUCT FLAPS


CONTROL
PILOT
IN BLEED VALVE
COCKPIT CONTROL
CENTRALIZED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE
Centralized
Each function resides Engine
within the FADEC Control
and uses unique point-to-
point analog connections to system effectors.
Sensor
electronics Sensor_1
Sensor
electronics
Sensor_2
Communication

Sensor
Communication electronics
Sensor_ j

CPU /
S UB

Memory
Actuation Actuator_n
electronics

Power Actuation Actuator_2


electronics
Actuation
electronics Actuator_1
FADEC
DISTRIBUTED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE
Centralized
Functions are distributed Engine
outside of the Control
FADEC and communicate
via a common interface standard.

Sensor
electronics Sensor_1

Sensor
electronics Sensor_2
Communication

Communication Sensor
electronics Sensor_ j

CPU /
Memory
S UB

Actuation
electronics Actuator_n

Actuation
Power electronics Actuator_2

Actuation
electronics Actuator_1

FADEC
FADEC : ADVANTAGES
- Reduced Aircrew Workload.
- Improved Fuel Efficiency up to 15%
(Due to faster, Accurate Engine
Control no trimming is required).
- Reduced Aircraft Weight and Engine
Size (Due to Absence of Heavy
Mechanical Assemblies, No Scattering
of Pipelines & Electrical Wirings).
- Improved Reliability (Due to
Redundancy and Dual Channel).
- Enhanced Engine Life (Due to Engine
Operation in Safer / Mean Range).
FADEC : ADVANTAGES
- Minimum Maintenance due to On Board
Computer Guided Troubleshooting ( Aircraft can
return to Flying at the Earliest).

- Isochronous Idle speed leads to Smoother


Engine Starts.

- Maximum Performance in a combat aircraft or


at Optimum Fuel Economy in a Transport
Aircraft are possible after necessary Adaptation
/ Programming of FADEC Computer.
FADEC : ADVANTAGES
- Auto-testing removes the need for
test-running the engine after minor
maintenance work ( Resulting in
annual savings of millions of gallon of
fuel for the fleet.
FADEC : LIMITATIONS
- Pilot can not override the FADEC Control.

- In the event of complete FADEC Failure, pilot


left with no other option than having to fly
with least performance, just sufficient to land
safely. (This limitation has been removed in modern
transport aircraft by having two FADEC Computers.)
FADEC: ANY QUESTION